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Sample records for abnormal sensory perception

  1. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  2. Sensory abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Visconti, Paola

    2017-11-04

    The clinical picture of children with autism spectrum disorder is characterized by deficits of social interaction and communication, as well as by repetitive interests and activities. Sensory abnormalities are a very frequent feature that often go unnoticed due to the communication difficulties of these patients. This narrative review summarizes the main features of sensory abnormalities and the respective implications for the interpretation of several signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and therefore for its management. A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the sensory abnormalities in subjects (particularly children) with autism spectrum disorder. Sensory symptoms are common and often disabling in children with autism spectrum disorder, but are not specific for autism, being a feature frequently described also in subjects with intellectual disability. Three main sensory patterns have been described in autism spectrum disorder: hypo-responsiveness, hyper-responsiveness, and sensory seeking; to these, some authors have added a fourth pattern: enhanced perception. Sensory abnormalities may negatively impact the life of these individuals and their families. An impairment not only of unisensory modalities but also of multisensory integration is hypothesized. Atypical sensory reactivity of subjects with autism spectrum disorder may be the key to understand many of their abnormal behaviors, and thus it is a relevant aspect to be taken into account in their daily management in all the contexts in which they live. A formal evaluation of sensory function should be always performed in these children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  4. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  5. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensory perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  7. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  8. Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cury, R G; Galhardoni, R; Fonoff, E T; Perez Lloret, S; Dos Santos Ghilardi, M G; Barbosa, E R; Teixeira, M J; Ciampi de Andrade, D

    2016-02-01

    Pain and sensory abnormalities are present in a large proportion of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and have a significant negative impact in quality of life. It remains undetermined whether pain occurs secondary to motor impairment and to which extent it can be relieved by improvement of motor symptoms. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind sensory changes and pain in PD and to assess the modulatory effects of motor treatment on these sensory abnormalities. A comprehensive literature search was performed. We selected studies investigating sensory changes and pain in PD and the effects of levodopa administration and deep brain stimulation (DBS) on these symptoms. PD patients have altered sensory and pain thresholds in the off-medication state. Both levodopa and DBS improve motor symptoms (i.e.: bradykinesia, tremor) and change sensory abnormalities towards normal levels. However, there is no direct correlation between sensory/pain changes and motor improvement, suggesting that motor and non-motor symptoms do not necessarily share the same mechanisms. Whether dopamine and DBS have a real antinociceptive effect or simply a modulatory effect in pain perception remain uncertain. These data may provide useful insights into a mechanism-based approach to pain in PD, pointing out the role of the dopaminergic system in pain perception and the importance of the characterization of different pain syndromes related to PD before specific treatment can be instituted. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Abnormal Sensory Experiences, Synaesthesia, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluegge, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that sensory processing may be affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this letter is to highlight a few recent studies on the topic and tie the findings to a recently identified epidemiological risk factor for ASD, principally environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide (N[subscript…

  10. Autistic Traits and Abnormal Sensory Experiences in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horder, Jamie; Wilson, C. Ellie; Mendez, M. Andreina; Murphy, Declan G.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and now form part of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition" (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, but it is unclear whether they characterize the "broader phenotype" of the disorder. We recruited adults (n = 772) with and without an ASD and…

  11. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  12. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  13. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  14. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P < 0.01). Patients with sensory stroke but without CPSP (non-pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P < 0.05). In patients with CPSP, changes in CDT, PHS, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  15. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  16. Sensory percepts induced by microwire array and DBS microstimulation in human sensory thalamus.

    PubMed

    Swan, Brandon D; Gasperson, Lynne B; Krucoff, Max O; Grill, Warren M; Turner, Dennis A

    Microstimulation in human sensory thalamus (ventrocaudal, VC) results in focal sensory percepts in the hand and arm which may provide an alternative target site (to somatosensory cortex) for the input of prosthetic sensory information. Sensory feedback to facilitate motor function may require simultaneous or timed responses across separate digits to recreate perceptions of slip as well as encoding of intensity variations in pressure or touch. To determine the feasibility of evoking sensory percepts on separate digits with variable intensity through either a microwire array or deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode, recreating "natural" and scalable percepts relating to the arm and hand. We compared microstimulation within ventrocaudal sensory thalamus through either a 16-channel microwire array (∼400 kΩ per channel) or a 4-channel DBS electrode (∼1.2 kΩ per contact) for percept location, size, intensity, and quality sensation, during thalamic DBS electrode placement in patients with essential tremor. Percepts in small hand or finger regions were evoked by microstimulation through individual microwires and in 5/6 patients sensation on different digits could be perceived from stimulation through separate microwires. Microstimulation through DBS electrode contacts evoked sensations over larger areas in 5/5 patients, and the apparent intensity of the perceived response could be modulated with stimulation amplitude. The perceived naturalness of the sensation depended both on the pattern of stimulation as well as intensity of the stimulation. Producing consistent evoked perceptions across separate digits within sensory thalamus is a feasible concept and a compact alternative to somatosensory cortex microstimulation for prosthetic sensory feedback. This approach will require a multi-element low impedance electrode with a sufficient stimulation range to evoke variable intensities of perception and a predictable spread of contacts to engage separate digits

  17. Visual perception of ADHD children with sensory processing disorder.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyerim; Woo, Young Jae; Kang, Je Wook; Choi, Yeon Woo; Kim, Kyeong Mi

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the visual perception difference between ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder, and the relationship between sensory processing and visual perception of the children with ADHD. Participants were 47 outpatients, aged 6-8 years, diagnosed with ADHD. After excluding those who met exclusion criteria, 38 subjects were clustered into two groups, ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder (SPD), using SSP reported by their parents, then subjects completed K-DTVP-2. Spearman correlation analysis was run to determine the relationship between sensory processing and visual perception, and Mann-Whitney-U test was conducted to compare the K-DTVP-2 score of two groups respectively. The ADHD children with SPD performed inferiorly to ADHD children without SPD in the on 3 quotients of K-DTVP-2. The GVP of K-DTVP-2 score was related to Movement Sensitivity section (r=0.368(*)) and Low Energy/Weak section of SSP (r=0.369*). The result of the present study suggests that among children with ADHD, the visual perception is lower in those children with co-morbid SPD. Also, visual perception may be related to sensory processing, especially in the reactions of vestibular and proprioceptive senses. Regarding academic performance, it is necessary to consider how sensory processing issues affect visual perception in children with ADHD.

  18. Generalised sensory system abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a European multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Pugdahl, K; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; de Carvalho, M; Johnsen, B; Fawcett, P R W; Labarre-Vila, A; Liguori, R; Nix, W A; Schofield, I S

    2007-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is defined as a disease of the motor neurones, although several studies indicate involvement of the sensory nervous system. To evaluate the sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS) in 88 patients with ALS as part of a European multicentre study. Seven European clinical neurophysiologists examined consecutive series of ALS patients. The examinations were peer reviewed, and the diagnosis of ALS was confirmed clinically. 20 (22.7%) patients with ALS had sensory NCS abnormalities in at least one nerve. Of those, 11 (12.5% of all patients) obtained an additional peer review diagnosis of electrophysiological polyneuropathy. There was no difference between the subgroups of patients with normal versus abnormal sensory NCS findings with respect to age, duration and region of onset. The findings support previous reports of sensory involvement in ALS, and raise the question of whether patients with ALS with sensory nerve abnormalities represent a variant of ALS. ALS associated with generalised sensory system abnormalities may be consistent with degeneration of motor neurones and dorsal root ganglion cells.

  19. Patterns of sensory abnormality in cortical stroke: evidence for a dichotomized sensory system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong S

    2007-01-16

    To characterize sensory symptoms in patients with stroke occurring in the cerebral cortex. We studied clinical and imaging findings of 24 patients who had prominent sensory symptoms without definitive motor dysfunction. According to the sensory manifestations, patients were divided into dominant impairment of primitive sensation (DIPS) group, dominant impairment of cortical sensation (DICS) group, and paresthesia-only group. DIPS was related to lesions involving the parietal operculum and the insular cortex, whereas DICS was related to the lesions affecting the postcentral gyrus. Patients with paresthesia only had smaller lesions located in the postcentral gyrus. DIPS group patients were more often women (p = 0.013), more often had dysarthria (n = 0.043), and more often developed central poststroke pain or paresthesia (n = 0.005) than the DICS group patients. Restricted sensory changes are common, predominantly involving the perioral or finger areas. Sensory patterns in these patients are generally consistent with the dichotomized (SI and SII) sensory system in the cerebral cortex. Involvement of insular and opercular areas is related to primitive sensory impairment and development of central poststroke pain, whereas postcentral gyrus involvement is related to cortical sensory loss without poststroke pain. The pattern of restricted sensory changes is generally consistent with the Penfield sensory topography.

  20. Sensory and Attention Abnormalities in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Miriam; Saulnier, Celine; Fein, Deborah; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, "sensory overreactivity",…

  1. Abnormal neural reactivity to unpredictable sensory events in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dockstader, Colleen; Gaetz, William; Cheyne, Douglas; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-08-15

    Cortical oscillations in the sensorimotor region in the 8-12-Hz range ("mu rhythms") are associated with basic somatosensory and motor processes as well as top-down processes such as learning, attention, expectancy, and inhibition. Recent studies suggest that reactivity of these rhythms to sensory input reflects a link between perception and action and that abnormalities in this reactivity might reflect impairment in perception-to-action mechanisms. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impaired in tasks requiring sensorimotor function, attention, expectancy, and inhibition, yet their sensorimotor mu responses are unknown. Thus, we investigated mu reactivity in a group of adults with ADHD. Sixteen adults with ADHD and 16 matched control subjects received median nerve stimulation in predictable patterns (trains of four stimuli followed by 4-sec gap) or unpredictable patterns (randomly presented trains of two, four, or six stimuli followed by 4-sec gap). With magnetoencephalography, we examined the effects of stimulus patterning (predictable, unpredictable) on mu reactivity to somatosensory stimuli. Compared with control subjects, the ADHD group showed lower mu reactivity overall and no modulation by unpredictable somatosensory input. By contrast, the control group showed robust mu reactivity to stimuli presented in unpredictable but not predictable patterns. These changes were stronger in the contralateral hemisphere compared with the ADHD group. Cortical mu rhythms are modulated by stimulus predictability and might be involved in attentional alerting (awareness of when an unexpected stimulus occurs). Diminished mu modulation in adult ADHD suggests a possible underlying deficit in the perception-to-action system.

  2. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  3. A Top-Down Cortical Circuit for Accurate Sensory Perception.

    PubMed

    Manita, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Homma, Chihiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Odagawa, Maya; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Ota, Keisuke; Matsubara, Chie; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Sato, Masaaki; Ohkura, Masamichi; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Nakai, Junichi; Hayashi, Yasunori; Larkum, Matthew E; Murayama, Masanori

    2015-06-03

    A fundamental issue in cortical processing of sensory information is whether top-down control circuits from higher brain areas to primary sensory areas not only modulate but actively engage in perception. Here, we report the identification of a neural circuit for top-down control in the mouse somatosensory system. The circuit consisted of a long-range reciprocal projection between M2 secondary motor cortex and S1 primary somatosensory cortex. In vivo physiological recordings revealed that sensory stimulation induced sequential S1 to M2 followed by M2 to S1 neural activity. The top-down projection from M2 to S1 initiated dendritic spikes and persistent firing of S1 layer 5 (L5) neurons. Optogenetic inhibition of M2 input to S1 decreased L5 firing and the accurate perception of tactile surfaces. These findings demonstrate that recurrent input to sensory areas is essential for accurate perception and provide a physiological model for one type of top-down control circuit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Statin use and peripheral sensory perception: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    West, Brenton; Williams, Cylie M; Jilbert, Elise; James, Alicia M; Haines, Terry P

    2014-06-01

    Peripheral sensory neuropathy is a neurological deficit resulting in decreased detection of sensation through the peripheral nervous system. Peripheral sensory neuropathy is commonly diagnosed with the use of a monofilament and either a tuning fork or neurothesiometer. Statins are a widely used medication and there has been some debate of association with their use and peripheral sensory neuropathy. This pilot study aimed to test the sensory perception of participants with long-term statin use and compare these results to their peers who were not taking statins. Thirty participants were recruited and equally divided into a statin and non-statin group. Healthy participants were screened by their medical and medication history, Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk assessment, and random blood glucose level. An assessor who was blinded to the participant group conducted sensory assessments using a 10 g monofilament and neurothesiometer. There was no difference in monofilament testing results between the groups. The statin group was less sensate at the styloid process (p = 0.031) and medial malleolus (p = 0.003) than the control group. Results at the hallux were not statistically significant (p = 0.183). This result is suggestive of a potential association between long-term statin use and a decrease in peripheral sensory perception. This may be because of peripheral sensory neuropathy. Limitations such as consideration of participant height, participant numbers, and inability to analyze results against statin groups are reported. As statins are a life-saving medication, careful consideration should be applied to these results and further research be conducted to determine if these results are applicable to larger populations.

  5. Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C. J.; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research. PMID:22371612

  6. Transient decrease of sensory perception after thermoalgesic stimuli for quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Schestatsky, Pedro; Algaba, Rebeca; Pérez, Daniel; Casanova-Molla, Jordi; León, Lucia; Costa, Joao; Valls-Solé, Josep

    2007-10-01

    Transient decrease in the excitability of a reflex circuit following its activation by appropriate stimuli is a well-recognized phenomenon, but it is unclear how this applies to thermoalgesic stimuli during quantitative sensory testing (QST). We examined the effects induced by a thermoalgesic (conditioning) stimulus on the response to a subsequent (test) stimulus of the same characteristics. All tests were done using a Peltier thermode with a surface area of 12.5 cm(2) using ramp rates of 2 degrees C/s and variable interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 10 to 60 s. Perception was measured with an electronic visual analog scale. No changes were observed in latency of pain perception. However, latency of warm perception was significantly delayed and pain perception intensity was significantly reduced with respect to conditioning stimuli at ISIs below 60 s. Our results indicate a transient saturation of warm and heat pain perception systems after a thermoalgesic stimulus. We therefore recommend that time intervals of >1 min be used between two consecutive thermoalgesic stimuli when examining QST.

  7. Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit are core symptoms in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lopez, Régis; Vaillant, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre; Boyer, Laurent; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated and compared perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in adult patients with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (A-ADHD) and adult patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were evaluated with the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). We compared SGI scores between patients with A-ADHD, patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. We also assessed the relationship between SGI scores and clinical symptoms, and evaluated the ability of the SGI to detect perceptual abnormalities in A-ADHD. Seventy adult patients with ADHD reported higher SGI scores than the 70 healthy subjects and the 70 patients with schizophrenia. The inattention factor of the ASRS correlated significantly with the overall SGI score. The ROC AUC for the overall SGI score in the A-ADHD group (versus the healthy group) illustrated good performance. The findings suggest that i) perceptual abnormalities are core symptoms of adult patients with ADHD and ii) the attention of patients with A-ADHD may be involuntarily drowned by many irrelevant environmental stimuli leading to their impaired attention on relevant stimuli. They also confirm that the SGI could be a useful self-report instrument to diagnose the clinical features of A-ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FMRI Reveals Abnormal Central Processing of Sensory and Pain Stimuli in Ill Gulf War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Gandhi, Parina; Goyal, Aman; Jiang, Lei; Fang, Yan; Ouyang, Luo; Ganji, Sandeepkumar; Buhner, David; Ringe, Wendy; Spence, Jeffrey; Biggs, Melanie; Briggs, Richard; Haley, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Many veterans chronically ill from the 1991 Gulf War exhibit symptoms of altered sensation, including chronic pain. In this study of 55 veterans of a Construction Battalion previously examined in 1995–1996 and 1997–1998, brain activation to innocuous and noxious heat stimuli was assessed in 2008–2009 with a quantitative sensory testing fMRI protocol in control veterans and groups representing three syndrome variants. Testing outside the scanner revealed no significant differences in warm detection or heat pain threshold among the four groups. In the fMRI study, Syndrome 1 and Syndrome 2, but not Syndrome 3, exhibited hypo-activation to innocuous heat and hyper-activation to noxious heat stimuli compared to controls. The results indicate abnormal central processing of sensory and painful stimuli in 2 of 3 variants of Gulf War illness and call for a more comprehensive study with a larger, representative sample of veterans. PMID:22327017

  10. Intraoral somatosensory abnormalities in patients with atypical odontalgia – a controlled multicenter quantitative sensory testing study

    PubMed Central

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Pigg, Maria; Ivanovic, Susanne El’Masry; Faris, Hanan; List, Thomas; Drangsholt, Mark; Svensson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Intraoral somatosensory sensitivity in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) has not been investigated systematically according to the most recent guidelines. The aims of this study were to: 1. Examine intraoral somatosensory disturbances in AO patients using healthy subjects as reference and 2. Evaluate the percent agreement between intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST) and qualitative sensory testing (QualST). Forty-seven AO patients and 69 healthy controls were included at Universities of Washington, Malmö and Aarhus. In AO patients, intraoral somatosensory testing was performed on the painful site, the corresponding contralateral site and at thenar. In healthy subjects, intraoral somatosensory testing was performed bilaterally on the upper premolar gingiva and at thenar. Thirteen QST and 3 QualST parameters were evaluated at each site, z-scores were computed for AO patients based on the healthy reference material and LossGain scores were created. 87.3% of AO patients had QST abnormalities compared with controls. The most frequent somatosensory abnormalities in AO patients were somatosensory gain with regard to painful mechanical and cold stimuli and somatosensory loss with regard to cold detection and mechanical detection. The most frequent LossGain code was L0G2 (no somatosensory loss with gain of mechanical somatosensory function)(31.9% of AO patients). Percent agreement between corresponding QST and QualST measures of thermal and mechanical sensitivity ranged between 55.6 and 70.4% in AO patients and between 71.1 and 92.1% in controls. In conclusion, intraoral somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in AO patients and agreement between quantitative and qualitative sensory testing was good to excellent. PMID:23725780

  11. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P < .001). SPQ scores were correlated with AQ scores both across groups (r = .-38) and within the ASC (r = -.18) and control groups (r = -.15). Principal component analyses conducted separately in both groups indicated that one factor comprising 35 items consistently assesses sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach’s alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). Conclusions The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension. PMID:24791196

  12. "Chilled" pork--Part II. Consumer perception of sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare consumer perception of the sensory quality of grilled Canadian pork destined for Japanese and domestic markets, with particular reference to export selection criteria imposed by Japanese importers and transportation conditions. Consumers from Quebec, Canada tasted local and export quality pork subjected to "chilled" (aged 43 days at -1.7 °C) or conventional ageing (5 days at 3.1 °C). Consumers' scores (out of 10) were higher (P<0.05) in the "chilled" than conventionally aged pork for tenderness (6.8 vs 5.7), juiciness (6.6 vs 6.0), taste liking (6.4 vs 5.9) and overall acceptability (6.7 vs 6.1). When informed that the conventionally aged, domestic quality pork was destined for the domestic market, consumer scores increased significantly (P<0.05). No effect of information was observed on the perception of the 'chilled' export quality meat, perhaps a consequence of the high sensory quality observed prior to labelling. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensory Perception: An Overlooked Target of Occupational Exposure to Metals

    PubMed Central

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2003-01-01

    The effect of exposure to industrial metals on sensory perception of workers has received only modest interest from the medical community to date. Nevertheless, some experimental and epidemiological data exist showing that industrial metals can affect vision, hearing and olfactory function, and a similar effect is also suggested for touch and taste. In this review the main industrial metals involved are discussed. An important limit in available knowledge is that, to date, the number of chemicals studied is relatively small. Another is that the large majority of the studies have evaluated the effect of a single chemical on a single sense. As an example, we know that mercury can impair hearing, smell, taste, touch and also vision, but we have scant idea if, in the same worker, a relation exists between impairments in different senses, or if impairments are independent. Moreover, workers are frequently exposed to different chemicals; a few available results suggest that a co-exposure may have no effect, or result in both an increase and a decrease of the effect, as observed for hearing loss, but this aspect certainly deserves much more study. As a conclusion, exposure to industrial metals can affect sensory perception, but knowledge of this effect is yet incomplete, and is largely inadequate especially for an estimation of “safe” thresholds of exposure. These data support the desirability of further good quality studies in this field. PMID:18365054

  14. Integration of Serial Sensory Information in Haptic Perception of Softness.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Anna; Lezkan, Alexandra; Drewing, Knut

    2017-10-12

    Redundant estimates of an environmental property derived simultaneously from different senses or cues are typically integrated according to the maximum likelihood estimation model (MLE): Sensory estimates are weighted according to their reliabilities, maximizing the percept's reliability. Mechanisms underlying the integration of sequentially derived estimates from one sense are less clear. Here we investigate the integration of serially sampled redundant information in softness perception. We developed a method to manipulate haptically perceived softness of silicone rubber stimuli during bare-finger exploration. We then manipulated softness estimates derived from single movement segments (indentations) in a multisegmented exploration to assess their contributions to the overall percept. Participants explored two stimuli in sequence, using 2-5 indentations, and reported which stimulus felt softer. Estimates of the first stimulus's softness contributed to the judgments similarly, whereas for the second stimulus estimates from later compared to earlier indentations contributed less. In line with unequal weighting, the percept's reliability increased with increasing exploration length less than was predicted by the MLE model. This pattern of results is well explained by assuming that the representation of the first stimulus fades when the second stimulus is explored, which fits with a neurophysiological model of perceptual decisions (Deco, Rolls, & Romo, 2010). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Abnormal sensory reactivity in preterm infants during the first year correlates with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Chorna, Olena; Solomon, Jessica E; Slaughter, James C; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2014-11-01

    Sensory experience is the basis for learning in infancy. In older children, abnormal sensory reactivity is associated with behavioural and developmental disorders. We hypothesised that in preterm infants, abnormal sensory reactivity during infancy would be associated with perinatal characteristics and correlate with 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a prospective observational study of infants with birth weight ≤1500 g using the Test of Sensory Function in Infants (TSFI) in the first year. Infants with gestational age ≤30 weeks were tested with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID III) at 24 months. Of the 72 participants evaluated at 4-12 months corrected age (median 8 months), 59 (82%) had a least one TSFI score concerning for abnormal sensory reactivity. Lower gestational age was associated with abnormal reactivity to deep pressure and vestibular stimulation (p<0.001). Poor ocular-motor control predicted worse cognitive and motor scores in early childhood (OR 16.7; p=0.004), but was tightly correlated to the presence of severe white matter injury. Poor adaptive motor function in response to tactile stimuli predicted worse BSID III motor (p=0.01) and language scores (p=0.04) at 2 years, even after adjusting for confounders. Abnormal sensory reactivity is common in preterm infants; is associated with immaturity at birth, severe white matter injury and lower primary caregiver education; and predicts neurodevelopmental delays. Early identification of abnormal sensory reactivity of very preterm infants may promote parental support and education and may facilitate improved neurodevelopment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Abnormal Pitch Perception Produced by Cochlear Implant Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects’ acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1–2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the “mean” shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large “variance” of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  17. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance.

  18. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M.; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system. PMID:27559306

  19. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation.

    PubMed

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system.

  20. Sugar reduction without compromising sensory perception. An impossible dream?

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Scott C; Low, Julia Y Q; Keast, Russell S J

    2018-03-21

    Sugar reduction is a major technical challenge for the food industry to address in response to public health concerns regarding the amount of added sugars in foods. This paper reviews sweet taste perception, sensory methods to evaluate sugar reduction and the merits of different techniques available to reduce sugar content. The use of sugar substitutes (non-nutritive sweeteners, sugar alcohols, and fibres) can achieve the greatest magnitude of sugar and energy reduction, however bitter side tastes and varying temporal sweet profiles are common issues. The use of multisensory integration principles (particularly aroma) can be an effective approach to reduce sugar content, however the magnitude of sugar reduction is small. Innovation in food structure (modifying the sucrose distribution, serum release and fracture mechanics) offers a new way to reduce sugar without significant changes in food composition, however may be difficult to implement in food produced on a large scale. Gradual sugar reduction presents difficulties for food companies from a sales perspective if acceptability is compromised. Ultimately, a holistic approach where food manufacturers integrate a range of these techniques is likely to provide the best progress. However, substantial reduction of sugar in processed foods without compromising sensory properties may be an impossible dream.

  1. Abnormal cold perception in the lower limbs: a sensitive indicator for detection of polyneuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hyllienmark, L; Jonsson, B; Ekberg, K; Lindström, P

    2009-09-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy differs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate how signs and symptoms of neuropathy correlated with defects in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (MCV and SCV) and sensory perception thresholds in patients with type 1 diabetes. MCV and SCV in peroneal and sural nerves and vibratory, warm and cold perception thresholds (VPT, WPT, CPT) were evaluated in the lower limbs of 127 patients (42+/-7.9 years old, duration of diabetes, 16+/-11 years and HbA1c, 7.7+/-1.4%). The results were compared with clinical findings (neuropathy impairment assessment, NIA) and sensory symptoms (neurological symptom assessment, NSA). Sensory symptoms were present in 24% of patients, 91% had at least one abnormal finding in the neurological examination and 84% had abnormal nerve conduction. The greatest deviation from normal was observed for CPT on the dorsum of the foot and peroneal MCV. NIA and NSA correlated with all electrophysiological measurements in the foot and big toe. It is concluded that clinical findings correlate well with electrophysiological abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetic neuropathy. An elevated CPT for the foot was the most pronounced sensory defect.

  2. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways…

  3. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterized collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast) that can be isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit) will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and will guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage, and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008, also through organoleptic evaluation (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives). This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives, which can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the system for commercial classification, through assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived. PMID:23675370

  4. Exploring the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behaviours and abnormal sensory processing in children with Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janes, E; Riby, D M; Rodgers, J

    2014-08-01

    A small amount of research with individuals who have Williams Syndrome (WS) suggests that children with the condition may be vulnerable to sensory processing abnormalities and present with repetitive and restricted behaviours. Parents of 21 children with WS aged 6-15 years completed a semi-structured interview designed to elicit the form, frequency, impact and developmental course of a range of sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours. Findings indicate that sensory processing difficulties are predominantly characterised by hypersensitivities, particularly in relation to vestibular, auditory, gustatory and proprioceptive functioning. Parents also reported the presence of a range of restricted and repetitive behaviours, which were often associated with their child's sensory symptoms. This study makes a significant contribution to our understanding of sensory functioning and repetitive behaviours in WS. It also highlights the need for a multidisciplinary assessment of the difficulties experienced by children with the disorder. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Perceptibility and the "Choice Experience": User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences Inform Vaginal Prevention Product Design.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kate Morrow; Dunsiger, Shira; Vargas, Sara E; Fava, Joseph L; Shaw, Julia G; Rosen, Rochelle K; Kiser, Patrick F; Kojic, E Milu; Friend, David R; Katz, David F

    The development of pericoital (on demand) vaginal HIV prevention technologies remains a global health priority. Clinical trials to date have been challenged by nonadherence, leading to an inability to demonstrate product efficacy. The work here provides new methodology and results to begin to address this limitation. We created validated scales that allow users to characterize sensory perceptions and experiences when using vaginal gel formulations. In this study, we sought to understand the user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) that characterize the preferred product experience for each participant. Two hundred four women evaluated four semisolid vaginal formulations using the USPE scales at four randomly ordered formulation evaluation visits. Women were asked to select their preferred formulation experience for HIV prevention among the four formulations evaluated. The scale scores on the Sex-associated USPE scales (e.g., Initial Penetration and Leakage) for each participant's selected formulation were used in a latent class model analysis. Four classes of preferred formulation experiences were identified. Sociodemographic and sexual history variables did not predict class membership; however, four specific scales were significantly related to class: Initial Penetration, Perceived Wetness, Messiness, and Leakage. The range of preferred user experiences represented by the scale scores creates a potential target range for product development, such that products that elicit scale scores that fall within the preferred range may be more acceptable, or tolerable, to the population under study. It is recommended that similar analyses should be conducted with other semisolid vaginal formulations, and in other cultures, to determine product property and development targets.

  6. Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory Perception: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baeumler, Petra I.; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Results Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Conclusions Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory

  7. Sensory basis of refreshing perception: role of psychophysiological factors and food experience.

    PubMed

    Labbe, D; Almiron-Roig, E; Hudry, J; Leathwood, P; Schifferstein, H N J; Martin, N

    2009-08-04

    Refreshing is a term often used to characterize certain types of foods and beverages. This review first explores what is known from sensory and consumer studies on refreshing perception in relation to food and beverage consumption. It then presents and discusses the similarities between sensory characteristics perceived as refreshing with those perceived during and after drinking water. In general, refreshing drinks and beverages seem to help alleviate symptoms experienced during water deprivation, including thirst, mouth dryness and mental fatigue. The role that learning may have in the construction of refreshing perception during each food experience is also discussed. The review showed that a refreshing value (perceived or expected) tends to be associated with foods sharing some characteristics with water in terms of their sensory profile (clear, cold, liquid); and that food experiences may induce associative learning about perceptions of existing or new products marketed as refreshing.

  8. Prestimulus influences on auditory perception from sensory representations and decision processes.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Stephanie J; McNair, Steven W; Kayser, Christoph

    2016-04-26

    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task.

  9. Sensory and Emotional Perception of Wooden Surfaces through Fingertip Touch

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Shiv R.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on tactile experiences have investigated a wide range of material surfaces across various skin sites of the human body in self-touch or other touch modes. Here, we investigate whether the sensory and emotional aspects of touch are related when evaluating wooden surfaces using fingertips in the absence of other sensory modalities. Twenty participants evaluated eight different pine and oak wood surfaces, using sensory and emotional touch descriptors, through the lateral motion of active fingertip exploration. The data showed that natural and smooth wood surfaces were perceived more positively in emotional touch than coated surfaces. We highlight the importance of preserving the naturalness of the surface texture in the process of wood-surface treatment so as to improve positive touch experiences, as well as avoid negative ones. We argue that the results may offer possibilities in the design of wood-based interior products with a view to improving consumer touch experiences. PMID:28348541

  10. Shared Sensory Estimates for Human Motion Perception and Pursuit Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. PMID:26041919

  11. TrueNorth: A High-Performance, Low-Power Neurosynaptic Processor for Multi-Sensory Perception, Action, and Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    TrueNorth: a High-Performance, Low-Power Neurosynaptic Processor for Multi- Sensory Perception, Action, and Cognition Andrew S. Cassidy*, Jun...from embedded and embodied intelligence to large-scale perceptual analysis of streaming multi- sensory data, this massively parallel processor consumes...1014 synapses, enabling it to perform a remarkable variety of visual, auditory, and other sensory perception tasks such as classification and

  12. Perception of Body Ownership Is Driven by Bayesian Sensory Inference

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Majed; Chung, Albert Jin; Shams, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that human perception of body ownership is highly malleable. A well-known example is the rubber hand illusion (RHI) wherein ownership over a dummy hand is experienced, and is generally believed to require synchronized stroking of real and dummy hands. Our goal was to elucidate the computational principles governing this phenomenon. We adopted the Bayesian causal inference model of multisensory perception and applied it to visual, proprioceptive, and tactile stimuli. The model reproduced the RHI, predicted that it can occur without tactile stimulation, and that synchronous stroking would enhance it. Various measures of ownership across two experiments confirmed the predictions: a large percentage of individuals experienced the illusion in the absence of any tactile stimulation, and synchronous stroking strengthened the illusion. Altogether, these findings suggest that perception of body ownership is governed by Bayesian causal inference—i.e., the same rule that appears to govern the perception of outside world. PMID:25658822

  13. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Sensory perceptions, the organs involved, and eye and hearing care. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six different sectional steps organized around a gradual, ascending understanding of the sense organs. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The material is divided into…

  14. Consistency of abnormal sensory gating in first-admission and chronic schizophrenia across quantification methods.

    PubMed

    Schubring, David; Popov, Tzvetan; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2018-04-01

    The auditory P50/M50 ERP/event-related field is subject to sensory gating, with partial suppression of the amplitude of the second of two (S1 and S2) clicks presented 500 ms apart. Schizophrenia patients have less gating, although quantification methods and associated effect sizes vary across studies using first-admission and/or using chronic patients. The present study evaluated the impact of several methods of quantifying gating in first-admission (FA) and chronic (CHR) schizophrenia patients and in healthy controls (HC). Magnetoencephalogram was measured in 35 FA, 58 CHR, and 28 HC during a paired-click protocol. Sensory gating was quantified on sensor and source levels as a ratio (S2/S1) and as a S1-minus-S2 difference, with M50 amplitude scored relative to baseline and relative to M100 and to M40. Independent of quantification method, patients showed less sensory gating than HC, with medium-to-large effect sizes, without differences between FA and CHR. Results indicate that the frequently reported sensory gating deficit in schizophrenia is robust to variations in quantification methods and stage of disorder. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Evidence for distinct mechanisms underlying attentional priming and sensory memory for bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis, M A B; Kristjánsson, Á; Brascamp, J W

    2015-08-01

    Attentional selection in visual search paradigms and perceptual selection in bistable perception paradigms show functional similarities. For example, both are sensitive to trial history: They are biased toward previously selected targets or interpretations. We investigated whether priming by target selection in visual search and sensory memory for bistable perception are related. We did this by presenting two trial types to observers. We presented either ambiguous spheres that rotated over a central axis and could be perceived as rotating in one of two directions, or search displays in which the unambiguously rotating target and distractor spheres closely resembled the two possible interpretations of the ambiguous stimulus. We interleaved both trial types within experiments, to see whether priming by target selection during search trials would affect the perceptual outcome of bistable perception and, conversely, whether sensory memory during bistable perception would affect target selection times during search. Whereas we found intertrial repetition effects among consecutive search trials and among consecutive bistable trials, we did not find cross-paradigm effects. Thus, even though we could ascertain that our experiments robustly elicited processes of both search priming and sensory memory for bistable perception, these same experiments revealed no interaction between the two.

  16. The social-sensory interface: category interactions in person perception

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Kerri L.; Adams, Reginald B.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Research is increasingly challenging the claim that distinct sources of social information—such as sex, race, and emotion—are processed in discrete fashion. Instead, there appear to be functionally relevant interactions that occur. In the present article, we describe research examining how cues conveyed by the human face, voice, and body interact to form the unified representations that guide our perceptions of and responses to other people. We explain how these information sources are often thrown into interaction through bottom-up forces (e.g., phenotypic cues) as well as top-down forces (e.g., stereotypes and prior knowledge). Such interactions point to a person perception process that is driven by an intimate interface between bottom-up perceptual and top-down social processes. Incorporating data from neuroimaging, event-related potentials (ERP), computational modeling, computer mouse-tracking, and other behavioral measures, we discuss the structure of this interface, and we consider its implications and adaptive purposes. We argue that an increased understanding of person perception will likely require a synthesis of insights and techniques, from social psychology to the cognitive, neural, and vision sciences. PMID:23087622

  17. The social-sensory interface: category interactions in person perception.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Johnson, Kerri L; Adams, Reginald B; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Research is increasingly challenging the claim that distinct sources of social information-such as sex, race, and emotion-are processed in discrete fashion. Instead, there appear to be functionally relevant interactions that occur. In the present article, we describe research examining how cues conveyed by the human face, voice, and body interact to form the unified representations that guide our perceptions of and responses to other people. We explain how these information sources are often thrown into interaction through bottom-up forces (e.g., phenotypic cues) as well as top-down forces (e.g., stereotypes and prior knowledge). Such interactions point to a person perception process that is driven by an intimate interface between bottom-up perceptual and top-down social processes. Incorporating data from neuroimaging, event-related potentials (ERP), computational modeling, computer mouse-tracking, and other behavioral measures, we discuss the structure of this interface, and we consider its implications and adaptive purposes. We argue that an increased understanding of person perception will likely require a synthesis of insights and techniques, from social psychology to the cognitive, neural, and vision sciences.

  18. The role of sensory perception in the development and targeting of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-01-01

    To examine tobacco industry research on smoking-related sensory effects, including differences in sensory perception across smoker groups, and to determine whether this research informed targeted product development and impacted the development of commercial tobacco products. We searched previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available online through document databases housed at Tobacco Documents Online, the British American Tobacco Document Archive and the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. We identified relevant documents using a snowball sampling method to first search the databases using an initial set of key words and to then establish further search terms. Sensory research is a priority within the tobacco industry directly impacting commercial markets both in the United States and internationally. Sensory factors contribute to smoker satisfaction and product acceptance, and play an important role in controlling puffing behavior. Cigarette manufacturers have capitalized on distinct sensory preferences across gender, age and ethnic groups by tailoring products for specific populations. Regulation of tobacco products is needed to address product changes that are used to reinforce or contribute to tobacco dependence; for instance, the incorporation of additives that target attributes such as smoothness, harshness and aftertaste. Greater understanding of the role of sensory effects on smoking behavior may also help to inform the development of tobacco treatment options that support long-term tobacco abstinence.

  19. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Comparing Delivery Approaches to Teaching Abnormal Psychology: Investigating Student Perceptions and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goette, William F.; Delello, Julie A.; Schmitt, Andrew L.; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Rangel, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the academic performance and perceptions of 114 undergraduate students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Specifically, this study focuses on whether face-to-face (F2F) or blended modalities are associated with student learning outcomes. In this study, data analysis was based upon the examination of end-of-course…

  1. Relation of sensory perception with chemical composition of bioprocessed lingonberry.

    PubMed

    Viljanen, Kaarina; Heiniö, Raija-Liisa; Juvonen, Riikka; Kössö, Tuija; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2014-08-15

    The impact of bioprocessing on lingonberry flavour was studied by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis (organic acids, mannitol, phenolic compounds, sugars and volatile compounds). Bioprocessing of lingonberries with enzymes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or yeast, or their combination (excluding pure LAB fermentation) affected their perceived flavour and chemical composition. Sweetness was associated especially with enzyme treatment but also with enzyme+LAB treatment. Yeast fermentation caused significant changes in volatile aroma compounds and perceived flavour, whereas minor changes were detected in LAB or enzyme-treated berries. Increased concentration of organic acids, ethanol and some phenolic acids correlated with perceived fermented odour/flavour in yeast fermentations, in which increase in benzoic acid level was significant. In enzymatic treatment decreasing anthocyanins correlated well with decreased perceived colour intensity. Enzyme treatment is a potential tool to decrease naturally acidic flavour of lingonberry. Fermentation, especially with yeast, could be an interesting new approach to increase the content of natural preservatives, such as antimicrobial benzoic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cracking the Neural Code for Sensory Perception by Combining Statistics, Intervention, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D; Piasini, Eugenio; Latham, Peter E; Fellin, Tommaso

    2017-02-08

    The two basic processes underlying perceptual decisions-how neural responses encode stimuli, and how they inform behavioral choices-have mainly been studied separately. Thus, although many spatiotemporal features of neural population activity, or "neural codes," have been shown to carry sensory information, it is often unknown whether the brain uses these features for perception. To address this issue, we propose a new framework centered on redefining the neural code as the neural features that carry sensory information used by the animal to drive appropriate behavior; that is, the features that have an intersection between sensory and choice information. We show how this framework leads to a new statistical analysis of neural activity recorded during behavior that can identify such neural codes, and we discuss how to combine intersection-based analysis of neural recordings with intervention on neural activity to determine definitively whether specific neural activity features are involved in a task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental Imagery Induces Cross-Modal Sensory Plasticity and Changes Future Auditory Perception.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2018-04-01

    Can what we imagine in our minds change how we perceive the world in the future? A continuous process of multisensory integration and recalibration is responsible for maintaining a correspondence between the senses (e.g., vision, touch, audition) and, ultimately, a stable and coherent perception of our environment. This process depends on the plasticity of our sensory systems. The so-called ventriloquism aftereffect-a shift in the perceived localization of sounds presented alone after repeated exposure to spatially mismatched auditory and visual stimuli-is a clear example of this type of plasticity in the audiovisual domain. In a series of six studies with 24 participants each, we investigated an imagery-induced ventriloquism aftereffect in which imagining a visual stimulus elicits the same frequency-specific auditory aftereffect as actually seeing one. These results demonstrate that mental imagery can recalibrate the senses and induce the same cross-modal sensory plasticity as real sensory stimuli.

  4. Abnormal pain perception in patients with Multiple System Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ory-Magne, F; Pellaprat, J; Harroch, E; Galitzsky, M; Rousseau, V; Pavy-Le Traon, A; Rascol, O; Gerdelat, A; Brefel-Courbon, C

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease or Multiple System Atrophy frequently experience painful sensations. The few studies investigating pain mechanisms in Multiple System Atrophy patients have reported contradictory results. In our study, we compared pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls and evaluated the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds. We assessed subjective and objective pain thresholds (using a thermotest and RIII reflex), and pain tolerance in OFF and ON conditions, clinical pain, motor and psychological evaluation. Pain was reported in 78.6% of Multiple System Atrophy patients and in 37.5% of Parkinson's disease patients. In the OFF condition, subjective and objective pain thresholds were significantly lower in Multiple System Atrophy patients than in healthy controls (43.8 °C ± 1.3 vs 45.7 °C ± 0.8; p = 0.0005 and 7.4 mA ± 3.8 vs 13.7 mA ± 2.8; p = 0.002, respectively). They were also significantly reduced in Multiple System Atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease patients. No significant difference was found in pain tolerance for the 3 groups and in the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients. In the ON condition, pain tolerance tended to be reduced in Multiple System Atrophy versus Parkinson's disease patients (p = 0.05). Multiple System Atrophy patients had an increase in pain perception compared to Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls. The l-DOPA effect was similar for pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients, but tended to worsen pain tolerance in Multiple System Atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peripheral tactile sensory perception of older adults improved using subsensory electrical noise stimulation.

    PubMed

    Breen, Paul P; Serrador, Jorge M; O'Tuathail, Claire; Quinlan, Leo R; McIntosh, Caroline; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2016-08-01

    Loss of tactile sensory function is common with aging and can lead to numbness and difficulty with balance and gait. In previous work we found that subsensory electrical noise stimulation (SENS) applied to the tibial nerve improved tactile perception in the soles of the feet of healthy adults. In this work we aimed to determine if SENS remained effective in an older adult population with significant levels of sensory loss. Older adult subjects (N=8, female = 4, aged 65-80) had SENS applied via surface electrodes placed proximally to the medial and lateral malleoli. Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) were assessed in six conditions, two control conditions (no SENS) and four SENS conditions (zero mean ±15µA, 30µA, 45µA and 60µA SD). VPT was assessed at three sites on the plantar aspect of the foot. Vibration perception was significantly improved in the presence of ±30µA SENS and by 16.2±2.4% (mean ± s.e.m.) when optimised for each subject. The improvement in perception was similar across all VPT test sites. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

  7. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    PubMed Central

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  8. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates conscious perception of sensory function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cury, Rubens G; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel J; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria G; Silva, Valquiria; Myczkowski, Martin L; Marcolin, Marco A; Barbosa, Egberto R; Fonoff, Erich T; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is used to treat refractory motor complications in Parkinson disease (PD), but its effects on nonmotor symptoms remain uncertain. Up to 80% of patients with PD may have pain relief after STN-DBS, but it is unknown whether its analgesic properties are related to potential effects on sensory thresholds or secondary to motor improvement. We have previously reported significant and long-lasting pain relief after DBS, which did not correlate with motor symptomatic control. Here we present secondary data exploring the effects of DBS on sensory thresholds in a controlled way and have explored the relationship between these changes and clinical pain and motor improvement after surgery. Thirty-seven patients were prospectively evaluated before STN-DBS and 12 months after the procedure compared with healthy controls. Compared with baseline, patients with PD showed lower thermal and mechanical detection and higher cold pain thresholds after surgery. There were no changes in heat and mechanical pain thresholds. Compared with baseline values in healthy controls, patients with PD had higher thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, which decreased after surgery toward normalization. These sensory changes had no correlation with motor or clinical pain improvement after surgery. These data confirm the existence of sensory abnormalities in PD and suggest that STN-DBS mainly influenced the detection thresholds rather than painful sensations. However, these changes may depend on the specific effects of DBS on somatosensory loops with no correlation to motor or clinical pain improvement.

  10. Perception and the strongest sensory memory trace of multi-stable displays both form shortly after the stimulus onset.

    PubMed

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relation between perception and sensory memory of multi-stable structure-from-motion displays. The latter is an implicit visual memory that reflects a recent history of perceptual dominance and influences only the initial perception of multi-stable displays. First, we established the earliest time point when the direction of an illusory rotation can be reversed after the display onset (29-114 ms). Because our display manipulation did not bias perception towards a specific direction of illusory rotation but only signaled the change in motion, this means that the perceptual dominance was established no later than 29-114 ms after the stimulus onset. Second, we used orientation-selectivity of sensory memory to establish which display orientation produced the strongest memory trace and when this orientation was presented during the preceding prime interval (80-140 ms). Surprisingly, both estimates point towards the time interval immediately after the display onset, indicating that both perception and sensory memory form at approximately the same time. This suggests a tighter integration between perception and sensory memory than previously thought, warrants a reconsideration of its role in visual perception, and indicates that sensory memory could be a unique behavioral correlate of the earlier perceptual inference that can be studied post hoc.

  11. Consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa under blind and informed conditions.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; Nalério, Elen Silveira; Giongo, Citieli; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-03-01

    The development of air-dried cured sheep meat products represents an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa, an innovative product. Four sheep meat coppa samples were formulated by varying smoking (smoked vs. non-smoked) and salt content (4.5% vs. 3.4%), and compared with two commercial samples of regular pork meat coppa. Samples were evaluated under blind or informed conditions by 202 consumers, who had to rate their liking and to answer a check-all-that-apply question. Sheep and pork meat coppa samples did not largely differ in their overall liking in both experimental conditions. Smoking and high salt content significantly increased consumers' hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa. The information included in the labels did not modify consumer hedonic perception but influenced their sensory description, particularly for the terms related to the type of meat used in their manufacture. Results indicate positive market opportunities for sheep meat coppa in the Brazilian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensory abnormalities and masticatory function after microvascular decompression or balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia compared with carbamazepine and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Michelle Cristina; de Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; da Nobrega, Jose Claudio Marinho; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli; de Siqueira, Silvia R D T

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (iTN) is a neurological condition treated with pharmacotherapy or neurosurgery. There is a lack of comparative papers regarding the outcomes of neurosurgery in patients with iTN. The objective of this study was to investigate sensory thresholds and masticatory function in 78 patients with iTN who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) or balloon compression (BC), and compare these treatments with carbamazepine and 30 untreated healthy controls. The authors conducted a case-controlled longitudinal study. Patients were referred to 1 of 3 groups: MVD, BC, or carbamazepine. All patients were evaluated before and after treatment with a systematic protocol composed of a clinical orofacial questionnaire, Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders, Helkimo indices, and a quantitative sensory-testing protocol (gustative, olfactory, cold, warm, touch, vibration, superficial, and deep pain thresholds). Both MVD and BC were effective at reducing pain intensity (p = 0.012) and carbamazepine doses (p < 0.001). Myofascial and articular complaints decreased in both groups (p < 0.001), but only the patients in the MVD group showed improvement in Helkimo indices (p < 0.003). Patients who underwent MVD also showed an increase in sweet (p = 0.014) and salty (p = 0.003) thresholds. The sour threshold decreased (p = 0.003) and cold and warm thresholds increased (p < 0.001) in patients after MVD and BC, but only the patients who underwent BC had an increase in touch threshold (p < 0.001). Microvascular decompression and BC resulted in a reduction in myofascial and jaw articular complaints, and the impact on masticatory function according to Helkimo indices was greater after BC than MVD. MVD resulted in more gustative alterations, and both procedures caused impairment in thermal thresholds (warm and cold). However, only BC also affected touch perception. The sensorial and motor deficits after BC need to be included as targets directly

  13. Relationship between Sensory Perception and Frailty in a Community-Dwelling Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Somekawa, S; Mine, T; Ono, K; Hayashi, N; Obuchi, S; Yoshida, H; Kawai, H; Fujiwara, Y; Hirano, H; Kojima, M; Ihara, K; Kim, H

    2017-01-01

    Aging anorexia, defined as loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, has been postulated as a risk factor for frailty. Impairments of taste and smell perception in elderly people can lead to reduced enjoyment of food and contribute to the anorexia of aging. To evaluate the relationship between frailty and taste and smell perception in elderly people living in urban areas. Data from the baseline evaluation of 768 residents aged ≥ 65 years who enrolled in a comprehensive geriatric health examination survey was analyzed. Fourteen out of 29-items of Appetite, Hunger, Sensory Perception questionnaire (AHSP), frailty, age, sex, BMI, chronic conditions and IADL were evaluated. AHSP was analyzed as the total score of 8 taste items (T) and 6 smell items (S). Frailty was diagnosed using a modified Fried's frailty criteria. The area under the receiver operator curves for detection of frailty demonstrated that T (0.715) had moderate accuracy, but S (0.657) had low accuracy. The cutoffs, sensitivity, specificity and Youden Index (YI) values for each perception were T: Cutoff 26.5 (YI: 0.350, sensitivity: 0.639, specificity: 0.711) and S: Cutoff 18.5 (YI: 0.246, sensitivity: 0.690, specificity: 0.556). Results from multiple logistic regression models, after adjusting for age, sex, IADL and chronic conditions showed that participants under the T cutoff were associated with exhaustion and those below the S cutoff were associated with slow walking speed. The adjusted logistic models for age, sex, IADL and chronic conditions showed significant association between T and frailty (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.29-6.12), but not between S and frailty (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.83-3.63). Taste and smell perception, particularly taste perception, were associated with a greater risk of frailty in community-dwelling elderly people. These results suggest that lower taste and smell perception may be an indicator of frailty in old age.

  14. Sensory biology. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Maude W; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J; Klasing, Kirk C; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-08-22

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Validation of an improved abnormality insertion method for medical image perception investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Mark T.; Durst, Gregory R.; Caldwell, Robert T.; Schartz, Kevin M.; Thompson, Brad H.; Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2009-02-01

    The ability to insert abnormalities in clinical tomographic images makes image perception studies with medical images practical. We describe a new insertion technique and its experimental validation that uses complementary image masks to select an abnormality from a library and place it at a desired location. The method was validated using a 4-alternative forced-choice experiment. For each case, four quadrants were simultaneously displayed consisting of 5 consecutive frames of a chest CT with a pulmonary nodule. One quadrant was unaltered, while the other 3 had the nodule from the unaltered quadrant artificially inserted. 26 different sets were generated and repeated with order scrambling for a total of 52 cases. The cases were viewed by radiology staff and residents who ranked each quadrant by realistic appearance. On average, the observers were able to correctly identify the unaltered quadrant in 42% of cases, and identify the unaltered quadrant both times it appeared in 25% of cases. Consensus, defined by a majority of readers, correctly identified the unaltered quadrant in only 29% of 52 cases. For repeats, the consensus observer successfully identified the unaltered quadrant only once. We conclude that the insertion method can be used to reliably place abnormalities in perception experiments.

  16. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  17. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Frank; O’Regan, J. Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences. PMID:28195187

  18. Sensory-motor system identification of active perception in ecologically valid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, William; Thomik, Andreas; Faisal, A. Aldo

    2015-03-01

    The brain is a dynamical system mapping sensory inputs to motor actions. This relationship has been widely characterised by reductionist controlled experiments. Here we present work moving out of the lab ``into the wild'' to capture, rather than constrain, sensory inputs and motor outputs, by recording 90% of sensory inputs using head mounted eye-tracking, scene camera and microphone as well as recording 95% of skeletal motor outputs by motion tracking 51 degrees of freedom in the body and a total of 40 degrees of freedom from the hands. We can thus begin to systematically characterise the perception-action loop through system identification. This enables use to evaluate classical relationships in ecologically valid settings and behaviours including 3 daily scenarios: breakfast in the kitchen, evening chores and activities and in-door ambulation . This level of data richness (97 DOF, 60Hz), coupled with the extensive recordings of natural perceptual and behavioural data (total > 30 hrs, 10 subjects) enables us to answer general questions of how lab tasks and protocols will produce systematically different results from those found in daily life.

  19. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Frank; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2017-02-14

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences.

  20. The Role of Oscillatory Phase in Determining the Temporal Organization of Perception: Evidence from Sensory Entrainment.

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Luca; Melcher, David

    2017-11-01

    Recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological studies have renewed the idea that the information processing within different temporal windows is linked to the phase and/or frequency of the ongoing oscillations, predominantly in the theta/alpha band (∼4-7 and 8-12 Hz, respectively). However, being correlational in nature, this evidence might reflect a nonfunctional byproduct rather than having a causal role. A more direct link can be shown with methods that manipulate oscillatory activity. Here, we used audiovisual entrainment at different frequencies in the prestimulus period of a temporal integration/segregation task. We hypothesized that entrainment would align ongoing oscillations and drive them toward the stimulation frequency. To reveal behavioral oscillations in temporal perception after the entrainment, we sampled the segregation/integration performance densely in time. In Experiment 1, two groups of human participants (both males and females) received stimulation either at the lower or the upper boundary of the alpha band (∼8.5 vs 11.5 Hz). For both entrainment frequencies, we found a phase alignment of the perceptual oscillation across subjects, but with two different power spectra that peaked near the entrainment frequency. These results were confirmed when perceptual oscillations were characterized in the time domain with sinusoidal fittings. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings in a within-subject design, extending the results for frequencies in the theta (∼6.5 Hz), but not in the beta (∼15 Hz), range. Overall, these findings show that temporal segregation can be modified by sensory entrainment, providing evidence for a critical role of ongoing oscillations in the temporal organization of perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The continuous flow of sensory input is not processed in an analog fashion, but rather is grouped by the perceptual system over time. Recent studies pinpointed the phase and/or frequency of the neural

  1. The Role of Oscillatory Phase in Determining the Temporal Organization of Perception: Evidence from Sensory Entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, David

    2017-01-01

    Recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological studies have renewed the idea that the information processing within different temporal windows is linked to the phase and/or frequency of the ongoing oscillations, predominantly in the theta/alpha band (∼4–7 and 8–12 Hz, respectively). However, being correlational in nature, this evidence might reflect a nonfunctional byproduct rather than having a causal role. A more direct link can be shown with methods that manipulate oscillatory activity. Here, we used audiovisual entrainment at different frequencies in the prestimulus period of a temporal integration/segregation task. We hypothesized that entrainment would align ongoing oscillations and drive them toward the stimulation frequency. To reveal behavioral oscillations in temporal perception after the entrainment, we sampled the segregation/integration performance densely in time. In Experiment 1, two groups of human participants (both males and females) received stimulation either at the lower or the upper boundary of the alpha band (∼8.5 vs 11.5 Hz). For both entrainment frequencies, we found a phase alignment of the perceptual oscillation across subjects, but with two different power spectra that peaked near the entrainment frequency. These results were confirmed when perceptual oscillations were characterized in the time domain with sinusoidal fittings. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings in a within-subject design, extending the results for frequencies in the theta (∼6.5 Hz), but not in the beta (∼15 Hz), range. Overall, these findings show that temporal segregation can be modified by sensory entrainment, providing evidence for a critical role of ongoing oscillations in the temporal organization of perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The continuous flow of sensory input is not processed in an analog fashion, but rather is grouped by the perceptual system over time. Recent studies pinpointed the phase and/or frequency of the neural

  2. A novel puborectalis muscle artificial anal sphincter system with the module of sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Guozheng; Jin, Wentian; Lu, Shan; Zhou, Zerun

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a novel puborectalis muscle artificial anal sphincter system (PM-AASS) with the module of sensory perception for treating severe faecal incontinence (FI). Due to the implantable feature of PM-AASS, this system applied low-power design and the total energy consumption could drop to 48.8 Ah/d. To reduce the injury of intestine and the pressure exerted on intestine, the actuator, including the structure of tings and the robot mechanism, of PM-AASS was presented and the middle ring was optimised. To realise the sensory perception, the intestinal flexible pressure sensors, comprising the radial sensors and the axial sensors, were designed. The sensors calibration showed the R-square of each fitting line were above 0.998, which presented a high goodness of fit and indicated we could figure out the pressure value with the analogue voltage captured by MCU. Through the in-vitro experiment, the results that the radial sensors were more relevant to the occlusion threshold while the axial sensors had more effect on the alarm threshold could be concluded. The practicability of the PM-AASS was verified by the results of the in-vivo experiment, which showed that the PM-AASS had the effect of improvement to the anorectal internal pressure.

  3. Sensory sensitivities and performance on sensory perceptual tasks in high-functioning individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive reports of sensory symptoms in autism, there is little empirical support for their neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical comparison participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and standardized neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two per cent of participants with autism endorsed more sensory sensitivity items than any of the participants in the comparison group. On the sensory perceptual exam, both groups made few errors on elementary sensory perception items. Controls made few errors on higher cortical sensory perception items, but 30% of the participants with autism made high numbers of errors, though there was no evidence of the neglect syndrome. There was little correlation between the sensory sensitivities and the sensory perceptual deficits, likely due to the low correspondence between the measures. These results support the common occurrence of disturbances in sensory experiences in high functioning individuals with autism based on first person report, and the presence of neurological abnormalities in higher cortical sensory perception. PMID:18302014

  4. Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: a possible role in sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Wallach, J V

    2009-01-01

    While the endogenous hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, have been acknowledged as naturally occurring components of the mammalian body for decades, their biological function remains as elusive now as it was at the time of their discovery. The recent discovery of the trace amine associated receptors and the activity of DMT and other hallucinogenic compounds at these receptor sites leads to the hypothesis that the endogenous hallucinogens act as neurotransmitters of a subclass of these trace amine receptors. Additionally, while activity at the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor has been proposed as being responsible for the hallucinogenic affects of administered hallucinogens, in their natural setting the 5-HT2A receptor may not interact with the endogenous hallucinogens at all. Additionally 5-HT2A agonist activity is unable to account for the visual altering effects of many of the administered hallucinogens; these effects may be mediated by one of the endogenous hallucinogen trace amine receptors rather than the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Therefore, activity at the trace amine receptors, in addition to serotonin receptors, may play a large role in the sensory altering effects of administered hallucinogens and the trace amine receptors along with their endogenous hallucinogen ligands may serve an endogenous role in mediating sensory perception in the mammalian central nervous system. Thus the theory proposed states that these compounds act as true endogenous hallucinogenic transmitters acting in regions of the central nervous system involved in sensory perception.

  5. Timescale- and Sensory Modality-Dependency of the Central Tendency of Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    When individuals are asked to reproduce intervals of stimuli that are intermixedly presented at various times, longer intervals are often underestimated and shorter intervals overestimated. This phenomenon may be attributed to the central tendency of time perception, and suggests that our brain optimally encodes a stimulus interval based on current stimulus input and prior knowledge of the distribution of stimulus intervals. Two distinct systems are thought to be recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second intervals. Sub-second timing is subject to local sensory processing, whereas supra-second timing depends on more centralized mechanisms. To clarify the factors that influence time perception, the present study investigated how both sensory modality and timescale affect the central tendency. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to reproduce sub- or supra-second intervals, defined by visual or auditory stimuli. In the sub-second range, the magnitude of the central tendency was significantly larger for visual intervals compared to auditory intervals, while visual and auditory intervals exhibited a correlated and comparable central tendency in the supra-second range. In Experiment 2, the ability to discriminate sub-second intervals in the reproduction task was controlled across modalities by using an interval discrimination task. Even when the ability to discriminate intervals was controlled, visual intervals exhibited a larger central tendency than auditory intervals in the sub-second range. In addition, the magnitude of the central tendency for visual and auditory sub-second intervals was significantly correlated. These results suggest that a common modality-independent mechanism is responsible for the supra-second central tendency, and that both the modality-dependent and modality-independent components of the timing system contribute to the central tendency in the sub-second range. PMID:27404269

  6. Timescale- and Sensory Modality-Dependency of the Central Tendency of Time Perception.

    PubMed

    Murai, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    When individuals are asked to reproduce intervals of stimuli that are intermixedly presented at various times, longer intervals are often underestimated and shorter intervals overestimated. This phenomenon may be attributed to the central tendency of time perception, and suggests that our brain optimally encodes a stimulus interval based on current stimulus input and prior knowledge of the distribution of stimulus intervals. Two distinct systems are thought to be recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second intervals. Sub-second timing is subject to local sensory processing, whereas supra-second timing depends on more centralized mechanisms. To clarify the factors that influence time perception, the present study investigated how both sensory modality and timescale affect the central tendency. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to reproduce sub- or supra-second intervals, defined by visual or auditory stimuli. In the sub-second range, the magnitude of the central tendency was significantly larger for visual intervals compared to auditory intervals, while visual and auditory intervals exhibited a correlated and comparable central tendency in the supra-second range. In Experiment 2, the ability to discriminate sub-second intervals in the reproduction task was controlled across modalities by using an interval discrimination task. Even when the ability to discriminate intervals was controlled, visual intervals exhibited a larger central tendency than auditory intervals in the sub-second range. In addition, the magnitude of the central tendency for visual and auditory sub-second intervals was significantly correlated. These results suggest that a common modality-independent mechanism is responsible for the supra-second central tendency, and that both the modality-dependent and modality-independent components of the timing system contribute to the central tendency in the sub-second range.

  7. Sugar reduction in fruit nectars: Impact on consumers' sensory and hedonic perception.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denize; Galhardo, Juliana; Ares, Gastón; Cunha, Luís M; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-05-01

    Sugar sweetened beverages are one of the main sources of added sugar in the diet. Therefore, sugar reduction in these products could contribute to the prevention of various negative health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the present work aimed to study consumer sensory and hedonic perception towards sugar reduction in fruit nectars. Five sequential difference thresholds for added sugar in three fruit nectars (passion fruit, orange/passion fruit and orange/pomegranate) were determined based on consumer perception. In each test, difference thresholds were estimated using survival analysis based on the responses of 50 consumers to six paired-comparison tests. Each pair was composed of two samples, a control nectar and a sample that was reduced in added sugar from the control. Consumers were asked to try each of the samples in each pair and to indicate which was sweeter. Then, consumers' sensory and hedonic perception of nectar samples was evaluated for each nectar using a 9-point hedonic scale and a check-all-that-apply question. Difference thresholds were estimated in 4.20%-8.14% of the added sugar concentration of the nectars. No significant differences in overall liking were detected for fruit nectars with 20% sugar reduction. However, large heterogeneity in consumer hedonic reaction towards sugar reduction was found, which should be taken into account in the design of sugar reduction programs. Consumer hedonic reaction towards sugar reduction was product dependent. Results from the present work reinforce the idea that gradual sugar reduction in sugar sweetened beverages is a feasible strategy that could contribute to reduce the sugar intake of the population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory perception in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus: a model organism for space research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrochano, Luis M.

    2016-07-01

    Fungi use signals from the environment to regulate growth, development, and metabolism. The growth of the fruiting bodies, sporangiophores, of Phycomyces blakesleeanus is governed by several environmental signals, including light, gravity, touch, wind, and the presence of nearby objects. These signals allow sporangiophore growth towards open air for efficient spore dispersal. The sporangiophores of Phycomyces are giant isolated cells that can reach several cm in length. The large size of the sporangiophores facilitates genetic screens for tropic mutants, and the sexual cycle allows the genetic analysis of tropic mutations. The availability of the Phycomyces genome sequence and a collection of SNPs allow gene identification by genome mapping and gene sequencing. In addition, the size of the sporangiophore facilitates physiological analysis of tropic growth using computerized tracking devices. These experimental approaches will help to understand the mechanisms of sensory perception and how cell growth is regulated by environmental signals. The perception of light by Phycomyces has been investigated in most detail. Most fungi use proteins similar to WC-1 and WC-2 from Neurospora crassa for sensing blue light. In N. crassa and other fungi these two proteins form a photoreceptor and transcription factor complex that binds to the promoters of light-regulated genes to activate transcription. Phycomyces have multiple wc genes and two of them encode a photoreceptor complex composed of MadA and MadB that is required for all responses to light. The tropic response to gravity is much slower than to light, and require the presence of floating lipid globules and protein crystals that may be part of the gravity sensory system. Light and gravity interact to modify the direction of growth of the sporangiophore but the mechanisms that allow the coordination of a single response to different environmental signals remain to be defined. The giant sporangiophore of Phycomyces is an

  9. Motor cortex rTMS in chronic neuropathic pain: pain relief is associated with thermal sensory perception improvement.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, J-P; Drouot, X; Ménard-Lefaucheur, I; Keravel, Y; Nguyen, J-P

    2008-09-01

    Improvement in sensory detection thresholds was found to be associated with neuropathic pain relief produced by epidural motor cortex stimulation with surgically implanted electrodes. To determine the ability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex to produce similar sensory changes. In 46 patients with chronic neuropathic pain of various origins, first-perception thresholds for thermal (cold, warm) and mechanical (vibration, pressure) sensations were quantified in the painful zone and in the painless homologue contralateral territory, before and after rTMS of the motor cortex corresponding to the painful side. Ongoing pain level was also scored before and after rTMS. Three types of rTMS session, performed at 1 Hz or 10 Hz using an active coil, or at 10 Hz using a sham coil, were compared. The relationships between rTMS-induced changes in sensory thresholds and in pain scores were studied. Subthreshold rTMS applied at 10 Hz significantly lowered pain scores and thermal sensory thresholds in the painful zone but did not lower mechanical sensory thresholds. Pain relief correlated with post-rTMS improvement of warm sensory thresholds in the painful zone. Thermal sensory relays are potentially dysfunctioning in chronic neuropathic pain secondary to sensitisation or deafferentation-induced disinhibition. By acting on these structures, motor cortex stimulation could relieve pain and concomitantly improve innocuous thermal sensory discrimination.

  10. Role of pulp in flavor release and sensory perception in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Rega, Barbara; Fournier, Nicole; Nicklaus, Sophie; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-06-30

    This work elucidates the role of suspended solids in sensorial perception and flavor release in orange juice. The coarsest pulp (insoluble particles with a diameter of >2 microm) accounted for two major physicochemical effects in orange juice samples: it retained large amounts of aroma compounds, including terpenes and aldehydes, and modified the rheological properties of the juice matrix. These phenomena strongly affected the chemical composition of the vapor phase in the juice samples. On the other hand, orange juice cloud (finest insoluble particles with a diameter of <2 microm) also showed a strong retention effect on ethyl butanoate or hexanal, probably due to the occurrence of molecular interactions with cloud macromolecules. The amount and the size of the suspended solids critically modified not only the texture perception but also the odor and the overall flavor perception, including the "freshly squeezed" and the "artificial flavor" descriptors. The addition of a natural pulp to low-pulp juices increases the fresh orange juice character, a finding that is explained by both physicochemical (fresh pulp contains high amounts of key aroma compounds, including acetaldehyde and mono- and sesquiterpenes) and cognitive effects, mainly due to the tactile properties of the pulp.

  11. Research Forum on Changes in Sensory Perception in Middle-Aged Adults: A Summary of a Special Session at Hearing Across the Lifespan (HEAL) 2014.

    PubMed

    Humes, Larry E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the special research forum on sensory-processing changes in middle-aged adults. This is a brief written introduction to the special session, which included five presentations, each emphasizing a slightly different aspect of sensory perception. The effects of aging on sensory processing, including auditory processing and speech perception, are not confined to older adults but begin in middle age in many cases.

  12. Sensory neuron-specific sodium channel SNS is abnormally expressed in the brains of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and humans with multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Joel A.; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman; Baker, David; Newcombe, Jia; Cuzner, M. Louise; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2000-10-01

    Clinical abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) have classically been considered to be caused by demyelination and/or axonal degeneration; the possibility of molecular changes in neurons, such as the deployment of abnormal repertoires of ion channels that would alter neuronal electrogenic properties, has not been considered. Sensory Neuron-Specific sodium channel SNS displays a depolarized voltage dependence, slower activation and inactivation kinetics, and more rapid recovery from inactivation than classical "fast" sodium channels. SNS is selectively expressed in spinal sensory and trigeminal ganglion neurons within the peripheral nervous system and is not expressed within the normal brain. Here we show that sodium channel SNS mRNA and protein, which are not present within the cerebellum of control mice, are expressed within cerebellar Purkinje cells in a mouse model of MS, chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. We also demonstrate SNS mRNA and protein expression within Purkinje cells from tissue obtained postmortem from patients with MS, but not in control subjects with no neurological disease. These results demonstrate a change in sodium channel expression in neurons within the brain in an animal model of MS and in humans with MS and suggest that abnormal patterns of neuronal ion channel expression may contribute to clinical abnormalities such as ataxia in these disorders.

  13. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripheral optogenetic stimulation induces whisker movement and sensory perception in head-fixed mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmee; Bandi, Akhil; Lee, Christian R; Margolis, David J

    2016-06-08

    We discovered that optical stimulation of the mystacial pad in Emx1-Cre;Ai27D transgenic mice induces whisker movements due to activation of ChR2 expressed in muscles controlling retraction and protraction. Using high-speed videography in anesthetized mice, we characterize the amplitude of whisker protractions evoked by varying the intensity, duration, and frequency of optogenetic stimulation. Recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized mice indicated that optogenetic whisker pad stimulation evokes robust yet longer latency responses than mechanical whisker stimulation. In head-fixed mice trained to report optogenetic whisker pad stimulation, psychometric curves showed similar dependence on stimulus duration as evoked whisker movements and S1 activity. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of S1 in expert mice was sufficient to substitute for peripheral stimulation. We conclude that whisker protractions evoked by optogenetic activation of whisker pad muscles results in cortical activity and sensory perception, consistent with the coding of evoked whisker movements by reafferent sensory input.

  15. Peripheral optogenetic stimulation induces whisker movement and sensory perception in head-fixed mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmee; Bandi, Akhil; Lee, Christian R; Margolis, David J

    2016-01-01

    We discovered that optical stimulation of the mystacial pad in Emx1-Cre;Ai27D transgenic mice induces whisker movements due to activation of ChR2 expressed in muscles controlling retraction and protraction. Using high-speed videography in anesthetized mice, we characterize the amplitude of whisker protractions evoked by varying the intensity, duration, and frequency of optogenetic stimulation. Recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized mice indicated that optogenetic whisker pad stimulation evokes robust yet longer latency responses than mechanical whisker stimulation. In head-fixed mice trained to report optogenetic whisker pad stimulation, psychometric curves showed similar dependence on stimulus duration as evoked whisker movements and S1 activity. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of S1 in expert mice was sufficient to substitute for peripheral stimulation. We conclude that whisker protractions evoked by optogenetic activation of whisker pad muscles results in cortical activity and sensory perception, consistent with the coding of evoked whisker movements by reafferent sensory input. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14140.001 PMID:27269285

  16. Listening to music can influence hedonic and sensory perceptions of gelati.

    PubMed

    Kantono, Kevin; Hamid, Nazimah; Shepherd, Daniel; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Grazioli, Gianpaolo; Carr, B Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The dominant taste sensations of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate) were determined using forty five trained panellists exposed to a silent reference condition and three music samples differing in hedonic ratings. The temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method was used to measure temporal taste perceptions. The emotional states of panellists were measured after each gelati-music pairing using a scale specifically developed for this study. The TDS difference curves showed significant differences between gelati samples and music conditions (p < 0.05). Sweetness was perceived more dominant when neutral and liked music were played, while bitterness was more dominant for disliked music. A joint Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) further explained the variability in sensory and emotion data. The first and second dimensions explained 78% of the variance, with the first dimension separating liked and disliked music and the second dimension separating liked music and silence. Gelati samples consumed while listening to liked and neutral music had positive scores, and were separated from those consumed under the disliked music condition along the first dimension. Liked music and disliked music were further correlated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Findings indicate that listening to music influenced the hedonic and sensory impressions of the gelati. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  18. The Role of Sensory Perception, Emotionality and "Lifeworld" in Auditory Word Processing: Evidence from Congenital Blindness and Synesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Judith; Domahs, Frank; Kauschke, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the…

  19. Changes in sensory perception of sports drinks when consumed pre, during and post exercise.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ajmol; Duizer, Lisa; Foster, Kylie; Grigor, John; Wei, Wenqi

    2011-03-28

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory perceptions towards different formulations of sports drinks when consumed before, at various points during, and following exercise. Following familiarization 14 recreational runners underwent four trials in a single blind counterbalanced design. Each trial utilised one of four different solutions: 7.5% carbohydrate, 421 mg L(-1) electrolyte (HiC-HiE); 7.5% carbohydrate, 140 mg L(-1) electrolyte (HiC-LoE); 1.3% carbohydrate, 421 mg L(-1) electrolyte (LoC-HiE) and water. Subjects were provided with 50-ml samples to ingest and then rate (using a 100-mm line scale) the intensity of sweetness, saltiness, thirst-quenching ability and overall liking before (-30 min), during (0, 30 and 60 min) and following (90 and 120 min) treadmill running exercise. Ratings of sweetness for all energy-containing drinks were higher during exercise relative to pre- and post-exercise conditions (P<0.05); ratings also increased with duration of exercise (P<0.001). Sweetness ratings for LoC-HiE increased during exercise (P<0.05) but remained the same for other beverages. Ratings of saltiness decreased for all energy-containing drinks during exercise relative to pre-exercise (P<0.05); ratings decreased with duration of exercise in these drinks (P<0.05). Ratings of thirst-quenching ability (P=0.039) and overall liking (P=0.013) increased with duration of exercise with all beverages. Significant changes in sensory perception occur when consuming sports drinks during exercise relative to non-exercise conditions. Temporal changes also occur during exercise itself which leads to enhanced liking of all beverages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality: are health professionals' perceptions of women's coping congruent with women's accounts?

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Breeze, Andrew C G; Fox, Pauline

    2017-02-08

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) may have profound psychological consequences for those involved. Evidence suggests that women's experience of care influences their psychological adjustment to TFA and that they greatly value compassionate healthcare. Caring for women in these circumstances presents challenges for health professionals, which may relate to their understanding of women's experience. This qualitative study examined health professionals' perceptions of women's coping with TFA and assessed to what extent these perceptions are congruent with women's accounts. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were carried out with health professionals in three hospitals in England. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and compared with women's accounts of their own coping processes to identify similarities and differences. Health professionals' perceptions of women's coping processes were congruent with women's accounts in identifying the roles of support, acceptance, problem-solving, avoidance, another pregnancy and meaning attribution as key coping strategies. Health professionals regarded coping with TFA as a unique grieving process and were cognisant of women's idiosyncrasies in coping. They also considered their role as information providers as essential in helping women cope with TFA. The findings also indicate that health professionals lacked insight into women's long-term coping processes and the potential for positive growth following TFA, which is consistent with a lack of aftercare following TFA reported by women. Health professionals' perceptions of women's coping with TFA closely matched women's accounts, suggesting a high level of understanding. However, the lack of insight into women's long-term coping processes has important clinical implications, as research suggests that coping with TFA is a long-term process and that the provision of aftercare is beneficial to women. Together, these findings call for further research into the

  1. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Consumer perception, facts and possibilities to improve acceptability of health and sensory characteristics of pork.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, W; Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Viaene, J; Boucqué, C V

    1999-10-01

    Changes at consumer level, as well as an image decline of the meat sector, resulted in considerable decreases of fresh meat consumption. Consumer orientation is considered as a prerequisite to slow down or reverse the adverse fresh pork consumption evolution. Consumer perception of pork is taken as the starting point of this article. Focus is first on assessing differences between facts related to nutritional value and healthiness aspects of pork and their perception by Belgian meat consumers. Second, possibilities of improving pork characteristics are identified. Pork is perceived worst as compared to beef and poultry on the attributes leanness, healthiness, taste and tenderness. Consumer-oriented response strategies should focus at improving these intrinsic quality characteristics, before other elements like traceability, labelling or marketing can be implemented successfully. The possibilities to improve nutritional value, healthiness and sensory characteristics pertain to selection, pig diet composition, transport, slaughter and post-slaughter circumstances. A successful adoption of consumer orientation urges for co-operation throughout the entire pork production chain. The identified topics are key attention points for adequate production and marketing by the pork sector, as well as for consequent communication by government and public services.

  3. Serotonin selectively enhances perception and sensory neural responses to stimuli generated by same-sex conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Deemyad, Tara; Metzen, Michael G.; Pan, Yingzhou; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Centrifugal serotonergic fibers innervating sensory brain areas are seen ubiquitously across systems and species but their function remains unclear. Here we examined the functional role of serotonergic innervation onto electrosensory neurons in weakly electric fish by eliciting endogenous release through electrical stimulation as well as exogenous focal application of serotonin in the vicinity of the cell being recorded from. Both approaches showed that the function of serotonergic input onto electrosensory pyramidal neurons is to render them more excitable by reducing the spike afterhyperpolarization amplitude and thereby promoting burst firing. Further, serotonergic input selectively improved neuronal responses to stimuli that occur during interactions between same-sex conspecifics but not to stimuli associated with either prey or that occur during interactions between opposite-sex conspecifics. Finally, we tested whether serotonin-mediated enhanced pyramidal neuron responses to stimuli associated with same-sex conspecifics actually increase perception by the animal. Our behavioral experiments show that exogenous injection and endogenous release of serotonin both increase the magnitude of behavioral responses to stimuli associated with same-sex conspecifics as well as simultaneously decrease aggressive behaviors. Thus, our data indicate that the serotonergic system inhibits aggressive behavior toward same-sex conspecifics, while at the same time increasing perception of stimuli associated with these individuals. This function is likely to be conserved across systems and species. PMID:24218585

  4. A review of abnormalities in the perception of visual illusions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel J; Hodgekins, Joanne; Chouinard, Philippe A; Chouinard, Virginie-Anne; Sperandio, Irene

    2017-06-01

    Specific abnormalities of vision in schizophrenia have been observed to affect high-level and some low-level integration mechanisms, suggesting that people with schizophrenia may experience anomalies across different stages in the visual system affecting either early or late processing or both. Here, we review the research into visual illusion perception in schizophrenia and the issues which previous research has faced. One general finding that emerged from the literature is that those with schizophrenia are mostly immune to the effects of high-level illusory displays, but this effect is not consistent across all low-level illusions. The present review suggests that this resistance is due to the weakening of top-down perceptual mechanisms and may be relevant to the understanding of symptoms of visual distortion rather than hallucinations as previously thought.

  5. Caramel as a Model System for Evaluating the Roles of Mechanical Properties and Oral Processing on Sensory Perception of Texture.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Ty B; Luck, Paige J; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation can have a significant impact on texture perception during oral processing. We hypothesized that slight modifications to caramel formulations would significantly alter mechanical and masticatory parameters, which can be used to explain differences in texture perception. A multidisciplinary approach was applied by evaluating relationships among mechanical properties, sensory texture, and oral processing. Caramels were utilized as a highly adhesive and cohesive model system and the formulation was adjusted to generate distinct differences in sensory hardness and adhesiveness. Descriptive analysis was used to determine sensory texture, and mechanical properties were evaluated by oscillatory rheology, creep recovery, and pressure sensitive tack measurements. Oral processing was measured by determining activity of anterior temporalis and masseter muscles via electromyography and tracking jaw movement during chewing. The substitution of agar or gelatin for corn syrup at 0.6% w/w of the total formulation resulted in increased sensory hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Creep recovery and pressure sensitive tack testing were more effective at differentiating among treatments than oscillatory rheology. Hardness correlated inversely with creep compliance, and both stickiness and tooth adhesiveness correlated with pressure sensitive adhesive force. Harder samples, despite being less adhesive, were associated with increased muscle activity and jaw movement during mastication. Tooth packing, not linked with any mechanical property, correlated with altered jaw movement. The combination of material properties and oral processing parameters were able to explain all sensory texture differences in a highly adhesive food. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Biomimetic MEMS to assist, enhance, and expand human sensory perceptions: a survey on state-of-the-art developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarczuk, Teresa; Matin, Tina R.; Karman, Salmah B.; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Davaji, Benyamin; Macqueen, Mark O.; Mueller, Jeanette; Schmid, Ulrich; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2011-06-01

    The human senses are of extraordinary value but we cannot change them even if this proves to be a disadvantage in modern times. However, we can assist, enhance and expand these senses via MEMS. Current MEMS cover the range of the human sensory system, and additionally provide data about signals that are too weak for the human sensory system (in terms of signal strength) and signal types that are not covered by the human sensory system. Biomimetics deals with knowledge transfer from biology to technology. In our interdisciplinary approach existing MEMS sensor designs shall be modified and adapted (to keep costs at bay), via biomimetic knowledge transfer of outstanding sensory perception in 'best practice' organisms (e.g. thermoreception, UV sensing, electromagnetic sense). The MEMS shall then be linked to the human body (mainly ex corpore to avoid ethics conflicts), to assist, enhance and expand human sensory perception. This paper gives an overview of senses in humans and animals, respective MEMS sensors that are already on the market and gives a list of possible applications of such devices including sensors that vibrate when a blind person approaches a kerb stone edge and devices that allow divers better orientation under water (echolocation, ultrasound).

  7. Intact perception but abnormal orientation towards face-like objects in young children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Quentin; Rogé, Bernadette; Afzali, Mohammad H.; Baduel, Sophie; Kruck, Jeanne; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-01-01

    There is ample behavioral evidence of diminished orientation towards faces as well as the presence of face perception impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms of these deficits are still unclear. We used face-like object stimuli that have been shown to evoke pareidolia in typically developing (TD) individuals to test the effect of a global face-like configuration on orientation and perceptual processes in young children with ASD and age-matched TD controls. We show that TD children were more likely to look first towards upright face-like objects than children with ASD, showing that a global face-like configuration elicit a stronger orientation bias in TD children as compared to children with ASD. However, once they were looking at the stimuli, both groups spent more time exploring the upright face-like object, suggesting that they both perceived it as a face. Our results are in agreement with abnormal social orienting in ASD, possibly due to an abnormal tuning of the subcortical pathway, leading to poor orienting and attention towards faces. Our results also indicate that young children with ASD can perceive a generic face holistically, such as face-like objects, further demonstrating holistic processing of faces in ASD. PMID:26912096

  8. Milling overrides cultivar, leavening agent and baking mode on chemical and rheological traits and sensory perception of durum wheat breads.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Saia, Sergio; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Giovanniello, Valentina; De Vita, Pasquale

    2017-10-19

    Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards sensory acceptability of breads: genotypes (landrace vs. modern); types of flour (wholemeal vs. semolina); leavening agents (brewing yeast vs. sourdough starter); and baking modes (gas-fired vs. wood-fired). Milling had the greatest impact over the other treatments for the rheological and chemical properties, including for VOCs, with great impact on the sensory traits of the flours and breads. The processing phases had great impact on smell and aroma, as defined through formation of alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, and other compounds (e.g., ethylbenzene, 2-pentylfuran, methoxyphenyl oxime). Leavening agent had great impact on sensory perception, although breads from the sourdough starter were perceived as with lower taste and colour than the brewing yeast. Baking mode had no relevant role on sensory perception. These data strongly undermine the belief of a 'better product' that is frequently attributed to old genotypes versus modern cultivars, and indicate that the milling and the bread-making processes determine the quality of the end product.

  9. Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Frank; Keyser, Johannes; Goeke, Caspar; Krause, Carina; Wache, Susan; Lytochkin, Aleksey; Ebert, Manuel; Brunsch, Vincent; Wahn, Basil; Kaspar, Kai; Nagel, Saskia K.; Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich; Wolbers, Thomas; Büchel, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception. In the present study, we spell out this hypothesis in detail and investigate whether it is possible to learn new sensorimotor contingencies by sensory augmentation. Specifically, we designed an fMRI compatible sensory augmentation device, the feelSpace belt, which gives orientation information about the direction of magnetic north via vibrotactile stimulation on the waist of participants. In a longitudinal study, participants trained with this belt for seven weeks in natural environment. Our EEG results indicate that training with the belt leads to changes in sleep architecture early in the training phase, compatible with the consolidation of procedural learning as well as increased sensorimotor processing and motor programming. The fMRI results suggest that training entails activity in sensory as well as higher motor centers and brain areas known to be involved in navigation. These neural changes are accompanied with changes in how space and the belt signal are perceived, as well as with increased trust in navigational ability. Thus, our data on physiological processes and subjective experiences are compatible with the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be acquired using sensory augmentation. PMID:27959914

  10. Association between the number of fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue and sensory taste perception in children.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Hannah; Ahrens, Wohlfgang; Buchecker, Kirsten; Russo, Paola; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Background : To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective : Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design : Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study. Among those 56 children performed a taste threshold test for bitter and taste preference tests for sweet, salty, fatty and umami. The association between the number of FP and sensory taste perception was analysed. Results : There is a tendency towards a lower number of FP in children with a higher fat preference (30 vs. 25 papillae, p=0.06). Results show no association between the number of FP and neither the bitter taste thresholds nor taste preferences for sweet, salty and umami. Conclusion : Bitter taste threshold might be independent of the number of FP, while the perception of fat was associated with the number of FP.

  11. Pain-related anxiety influences pain perception differently in men and women: a quantitative sensory test across thermal pain modalities.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Welch, Patrick G; Katz, Joel; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2013-03-01

    The sexes differ with respect to perception of experimental pain. Anxiety influences pain perception more in men than in women; however, there lacks research exploring which anxiety constructs influence pain perception differentially between men and women. Furthermore, research examining whether depression is associated with pain perception differently between the sexes remains scant. The present investigation was designed to examine how trait anxiety, pain-related anxiety constructs (ie, fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity), and depression are associated with pain perception between the sexes. A total of 95 nonclinical participants (55% women) completed measures assessing the constructs of interest and participated in quantitative sensory testing using heat and cold stimuli administered by a Medoc Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System. The findings suggest that pain-related anxiety constructs, but not trait anxiety, are associated with pain perception. Furthermore, these constructs are associated with pain intensity ratings in men and pain tolerance levels in women. This contrasts with previous research suggesting that anxiety influences pain perception mostly or uniquely in men. Depression was not systematically associated with pain perception in either sex. Systematic relationships were not identified that allow conclusions regarding how fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity may contribute to pain perception differentially in men and women; however, anxiety sensitivity was associated with increased pain tolerance, a novel finding needing further examination. The results provide directions for future research and clinical endeavors and support that fear and anxiety are important features associated with hyperalgesia in both men and women. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of facial abnormalities and their spatial position on perception of cuteness and attractiveness of infant faces

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer; Roberson, Debi

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that how “cute” an infant is perceived to be has consequences for caregiving. Infants with facial abnormalities receive lower ratings of cuteness, but relatively little is known about how different abnormalities and their location affect these aesthetic judgements. The objective of the current study was to compare the impact of different abnormalities on the perception of infant faces, while controlling for infant identity. In two experiments, adult participants gave ratings of cuteness and attractiveness in response to face images that had been edited to introduce common facial abnormalities. Stimulus faces displayed either a haemangioma (a small, benign birth mark), strabismus (an abnormal alignment of the eyes) or a cleft lip (an abnormal opening in the upper lip). In Experiment 1, haemangioma had less of a detrimental effect on ratings than the more severe abnormalities. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the position of a haemangioma on the face. We found small but robust effects of this position, with abnormalities in the top and on the left of the face receiving lower cuteness ratings. This is consistent with previous research showing that people attend more to the top of the face (particularly the eyes) and to the left hemifield. PMID:28749958

  13. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bayesian and “Anti-Bayesian” Biases in Sensory Integration for Action and Perception in the Size–Weight Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Brayanov, Jordan B.

    2010-01-01

    Which is heavier: a pound of lead or a pound of feathers? This classic trick question belies a simple but surprising truth: when lifted, the pound of lead feels heavier—a phenomenon known as the size–weight illusion. To estimate the weight of an object, our CNS combines two imperfect sources of information: a prior expectation, based on the object's appearance, and direct sensory information from lifting it. Bayes' theorem (or Bayes' law) defines the statistically optimal way to combine multiple information sources for maximally accurate estimation. Here we asked whether the mechanisms for combining these information sources produce statistically optimal weight estimates for both perceptions and actions. We first studied the ability of subjects to hold one hand steady when the other removed an object from it, under conditions in which sensory information about the object's weight sometimes conflicted with prior expectations based on its size. Since the ability to steady the supporting hand depends on the generation of a motor command that accounts for lift timing and object weight, hand motion can be used to gauge biases in weight estimation by the motor system. We found that these motor system weight estimates reflected the integration of prior expectations with real-time proprioceptive information in a Bayesian, statistically optimal fashion that discounted unexpected sensory information. This produces a motor size–weight illusion that consistently biases weight estimates toward prior expectations. In contrast, when subjects compared the weights of two objects, their perceptions defied Bayes' law, exaggerating the value of unexpected sensory information. This produces a perceptual size–weight illusion that biases weight perceptions away from prior expectations. We term this effect “anti-Bayesian” because the bias is opposite that seen in Bayesian integration. Our findings suggest that two fundamentally different strategies for the integration of prior

  15. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p < .001) and 250 Hz ( p = .002), respectively, were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. This study suggests that patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures may experience hypoesthesia in the injured leg, which contrasts with the finding of hyperesthesia previously observed in other chronic pain conditions but is in accord with patients with nerve injuries and surgeries. This is the first study to examine peripheral sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  16. Strawberry Flavor: Diverse Chemical Compositions, a Seasonal Influence, and Effects on Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Schwieterman, Michael L.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Jaworski, Elizabeth A.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Gilbert, Jessica L.; Tieman, Denise M.; Odabasi, Asli Z.; Moskowitz, Howard R.; Folta, Kevin M.; Klee, Harry J.; Sims, Charles A.; Whitaker, Vance M.; Clark, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products. PMID:24523895

  17. Variability of pudendal and median nerve sensory perception thresholds in healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Normative current perception thresholds (CPTs) are used for the evaluation of sensory function in a variety of diseases. To evaluate the reproducibility of CPT measurements with sinusoidal current in healthy volunteers. Neuroselective CPT evaluations of the median and pudendal nerve in healthy volunteers were repeated with 1 week interval (T1 and T2). In the study group (N = 41) no difference between genders for age (MW-U: P = 0.91) and BMI (t-test: P = 0.18) were found. No significant difference between T1 and T2 was found (Paired t-test: all P-values > 0.05), although the intraclass correlation for each person was low. The variability of measures for the pudendal nerve was: ICC 2 kHz: 0.41; 250 Hz: 0.30; 5 Hz: 0.38, and for the median nerve respectively: 0.58; 0.46; 0.40. Normal CPTs were shown for the pudendal nerve: 2 kHz: 51%; 250 Hz: 76%; 5 Hz: 71%, and median nerve respectively: 78%; 98%; 80%. The pudendal nerve showed more deviating values compared to the median nerve. Both nerves showed deviating values. CPT values with sinusoidal current assessed with 1 week interval, showed a weak intraclass correlation. This finding limits the use of CPT values with this current for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genetic Variation of an Odorant Receptor OR7D4 and Sensory Perception of Cooked Meat Containing Androstenone

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Kathrine; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Skuterud, Ellen; Mainland, Joel D.; Lea, Tor; Hersleth, Margrethe; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Although odour perception impacts food preferences, the effect of genotypic variation of odorant receptors (ORs) on the sensory perception of food is unclear. Human OR7D4 responds to androstenone, and genotypic variation in OR7D4 predicts variation in the perception of androstenone. Since androstenone is naturally present in meat derived from male pigs, we asked whether OR7D4 genotype correlates with either the ability to detect androstenone or the evaluation of cooked pork tainted with varying levels of androstenone within the naturally-occurring range. Consistent with previous findings, subjects with two copies of the functional OR7D4 RT variant were more sensitive to androstenone than subjects carrying a non-functional OR7D4 WM variant. When pork containing varying levels of androstenone was cooked and tested by sniffing and tasting, subjects with two copies of the RT variant tended to rate the androstenone-containing meat as less favourable than subjects carrying the WM variant. Our data is consistent with the idea that OR7D4 genotype predicts the sensory perception of meat containing androstenone and that genetic variation in an odorant receptor can alter food preferences. PMID:22567099

  19. Smokers’ sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a ‘light/low tar’ cigarette and perceptions of harm

    PubMed Central

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Quah, Anne C K; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The sensory belief that ‘light/low tar’ cigarettes are smoother can also influence the belief that ‘light/low tar’ cigarettes are less harmful. However, the ‘light’ concept is one of several factors influencing beliefs. No studies have examined the impact of the sensory belief about one’s own brand of cigarettes on perceptions of harm. Objective The current study examines whether a smoker’s sensory belief that their brand is smoother is associated with the belief that their brand is less harmful and whether sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a ‘light/low tar’ cigarette and relative perceptions of harm among smokers in China. Methods Data are from 5209 smokers who were recruited using a stratified multistage sampling design and participated in wave 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers and non-smokers in seven cities. Results Smokers who agreed that their brand of cigarettes was smoother were significantly more likely to say that their brand of cigarettes was less harmful (p<0.001, OR=6.86, 95% CI 5.64 to 8.33). Mediational analyses using the bootstrapping procedure indicated that both the direct effect of ‘light/low tar’ cigarette smokers on the belief that their cigarettes are less harmful (b=0.24, bootstrapped bias corrected 95% CI 0.13 to 0.34, p<0.001) and the indirect effect via their belief that their cigarettes are smoother were significant (b=0.32, bootstrapped bias-corrected 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37, p<0.001), suggesting that the mediation was partial. Conclusions These results demonstrate the importance of implementing tobacco control policies that address the impact that cigarette design and marketing can have in capitalising on the smoker’s natural associations between smoother sensations and lowered perceptions of harm. PMID:25370698

  20. Perception of Graphical Virtual Environments by Blind Users via Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Buchs, Galit; Abboud, Sami; Lavi-Rotbain, Ori; Amedi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Graphical virtual environments are currently far from accessible to blind users as their content is mostly visual. This is especially unfortunate as these environments hold great potential for this population for purposes such as safe orientation, education, and entertainment. Previous tools have increased accessibility but there is still a long way to go. Visual-to-audio Sensory-Substitution-Devices (SSDs) can increase accessibility generically by sonifying on-screen content regardless of the specific environment and offer increased accessibility without the use of expensive dedicated peripherals like electrode/vibrator arrays. Using SSDs virtually utilizes similar skills as when using them in the real world, enabling both training on the device and training on environments virtually before real-world visits. This could enable more complex, standardized and autonomous SSD training and new insights into multisensory interaction and the visually-deprived brain. However, whether congenitally blind users, who have never experienced virtual environments, will be able to use this information for successful perception and interaction within them is currently unclear.We tested this using the EyeMusic SSD, which conveys whole-scene visual information, to perform virtual tasks otherwise impossible without vision. Congenitally blind users had to navigate virtual environments and find doors, differentiate between them based on their features (Experiment1:task1) and surroundings (Experiment1:task2) and walk through them; these tasks were accomplished with a 95% and 97% success rate, respectively. We further explored the reactions of congenitally blind users during their first interaction with a more complex virtual environment than in the previous tasks–walking down a virtual street, recognizing different features of houses and trees, navigating to cross-walks, etc. Users reacted enthusiastically and reported feeling immersed within the environment. They highlighted the

  1. Perception of Graphical Virtual Environments by Blind Users via Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Buchs, Galit; Abboud, Sami; Lavi-Rotbain, Ori; Amedi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Graphical virtual environments are currently far from accessible to blind users as their content is mostly visual. This is especially unfortunate as these environments hold great potential for this population for purposes such as safe orientation, education, and entertainment. Previous tools have increased accessibility but there is still a long way to go. Visual-to-audio Sensory-Substitution-Devices (SSDs) can increase accessibility generically by sonifying on-screen content regardless of the specific environment and offer increased accessibility without the use of expensive dedicated peripherals like electrode/vibrator arrays. Using SSDs virtually utilizes similar skills as when using them in the real world, enabling both training on the device and training on environments virtually before real-world visits. This could enable more complex, standardized and autonomous SSD training and new insights into multisensory interaction and the visually-deprived brain. However, whether congenitally blind users, who have never experienced virtual environments, will be able to use this information for successful perception and interaction within them is currently unclear.We tested this using the EyeMusic SSD, which conveys whole-scene visual information, to perform virtual tasks otherwise impossible without vision. Congenitally blind users had to navigate virtual environments and find doors, differentiate between them based on their features (Experiment1:task1) and surroundings (Experiment1:task2) and walk through them; these tasks were accomplished with a 95% and 97% success rate, respectively. We further explored the reactions of congenitally blind users during their first interaction with a more complex virtual environment than in the previous tasks-walking down a virtual street, recognizing different features of houses and trees, navigating to cross-walks, etc. Users reacted enthusiastically and reported feeling immersed within the environment. They highlighted the

  2. A comparative study of aroma-active compounds between dark and milk chocolate: relationship to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbin; Liu, Mengya; He, Congcong; Song, Huanlu; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ye; Yang, Haiying; Su, Xiaoxia

    2015-04-01

    The most important aroma-active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. A total of 32 major aroma-active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27-729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur-containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma-active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effects of foot and ankle devices on balance, gait and falls in adults with sensory perception loss: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Joanne; Hatton, Anna L.; Rome, Keith; Kent, Bridie

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. Objectives The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. Inclusion criteria Types of participants Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest The current review evaluated any foot or ankle device, including but not restricted to, all types of footwear (therapeutic and retail), insoles (customized and prefabricated) and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). Types of studies In the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT), the review considered experimental and epidemiological study designs, except case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies. Outcomes The primary outcome was number of falls. Secondary outcome measures were clinical or laboratory measures of balance or gait. Search strategy A search for published and unpublished literature from inception to March 2015 written in the English language was conducted across a number of major electronic databases. A three-step search strategy was developed using MeSH terminology and keywords to ensure all that relevant materials are captured. Methodological quality Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two reviewers, who appraised each study independently, using standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. Data extraction Quantitative data were extracted from the studies that were identified as meeting the criteria for methodological quality using the standardized JBI data extraction tools. Data synthesis Due to the heterogeneity of

  4. Effects of foot and ankle devices on balance, gait and falls in adults with sensory perception loss: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paton, Joanne; Hatton, Anna L; Rome, Keith; Kent, Bridie

    2016-12-01

    Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss. The current review evaluated any foot or ankle device, including but not restricted to, all types of footwear (therapeutic and retail), insoles (customized and prefabricated) and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). In the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT), the review considered experimental and epidemiological study designs, except case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies. The primary outcome was number of falls. Secondary outcome measures were clinical or laboratory measures of balance or gait. A search for published and unpublished literature from inception to March 2015 written in the English language was conducted across a number of major electronic databases. A three-step search strategy was developed using MeSH terminology and keywords to ensure all that relevant materials are captured. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two reviewers, who appraised each study independently, using standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. Quantitative data were extracted from the studies that were identified as meeting the criteria for methodological quality using the standardized JBI data extraction tools. Due to the heterogeneity of populations, interventions and outcome measures, meta-analyses were not possible and results are presented in narrative form. Nine trials (from 10 papers) involving 238 participants, (14 with multiple sclerosis and 16 with

  5. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  6. The role of starch and saliva in tribology studies and the sensory perception of protein-added yogurts.

    PubMed

    Morell, Pere; Chen, Jianshe; Fiszman, Susana

    2017-02-22

    Increasing the protein content of yogurts would be a good strategy for enhancing their satiating ability. However, the addition of protein can affect product palatability, contributing astringency or an inhomogeneous texture. Increasingly, studies mimicking oral tribology and oral lubrication have been attracting interest among food researchers because of their link with oral texture sensations. In the present study, four double-protein stirred yogurts were prepared by adding extra skimmed milk powder (MP) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) and by adding a physically modified starch to each (samples MPS and WPCS, respectively) to increase the consistency of the yogurts. The lubricating properties of the four yogurts were examined by tribological methods with the aim of relating these properties to the sensory perception described by flash profiling. Samples were also analysed after mixing with saliva. The tribology results clearly showed that addition of starch reduced the friction coefficient values regardless of the type of protein. Saliva addition produced a further decrease in the friction coefficient values in all the samples. Consequently, adding saliva is recommended when performing tribology measurements of foods in order to give a more realistic picture. The sensory results confirmed that the addition of starch reduced the astringent sensation, especially in sample WPC, while the MP and MPS samples were creamier and smoother. On the other hand, the astringency of sample WPC was not explained by the tribology results. Since this sample was described as "grainy", "gritty", "rough", "acid" and "sour", further studies are necessary to investigate the role of the number, size, shape and distribution of particles in yogurt samples, their role in astringency perception and their interaction with the perception of the tastes mentioned. Oral tribology has shown itself to be an in vitro technique that may aid a better understanding of the dynamics of in

  7. Smokers' sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a light/low tar cigarette and perceptions of harm.

    PubMed

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Quah, Anne C K; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    The sensory belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are smoother can also influence the belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are less harmful. However, the 'light' concept is one of several factors influencing beliefs. No studies have examined the impact of the sensory belief about one's own brand of cigarettes on perceptions of harm. The current study examines whether a smoker's sensory belief that their brand is smoother is associated with the belief that their brand is less harmful and whether sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a 'light/low tar' cigarette and relative perceptions of harm among smokers in China. Data are from 5209 smokers who were recruited using a stratified multistage sampling design and participated in Wave 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers and non-smokers in seven cities. Smokers who agreed that their brand of cigarettes was smoother were significantly more likely to say that their brand of cigarettes was less harmful (p<0.001, OR=6.86, 95% CI 5.64 to 8.33). Mediational analyses using the bootstrapping procedure indicated that both the direct effect of 'light/low tar' cigarette smokers on the belief that their cigarettes are less harmful (b=0.24, bootstrapped bias corrected 95% CI 0.13 to 0.34, p<0.001) and the indirect effect via their belief that their cigarettes are smoother were significant (b=0.32, bootstrapped bias-corrected 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37, p<0.001), suggesting that the mediation was partial. These results demonstrate the importance of implementing tobacco control policies that address the impact that cigarette design and marketing can have in capitalising on the smoker's natural associations between smoother sensations and lowered perceptions of harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Reproductive experience modified dendritic spines on cortical pyramidal neurons to enhance sensory perception and spatial learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeng-Rung; Lim, Seh Hong; Chung, Sin-Cun; Lee, Yee-Fun; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan

    2017-01-27

    Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task. By intracellular dye injection and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction, the dendritic arbors and spines of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were revealed for closer analysis. The results showed that motherhood and reproductive experience increased dendritic spines but not arbors or the lengths of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, lactating rats had a higher incidence of spines than pregnant or primiparous rats. The increase of dendritic spines was coupled with increased expression of the glutamatergic postsynaptic marker protein (PSD-95), especially in lactating rats. On the basis of the present results, it is concluded that motherhood enhanced rat sensory perception and spatial memory and was accompanied by increases in dendritic spines on output neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampus. The effect was sustained for at least 6 weeks after the weaning of the pups.

  9. Reproductive experience modified dendritic spines on cortical pyramidal neurons to enhance sensory perception and spatial learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeng-Rung; Lim, Seh Hong; Chung, Sin-Cun; Lee, Yee-Fun; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat’s sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task. By intracellular dye injection and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction, the dendritic arbors and spines of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were revealed for closer analysis. The results showed that motherhood and reproductive experience increased dendritic spines but not arbors or the lengths of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, lactating rats had a higher incidence of spines than pregnant or primiparous rats. The increase of dendritic spines was coupled with increased expression of the glutamatergic postsynaptic marker protein (PSD-95), especially in lactating rats. On the basis of the present results, it is concluded that motherhood enhanced rat sensory perception and spatial memory and was accompanied by increases in dendritic spines on output neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampus. The effect was sustained for at least 6 weeks after the weaning of the pups. PMID:27784858

  10. Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers. © 2013.

  11. Predicting consumer liking and preference based on emotional responses and sensory perception: A study with basic taste solutions.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shilpa S; Chapko, Matthew J; Seo, Han-Seok

    2017-10-01

    Traditional methods of sensory testing focus on capturing information about multisensory perceptions, but do not necessarily measure emotions elicited by these food and beverages. The objective of this study was to develop an optimum model of predicting overall liking (rating) and preference (choice) based on taste intensity and evoked emotions. One hundred and two participants (51 females) were asked to taste water, sucrose, citric acid, salt, and caffeine solutions. Their emotional responses toward each sample were measured by a combination of a self-reported emotion questionnaire (EsSense25), facial expressions, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. In addition, their perceived intensity and overall liking were measured. After a break, participants re-tasted the samples and ranked them according to their preference. The results showed that emotional responses measured using self-reported emotion questionnaire and facial expression analysis along with perceived taste intensity performed best to predict overall liking as well as preference, while ANS measures showed limited contribution. Contrary to some previous research, this study demonstrated that not only negative emotions, but also positive ones could help predict consumer liking and preference. In addition, since there were subtle differences in the prediction models of overall liking and preference, both aspects should be taken into account to understand consumer behavior. In conclusion, combination of evoked emotions along with sensory perception could help better understand consumer acceptance as well as preference toward basic taste solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Role of Sensory Perception, Emotionality and Lifeworld in Auditory Word Processing: Evidence from Congenital Blindness and Synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Judith; Domahs, Frank; Kauschke, Christina

    2017-12-01

    Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the processing of nouns during an auditory lexical decision task. Participants came from three populations differing in their visual-perceptual experience: congenitally blind persons, word-color synesthetes, and sighted non-synesthetes. Specifically, three features with potential relevance to concreteness were manipulated: sensory perception, emotionality, and Husserlian lifeworld, a concept related to the inner versus the outer world of the self. In addition to a classical concreteness effect, our results revealed a significant effect of lifeworld: words that are closely linked to the internal states of humans were processed faster than words referring to the outside world. When lifeworld was introduced as predictor, there was no effect of emotionality. Concerning participants' perceptual experience, an interaction between participant group and item characteristics was found: the effects of both concreteness and lifeworld were more pronounced for blind compared to sighted participants. We will discuss the results in the context of embodied semantics, and we will propose an approach to concreteness based on the individual's bodily experience and the relatedness of a given concept to the self.

  13. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine suppresses memory formation only at doses attenuating the perception of sensory input.

    PubMed

    van Oostrom, Hugo; Stienen, Peter J; Doornenbal, Arie; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

    2010-03-10

    It was investigated whether continuous rate infusion of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine can suppress memory formation by mechanisms other than reducing perception of sensory input in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Different groups of rats infused with either saline or dexmedetomidine (2.0, 4.0 or 10.0microg/kg bolus, followed by 2.0, 4.0 or 10.0microg/kg/h continuous rate infusion respectively), were subjected to a somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) fear-conditioning paradigm. This paradigm combined the pairing of an innoxious conditioned stimulus (CS) and a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US), of which the latter was used to generate the SEPs (training phase).The following day, the perception of the US during the training phase was assessed by presenting the CS only and subsequently scoring the resulting duration of freezing behaviour (testing phase). Freezing behaviour was reduced only in those groups which demonstrated reduced SEPs. Based on these findings, it is concluded that dexmedetomidine suppresses memory formation only at doses reducing central nervous system activity in response to sensory input. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on conscious perception of sensory inputs from hand palm and dorsum.

    PubMed

    Westgeest, Annette; Morales, Merche; Cabib, Christopher; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Conscious perception of sensory signals depends in part on stimulus salience, relevance and topography. Letting aside differences at skin receptor level and afferent fibres, it is the CNS that makes a contextual selection of relevant sensory inputs. We hypothesized that subjective awareness (AW) of the time at which a sensory stimulus is perceived, a cortical function, may be differently modified by cortical stimulation, according to site and type of the stimulus. In 24 healthy volunteers, we examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the assessment of AW to heat pain or weak electrical stimuli applied to either the hand palm or dorsum. We also recorded the vertex-evoked potentials to the same stimuli. The assessment was done before, during and after cathodal or anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex contralateral to the hand receiving the stimuli. At baseline, AW to thermal stimuli was significantly longer for palm than for dorsum (P < 0.01), while no differences between stimulation sites were observed for the electrical stimuli. Both cathodal and anodal tDCS caused a significant shortening of AW to thermal stimuli in the palm but not in the dorsum, and no effects on AW to electrical stimuli. Longer AW in the palm than in the dorsum may be attributable to differences in skin thickness. However, the selectivity of the effects of tDCS on AW to thermal stimulation of the glabrous skin reflects the specificity of CNS processing for site and type of sensory inputs. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Pain Thresholds and Sensory Perceptions in Chronic Pain Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shihab U; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lucy; St Hillary, Kristin; Cohen, Abigail; Vo, Trang; Houghton, Mary; Mao, Jianren

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been in clinical use for nearly four decades. In earliest observations, researchers found a significant increase in pain threshold during SCS therapy without changes associated with touch, position, and vibration sensation. Subsequent studies yielded diverse results regarding how SCS impacts pain and other sensory thresholds. This pilot study uses quantitative sensory testing (QST) to objectively quantify the impact of SCS on warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance. Nineteen subjects with an indwelling SCS device for chronic pain were subjected to QST with heat stimuli. QST was performed on an area of pain covered with SCS-induced paresthesia and an area without pain and without paresthesia, while the SCS was turned off and on. The temperature at which the patient detected warm sensation, heat pain, and maximal tolerable heat pain was used to define the thresholds. We found that all three parameters, the detection of warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance, were increased during the period when SCS was on compared with when it was off. This increase was observed in both painful and non-painful sites. The observed pain relief during SCS therapy seems to be related to its impact on increased sensory threshold as detected in this study. The increased sensory threshold on areas without pain and without the presence of SCS coverage may indicate a central (spinal and/or supra-spinal) influence from SCS. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  17. The Machine behind the Stage: A Neurobiological Approach toward Theoretical Issues of Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Moutoussis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to try and give a brief, scientific perspective on several issues raised in the Philosophy of Perception literature. This perspective gives a central role to the brain mechanisms that underlie perception: a percept is something that emerges when the brain is activated in a certain way and thus all perceptual experiences (whether veridical, illusory, or hallucinatory) have a common cause behind them, namely a given brain-activation pattern. What distinguishes between different cases of perception is what has caused this activation pattern, i.e., something very separate and very different from the perceptual experience itself. It is argued that separating the perceptual event from its hypothetical content, a direct consequence of the way everyday language is structured, creates unnecessary ontological complications regarding the nature of the hypothetical ‘object’ of perception. A clear distinction between the physical properties of the real world on the one hand (e.g., wavelength reflectance), and the psychological properties of perceptual experiences on the other (e.g., color) is clearly made. Finally, although perception is a way of acquiring knowledge/information about the world, this acquisition should be considered as a cognitive process which is separate to and follows perception. Therefore, the latter should remain neutral with respect to the ‘correctness’ or ‘truth’ of the knowledge acquired. PMID:27679587

  18. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A; Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Schwartz, Richard G; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD.

  19. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A.; Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD. PMID:27560378

  20. Extra sensory perception: the role of Gpr receptors in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Pluznick, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    This review will summarize recent literature highlighting the roles of sensory Gpr receptors and their roles in renal function. Chemoreceptors play important roles in renal physiology wherein they modulate renal function in response to ligands from a variety of sources. As specialized chemical detectors, chemoreceptors in the kidney monitor the level of a variety of chemical ligands in the body and adjust renal function accordingly. In addition to olfactory receptors and taste receptors, G-protein coupled receptors of the orphan Gpr family are now being found to play a 'sensory' role in renal physiology. Identifying the physiological roles of these receptors and elucidating the cell biology underlying these signaling pathways can give us novel insights into renal function.

  1. Sensory retraining after orthognathic surgery: effect on patients' perception of altered sensation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ceib; Essick, Greg; Preisser, John S; Turvey, Timothy A; Tucker, Myron; Lin, Dongming

    2007-06-01

    The primary research hypothesis was that the magnitude and duration of the perceived burden from altered sensation reported by patients after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and trauma to the third division of the trigeminal nerve are decreased when facial sensory retraining exercises are performed in conjunction with standard opening exercises as compared with standard opening exercises alone. A total of 186 subjects were enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, 2 parallel group-stratified block randomized clinical trial. Oral and facial pain, unusual sensations, numbness, and loss of sensitivity were scored from "no problem" to "serious problem" before surgery and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. A proportional odds model for the ordered multinomial response was used to compare the responses of the 2 exercise groups. The 2 exercise groups did not differ significantly at any postsurgical time in terms of perceived problem level from intraoral of facial pain. The difference between the 2 groups at each visit was not statistically significant for unusual sensations, although the trend was for the sensory retraining group to have a higher likelihood of reporting fewer problems. By 6 months, the likelihood of a subject reporting lower problem or interference level related to numbness or decreased lip sensitivity was significantly higher in the sensory-retraining group, approximately twice that of the opening exercise-only group. Our results support the premise that a simple noninvasive exercise program initiated shortly after orthognathic surgery can lessen the objectionable impression of negative altered sensations.

  2. Primary or secondary tasks? Dual-task interference between cyclist hazard perception and cadence control using cross-modal sensory aids with rider assistance bike computers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Tse

    2017-03-01

    This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals. The results indicated that synchronously using different sense organs to receive cadence feedback significantly affects hazard perception performance; direct visual information leads to the worst rider distraction, with a mean sensitivity to hazards (d') of -1.03. For systems with multiple interacting sensory aids, auditory aids were found to result in the greatest reduction in sensitivity to hazards (d' mean = -0.57), whereas tactile sensory aids reduced the degree of rider distraction (d' mean = -0.23). Our work complements existing work in this domain by advancing the understanding of how to design devices that deliver information subtly, thereby preventing disruption of a rider's perception of road hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Bayesian Perspective on Sensory and Cognitive Integration in Pain Perception and Placebo Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Anchisi, Davide; Zanon, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a component of any response to a treatment (effective or inert), but we still ignore why it exists. We propose that placebo analgesia is a facet of pain perception, others being the modulating effects of emotions, cognition and past experience, and we suggest that a computational understanding of pain may provide a unifying explanation of these phenomena. Here we show how Bayesian decision theory can account for such features and we describe a model of pain that we tested against experimental data. Our model not only agrees with placebo analgesia, but also predicts that learning can affect pain perception in other unexpected ways, which experimental evidence supports. Finally, the model can also reflect the strategies used by pain perception, showing that modulation by disparate factors is intrinsic to the pain process. PMID:25664586

  4. Time perception impairs sensory-motor integration in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that perception and estimation of time are fundamental for the relationship between humans and their environment. However, this temporal information processing is inefficient in patients with Parkinson’ disease (PD), resulting in temporal judgment deficits. In general, the pathophysiology of PD has been described as a dysfunction in the basal ganglia, which is a multisensory integration station. Thus, a deficit in the sensorimotor integration process could explain many of the Parkinson symptoms, such as changes in time perception. This physiological distortion may be better understood if we analyze the neurobiological model of interval timing, expressed within the conceptual framework of a traditional information-processing model called “Scalar Expectancy Theory”. Therefore, in this review we discuss the pathophysiology and sensorimotor integration process in PD, the theories and neural basic mechanisms involved in temporal processing, and the main clinical findings about the impact of time perception in PD. PMID:24131660

  5. Sensory Retraining following Orthognathic Surgery: Effect on Patient Perception of Altered Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ceib; Essick, Greg; Preisser, John S; Turvey, Timothy A; Tucker, Myron; Lin, Dongming

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The primary research hypothesis was that the magnitude and duration of the perceived burden from altered sensation reported by patients following bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and trauma to the third division of the trigeminal nerve is lessened when facial sensory retraining exercises are performed in conjunction with standard opening exercises as compared to standard opening exercises alone. Subjects and Methods 186 subjects were enrolled in a multi-center double-blind two parallel group stratified block randomized clinical trial. Oral and facial pain, unusual sensations, numbness and loss of sensitivity, were scored from “no problem” to “serious problem” before surgery, 1,3, and 6 months after surgery. Analysis A proportional odds model for the ordered multinomial response was used to compare the responses of the two exercise groups. Results The two exercise groups did not differ significantly at any postsurgical time in the perceived problem level from mouth or face pain. The difference between the two groups at each visit was not statistically significant for unusual sensations although the trend was for the sensory retraining group to have a higher likelihood of reporting fewer problems. By 6 months, the likelihood of a subject reporting lower problem or interference level related to numbness or less lip sensitivity was significantly higher in the sensory-retraining group, approximately twice that of the opening exercise only group. Conclusion The results from this clinical trial support the premise that a simple noninvasive exercise program initiated shortly after orthognathic surgery can lessen the objectionable impression of negative altered sensations. PMID:17517301

  6. A neuropeptide modulates sensory perception in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Robert; Wilson, Leonie; Warnock, Neil D.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) employ a sophisticated chemosensory apparatus to detect potential hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of relevant host-finding behaviours could facilitate improved EPN biocontrol approaches, and could lend insight to similar behaviours in economically important mammalian parasites. FMRFamide-like peptides are enriched and conserved across the Phylum Nematoda, and have been linked with motor and sensory function, including dispersal and aggregating behaviours in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway of Steinernema carpocapsae was characterised in silico, and employed to knockdown the expression of the FMRFamide-like peptide 21 (GLGPRPLRFamide) gene (flp-21) in S. carpocapsae infective juveniles; a first instance of RNAi in this genus, and a first in an infective juvenile of any EPN species. Our data show that 5 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-84%***) over a 48 h timecourse, which inhibits host-finding (chemosensory), dispersal, hyperactive nictation and jumping behaviours. However, whilst 1 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin also triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-51%**) over a 48 h timecourse, it does not trigger the null sensory phenotypes; statistically significant target knockdown can still lead to false negative results, necessitating appropriate experimental design. SPME GC-MS volatile profiles of two EPN hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor reveal an array of shared and unique compounds; these differences had no impact on null flp-21 RNAi phenotypes for the behaviours assayed. Localisation of flp-21 / FLP-21 to paired anterior neurons by whole mount in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry corroborates the RNAi data, further suggesting a role in sensory modulation. These data can underpin efforts to study these behaviours in other economically important parasites, and could facilitate

  7. Abnormalities of emotional awareness and perception in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Yoo, Sang Woo; Jhung, Kyungun; Kim, Se Joo

    2012-12-10

    Emotional awareness deficit may play a critical role in the production and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social dysfunction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of emotional awareness such as empathy and alexithymia in OCD patients. In addition, we examined whether impaired emotional awareness measured by self-assessment questionnaires was associated with emotional facial recognition ability in OCD patients. Study participants included 107 patients with OCD and 130 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 were applied as measures of empathy and alexithymia. A subset of 56 patients with OCD additionally performed the emotional perception task of face expression. Patients with OCD scored significantly lower for perspective taking, and significantly higher for personal distress of IRI, and significantly higher for alexithymia compared to normal controls. Impaired emotional awareness such as lower perspective taking and fantasy seeking had a perception bias towards disgust in response to ambiguous facial expressions in OCD patients. The OCD group consisted of patients in different stages of the illness and with different degrees of severity. OCD involves the impairment of emotional awareness and perception and it may relate to social dysfunction and to impairments in the ability to shift naturally from obsessive thoughts to other thoughts in response to social situations in patients with OCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory and consumer perception of the addition of grape seed extracts in cookies.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, G; Moreno, M; Arozarena, I; Marín-Arroyo, M R; Bleibaum, R N; Bruhn, C M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand sensory and instrumental similarities and differences among an array of cookies made with bulk and microencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) and then to determine how these differences impact consumer acceptance. Total of 4 types of cookies (control, enriched with bulk GSE, and enriched with 2 different microencapsulated GSE) were evaluated by instrumental analyses, a sensory trained panel using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) methodology, and a consumer acceptance test that included a usage and attitude survey. The addition of GSE resulted in darker brown cookies; microencapsulation partially masked the color that the GSE conferred to the cookies. The cookies with the microencapsulated GSE showed a significant higher antioxidant activity, microencapsulation may have reduced the GSE heat degradation. The QDA(®) trained panelists found the enriched cookies to be more astringent and with aromas and flavors similar to whole grains flours. Consumers rated the control cookie and 1 GSE encapsulated cookie at parity; they were equally well liked (P > 0.05). When provided with information, nearly 60% of consumers stated that they were willing to purchase cookies enriched with antioxidants. This high positive percentage may increase if consumers received more education on the health benefits of antioxidant consumption. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Cassava traits and end-user preference: Relating traits to consumer liking, sensory perception, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Tomlins, Keith; Fliedel, Geneviève; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Westby, Andrew; Hershey, Clair; Dufour, Dominique

    2018-03-04

    Breeding efforts have focused on improving agronomic traits of the cassava plant however little research has been done to enhance the crop palatability. This review investigates the links between cassava traits and end-user preference in relation with sensory characteristics. The main trait is starch and its composition related to the textural properties of the food. Pectin degradation during cooking resulted in increased mealiness. Nutritional components such as carotenoids made the cassava yellow but also altered sweetness and softness; however, yellow cassava was more appreciated by consumers than traditional (white) varieties. Components formed during processing such as organic acids gave fermented cassava products an acidic taste that was appreciated but the fermented smell was not always liked. Anti-nutritional compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides were mostly related to bitter taste. Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD) affected the overall sensory characteristics and acceptability. Genes responsible for some of these traits were also investigated. Diversity in cassava food products can provide a challenge to identifying acceptance criteria. Socio-economic factors such as gender may also be critical. This review leads to questions in relation to the adaptation of cassava breeding to meet consumer needs and preference in order to maximize income, health and food security.

  10. Modelling Relations between Sensory Processing, Speech Perception, Orthographic and Phonological Ability, and Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2008-01-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling…

  11. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing.

  12. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved

    PubMed Central

    He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing. PMID:28542426

  13. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulate sensory perception and pain? A meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2014-09-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy individuals and pain levels (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for a-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was examined using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) increases both STh (P<0.005, with the effect size of 22.19%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 19.28%). In addition, STh was increased by a-tDCS of the primary sensory cortex (S1) (P<0.05 with an effect size of 4.34). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of a-tDCS to both the M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The average decrease in visual analogue score was 14.9% and 19.3% after applying a-tDCS on the M1 and DLPFC. Moreover, meta-analysis showed that in all subgroups (except a-tDCS of S1) active a-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences. This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of a-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy group and decreasing PL in patients. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted cautiously. Given the level of blinding did not considered in inclusion criteria, the result of current study should be interpreted with caution. Site of stimulation should have a differential effect over pain relief. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relating rheology and tribology of commercial dairy colloids to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Laura; Farrell, Grace; Bryant, Michael; Morina, Ardian; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2017-02-22

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 ○ C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire. Consumers significantly discriminated the fat-free/low fat from the full fat versions (p < 0.01) in all product classes, with most common verbatim used being "creamy", "sweet" for the full fat versus "watery", "sour" for the fat-free samples. Flow behaviour of both versions of milk showed overlapping trends with no significant differences identified both in absence and presence of saliva (p > 0.05). Full fat and fat free yoghurts had similar yielding behaviour and elastic modulus (G'), even in simulated oral conditions. However, in case of soft cream cheese, the full fat version had a moderately higher G' than the low fat counterpart. Even in presence of artificial saliva, there was slight but significant difference in viscoelasticity between the cream cheese variants depending on fat content (p < 0.05). Stribeck curve analyses showed that at lower entrainment velocities (1-100 mm s -1 ), both full fat yoghurt and soft cream cheese exhibited a significantly lower traction coefficient when compared to fat-free/low fat versions (p < 0.05), which might be attributed to the lubricating effect of the coalesced fat droplets. Surprisingly, whole and skim milks showed no significant difference in traction coefficients irrespective of the entrainment speeds (p > 0.05). Results suggest that sensory distinction between fat-free and full fat versions, particularly in semi-solid systems could be better predicted

  15. Auditory-prosodic processing in bipolar disorder; from sensory perception to emotion.

    PubMed

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    Accurate emotion processing is critical to understanding the social world. Despite growing evidence of facial emotion processing impairments in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), comprehensive investigations of emotional prosodic processing is limited. The existing (albeit sparse) literature is inconsistent at best, and confounded by failures to control for the effects of gender or low level sensory-perceptual impairments. The present study sought to address this paucity of research by utilizing a novel behavioural battery to comprehensively investigate the auditory-prosodic profile of BD. Fifty BD patients and 52 healthy controls completed tasks assessing emotional and linguistic prosody, and sensitivity for discriminating tones that deviate in amplitude, duration and pitch. BD patients were less sensitive than their control counterparts in discriminating amplitude and durational cues but not pitch cues or linguistic prosody. They also demonstrated impaired ability to recognize happy intonations; although this was specific to male's with the disorder. The recognition of happy in the patient group was correlated with pitch and amplitude sensitivity in female patients only. The small sample size of patients after stratification by current mood state prevented us from conducting subgroup comparisons between symptomatic, euthymic and control participants to explicitly examine the effects of mood. Our findings indicate the existence of a female advantage for the processing of emotional prosody in BD, specifically for the processing of happy. Although male BD patients were impaired in their ability to recognize happy prosody, this was unrelated to reduced tone discrimination sensitivity. This study indicates the importance of examining both gender and low order sensory perceptual capacity when examining emotional prosody. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensory Feedback Training for Improvement of Finger Perception in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Aschmann, Simon; Lützow, Ines; Lampe, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To develop and to test a feedback training system for improvement of tactile perception and coordination of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. Methods. The fingers of 7 probands with cerebral palsy of different types and severity were stimulated using small vibration motors integrated in the fingers of a hand glove. The vibration motors were connected through a microcontroller to a computer and to a response 5-button keyboard. By pressing an appropriate keyboard button, the proband must indicate in which finger the vibration was felt. The number of incorrect responses and the reaction time were measured for every finger. The perception and coordination of fingers were estimated before and after two-week training using both clinical tests and the measurements. Results. Proper functioning of the developed system in persons with cerebral palsy was confirmed. The tactile sensation of fingers was improved in five of seven subjects after two weeks of training. There was no clear tendency towards improvement of selective use of fingers. Conclusion. The designed feedback system could be used to train tactile perception of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. An extensive study is required to confirm these findings. PMID:26124965

  17. Sensory effect of acetaldehyde on the perception of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine: Role of acetaldehyde in sensory interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Coetzee, C.; Brand, J.; Jacobson, Daniel A.; ...

    2016-01-28

    Background and Aims-Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensory interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, with acetaldehyde that typically forms during the oxidation of wine. Methods and Results-Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained sensory panel. Additionally, the concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold values to high values as reported for wine. Depending on the concentration, acetaldehyde enhanced fruity attributes at a lower concentration, whereas suppression occurred at a higher concentration. Acetaldehyde effectively suppressed the green pepper aroma attributemore » at certain concentration values, whereas 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol suppressed oxidised green apple associated with acetaldehyde. Changes in attributes used for aroma description also occurred because of change in concentration. Conclusions-Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and one of the main oxidation-derived compounds, acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde can enhance or suppress pleasant fruity characters depending on the concentration. Significance of the Study-This study showed the potential positive effect of acetaldehyde on white wine aroma when present at a low concentration. Formation of this compound during winemaking and ageing should, however, be controlled because of negative sensory interactions occurring at a higher concentration. In conclusion, this study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of Sauvignon Blanc wine undergoing oxidation.« less

  18. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  19. Study of the tactile perception of bathroom tissues: Comparison between the sensory evaluation by a handfeel panel and a tribo-acoustic artificial finger.

    PubMed

    Thieulin, C; Pailler-Mattei, C; Vargiolu, R; Lancelot, S; Zahouani, H

    2017-02-01

    Tactile perception is one of the sensorial modes most stimulated by our daily environment. In particular, perceived softness is an important parameter for judging the sensory quality of surfaces and fabrics. Unfortunately, its assessment greatly depends on the tactile sense of each person, which in turn depends on many factors. Currently, the predominant method for evaluating the tactile perception of fabrics is the human handfeel panel. This qualitative approach does not permit the quantitative measure of touch feel perception. In this study, we present a new artificial finger device to investigate the tactile sensing of ten bathroom tissues. It enables simultaneously measuring the friction and vibrations caused when sliding an artificial finger on the surface of the tissue. The comparison between the results obtained with the artificial finger and the tactile perception evaluated using a handfeel panel showed that the artificial finger is able to separate the two parts of the tactile perception of bathroom tissues: softness and surface texture (velvetiness). The statistical analysis suggests that there is a good correlation between the vibrations measured with the artificial finger and the softness evaluated by the panel. It then shows that the friction measured by the artificial finger is related to the surface texture of a bathroom tissue. The ability of the artificial finger to mimic human touch is demonstrated. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis orders the signatures of the tactile perception of the bathroom tissues in four different groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Abnormal Attention Span of Elementary School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Segal-Triwitz, Yael; Kirchen, Louisa M; Shani Sherman, Tal; Levav, Miriam; Schonherz-Pine, Yael; Kushnir, Jonathan; Ariel, Raya; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-01-01

    To determine teacher and parental perception of minimal expected sustained attention span during various daily tasks among elementary school children. 54 parents and 47 teachers completed the attention span questionnaire (AtSQ) that was developed for this study. The AtSQ consists of 15 academic and leisure tasks that require a child's sustained attention. The study focused on third and fourth graders in Israel. There was a high degree of variability among teachers and parents in their responses to the AtSQ. The expected attention span of children as judged by parents was higher and more varied compared to teachers, and higher for girls than for boys. Our results indicate poor agreement in cutoff values for sustained attention span between teachers and parents and within each group.

  1. Evaluation of nurses’ changing perceptions when trained to implement a self-management programme for dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Roets-Merken, Lieve M; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Zuidema, Sytse U; Dees, Marianne K; Hermsen, Pieter G J M; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Graff, Maud J L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To gain insights into the process of nurses’ changing perceptions when trained to implement a self-management programme for dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care, and into the factors that contributed to these changes in their perceptions. Design Qualitative study alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 17 long-term care homes spread across the Netherlands. Participants 34 licensed practical nurses supporting 54 dual sensory impaired older adults. Intervention A 5-month training programme designed to enable nurses to support the self-management of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Primary outcomes Nurses’ perceptions on relevance and feasibility of the self-management programme collected from nurses’ semistructured coaching diaries over the 5-month training and intervention period, as well as from trainers’ reports. Results Nurses’ initial negative perceptions on relevance and feasibility of the intervention changed to positive as nurses better understood the concept of autonomy. Through interactions with older adults and by self-evaluations of the effect of their behaviour, nurses discovered that their usual care conflicted with client autonomy. From that moment, nurses felt encouraged to adapt their behaviour to the older adults’ autonomy needs. However, nurses’ initial unfamiliarity with conversation techniques required a longer exploration period than planned. Once client autonomy was understood, nurses recommended expanding the intervention as a generic approach to all their clients, whether dual sensory impaired or not. Conclusions Longitudinal data collection enabled exploration of nurses’ changes in perceptions when moving towards self-management support. The training programme stimulated nurses to go beyond ‘protocol thinking’, discovering client autonomy and exploring the need for their own behavioural adaptations. Educational programmes for practical nurses should offer

  2. Quantitative sensory test for primary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease using the current perception threshold test.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Won; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Keun Tae; Do, So Young; Lim, Jung-Geun; Lee, So Young; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2017-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder, and it is especially aggravated at night. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal sensory dysfunction in primary RLS/WED using the current perception threshold (CPT) test, compared to healthy controls. Thirty primary RLS/WED subjects and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The severity of RLS/WED and sleep problems were evaluated in all subjects. Peripheral polyneuropathy was excluded through neurological examination and nerve conduction study. We used the Neurometer ® system for the CPT test and applied three different parameters (2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz), to stimulate both big toes. The CPT test was performed twice, once during the asymptomatic daytime period and again in the evening, when the patients were symptomatic. The mean ages of the RLS/WED group and controls were 50.5 ± 11.7 (22; 73.3% female), and 46.3 ± 11.4 (24; 80.0% female), respectively. The mean international RLS/WED study group severity scale score was 28.6 ± 4.25. There was no significant difference in the current perception thresholds between the RLS/WED patients and controls in daytime. However, the RLS/WED patients had lower mean CPT measurements for all three stimulation protocols in the evening (2000 Hz: 393.2 ± 93.7 vs 430.8 ± 79.6, 250 Hz: 172.0 ± 48.4 vs 198.5 ± 38.2, and 5 Hz: 98.0 ± 34.1 vs 124.6 ± 31.3), while the healthy controls showed no difference. RLS patients showed a lower CPT in the evening. The diurnal variation of hyperalgesia in RLS/WED patients indicates a central (circadian) sensory processing disturbance rather than a peripheral disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathophysiology of somatosensory abnormalities in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonella; Khan, Nashaba; Defazio, Giovanni; Rothwell, John C; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Changes in sensory function that have been described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can be either 'pure' disorders of conscious perception such as elevations in sensory threshold, or disorders of sensorimotor integration, in which the interaction between sensory input and motor output is altered. In this article, we review the extensive evidence for disrupted tactile, nociceptive, thermal and proprioceptive sensations in PD, as well as the influences exerted on these sensations by dopaminergic therapy and deep brain stimulation. We argue that abnormal spatial and temporal processing of sensory information produces incorrect signals for the preparation and execution of voluntary movement. Sensory deficits are likely to be a consequence of the dopaminergic denervation of the basal ganglia that is the hallmark of PD. A possible mechanism to account for somatosensory deficits is one in which disease-related dopaminergic denervation leads to a loss of response specificity, resulting in transmission of noisier and less-differentiated information to cortical regions. Changes in pain perception might have a different explanation, possibly involving disease-related effects outside the basal ganglia, including involvement of peripheral pain receptors, as well as structures such as the periaqueductal grey matter and non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems.

  4. Lateralized abnormalities in auditory M50 sensory gating and cortical thickness of the superior temporal gyrus in post-traumatic stress disorder: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Michael; Villarreal, Gerardo; McHaffie, Greg R; Jimenez, Billy; Smith, Ashley K; Calais, Lawrence A; Hanlon, Faith; Thoma, Robert J; Cañive, José M

    2011-02-28

    Auditory sensory gating deficits have been reported in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the hemispheric and neuronal origins of this deficit are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate auditory sensory gating of the 50-ms response (M50) in patients diagnosed with PTSD by utilizing magnetoencephalography (MEG); (2) explore the relationship between M50 sensory gating and cortical thickness of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) measured with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); and (3) examine the association between PTSD symptomatology and bilateral sensory gating. Seven participants with combat-related PTSD and eleven controls underwent the paired-click sensory gating paradigm. MEG localized M50 neuronal generators to the STG in both groups. The PTSD group displayed impaired M50 gating in the right hemisphere. Thinner right STG cortical thickness was associated with worse right sensory gating in the PTSD group. The right S1 M50 source strength and gating ratio were correlated with PTSD symptomatology. These findings suggest that the structural integrity of right hemisphere STG cortices play an important role in auditory sensory gating deficits in PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Perception drives production across sensory modalities: A network for sensorimotor integration of visual speech

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, Jonathan H.; Fillmore, Paul; Matchin, William; Isenberg, A. Lisette; Hickok, Gregory; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information is critical for movement control, both for defining the targets of actions and providing feedback during planning or ongoing movements. This holds for speech motor control as well, where both auditory and somatosensory information have been shown to play a key role. Recent clinical research demonstrates that individuals with severe speech production deficits can show a dramatic improvement in fluency during online mimicking of an audiovisual speech signal suggesting the existence of a visuomotor pathway for speech motor control. Here we used fMRI in healthy individuals to identify this new visuomotor circuit for speech production. Participants were asked to perceive and covertly rehearse nonsense syllable sequences presented auditorily, visually, or audiovisually. The motor act of rehearsal, which is prima facie the same whether or not it is cued with a visible talker, produced different patterns of sensorimotor activation when cued by visual or audiovisual speech (relative to auditory speech). In particular, a network of brain regions including the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and several frontoparietal sensorimotor areas activated more strongly during rehearsal cued by a visible talker versus rehearsal cued by auditory speech alone. Some of these brain regions responded exclusively to rehearsal cued by visual or audiovisual speech. This result has significant implications for models of speech motor control, for the treatment of speech output disorders, and for models of the role of speech gesture imitation in development. PMID:26608242

  6. Perception drives production across sensory modalities: A network for sensorimotor integration of visual speech.

    PubMed

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Fillmore, Paul; Matchin, William; Isenberg, A Lisette; Hickok, Gregory; Fridriksson, Julius

    2016-02-01

    Sensory information is critical for movement control, both for defining the targets of actions and providing feedback during planning or ongoing movements. This holds for speech motor control as well, where both auditory and somatosensory information have been shown to play a key role. Recent clinical research demonstrates that individuals with severe speech production deficits can show a dramatic improvement in fluency during online mimicking of an audiovisual speech signal suggesting the existence of a visuomotor pathway for speech motor control. Here we used fMRI in healthy individuals to identify this new visuomotor circuit for speech production. Participants were asked to perceive and covertly rehearse nonsense syllable sequences presented auditorily, visually, or audiovisually. The motor act of rehearsal, which is prima facie the same whether or not it is cued with a visible talker, produced different patterns of sensorimotor activation when cued by visual or audiovisual speech (relative to auditory speech). In particular, a network of brain regions including the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and several frontoparietal sensorimotor areas activated more strongly during rehearsal cued by a visible talker versus rehearsal cued by auditory speech alone. Some of these brain regions responded exclusively to rehearsal cued by visual or audiovisual speech. This result has significant implications for models of speech motor control, for the treatment of speech output disorders, and for models of the role of speech gesture imitation in development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Familiarity Perception Call Elicited under Restricted Sensory Cues in Peer-Social Interactions of the Domestic Chick

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition. PMID:23520539

  8. Sensory and analytical characterization of the “cool‐melting” perception of commercial spreads

    PubMed Central

    Valenҁa de Sousa, Joana; Knoop, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Butters, margarines and table spreads are water‐in‐oil emulsions. Melting characteristics of these products are important for flavor release and consumer acceptance. One characteristic that is believed to discriminate butters from margarines is a cooling sensation perceived in‐mouth while consuming these products. Here, we investigated different methods to characterize sensorically and analytically the “cool‐melting” properties of commercial butter and margarines. Our results show that butter indeed can be distinguished from margarines based on their “cool‐melting” properties. Furthermore, changes in enthalpy as measured through DSC and solid fat content are good predictors of the “cool‐melting” effect of spreads. Practical applications By understanding the mechanisms of the “cool‐melting” perception of spreads, and linking them to analytical measurements, we can create an in‐vitro quantification method of “cool‐melting.” This method can eventually help directing product development to achieve the desire product profile and increase consumer acceptance and liking of margarines and low‐fat spread products. In this study we did not assess the impact of “cool‐melting” on consumer perception, which would be the next step in understanding the drivers of liking of spread products. PMID:28766749

  9. Abnormalities of somatosensory perception in patients with painful osteoarthritis normalize following successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Kosek, E; Ordeberg, G

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effect of chronic nociceptive pain on somatosensory perception, quantitative sensibility testing was performed in the most painful area and the homologous contralateral side in 14 patients with painful osteoarthritis of the hip. Twelve patients were reassessed in a painfree state 6-14 months following surgery. Von Frey filaments were used to test low-threshold mechanoreceptive function. Pressure pain sensitivity was assessed with a pressure algometer and thermal sensitivity with a Thermotest. Sex- and age-matched controls were examined in the corresponding areas at similar time intervals. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the sensitivity to light touch and innocuous cold in either session. Compared to controls, patients had increased sensitivity to pressure pain in the most painful area (p < 0.002), bilaterally increased sensitivity to innocuous warmth (p < 0.03), cold pain (p< 0.05) and a tendency toward bilaterally increased sensitivity to heat pain (p = 0.054) before surgery. In the painful area, patients' sensitivity to pressure pain decreased (p < 0.04) and, remaining within normal limits, sensitivity to light touch increased (p < 0.006) compared to values prior to surgery. No statistically significant differences between the groups were seen following surgery, indicating that the sensibility changes had been maintained by chronic nociceptive pain. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  10. Structure-from-motion: dissociating perception, neural persistence, and sensory memory of illusory depth and illusory rotation.

    PubMed

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Braun, Jochen

    2013-02-01

    In the structure-from-motion paradigm, physical motion on a screen produces the vivid illusion of an object rotating in depth. Here, we show how to dissociate illusory depth and illusory rotation in a structure-from-motion stimulus using a rotationally asymmetric shape and reversals of physical motion. Reversals of physical motion create a conflict between the original illusory states and the new physical motion: Either illusory depth remains constant and illusory rotation reverses, or illusory rotation stays the same and illusory depth reverses. When physical motion reverses after the interruption in presentation, we find that illusory rotation tends to remain constant for long blank durations (T (blank) ≥ 0.5 s), but illusory depth is stabilized if interruptions are short (T (blank) ≤ 0.1 s). The stability of illusory depth over brief interruptions is consistent with the effect of neural persistence. When this is curtailed using a mask, stability of ambiguous vision (for either illusory depth or illusory rotation) is disrupted. We also examined the selectivity of the neural persistence of illusory depth. We found that it relies on a static representation of an interpolated illusory object, since changes to low-level display properties had little detrimental effect. We discuss our findings with respect to other types of history dependence in multistable displays (sensory stabilization memory, neural fatigue, etc.). Our results suggest that when brief interruptions are used during the presentation of multistable displays, switches in perception are likely to rely on the same neural mechanisms as spontaneous switches, rather than switches due to the initial percept choice at the stimulus onset.

  11. Measurement of multiparametric quantities at perception of sensory information by living creatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taymanov, Roald; Sapozhnikova, Kseniia

    2014-08-01

    In the paper it is shown that at present the problem of measurements of emotions as multidimensional (multiparametric) quantities is of interest. A measurement model developed by the authors is presented. It enables signals-stimuli generating emotions in sound combinations and their series to be selected and quantitatively estimated. The measurement model provides an adjusted delay (short-time memory) and joint non-linear conversion of audible and delayed acoustical signals, selection of infrasound signals-stimuli as well as identification of emotional images including the ensembles of signals-stimuli and their series. It is demonstrated how the "mechanism" of emotional perception of sound impacts was developed in the process of evolution. Possibilities to decode the emotional content of biolinguistic signals of animals are considered. Future trends of investigations are indicated.

  12. The influence of brewing water characteristic on sensory perception of pour-over local coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibrianto, K.; Ardianti, A. D.; Pradipta, K.; Sunarharum, W. B.

    2018-01-01

    The coffee quality can be characterized by its multisensory perceptions. The content and mineral composition and other substances of brewing water can affect the result of brewed-coffee. The water may influence in extraction capabilities and flavor clarity. The ground Dampit coffee and two commercial instant coffee with pour-over method were used in this study. Various types of commercial drinking water were used to brew the coffee. The result suggests that the different brewing water affects the intensity of sweet and chocolate aroma, as well as oily mouth-feel. Surprisingly, taste and flavour attributes were not affected by the pH of brewing water within the range of 5.5 to 9.1.

  13. Brain mechanisms of abnormal temperature perception in cold allodynia induced by ciguatoxin.

    PubMed

    Eisenblätter, Anneka; Lewis, Richard; Dörfler, Arnd; Forster, Clemens; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Cold allodynia occurs as a major symptom of neuropathic pain states. It remains poorly treated with current analgesics. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), ichthyosarcotoxins that cause ciguatera, produce a large peripheral sensitization to dynamic cold stimuli in Aδ-fibers by activating sodium channels without producing heat or mechanical allodynia. We used CTXs as a surrogate model of cold allodynia to dissect the framework of cold allodynia-activated central pain pathways. Reversible cold allodynia was induced in healthy male volunteers by shallow intracutaneous injection of low millimolar concentrations of CTX into the dorsal skin of the forefoot. Cold and warm stimuli were delivered to the treated and the control site using a Peltier-driven thermotest device. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were acquired with a 3T MRI scanner using a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) protocol. The CTX-induced substantial peripheral sensitization to cooling stimuli in Aδ-fibers is particularly retrieved in BOLD changes due to dynamic temperature changes and less during constant cooling. Brain areas that responded during cold allodynia were almost always located bilaterally and appeared in the medial insula, medial cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, frontal areas, and cerebellum. Whereas these areas also produced changes in BOLD signal during the dynamic warming stimulus on the control site, they remained silent during the warming stimuli on the injected site. We describe the defining feature of the cold allodynia pain percept in the human brain and illustrate why ciguatera sufferers often report a perceptual temperature reversal. ANN NEUROL 2017;81:104-116. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  14. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Meaning-making matters in product design: users' sensory perceptions and experience evaluations of long-acting vaginal gels and intravaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Rochelle K; van den Berg, Jacob J; Vargas, Sara E; Senocak, Natali; Shaw, Julia G; Buckheit, Robert W; Smith, Kelley Alison; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-12-01

    Users' sensory perceptions and experiences of intravaginal products can inform acceptability and adherence. Focusing on the meanings women derive from formulation/device characteristics facilitates developers' design iterations toward optimizing user experience. We investigated how users of long-acting gels and intravaginal rings (IVRs) impute meaning to characteristics that may affect future product use. Focus groups were conducted with contraceptive IVR and vaginal lubricant users. Current perceptibility science and historical theory on the cultural acceptability of fertility regulating methods informed the analysis. A total of 21 IVR users and 29 lubricant users attended focus groups in which they manipulated products in their hands and discussed reactions to product characteristics. Participants used prior product experiences and sensory perceptions of prototype manipulations to inform meanings about product properties and performance for pregnancy, disease prevention, comfort, and perceived efficacy. The meanings derived from product characteristics depended on why the product would be used; a characteristic deemed problematic in one risk context may be considered preferable in another. Intravaginal product users create narratives that ascribe influence or causality to product characteristics. These meanings, whether correct or incorrect biologically, will shape vaginal product acceptability, use, and effectiveness. Long-acting and sustained-release drug delivery systems will be part of the multipurpose prevention continuum. Developers must consider how sensory experiences and culturally salient assumptions shape the meanings users make of product design characteristics. Those meanings will ultimately impact use and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acceptably aware during general anaesthesia: 'dysanaesthesia'--the uncoupling of perception from sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Jaideep J

    2014-07-01

    This review makes the case for 'dysanaesthesia', a term encompassing states of mind that can arise in the course of anaesthesia during surgery, characterised by an uncoupling of sensation and perceptual experience. This is reflected in a macroscopic, functional model of anaesthetically-relevant consciousness. Patients in this state can be aware of events but in a neutral way, not in pain, sometimes personally dissociated from the experiences. This makes events associated with surgery peripheral to their whole experience, such that recall is less likely and if it exists, makes any spontaneous report of awareness unlikely. This state of perception-sensation uncoupling is therefore broadly acceptable (a minimum requirement for acceptable anaesthesia) but since it is likely a dose-related phenomenon, may also represent a precursor for awareness with adverse recall. This hypothesis uniquely explains the often inconsistent responses seen during the experimental paradigm of the 'isolated forearm technique', wherein apparently anaesthetised patients exhibit a positive motor response to verbal command, but no spontaneous movement to surgery. The hypothesis can also explain the relatively high incidence of positive response to relatively direct questions for recall (e.g., using the Brice questionnaire; ∼1:500; the vast majority of these being neutral reports) versus the very low incidence of spontaneous reports of awareness (∼1:15,000; a higher proportion of these being adverse recollections). The hypothesis is consistent with relevant notions from philosophical discussions of consciousness, and neuroscientific evidence. Dysanaesthesia has important implications for research and also for the development of appropriate monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensory integration in the perception of movements at the human metacarpophalangeal joint

    PubMed Central

    Collins, D F; Refshauge, K M; Gandevia, S C

    2000-01-01

    These experiments were designed to investigate illusions of movements of the fingers produced by combined feedback from muscle spindle receptors and receptors located in different regions of the skin of the hand. Vibration (100 Hz) applied in cyclic bursts (4 s ‘on’, 4 s ‘off’) over the tendons of the finger extensors of the right wrist produced illusions of flexion-extension of the fingers. Cutaneous receptors were activated by local skin stretch and electrical stimulation. Illusory movements at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were measured from voluntary matching movements made with the left hand. Localised stretch of the dorsal skin over specific MCP joints altered vibration-induced illusions in 8/10 subjects. For the group, this combined stimulation produced movement illusions at MCP joints under, adjacent to, and two joints away from the stretched region of skin that were 176 ± 33, 122 ± 9 and 67 ± 11 % of the size of those from vibration alone, respectively. Innocuous electrical stimulation over the same skin regions, but not at the digit tips, also ‘focused’ the sensation of movement to the stimulated digit. Stretch of the dorsal skin and compression of the ventral skin around one MCP joint altered the vibration-induced illusions in all subjects. The illusions became more focused, being 295 ± 57, 116 ± 18 and 65 ± 7 % of the corresponding vibration-induced illusions at MCP joints that were under, adjacent to, and two joints away from the stimulated regions of skin, respectively. These results show that feedback from cutaneous and muscle spindle receptors is continuously integrated for the perception of finger movements. The contribution from the skin was not simply a general facilitation of sensations produced by muscle receptors but, when the appropriate regions of skin were stimulated, movement illusions were focused to the joint under the stimulated skin. One role for cutaneous feedback from the hand may be to help identify which

  18. Global motion perception is related to motor function in 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal development.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Harding, Jane E; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed. After adjustment for verbal IQ or both visual acuity and stereoacuity, MCT was modestly, but significantly, associated with all components of motor function with the exception of fine motor scores. In a separate analysis, stereoacuity, but not visual acuity, was significantly associated with both gross and fine motor scores. These results indicate that the development of motion perception and stereoacuity are associated with motor function in pre-school children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impedance-Matching Hearing in Paleozoic Reptiles: Evidence of Advanced Sensory Perception at an Early Stage of Amniote Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Johannes; Tsuji, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    sensory perception to be of notable adaptive significance. PMID:17849018

  20. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: A healthy-aging perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2014-01-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals - over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds - renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own ‚privileged‘ temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. PMID:24956028

  1. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: a healthy-aging perspective.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2015-02-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals--over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds--renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own 'privileged' temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood autism and auditory system abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hitoglou, Magdalini; Ververi, Athina; Antoniadis, Alexandros; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2010-05-01

    Hearing disorders are common among children with autism, ranging from peripheral and sensorineural hearing deficit or loss to auditory hypersensitivity with bizarre reactions to sounds. The auditory abnormalities and consequent sensory deprivation exacerbate the communication deficit of autism, and early auditory assessment holds an important place in the planning of intervention and the overall prognosis of patients. Physiologic, pathologic, imaging, and neurochemical studies have revealed an array of aberrations in the perception and processing of the audiologic stimuli, including (among others) maturational defects, atypical lateralization, and serotonin dysfunction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attentive, Affective, and Adaptive Behavior in the Cat: Sensory deprivation of the forebrain by lesions in the brain stem results in striking behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sprague, J M; Chambers, W W; Stellar, E

    1961-01-20

    Lesions of the lateral portion of the upper midbrain, involving medial, lateral, spinal, and trigeminal lemnisci primarily, result in a consistent syndrome of symptoms in the cat. (i) There is a marked sensory deficit, characterized mainly by sensory inattention and poor localization in the tactile, proprioceptive, auditory, gustatory, and nociceptive modalities, where direct pathways are interrupted. Similar defectsappear in vision and olfaction where no known direct or primary paths are interrupted. (ii) These cats are characterized by a lack of affect, showing little or no defensive and aggressive reaction to noxious and aversive situations and no response to pleasurable stimulation or solicitation of affection or petting. The animals are mute, lack facial expression, and show minimal autonomic responses. (iii) They show a hyperexploratory activity characterized by incessant, stereotyped wandering, sniffing, and visual searching, as though hallucinating. This behavior appears to be centrally directed and is very difficult to interrupt with environmental stimuli. (iv) They also demonstrate exaggerated oral activities: they snap in response to tactile stimulation of the lips, seizing and swallowing small objects even if inedible; they overeat; they hold objects too large to swallow (a mouse, a catnip ball) firmly clamped in the mouth for long periods of time; they mount and seize other animals (rat, cat, dog, monkey) by the back or the neck; they lick and chew the hair and skin of the back or tail incessantly when confined in a cage. In interpreting these results we emphasize the view that the syndrome is due chiefly to the extensive, specific, sensory deprivation produced by interruption of the lemnisci at the rostral midbrain. The relation of these findings to the effects of sensory isolation in man and animals, to the effects of midbrain lesions and neodecortication, to parietal lobe syndrome in primates, and to the behavior of autistic children is discussed

  4. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients.

  5. Indigenous and traditional plants: South African parents’ knowledge, perceptions and uses and their children’s sensory acceptance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dietary shift from indigenous and traditional plants (ITPs) to cash crops and exotic plant food sources increases the risk of malnutrition and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, especially in poor rural communities. Farm communities in South Africa have been associated with poor nutritional status and extreme poverty. ITPs have been found to be affordable sources of several micronutrients. However, knowledge of and the use of these plants are declining, and little is known about the child’s acceptance of dishes prepared with ITPs. This knowledge can be used to improve the general acceptance of ITPs. This study aimed to gain insight into parents’ knowledge and perceptions and their use of ITPs in a farming community in the North West Province and to assess children’s acceptance of and preference for dishes made with African leafy vegetables (ALVs) and Swiss chard. Methods Parents (n = 29) responsible for food preparation for children in grade 2 to 4 in two schools were purposively selected for four focus group discussions. A sensory evaluation assessed the children’s (n = 98) acceptance of, preference for and intended consumption of dishes made with leafy vegetables. The dishes were made of Amaranthus spp., Cleome gynandra, Cucurbita maxima, Vigna unguiculata and Beta vulgaris. Results Parents mentioned 30 edible ITPs during the focus group discussions. Parents had knowledge of available ITPs and their use as food. Location, seasonal variation and rainfall affected the availability of and access to ITPs. Sun-dried ITPs were stored in sacks for later use. ITPs were perceived as healthy, affordable and delicious, hence acceptable to the parents. The children also evaluated the dishes made with ALVs as acceptable in terms of colour, smell and taste. Swiss chard was preferred, most likely because of the children’s exposure to this vegetable. Children indicated that they would like to eat these leafy vegetables twice a

  6. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  7. Blockade of sensory abnormalities and kinin B(1) receptor expression by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and ramipril in a rat model of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Mahmoud Ali; Talbot, Sébastien; Carbonneau, Cynthia L; Beauséjour, Christian M; Couture, Réjean

    2008-07-28

    Glucose-fed rat is a model of insulin resistance that displays sensory polyneuropathy and hypertension. This study aimed at comparing the beneficial effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, antioxidant) and ramipril (angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitor) on tactile and cold allodynia induced by chronic glucose feeding. Impact of these treatments was also assessed on hypertension, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin resistance and kinin B(1) receptor expression. Male Wistar rats (50-75 g) were given 10% d-glucose in their drinking water for 11 weeks or tap water (controls). Glucose-fed rats were treated either with NAC (1 g/kg/day, gavage), ramipril (1 mg/kg/day in drinking water) or no drug during the last 5 weeks. Glucose feeding for 6 weeks induced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure and hyperglycaemia which was accompanied by tactile and cold allodynia. At 11 weeks, plasma insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA index), kinin B(1) receptor mRNA in spinal cord and renal cortex and B(1) receptor binding sites in spinal cord were enhanced in glucose-fed rats. NAC and ramipril caused a progressive to complete inhibition of tactile and cold allodynia from 6 to 11 weeks. High systolic blood pressure, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and kinin B(1) receptor expression were also normalized or attenuated in glucose-fed rats by either treatment. Results suggest that chronic treatment with an antioxidant or an ACE inhibitor provides similar beneficial effects on sensory polyneuropathy, hypertension and insulin resistance in glucose-fed rats. Both therapies were associated with a reduction of the expression of the pro-nociceptive kinin B(1) receptor.

  8. Functional sensory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stone, J; Vermeulen, M

    2016-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) sensory symptoms are those in which the patient genuinely experiences alteration or absence of normal sensation in the absence of neurologic disease. The hallmark of functional sensory symptoms is the presence of internal inconsistency revealing a pattern of symptoms governed by abnormally focused attention. In this chapter we review the history of this area, different clinical presentations, diagnosis (including sensitivity of diagnostic tests), treatment, experimental studies, and prognosis. Altered sensation has been a feature of "hysteria" since descriptions of witchcraft in the middle ages. In the 19th century hysteric sensory stigmata were considered a hallmark of the condition. Despite this long history, relatively little attention has been paid to the topic of functional sensory disturbance, compared to functional limb weakness or functional movement disorders, with which it commonly coexists. There are recognizable clinical patterns, such as hemisensory disturbance and sensory disturbance finishing at the groin or shoulder, but in keeping with the literature on reliability of sensory signs in neurology in general, the evidence suggests that physical signs designed to make a positive diagnosis of functional sensory disorder may not be that reliable. There are sensory symptoms which are unusual but not functional (such as synesthesia and allochiria) but also functional sensory symptoms (such as complete loss of all pain) which are most unusual and probably worthy of independent study. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of crema on the aroma release and the in-mouth sensory perception of espresso coffee.

    PubMed

    Barron, D; Pineau, N; Matthey-Doret, W; Ali, S; Sudre, J; Germain, J C; Kolodziejczyk, E; Pollien, P; Labbe, D; Jarisch, C; Dugas, V; Hartmann, C; Folmer, B

    2012-09-01

    A set of six espresso coffees with different foam characteristics and similar above cup and in-mouth flavour sensory profiles was produced by combination of two varying parameters, the extraction pressure and the filtration of the coffee beverage. The coffees were subsequently evaluated in a comparative manner by a set of analytical (headspace, nose-space) and sensory (Temporal Dominance of Sensations) techniques. The presence of espresso crema in its standard quantity was demonstrated to be associated with the optimum release of pleasant high volatiles, both in the above cup headspace and in-mouth. On the other hand, the TDS study demonstrated that increasing amount of crema was associated with increasing roasted dominance along coffee consumption. Furthermore, a parallel was established between the roasted sensory dominance and the dominant release of 2-methylfuran in the nose-space. This was, however, an indirect link as 2-methylfuran was indeed a chemical marker of roasting but does not contribute to the roasted aroma. Lowering the standard amount of crema by filtration clearly decreased the release of pleasant high volatiles and the in-mouth roasted sensory dominance. On the other hand, increasing the usual crema volume by increasing the extraction pressure did not bring any added value concerning the above cup and in-mouth release of pleasant high volatiles.

  10. Unintended Embodiment of Concepts into Percepts: Sensory Activation Boosts Attention for Same-Modality Concepts in the Attentional Blink Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial; Godefroid, Jimmy; Corneille, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that sensory priming facilitates reports of same-modality concepts in an attentional blink paradigm. Participants had to detect and report two target words (T1 and T2) presented for 53 ms each among a series of nonwords distractors at a frequency of up to 19 items per second. SOA between target words was set to 53 ms or 213 ms,…

  11. Effect of short-term use of a centric occlusion stabilization oral appliance on sensory and pain perception thresholds in the cervically innervated area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Koji; Ogihara, Mitsutaka; Watanabe, Naoshi; Higashinaka, Shuichi; Maeda, Sho; Sakoda, Sumio

    2005-10-01

    This preliminary study was done to determine the effect of short-term use of a centric occlusion stabilization oral appliance with regard to noxious and sensory perception in the upper extremities. The subjects consisted of 22 asymptomatic females, and the experiments were performed on two separate days within the same week, with the days randomly assigned as either appliance-wearing or nonappliance-wearing days. For each experimental day, cool sensation, warm sensation, cold-induced pain and heat-induced pain were measured using a computer-based quantitative testing device, and these thresholds were compared between the experimental days with or without the oral appliance. We found that during the experimental day wearing an oral appliance, subjects had significantly higher thresholds for warm sensation and heat-induced pain. There was no statistical difference between the testing days in cool sensation or cold-induced pain thresholds. These findings indicate that short-term wearing of a centric occlusion stabilization oral appliance may inhibit some noxious and sensory inputs from cervically innervated structures, which are primarily served by unmyelinated C fibers, and that oral appliances may be appropriate for the treatment of painful cervical disorders.

  12. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  13. Sensory and Perceptual Deprivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-04-22

    stimulation even in inane forms, and -- were more effectively persuaded by lectures advocating the existence of ghosts, poltergeists and extrasensory ... perception pbenomena. These provocative experiments at McGill were completed just about 10 years ago. What has happened in the decade since? Research...shown a greater change among isolated Ss in interest and belief in extra sensory perception topics (29, 56). Recent experiments have tended to confirm

  14. Opioids and abnormal pain perception: New evidence from a study of chronic opioid addicts and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Pud, Dorit; Cohen, Doron; Lawental, Eli; Eisenberg, Elon

    2006-05-20

    Recent evidence reported on increased pain sensitivity in animals following parenteral opioid administration and in humans subsequent to intravenously of short-acting opioids and possibly in drug addicts. The aims of the present study were to explore the possibilities that (1) pain perception is altered in chronic opioid addicts (OAs); (2) if indeed so, the cessation of opioid consumption resets their altered pain perception. Sixty heroin or methadone OAs who attended a 4-week inpatient detoxification program were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) upon entrance to the program, at 7 and 28 days subsequent to the cessation of opioid consumption (verified by repeated urine toxicology tests). Latency of pain onset (s), pain intensity (0-100 VAS), and tolerance (time for hand withdrawal) in response to the CPT were measured. In comparison with 70 healthy controls, the OAs demonstrated prolonged latency (6.6+/-3.5s versus 10.9+/-7.7s; p < 0.0001); decreased VAS (74+/-16 versus 55+/-20; p < 0.0001); shorter tolerance (56.4+/-51.3s versus 31.7+/-40.7s; p = 0.001). No differences between the three time points in any of the three measures were detected in the OAs. The results provide further evidence of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in the OA population, as manifested by their quicker hand withdrawal. In addition, it appears that detoxification from opioids does not reset pain perception for at least 1 month.

  15. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    PubMed

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  16. Consumer perception and sensory effect of oxidation in savory-flavored yogurt enriched with n-3 lipids.

    PubMed

    Rognlien, M; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Eigel, W N

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different oils (butter, fish, and oxidized fish) on sensory characteristics of a savory [chile-lime (CL)] low-fat yogurt using descriptive (unstructured line scales, 5 attributes) and affective (hedonic) sensory testing methods. Yogurts were each manufactured at low [1.1-1.2% total fat; 0.43% added oil (wt/wt)] or high [1.6% total fat; 1% added oil (wt/wt)] levels of fish oil, with high levels of fish oil targeted to deliver 145 mg of docosahexaenoic acid+eicosapentaenoic acid/170 g of yogurt. In a preliminary study, untrained panelists (n=31), using triangle tests, did not discriminate between low levels of fish and butter oils in unflavored yogurts but could discern yogurt with oxidized fish oil, even at the low level. Trained panelists (n=12) described lower lime and acid flavor characteristics in CL-flavored yogurts containing 1% oxidized fish oil compared with yogurts containing low levels of oxidized fish oil and low or high levels of butter and fish oils. Oxidized flavor was higher in CL-flavored yogurts with oxidized fish oil (low and high) and with the high level of fish oil. Consumer ratings (n=100; 9-point hedonic scale; 9="like extremely) of overall acceptability and flavor acceptability were bimodally distributed, with overall means between 4 and 5 ("neither like nor dislike") for CL-flavored yogurt with butter or fish oils (high level). The upper 50% of responses for yogurt with butter or fish oil were 6.51 and 6.31, respectively, for overall acceptability ("like slightly"), and 7.02 and 6.56, respectively, for flavor acceptability. A large segment of consumers may be interested in incorporating heart-healthy n-3 lipids in their diets through frequent consumption of a savory yogurt enriched with n-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of sensory cues on the perception of exertion during exercise and central regulation of exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Hampson, D B; St Clair Gibson, A; Lambert, M I; Noakes, T D

    2001-01-01

    The perception of effort during exercise and its relationship to fatigue is still not well understood. Although several scales have been developed to quantify exertion Borg's 15-point ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale has been adopted as a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating whole body exertion during exercise. However, Borg's category-ratio scale is useful in quantifying sensations of exertion related to those variables that rise exponentially with increases in exercise intensity. Previous research has examined the extent to which afferent feedback arising from cardiopulmonary and peripheral variables mediates the perception of exertion. However, the literature has not identified a single variable that consistently explains exertion ratings. It is concluded that effort perception involves the integration of multiple afferent signals from a variety of perceptual cues. In a process defined as teleoanticipation, the changes in perceived exertion that result from these afferent signals may allow exercise performance to be precisely regulated such that a task can be completed within the biomechanical and metabolic limits of the body. The accuracy with which individuals can regulate exercise intensity based upon RPE values, the decrease in muscle recruitment (central drive) that occurs before fatigue, and the extent to which perceived exertion and heart rate can be altered with hypnosis and biofeedback training all provide evidence for the existence of such a regulatory system. Future research is needed to precisely quantify the extent to which efferent feedforward commands and afferent feedback determine pacing strategies such that an exercise event can be completed without irreversible tissue damage.

  18. The effect of combined sensory and semantic components on audio-visual speech perception in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over unisensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio-visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio-visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio-visual 'blur' compared to audio-visual 'no blur' condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable.

  19. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  20. Salvinorin-A Induces Intense Dissociative Effects, Blocking External Sensory Perception and Modulating Interoception and Sense of Body Ownership in Humans.

    PubMed

    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R; Riba, Jordi

    2015-06-05

    Salvinorin-A is a terpene with agonist properties at the kappa-opioid receptor, the binding site of endogenous dynorphins. Salvinorin-A is found in Salvia divinorum, a psychoactive plant traditionally used by the Mazatec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, for medicinal and spiritual purposes. Previous studies with the plant and salvinorin-A have reported psychedelic-like changes in perception, but also unusual changes in body awareness and detachment from external reality. Here we comprehensively studied the profiles of subjective effects of increasing doses of salvinorin-A in healthy volunteers, with a special emphasis on interoception. A placebo and three increasing doses of vaporized salvinorin-A (0.25, 0.50, and 1mg) were administered to eight healthy volunteers with previous experience in the use of psychedelics. Drug effects were assessed using a battery of questionnaires that included, among others, the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the Altered States of Consciousness, and a new instrument that evaluates different aspects of body awareness: the Multidimensional Assessment for Interoceptive Awareness. Salvinorin-A led to a disconnection from external reality, induced elaborate visions and auditory phenomena, and modified interoception. The lower doses increased somatic sensations, but the highest dose led to a sense of a complete loss of contact with the body. Salvinorin-A induced intense psychotropic effects characterized by a dose-dependent gating of external audio-visual information and an inverted-U dose-response effect on body awareness. These results suggest a prominent role for the kappa opioid receptor in the regulation of sensory perception, interoception, and the sense of body ownership in humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  1. Salvinorin-A Induces Intense Dissociative Effects, Blocking External Sensory Perception and Modulating Interoception and Sense of Body Ownership in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H.; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salvinorin-A is a terpene with agonist properties at the kappa-opioid receptor, the binding site of endogenous dynorphins. Salvinorin-A is found in Salvia divinorum, a psychoactive plant traditionally used by the Mazatec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, for medicinal and spiritual purposes. Previous studies with the plant and salvinorin-A have reported psychedelic-like changes in perception, but also unusual changes in body awareness and detachment from external reality. Here we comprehensively studied the profiles of subjective effects of increasing doses of salvinorin-A in healthy volunteers, with a special emphasis on interoception. Methods: A placebo and three increasing doses of vaporized salvinorin-A (0.25, 0.50, and 1mg) were administered to eight healthy volunteers with previous experience in the use of psychedelics. Drug effects were assessed using a battery of questionnaires that included, among others, the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the Altered States of Consciousness, and a new instrument that evaluates different aspects of body awareness: the Multidimensional Assessment for Interoceptive Awareness. Results: Salvinorin-A led to a disconnection from external reality, induced elaborate visions and auditory phenomena, and modified interoception. The lower doses increased somatic sensations, but the highest dose led to a sense of a complete loss of contact with the body. Conclusions: Salvinorin-A induced intense psychotropic effects characterized by a dose-dependent gating of external audio-visual information and an inverted-U dose-response effect on body awareness. These results suggest a prominent role for the kappa opioid receptor in the regulation of sensory perception, interoception, and the sense of body ownership in humans. PMID:26047623

  2. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  3. Quantitative Sensory Testing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fründt, Odette; Grashorn, Wiebke; Schöttle, Daniel; Peiker, Ina; David, Nicole; Engel, Andreas K.; Forkmann, Katarina; Wrobel, Nathalie; Münchau, Alexander; Bingel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Altered sensory perception has been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be related to aberrant sensory perception thresholds. We used the well-established, standardized Quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain to investigate 13 somatosensory parameters including…

  4. Short communication: The effect of raw milk cooling on sensory perception and shelf life of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized skim milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2016-12-01

    The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh). The batch of raw milk was split in 2 portions, and a plate heat exchanger was used to quickly cool one portion to <6°C within 1min. The second portion was stored in a jacketed bulk tank and slowly cooled over 4h to <10°C. Milk from 3 consecutive milkings was collected every 12h, with subsequent milkings added to the previous collections. The bulk milk was kept below 10°C while adding milk for the slow cool milk treatment. After 72h, each whole milk was separated; the skim milk was pasteurized at 73 or 78°C for 20 s, homogenized, and held at 4°C. Difference tests (n=75) and consumer acceptance tests (n=100) were conducted to determine if consumers could detect differences among milks. Descriptive analysis and microbial testing for aerobic, psychrotrophic, and psychrotolerant spore counts were conducted through shelf life. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Raw milks averaged 3.3 logcfu/mL by aerobic plate count, <25cfu/mL coliforms, somatic cell count of 300,000 cells/mL, and 3.15±0.07% protein. Psychrotolerant spores were not found in the raw milk. Consumers could not detect differences between cooling treatments of the same pasteurization temperature or between different temperatures of the same cooling treatment. Milks reached sensory failure 49±4d on average after processing, and aerobic counts were between 5 to 7 logcfu/mL. Cooling treatment had no effect on shelf life. These results suggest

  5. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  6. Infant Movement. Normal and Abnormal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christine

    1988-01-01

    A description of the development of movement by infants covers prenatal influences, gravity influences, sensory aspects of motor skills, deformities and deviations in the developmental sequence, and ways to assist infants with abnormal development patterns. (CB)

  7. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    PubMed

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p < 0.05) in seed tannin extracts, whereas in skin tannin extracts, significant differences were observed for %G and %P (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis showed that grape variety influenced neither astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  8. Sensory Constraints on Birdsong Syntax: Neural Responses to Swamp Sparrow Songs with Accelerated Trill Rates

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S

    2013-01-01

    Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This “broken syntax” has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow’s brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This “flickering” auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax. PMID:23976787

  9. Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality.

    PubMed

    Grollemund, Bruno; Guedeney, Antoine; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Picard, Arnaud; Soupre, Véronique; Pellerin, Philippe; Simon, Etienne; Velten, Michel; Dissaux, Caroline; Kauffmann, Isabelle; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Danion-Grilliat, Anne

    2012-06-08

    The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent-child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0) and when the child is one year old (T1). At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child-parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life) and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal). In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their effects will be analysed, so as to serve as a reference for improving

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... the parents has the same abnormality. Autosomal recessive inheritance is a genetic abnormality that can be passed on to the child only if both parents carry the same defective gene (e.g. Cystic fibrosis , Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia). In these cases, both ...

  11. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future.

  12. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Education Resources for Teachers Genomic Careers National DNA Day Online Education Kit Online Genetics Education Resources ... Biological Pathways Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes Cloning Comparative Genomics DNA Microarray Technology DNA Sequencing Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ELSI ...

  13. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission. I - Sensory adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation to one-g: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Human sensory/motor adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity are assessed. Preflight and postflight vestibular and visual responses for the crew on the Spacelab-1 mission are studied; the effect of the abnormal pattern of otolith afferent signals caused by weightlessness on the pitch and roll perception and postural adjustments of the subjects are examined. It is observed that body position and postural reactions change due to weightlessness in order to utilize the varied sensory inputs in a manner suited to microgravity conditions. The aspects of reinterpretation include: (1) tilt acceleration reinterpretation, (2) reduced postural response to z-axis linear acceleration, and (3) increased attention to visual cues.

  14. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  15. Sensory properties and preferences.

    PubMed

    Risvik, E

    1994-01-01

    Common mistakes are frequent in sensory evaluation of meats and meat products. Conceptual confusion is often observed in triangular tests when add-on questions are included in the testing procedures, and when descriptive and hedonic scales are mixed in profiling exercises. Similar consumer responses are often recorded from trained, and thus biased, panels. Preference for meats seems to be most strongly affected by changes in colour/appearance and texture, and to a lesser extent by changes in flavour (that is when off-flavours are not present). It is difficult to generalise as to whether appearance/colour attributes or texture attributes are the most important. A simplified model for texture understanding is suggested, where water/fat perception and structure perception (described by juiciness and tenderness) are orthogonal phenomena and where most other textural attributes can be explained by this structure. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The sensory profile of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Almog, Meital; Kessel, Aharon

    2014-11-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity is one expression of sensory processing disorders (SPD) and results from the inability to regulate an appropriate response to a sensory input in an adaptive manner. We explored the sensory processing profile of children with asthma, based on reports from parents. We studied 86 children between the ages of four and 11 years: 37 diagnosed with asthma and 49 healthy controls. The parents of all participants filled out the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) that measures the child's behavioural reactions to sensory stimuli in daily environments. Sensory processing disorders were more prevalent among children with asthma (F7,71 = 4.16, p = 0.001; ή(2) = 0.29) than among healthy controls and were mainly reflected by hypersensitivity. While about 90% of the healthy children were reported to actively seek sensory stimuli, only 53% of the asthmatic children showed this trend. In the study group, 25.7% of the children's scores reflected abnormal sensory performance, compared with 0% of the controls (χ(2) =21.93; p < 0.001). Children with asthma may suffer from SPD. Our finding supports previous reports that suggest that the central nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of atopic conditions. The sensory profile of children with asthma should be evaluated and treated as required. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oh, S J; LaGanke, C; Claussen, G C

    2001-01-09

    To report eight cases of sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The concept of sensory equivalent to ascending paralysis of GBS was raised in 1958, and the diagnostic criteria for a sensory loss and areflexia variant of GBS were proposed in 1981. However, clinical cases meeting these criteria have been relatively scarce. During a 13-year period between 1986 and 1999, the authors collected eight cases of an acute sensory demyelinating neuropathy that met most of the proposed diagnostic criteria of a sensory variant of GBS. In all patients, sensory neuropathy was sudden at onset and peaked to maximal deficit within 4 weeks. In five (63%) cases, there was an antecedent viral illness. All patients had objective sensory loss and diminished or absent reflexes. None showed any muscle weakness. In all four patients in whom the spinal fluid was examined during the first 4 weeks, there was albuminocytologic dissociation. All of the patients had electrophysiologic evidence of demyelination in at least two nerves. Demyelination was demonstrated in motor nerve conduction in seven patients and in sensory nerve conduction in one, indicating that motor nerve conduction studies were the key for the diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy. All patients had sensory nerve conduction abnormalities in at least one nerve. Three patients responded to immunotherapies. All had a favorable outcome, with a monophasic course of disease and no sign of relapse. The current study confirms the existence of sensory GBS.

  18. Food intake is influenced by sensory sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Harris, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake.

  19. Food Intake Is Influenced by Sensory Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Katherine R.; Harris, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake. PMID:22916284

  20. Maximising umami taste in meat using natural ingredients: effects on chemistry, sensory perception and hedonic liking in young and old consumers.

    PubMed

    Dermiki, Maria; Mounayar, Rana; Suwankanit, Chutipapha; Scott, Jennifer; Kennedy, Orla B; Mottram, Donald S; Gosney, Margot A; Blumenthal, Heston; Methven, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    Umami taste in foods is elicited predominantly by the presence of glutamic acid and 5'-ribonucleotides, which act synergistically. This study aimed to use natural ingredients to maximise umami taste of a meat formulation and determine effects on liking of older consumers. Cooked meat products with added natural ingredients (yeast extract, mycoscent, shiitake extract, tomato puree, soy sauce and soybean paste) or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were prepared and compared with a control sample analytically (umami compounds), sensorially (sensory profile) and hedonically (liking by younger and older volunteers). Taste detection thresholds of sodium chloride and MSG of volunteers were collected. Four of the seven cooked meat products developed had a significantly higher content of umami-contributing compounds compared with the control. All products, except those containing MSG or tomato puree, were scored (by trained sensory panel) perceptually significantly higher in umami and/or salty taste compared with the control. Consumer tests showed a correlation of liking by the older cohort with perceived saltiness (ρ = 0.76). The addition of natural umami-containing ingredients during the cooking of meat can provide enhanced umami and salty taste characteristics. This can lead to increased liking by some consumers, particularly those with raised taste detection thresholds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Anatomy of the antennal dorsal organ in female of Neodryinus typhlocybae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae): A peculiar sensory structure possibly involved in perception of host vibration.

    PubMed

    Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Ruschioni, Sara; Minuz, Roxana L; Bin, Ferdinando; Romani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Neodryinus typhlocybae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) is a natural enemy of the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa, which was introduced from North America into Europe and has become established in various regions as a pest species. Vibrational signals play a crucial role in the communication of M. pruinosa, which appears to be exploited by N. typhlocybae. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy have shown that the antennae of N. typhlocybae females have peculiar and complex sensory structures: deep longitudinal grooves that house long sensilla trichodea, termed here "Antennal Dorsal Organs." Such structures were not present on male antennae. These sensilla extend for the length of the grooves, without contact with the groove cuticle. Their hair shaft is empty and aporous, and inserted into a specialized socket, underneath which there is a cuticular ampulla-like chamber. Each sensillum is associated with two sensory neurons: one terminates at the proximal end of the dendritic sheath; the other continues into the sensillum sinus and is enclosed in the dendritic sheath. This second sensory neuron then enters the ampulla-like chamber through the circular opening, and then terminates with a conspicuous tubular body at the shaft base. The possible involvement of this peculiar structure in the context of host recognition mechanism is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    PubMed

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  4. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of conscious perception and its modulation by volition: implications of human auditory neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silbersweig, D A; Stern, E

    1998-01-01

    Conscious sensory perception and its modulation by volition are integral to human mental life. Functional neuroimaging techniques provide a direct means of identifying and characterizing in vivo the systems-level patterns of brain activity associated with such mental functions. In a series of positron emission tomography activation experiments, we and our colleagues have examined a range of normal and abnormal auditory states that, when contrasted, provide dissociations relevant to the question of the neural substrates of sensory awareness. These dissociations include sensory awareness in the presence and absence of external sensory stimuli, the transition from sensory unawareness to awareness (or vice versa) in the presence of sensory stimuli, and sensory awareness with and without volition. The auditory states studied include hallucinations, mental imagery, cortical deafness modulated by attention, and hearing modulated by sedation. The results of these studies highlight the distributed nature of the functional neuroanatomy that is sufficient, if not necessary, for sensory awareness. The probable roles of unimodal association (as compared with primary) cortices, heteromodal cortices, limbic/paralimbic regions and subcortical structures (such as the thalamus) are discussed. In addition, interactions between pre- and post-rolandic regions are examined in the context of top-down, volitional modulation of sensory awareness. PMID:9854260

  5. Use of β-glucan from spent brewer's yeast as a thickener in skimmed yogurt: Physicochemical, textural, and structural properties related to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Grant, Shannon B; Hayes, Helen; Ranawana, Viren

    2018-04-25

    Powdered β-glucan extracted from brewer's yeast (Yestimun, Leiber GmbH, Bramsche, Germany) was incorporated into skimmed-milk yogurt at varying concentrations (0.2-0.8% wt/wt) to investigate its potential application as a thickener. The effect of β-glucan fortification on the nutritional profile, microstructure, physicochemical properties, and texture of freshly prepared yogurts was investigated. Sensory evaluation was also conducted and was correlated with instrumental analysis. The addition of Yestimun significantly reduced the fermentation time of the yogurt mix from 4 h to 3 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that β-glucan particles formed small spherical clusters within the yogurt matrix. The majority of the physicochemical properties (syneresis, viscosity, color, and titratable acidity) remained unaffected by the incorporation of Yestimun in the recipe. Textural properties showed a gradual increment with increasing β-glucan concentration. Hardness, total work done, adhesive force, and adhesiveness increased by 19.27, 23.3, 21.53, and 20.76%, respectively, when using the highest amount of Yestimun powder. Sensory analysis (n = 40) indicated that fortifying yogurt with Yestimun at 0.8% (wt/wt) concentration may affect overall acceptance ratings, which was attributed to adverse flavor and aftertaste effects. However, the overall liking score of the yogurt (5.0/9.0) shows potential for commercialization of the product. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensory Disturbances, but Not Motor Disturbances, Induced by Sensorimotor Conflicts Are Increased in the Presence of Acute Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Clémentine; Gagné, Martin; McCabe, Candida S.; Mercier, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Incongruence between our motor intention and the sensory feedback of the action (sensorimotor conflict) induces abnormalities in sensory perception in various chronic pain populations, and to a lesser extent in pain-free individuals. The aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate sensory and motor disturbances evoked by sensorimotor conflicts, as well as to assess how they are influenced by the presence of acute pain. It was hypothesized that both sensory and motor disturbances would be increased in presence of pain, which would suggest that pain makes body representations less robust. Thirty healthy participants realized cyclic asymmetric movements of flexion-extension with both upper limbs in a robotized system combined to a 2D virtual environment. The virtual environment provided a visual feedback (VF) about movements that was either congruent or incongruent, while the robotized system precisely measured motor performance (characterized by bilateral amplitude asymmetry and medio-lateral drift). Changes in sensory perception were assessed with a questionnaire after each trial. The effect of pain (induced with capsaicin) was compared to three control conditions (no somatosensory stimulation, tactile distraction and proprioceptive masking). Results showed that while both sensory and motor disturbances were induced by sensorimotor conflicts, only sensory disturbances were enhanced during pain condition comparatively to the three control conditions. This increase did not statistically differ across VF conditions (congruent or incongruent). Interestingly however, the types of sensations evoked by the conflict in the presence of pain (changes in intensity of pain or discomfort, changes in temperature or impression of a missing limb) were different than those evoked by the conflict alone (loss of control, peculiarity and the perception of having an extra limb). Finally, results showed no relationship between the amount of motor and sensory disturbances evoked

  7. Sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an under-recognized entity?

    PubMed

    Ayrignac, Xavier; Viala, Karine; Koutlidis, Régine Morizot; Taïeb, Guillaume; Stojkovic, Tanya; Musset, Lucille; Léger, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Emmanuel; Maisonobe, Thierry; Bouche, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) can be difficult to diagnose. We report 22 patients with chronic sensory polyneuropathy with ≥1 clinical sign atypical for chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) but no electrodiagnostic criteria for CIDP. Clinical signs atypical for CIAP were: sensory ataxia (59%), generalized areflexia (36%), cranial nerve involvement (32%), rapid upper limb involvement (40%), and age at onset ≤55 years (50%). Additional features were: normal sensory nerve action potentials (36%), abnormal radial/normal sural pattern (23%), abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) (100%), elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein (73%), and demyelinating features in 5/7 nerve biopsies. Over 90% of patients responded to immunotherapy. We conclude that all patients had sensory CIDP. Sensory CIDP patients can be misdiagnosed as having CIAP. If atypical clinical/electrophysiologic features are present, we recommend performing SSEPs and CSF examination. Nerve biopsy should be restricted to disabled patients if other examinations are inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Do schizophrenia patients with low P50-suppression report more perceptual anomalies with the sensory gating inventory?

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Hetrick, William P; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Bolbecker, Amanda; Boyer, Laurent; Ystad, Sølvi; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Faget, Catherine; Faugere, Mélanie; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Cermolacce, Michel; Lancon, Christophe; Vion-Dury, Jean

    2014-08-01

    P50 amplitude changes in dual click conditioning-testing procedure might be a neurophysiological marker of deficient sensory gating in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between abnormalities in the neurophysiological and phenomenological dimensions of sensory gating in schizophrenia remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine if patients with low P50-suppression (below 50%) report more perceptual anomalies. Three groups were compared: twenty-nine schizophrenia patients with high P50-suppression (above 50% amplitude suppression), twenty-three schizophrenia patients with low P50-suppression (below 50%) and twenty-six healthy subjects. The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI), a four-factor self-report questionnaire, was used to measure perceptual anomalies related to sensory gating. A comparison of demographic and clinical data was also carried out. Patients with low P50-suppression presented: i) significantly higher scores on the SGI (for the overall SGI score and for each of the 4 factors) and ii) significantly larger P50 amplitude at the second click, than both patients with high P50-suppression and healthy subjects. There were no group differences in the most of demographic and clinical data. The finding offers support for conceptual models wherein abnormal neurophysiologic responses to repetitive stimuli give rise to clinically relevant perceptions of being inundated and overwhelmed by external sensory stimuli. Further studies are needed to explore the contributions of clinical symptoms, medication and neuropsychological functions to the relationship between P50-suppression and the SGI, and the role of sensory "gating in" versus "gating out". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping GPR88-Venus illuminates a novel role for GPR88 in sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Aliza T; Semache, Meriem; Bailly, Julie; Wojcik, Stefan; Arefin, Tanzil M; Colley, Christine; Le Gouill, Christian; Gross, Florence; Lukasheva, Viktoriya; Hogue, Mireille; Darcq, Emmanuel; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Bouvier, Michel; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2018-04-01

    GPR88 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor originally characterized as a striatal-enriched transcript and is a potential target for neuropsychiatric disorders. At present, gene knockout studies in the mouse have essentially focused on striatal-related functions and a comprehensive knowledge of GPR88 protein distribution and function in the brain is still lacking. Here, we first created Gpr88-Venus knock-in mice expressing a functional fluorescent receptor to fine-map GPR88 localization in the brain. The receptor protein was detected in neuronal soma, fibers and primary cilia depending on the brain region, and remarkably, whole-brain mapping revealed a yet unreported layer-4 cortical lamination pattern specifically in sensory processing areas. The unique GPR88 barrel pattern in L4 of the somatosensory cortex appeared 3 days after birth and persisted into adulthood, suggesting a potential function for GPR88 in sensory integration. We next examined Gpr88 knockout mice for cortical structure and behavioral responses in sensory tasks. Magnetic resonance imaging of live mice revealed abnormally high fractional anisotropy, predominant in somatosensory cortex and caudate putamen, indicating significant microstructural alterations in these GPR88-enriched areas. Further, behavioral analysis showed delayed responses in somatosensory-, visual- and olfactory-dependent tasks, demonstrating a role for GPR88 in the integration rather than perception of sensory stimuli. In conclusion, our data show for the first time a prominent role for GPR88 in multisensory processing. Because sensory integration is disrupted in many psychiatric diseases, our study definitely positions GPR88 as a target to treat mental disorders perhaps via activity on cortical sensory networks.

  10. Health-related quality of life and perception of anxiety in women with abnormal cervical cytology referred for colposcopy: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Annu; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Leminen, Arto; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) in patients with abnormal cervical cytology referred for colposcopy. An observational study with prospective and retrospective cohorts. In the prospective arm 240 women referred for colposcopy filled in the 15D HRQoL and the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires and were followed up for 12 months. In the retrospective arm 208 patients who had been treated for cervical dysplasia eight years earlier filled in the 15D HRQoL questionnaire. Results were compared with the age- and sex-standardized general population. In the prospective part of the study, the mean 15D score of the patients did not differ from that of the general population. On the dimensions of sleeping, distress and sexual activity, however, the patients scored lower than the general population (p<0.001). Patients with higher levels of anxiety at baseline, according to the STAI questionnaire, had lower HRQoL during the whole 12-month observation period (p<0.001). The overall HRQoL score of the patients treated for cervical dysplasia eight years earlier did not differ from that of the general population. Abnormal cytology and referral for colposcopy were associated with anxiety and slightly impaired psychosocial components of HRQoL but did not reduce the overall HRQoL. High anxiety levels at baseline were associated with impaired HRQoL. Previous treatment for cervical dysplasia was not associated with impaired overall HRQoL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Sensory Perception of Plant Based Nutraceutical Drinks by Combining Plants from Different Sources: A Preliminary Study of Tea and Ginger Blend

    PubMed Central

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe

    2017-01-01

    Tea-ginger drink was selected for evaluation due to its nutraceutical potential. Panelists rated preference for drinks prepared from tea, ginger, and tea+ginger powder for colour, taste, and aroma. The obtained data were evaluated using analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Also the colour preference scores were evaluated against instrumental colour measurements. The ginger drink had lower rating for colour preference and the tea drink had lower ratings for aroma and taste preference. However, the tea-ginger drink led to enhanced colour, aroma, and taste ratings. The colour preference was found to have highest correlation coefficient with the hue and chroma of the drinks [r(58)=−0.583, P<0.05 and r(58)=0.566, P<0.05]. This study suggests that a sensory quality deficiency in a particular plant based drink could be compensated for by blending the drink with another plant based drink. This approach could help improve the uptake of plant based nutraceutical drinks. PMID:29333392

  12. Sensory perception of and salivary protein response to astringency as a function of the 6-n-propylthioural (PROP) bitter-taste phenotype.

    PubMed

    Melis, Melania; Yousaf, Neeta Y; Mattes, Mitchell Z; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Tepper, Beverly J

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in astringency perception are poorly understood. Astringency from tannins stimulates the release of specific classes of salivary proteins. These proteins form complexes with tannins, altering their perceived astringency and reducing their bioavailability. We studied the bitter compound, 6-n-propylthioural (PROP), as a phenotypic marker for variation in astringency perception and salivary protein responses. Seventy-nine subjects classified by PROP taster status rated cranberry juice cocktail (CJC; with added sugar) supplemented with 0, 1.5 or 2.0g/L tannic acid (TA). Saliva for protein analyses was collected at rest, or after stimulation with TA or cranberry juice (CJ; without added sugar). CJC with 1.5g/L tannic acid was found to be less astringent, and was liked more by PROP non-taster males than PROP taster males, consistent with the expectation that non-tasters are less sensitive to astringency. Levels of acidic Proline Rich Proteins (aPRPs) and basic Proline Rich Proteins (bPRPs) decreased after TA, while levels of aPRPs, bPRPs and Cystatins unexpectedly rose after CJ. Increases in bPRPs and Cystatins were only observed in PROP tasters. The PROP phenotype plays a gender-specific, but somewhat limited role in the perceived astringency of tannic-acid supplemented, cranberry juice cocktail. The PROP phenotype (regardless of gender) may also be involved in the release of salivary proteins previously implicated in oral health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Whisker sensory system - from receptor to decision.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    One of the great challenges of systems neuroscience is to understand how the neocortex transforms neuronal representations of the physical characteristics of sensory stimuli into the percepts which can guide the animal's decisions. Here we present progress made in understanding behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of a highly efficient sensory apparatus, the rat whisker system. Beginning with the 1970s discovery of "barrels" in the rat and mouse brain, one line of research has focused on unraveling the circuits that transmit information from the whiskers to the sensory cortex, together with the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensory responses. A second, more recent line of research has focused on tactile psychophysics, that is, quantification of the behavioral capacities supported by whisker sensation. The opportunity to join these two lines of investigation makes whisker-mediated sensation an exciting platform for the study of the neuronal bases of perception and decision-making. Even more appealing is the beginning-to-end prospective offered by this system: the inquiry can start at the level of the sensory receptor and conclude with the animal's choice. We argue that rats can switch between two modes of operation of the whisker sensory system: (1) generative mode and (2) receptive mode. In the generative mode, the rat moves its whiskers forward and backward to actively seek contact with objects and to palpate the object after initial contact. In the receptive mode, the rat immobilizes its whiskers to optimize the collection of signals from an object that is moving by its own power. We describe behavioral tasks that rats perform in these different modes. Next, we explore which neuronal codes in sensory cortex account for the rats' discrimination capacities. Finally, we present hypotheses for mechanisms through which "downstream" brain regions may read out the activity of sensory cortex in order to extract the significance of sensory stimuli and, ultimately

  14. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet

    2016-10-17

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  15. Enhancing the Sensory Integration of Aphasic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen Pamelia

    1978-01-01

    Investigated was the effect on the sensory integration of 24 aphasic students, of a 7-month sensorimotor program-designed to stimulate the tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems; motor planning ability; bilateral integration; postural and equilibrium responses; visual form and space perception; and motor development. ( DLS)

  16. Teaching through Sensory-Motor Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arena, John I., Ed.

    Included in the collection are articles on sensory-motor sequencing experiences in learning by R.G. Heckelman, integrating form perception by Floria Coon-Teters, building patterns of retention by Harold Helms, hand-eye coordination by Shirley Linn, laterality and directionality by Sheila Benyon, body image and body awareness by Grace Petitclerc,…

  17. Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well-synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses "knowledge" that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of…

  18. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent tightening of neck muscles that can lead to chronic neck ache or headache. An abnormal head posture may also cause the facial bones to grow abnormally leading to facial asymmetry. ...

  19. Evaluating Human Sensory Perceptions and the Compartment Bag Test Assays as Proxies for the Presence and Concentration of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Yolanda M; Collins, Shalean M; Mbullo, Patrick; Boateng, Godfred O; Young, Sera L; Richardson, Ruth E

    2017-10-01

    We compared the concentrations of Escherichia coli quantified with Colilert ™ and the compartment bag test (CBT) in the source water and household stored drinking water (SDW) of 35 households in western Kenya. We also investigated the associations of the perceptions of organoleptic properties and overall quality with ≥ 1 MPN/100 mL E. coli in SDW. Participants who rated the taste or smell of their SDW "< 5" on a 1 = "poor" to 5 = "excellent" Likert scale were 8.71 or 7.04 times more likely, respectively, to have ≥ 1 MPN/100 mL E. coli . Organoleptic properties are innate, albeit imperfect, indicators of fecal pollution in water. Within their shared quantification range, concentrations of E. coli enumerated with Colilert and CBT were similar and had a significant correlation coefficient, 0.896 (95% confidence interval = 0.691-1.101). The methods had moderate agreement within the World Health Organization's health risk levels (Cohen's Kappa coefficient = 0.640). In low-resource settings, CBT provides comparable assessments of E. coli concentrations to Colilert.

  20. Somatosensory evoked potentials for the diagnosis of proximal sensory median neuropathy with preserved distal sensory action potential.

    PubMed

    Merle, P E; Joan, N; Varnet, O; Dupuy-Sonntag, D; Perin, B; Macron, J M

    2003-12-01

    A 33 year-old-man with paresthesia in first three fingers of the right hand after minor trauma of the arm was examined electrophysiologically. The proximal sensory median neuropathy was isolated which it is unusual in traumatic lesion. Motor and distal sensory conduction studies were normal but sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were abnormal by right median nerve stimulation at the wrist level with decrease in amplitude of peripheral potential at the Erb's point, the cervical and contralateral parietal levels. This pattern, preserved distal sensory action potential and abnormal peripheral SEPs were suggesting the presence of proximal sensory block conduction without wallerian degeneration. The recovery was complete and fast in correlation with the absence of axonopathy.

  1. Perception and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Beverly

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a summary of perception research and to suggest practical applications which will improve students' and teachers' communication ability. The "theory" section of this work is devoted to the definition of perception as a selective process, dependent on such factors as acuity of sensory equipment, physical…

  2. Language-Universal Sensory Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Wang, H.-L. Sharon; Cruz, Alicia; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Studies in sensory neuroscience reveal the critical importance of accurate sensory perception for cognitive development. There is considerable debate concerning the possible sensory correlates of "phonological processing", the primary cognitive risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Across languages, children with dyslexia have a specific…

  3. Sensory Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Pamela J.

    This manual is intended to provide information leading to reliable assessment of vision and hearing capabilities of children considered to have dual sensory impairments. Ongoing sensory assessment is necessary to determine the extent of residual sensory abilities that should be considered in educational programming decisions and to determine any…

  4. Is there a connection between postprandial hyperglycemia and IGT related sensory nerve dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Németh, N; Putz, Z; Istenes, I; Körei, A E; Vági, O E; Kempler, M; Gandhi, R; Jermendy, G; Tesfaye, S; Tabák, Á G; Kempler, P

    2017-07-01

    To assess the risk factors for sensory nerve dysfunction in subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Seventy-two people with isolated IGT (WHO 1999 criteria) and 39 gender and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent detailed clinical and neurological assessment including quantitative sensory testing using the Neurometer device (current perception threshold measurement on four limbs at three different frequencies). Sensory nerve dysfunction was defined as at least two abnormalities on any frequencies on the upper or lower limbs. Sensory nerve dysfunction was more prevalent among subjects with IGT compared to controls (58.3 vs. 10.3%, OR: 11.23, 95%CI: 3.57-35.35). This association was not influenced by BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic neuropathy (multiple adjusted OR: 13.87, 95%CI: 3.18-60.58), but further adjustment for glycaemic measures abolished the association (OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 0.07-35.68). Assessing the components of glycaemic measures separately, the association between sensory nerve dysfunction and IGT was not affected by HbA1c (OR: 13.94, 95%CI: 1.84-105.5). It was, however, substantially attenuated by fasting plasma glucose (OR: 6.75, 95%CI: 1.33-34.27) while the significance was lost after adjustment for 120 min postload glucose level (OR: 3.76, 95%CI: 0.26-54.10). In the pooled population assessed, independent determinants of sensory nerve dysfunction were older age, 120 min glucose, higher height and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at near significance. Sensory nerve dysfunction amongst subjects with IGT was not explained by cardiovascular covariates, only by glycaemic measures. In addition to 120 min glucose, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at borderline significance, age, and height were the independent determinants of sensory nerve dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human

  5. Conversion of sensory signals into perceptual decisions.

    PubMed

    Romo, Ranulfo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2013-04-01

    A fundamental problem in neurobiology is to understand how brain circuits represent sensory information and how such representations give rise to perception, memory and decision-making. We demonstrate that a sensory stimulus engages multiple areas of the cerebral cortex, including primary sensory, prefrontal, premotor and motor cortices. As information transverses the cortical circuits it shows progressively more relation to perception, memory and decision reports. In particular, we show how somatosensory areas on the parietal lobe generate a parameterized representation of a tactile stimulus. This representation is maintained in working memory by prefrontal and premotor areas of the frontal lobe. The presentation of a second stimulus, that monkeys are trained to compare with the first, generates decision-related activity reflecting which stimulus had the higher frequency. Importantly, decision-related activity is observed across several cortical circuits including prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortices. Sensory information is encoded by neuronal populations with opposite tuning, and suggests that a simple subtraction operation could be the underlying mechanism by which past and present sensory information is compared to generate perceptual decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The neural substrates of impaired prosodic detection in schizophrenia and its sensorial antecedents.

    PubMed

    Leitman, David I; Hoptman, Matthew J; Foxe, John J; Saccente, Erica; Wylie, Glenn R; Nierenberg, Jay; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Lim, Kelvin O; Javitt, Daniel C

    2007-03-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia show severe deficits in their ability to decode emotions based upon vocal inflection (affective prosody). This study examined neural substrates of prosodic dysfunction in schizophrenia with voxelwise analysis of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Affective prosodic performance was assessed in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 19 comparison subjects with the Voice Emotion Identification Task (VOICEID), along with measures of basic pitch perception and executive processing (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Diffusion tensor MRI fractional anisotropy valves were used for voxelwise correlation analyses. In a follow-up experiment, performance on a nonaffective prosodic perception task was assessed in an additional cohort of 24 patients and 17 comparison subjects. Patients showed significant deficits in VOICEID and Distorted Tunes Task performance. Impaired VOICEID performance correlated significantly with lower fractional anisotropy values within primary and secondary auditory pathways, orbitofrontal cortex, corpus callosum, and peri-amygdala white matter. Impaired Distorted Tunes Task performance also correlated with lower fractional anisotropy in auditory and amygdalar pathways but not prefrontal cortex. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia correlated primarily with prefrontal fractional anisotropy. In the follow-up study, significant deficits were observed as well in nonaffective prosodic performance, along with significant intercorrelations among sensory, affective prosodic, and nonaffective measures. Schizophrenia is associated with both structural and functional disturbances at the level of primary auditory cortex. Such deficits contribute significantly to patients' inability to decode both emotional and semantic aspects of speech, highlighting the importance of sensorial abnormalities in social communicatory dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  7. "A little information excites us." Consumer sensory experience of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B

    2014-07-01

    This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A model for communication of sensory quality in the seafood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    Sensory quality has a key influence of consumer perception of a product. It is therefore of great importance for the processing industry that the sensory quality fulfils the expectations of the consumer. Sensory evaluations are the ultimate tool to measure and communicate sensory quality, but it is generally not fully implemented in the chain from catch to consumer. The importance of communicating sensory demands and results from evaluations in the seafood processing chain is described and a Seafood Sensory Quality Model (SSQM) is suggested as a communication tool.

  9. Sensory Alterations in Patients with Isolated Idiopathic Dystonia: An Exploratory Quantitative Sensory Testing Analysis.

    PubMed

    Paracka, Lejla; Wegner, Florian; Blahak, Christian; Abdallat, Mahmoud; Saryyeva, Assel; Dressler, Dirk; Karst, Matthias; Krauss, Joachim K

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities in the somatosensory system are increasingly being recognized in patients with dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sensory abnormalities are confined to the dystonic body segments or whether there is a wider involvement in patients with idiopathic dystonia. For this purpose, we recruited 20 patients, 8 had generalized, 5 had segmental dystonia with upper extremity involvement, and 7 had cervical dystonia. In total, there were 13 patients with upper extremity involvement. We used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) at the back of the hand in all patients and at the shoulder in patients with cervical dystonia. The main finding on the hand QST was impaired cold detection threshold (CDT), dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA), and thermal sensory limen (TSL). The alterations were present on both hands, but more pronounced on the side more affected with dystonia. Patients with cervical dystonia showed a reduced CDT and hot detection threshold (HDT), enhanced TSL and DMA at the back of the hand, whereas the shoulder QST only revealed increased cold pain threshold and DMA. In summary, QST clearly shows distinct sensory abnormalities in patients with idiopathic dystonia, which may also manifest in body regions without evident dystonia. Further studies with larger groups of dystonia patients are needed to prove the consistency of these findings.

  10. Brain structural correlates of sensory phenomena in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Subirà, Marta; Sato, João R.; Alonso, Pino; do Rosário, Maria C.; Segalàs, Cinto; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Real, Eva; Lopes, Antonio C.; Cerrillo, Ester; Diniz, Juliana B.; Pujol, Jesús; Assis, Rachel O.; Menchón, José M.; Shavitt, Roseli G.; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Cardoner, Narcís; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensory phenomena (SP) are uncomfortable feelings, including bodily sensations, sense of inner tension, “just-right” perceptions, feelings of incompleteness, or “urge-only” phenomena, which have been described to precede, trigger or accompany repetitive behaviours in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Sensory phenomena are also observed in individuals with tic disorders, and previous research suggests that sensorimotor cortex abnormalities underpin the presence of SP in such patients. However, to our knowledge, no studies have assessed the neural correlates of SP in patients with OCD. Methods We assessed the presence of SP using the University of São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale in patients with OCD and healthy controls from specialized units in São Paulo, Brazil, and Barcelona, Spain. All participants underwent a structural magnetic resonance examination, and brain images were examined using DARTEL voxel-based morphometry. We evaluated grey matter volume differences between patients with and without SP and healthy controls within the sensorimotor and premotor cortices. Results We included 106 patients with OCD and 87 controls in our study. Patients with SP (67% of the sample) showed grey matter volume increases in the left sensorimotor cortex in comparison to patients without SP and bilateral sensorimotor cortex grey matter volume increases in comparison to controls. No differences were observed between patients without SP and controls. Limitations Most patients were medicated. Participant recruitment and image acquisition were performed in 2 different centres. Conclusion We have identified a structural correlate of SP in patients with OCD involving grey matter volume increases within the sensorimotor cortex; this finding is in agreement with those of tic disorder studies showing that abnormal activity and volume increases within this region are associated with the urges preceding tic onset. PMID:25652753

  11. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  12. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  13. Laboratory Research in Autonomous Sensory Perception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-30

    although we seek only fixed geometric parameters of objects, it is aLo possible to apply the technique to other learning problems , as we found in this...example, uses reconstruction techniqure; forms of active sensing, and for learning problems not based on Fourier descriptors. It is therefore neces.arily

  14. Sensory symptoms in Parkinson's disease: Clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingxin; Li, Man; Ye, Dawei; Jiang, Wei; Lei, Ting; Shu, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative disease in the elderly population and is typically manifested by motor symptoms and nonmotor symptoms and signs. Nonmotor symptoms, such as sensory symptoms, have been regarded as the significant features of this disease. These symptoms often occur in early stages of PD and influence quality of life. However, researchers suggest that the sensory symptoms of PD are frequently unrecognized by clinicians and remain untreated. The disorders include pain, olfactory disturbance, and visual dysfunction input on the underlying sensory abnormality. This Review focuses on the clinical features, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment strategies for sensory symptoms of PD from both clinical studies and basic research, providing a comprehensive overview of the sensory symptoms in PD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal sensory innervation in the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and sensory stimulation treatments.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Rofes, Laia; Casamitjana, J Francesc; Padrón, Andreína; Quer, Miquel; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments. This review focuses on the sensory innervation of the human oropharynx and larynx in healthy people compared with patients with swallowing disorders in order to unravel the abnormalities that may lead to the loss of sensitivity in patients with OD. We also hypothesize the pathway through which active sensory-enhancement treatments may elicit their therapeutic effect on patients with swallowing dysfunctions. As far as we know, this is the first time a review covers the anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, and molecular biology of the sensory innervation of the swallowing function. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  17. Persistence of Cortical Sensory Processing during Absence Seizures in Human and an Animal Model: Evidence from EEG and Intracellular Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Chipaux, Mathilde; Vercueil, Laurent; Kaminska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Absence seizures are caused by brief periods of abnormal synchronized oscillations in the thalamocortical loops, resulting in widespread spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). SWDs are concomitant with a complete or partial impairment of consciousness, notably expressed by an interruption of ongoing behaviour together with a lack of conscious perception of external stimuli. It is largely considered that the paroxysmal synchronizations during the epileptic episode transiently render the thalamocortical system incapable of transmitting primary sensory information to the cortex. Here, we examined in young patients and in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a well-established genetic model of absence epilepsy, how sensory inputs are processed in the related cortical areas during SWDs. In epileptic patients, visual event-related potentials (ERPs) were still present in the occipital EEG when the stimuli were delivered during seizures, with a significant increase in amplitude compared to interictal periods and a decrease in latency compared to that measured from non-epileptic subjects. Using simultaneous in vivo EEG and intracellular recordings from the primary somatosensory cortex of GAERS and non-epileptic rats, we found that ERPs and firing responses of related pyramidal neurons to whisker deflection were not significantly modified during SWDs. However, the intracellular subthreshold synaptic responses in somatosensory cortical neurons during seizures had larger amplitude compared to quiescent situations. These convergent findings from human patients and a rodent genetic model show the persistence of cortical responses to sensory stimulations during SWDs, indicating that the brain can still process external stimuli during absence seizures. They also demonstrate that the disruption of conscious perception during absences is not due to an obliteration of information transfer in the thalamocortical system. The possible

  18. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  19. Genetic influences on oral fat perception and preference: Presented at the symposium "The Taste for Fat: New Discoveries on the Role of Fat in Sensory Perception, Metabolism, Sensory Pleasure and Beyond" held at the Institute of Food Technologists 2011 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, June 12, 2011.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-03-01

    Research suggests that dietary fat is perceived not only by texture, but also by taste. However, the receptors for chemosensory response to fat have not been identified. We report on 2 genes,TAS2R38 and CD36, that may play a role in fat perception and preference in humans. TAS2R38 is a taste receptor for bitter thiourea compounds, including 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Nontasters of these compounds tend to be poor at discriminating fat in foods, even though they prefer higher fat versions of these foods. CD36, a fatty acid translocase expressed on multiple cell types including taste cells, plays a critical role in fat preferences in animals. In studies conducted in our laboratory with African-American adults, we identified a variant in the CD36 gene, rs1761667, that predicts oral responses to fat. Individuals who have the A/A genotype at this site tend to find Italian salad dressings creamier than those who have other genotypes at this site. In addition, A/A individuals report higher preferences for added fats, oils, and spreads (for example margarine). Assuming these data are confirmed in other populations, screening for CD36 genotype may provide helpful information to food companies for developing fat-modified products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. A sensory source for motor variation

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Leslie C.; Lisberger, Stephen G.; Bialek, William

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that the variability in our movements1–9 is caused not by noise in the motor system itself, nor by fluctuations in our intentions or plans, but rather by errors in our sensory estimates of the external parameters that define the appropriate action. For tasks in which precision is at a premium, performance would be optimal if no noise were added in movement planning and execution: motor output would be as accurate as possible given the quality of sensory inputs. Here we use visually guided smooth-pursuit eye movements in primates10 as a testing ground for this notion of optimality. In response to repeated presentations of identical target motions, nearly 92% of the variance in eye trajectory can be accounted for as a consequence of errors in sensory estimates of the speed, direction and timing of target motion, plus a small background noise that is observed both during eye movements and during fixations. The magnitudes of the inferred sensory errors agree with the observed thresholds for sensory discrimination by perceptual systems, suggesting that the very different neural processes of perception and action are limited by the same sources of noise. PMID:16163357

  1. A 100-Year Review: Sensory analysis of milk.

    PubMed

    Schiano, A N; Harwood, W S; Drake, M A

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of food products has been, and will continue to be, the ultimate method for evaluating product quality. Sensory quality is a parameter that can be evaluated only by humans and consists of a series of tests or tools that can be applied objectively or subjectively within the constructs of carefully selected testing procedures and parameters. Depending on the chosen test, evaluators are able to probe areas of interest that are intrinsic product attributes (e.g., flavor profiles and off-flavors) as well as extrinsic measures (e.g., market penetration and consumer perception). This review outlines the literature pertaining to relevant testing procedures and studies of the history of sensory analysis of fluid milk. In addition, evaluation methods outside of traditional sensory techniques and future outlooks on the subject of sensory analysis of fluid milk are explored and presented. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Worms With a Single Functional Sensory Cilium Generate Proper Neuron-Specific Behavioral Output

    PubMed Central

    Senti, Gabriele; Ezcurra, Marina; Löbner, Jana; Schafer, William R.; Swoboda, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Studying the development and mechanisms of sensory perception is challenging in organisms with complex neuronal networks. The worm Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a simple neuronal network of 302 neurons that includes 60 ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs) for detecting external sensory input. C. elegans is thus an excellent model in which to study sensory neuron development, function, and behavior. We have generated a genetic rescue system that allows in vivo analyses of isolated CSNs at both cellular and systemic levels. We used the RFX transcription factor DAF-19, a key regulator of ciliogenesis. Mutations in daf-19 result in the complete absence of all sensory cilia and thus of external sensory input. In daf-19 mutants, we used cell-specific rescue of DAF-19 function in selected neurons, thereby generating animals with single, fully functional CSNs. Otherwise and elsewhere these animals are completely devoid of any environmental input through cilia. We demonstrated the rescue of fully functional, single cilia using fluorescent markers, sensory behavioral assays, and calcium imaging. Our technique, functional rescue in single sensory cilia (FRISSC), can thus cell-autonomously and cell-specifically restore the function of single sensory neurons and their ability to respond to sensory input. FRISSC can be adapted to many different CSNs and thus constitutes an excellent tool for studying sensory behaviors, both in single animals and in populations of worms. FRISSC will be very useful for the molecular dissection of sensory perception in CSNs and for the analysis of the developmental aspects of ciliogenesis. PMID:19652182

  3. Worms with a single functional sensory cilium generate proper neuron-specific behavioral output.

    PubMed

    Senti, Gabriele; Ezcurra, Marina; Löbner, Jana; Schafer, William R; Swoboda, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Studying the development and mechanisms of sensory perception is challenging in organisms with complex neuronal networks. The worm Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a simple neuronal network of 302 neurons that includes 60 ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs) for detecting external sensory input. C. elegans is thus an excellent model in which to study sensory neuron development, function, and behavior. We have generated a genetic rescue system that allows in vivo analyses of isolated CSNs at both cellular and systemic levels. We used the RFX transcription factor DAF-19, a key regulator of ciliogenesis. Mutations in daf-19 result in the complete absence of all sensory cilia and thus of external sensory input. In daf-19 mutants, we used cell-specific rescue of DAF-19 function in selected neurons, thereby generating animals with single, fully functional CSNs. Otherwise and elsewhere these animals are completely devoid of any environmental input through cilia. We demonstrated the rescue of fully functional, single cilia using fluorescent markers, sensory behavioral assays, and calcium imaging. Our technique, functional rescue in single sensory cilia (FRISSC), can thus cell-autonomously and cell-specifically restore the function of single sensory neurons and their ability to respond to sensory input. FRISSC can be adapted to many different CSNs and thus constitutes an excellent tool for studying sensory behaviors, both in single animals and in populations of worms. FRISSC will be very useful for the molecular dissection of sensory perception in CSNs and for the analysis of the developmental aspects of ciliogenesis.

  4. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause abnormal tooth shape and growth are: Congenital syphilis Cerebral palsy Ectodermal dysplasia , anhidrotic Incontinentia pigmenti achromians Cleidocranial dysostosis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

  5. Dynamic combination of sensory and reward information under time pressure

    PubMed Central

    Farashahi, Shiva; Kao, Chang-Hao

    2018-01-01

    When making choices, collecting more information is beneficial but comes at the cost of sacrificing time that could be allocated to making other potentially rewarding decisions. To investigate how the brain balances these costs and benefits, we conducted a series of novel experiments in humans and simulated various computational models. Under six levels of time pressure, subjects made decisions either by integrating sensory information over time or by dynamically combining sensory and reward information over time. We found that during sensory integration, time pressure reduced performance as the deadline approached, and choice was more strongly influenced by the most recent sensory evidence. By fitting performance and reaction time with various models we found that our experimental results are more compatible with leaky integration of sensory information with an urgency signal or a decision process based on stochastic transitions between discrete states modulated by an urgency signal. When combining sensory and reward information, subjects spent less time on integration than optimally prescribed when reward decreased slowly over time, and the most recent evidence did not have the maximal influence on choice. The suboptimal pattern of reaction time was partially mitigated in an equivalent control experiment in which sensory integration over time was not required, indicating that the suboptimal response time was influenced by the perception of imperfect sensory integration. Meanwhile, during combination of sensory and reward information, performance did not drop as the deadline approached, and response time was not different between correct and incorrect trials. These results indicate a decision process different from what is involved in the integration of sensory information over time. Together, our results not only reveal limitations in sensory integration over time but also illustrate how these limitations influence dynamic combination of sensory and reward

  6. Set and setting: how behavioral state regulates sensory function and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Aton, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques are allowing us to answer fundamental questions about how behavioral states regulate our perception of the external environment. Studies using these techniques have yielded surprising insights into how sensory processing is affected at the earliest stages by attention and motivation, and how new sensory information received during wakefulness (e.g., during learning) continues to affect sensory brain circuits (leading to plastic changes) during subsequent sleep. This review aims to describe how brain states affect sensory response properties among neurons in primary and secondary sensory cortices, and how this relates to psychophysical detection thresholds and performance on sensory discrimination tasks. This is not intended to serve as a comprehensive overview of all brain states, or all sensory systems, but instead as an illustrative description of how three specific state variables (attention, motivation, and vigilance [i.e., sleep vs. wakefulness]) affect sensory systems in which they have been best studied. PMID:23792020

  7. Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The…

  8. No Proprioceptive Deficits in Autism despite Movement-Related Sensory and Execution Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often involves sensory and motor problems, yet the proprioceptive sense of limb position has not been directly assessed. We used three tasks to assess proprioception in adolescents with ASD who had motor and sensory perceptual abnormalities, and compared them to age- and IQ-matched controls. Results showed no group…

  9. Autism: Tactile Perception and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernon, E.; Pry, R.; Baghdadli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method: Several experiments were carried out using…

  10. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients with implications for pathogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kosek, E; Ekholm, J; Hansson, P

    1996-12-01

    This study, addressing etiologic and pathogenic aspects of fibromyalgia (FM), aimed at examining whether sensory abnormalities in FM patients are generalized or confined to areas with spontaneous pain. Ten female FM patients and 10 healthy, age-matched females participated. The patients were asked to rate the intensity of ongoing pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS) at the site of maximal pain, the homologous contralateral site and two homologous sites with no or minimal pain. Quantitative sensory testing was performed for assessment of perception thresholds in these four sites. Von Frey filaments were used to test low-threshold mechanoreceptive function. Pressure pain sensitivity was assessed with a pressure algometer and thermal sensitivity with a Thermotest. In addition the stimulus-response curve of pain intensity as a function of graded nociceptive heat stimulation was studied at the site of maximal pain and at the homologous contralateral site. FM patients had increased sensitivity to non-painful warmth (P < 0.01) over painful sites and a tendency to increased sensitivity to non-painful cold (P < 0.06) at all sites compared to controls, but there was no difference between groups regarding tactile perception thresholds. Compared to controls, patients demonstrated increased sensitivity to pressure pain (P < 0.001), cold pain (P < 0.001) and heat pain (P < 0.02) over all tested sites. The stimulus-response curve was parallely shifted to the left of the curve obtained from controls (P < 0.003). Intragroup comparisons showed that patients had increased sensitivity to pressure pain (P < 0.01) and light touch (P < 0.05) in the site of maximal pain compared to the homologous contralateral site. These findings could be explained in terms of sensitization of primary afferent pathways or as a dysfunction of endogenous systems modulating afferent activity. However, the generalized increase in sensitivity found in FM patients was unrelated to spontaneous pain and thus

  12. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  13. Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

  14. Aggregation of sensory data using fuzzy logic for sensory quality evaluation of food.

    PubMed

    Debjani, Chakraborty; Das, Shrilekha; Das, H

    2013-12-01

    A method of sensory evaluation using fuzzy logic has been proposed in this paper. The method was applied for evaluation of sensory quality of tea liquor made out of dried CTC tea. Linguistic data (e.g., excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, fair, not-satisfactory, etc.) on individual tea liquor's quality attributes and the perception of the evaluators (e.g., extremely important, highly important, important, somewhat important, not-at-all important, etc.) for relative importance of these quality attributes were obtained. Sensory score between 0 and 100 for (i) Judges' preference for different quality attributes of tea liquor in general, (ii) Quality attributes ranking of tea liquor and the (ii) Overall quality of tea liquor were estimated. The last one can be utilized for the ranking of the different tea liquors.

  15. Abnormal rubbing and keratectasia.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2007-11-01

    Hypotheses for the varied pathogenesis of the different forms of keratoconus have been outlined. Against this background, the possibility that abnormal rubbing causes or contributes to the development or progression of some forms of keratoconus has been examined. Circumstantial evidence that shows an association between abnormal rubbing and keratoconus is reviewed, and a wide range of different forms of abnormal rubbing is described. Also examined is evidence of several processes whereby the cornea appears to be, or could be, adversely affected by mechanical trauma caused by rubbing. Conditions that may increase susceptibility to mechanical rubbing trauma have been discussed. Evidence of a role for inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of keratoconus appears to void the description of keratoconus as a noninflammatory condition. When vigorous knuckle-rubbing forces are located on the normal peripheral cornea, the thinner or weakened cone apex may be exposed to high intraocular pressure distending forces that may tend to promote ectasia. It appears reasonable to conclude that abnormal rubbing is a cause of some types of keratoconus, not because all abnormal rubbing, or only abnormal rubbing, leads to the development of some types of keratoconus, but because abnormal rubbing may increase the likelihood of the development of some forms of keratoconus. Abnormal rubbing habits may commence or continue after routine contact lens wear is established. Any associated rubbing or contact lens trauma may contribute to the progression of keratoconus. The abnormal rubbing-ectasia association in keratoconus may extend to other forms of keratectasia, including that seen after laser in situ keratomileusis, for which a contributory abnormal rubbing hypothesis may be appropriate.

  16. Identification of Balance Deficits in People with Parkinson Disease; is the Sensory Organization Test Enough?

    PubMed

    Gera, G; Freeman, D L; Blackinton, M T; Horak, F B; King, L

    2016-02-01

    Balance deficits in people with Parkinson's disease can affect any of the multiple systems encompassing balance control. Thus, identification of the specific deficit is crucial in customizing balance rehabilitation. The sensory organization test, a test of sensory integration for balance control, is sometimes used in isolation to identify balance deficits in people with Parkinson's disease. More recently, the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test, a clinical scale that tests multiple domains of balance control, has begun to be used to assess balance in patients with Parkinson's disease. The purpose of our study was to compare the use of Sensory Organization Test and Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test in identifying balance deficits in people with Parkinson's disease. 45 participants (27M, 18F; 65.2 ± 8.2 years) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in the cross-sectional study. Balance assessment was performed using the Sensory Organization Test and the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test. People were classified into normal and abnormal balance based on the established cutoff scores (normal balance: Sensory Organization Test >69; Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test >73). More subjects were classified as having abnormal balance with the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test (71% abnormal) than with the Sensory Organization Test (24% abnormal) in our cohort of people with Parkinson's disease. There were no subjects with a normal Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test score but abnormal Sensory Organization Test score. In contrast, there were 21 subjects who had an abnormal Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test score but normal Sensory Organization Test scores. Findings from this study suggest that investigation of sensory integration deficits, alone, may not be able to identify all types of balance deficits found in patients with Parkinson's disease. Thus, a comprehensive approach should be used to test of multiple balance systems to provide

  17. Learning of sensory sequences in cerebellar patients.

    PubMed

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for age, sex, handedness, musicality, and level of education were tested. Auditory and visual sensory sequences were presented out of different sensory pattern categories (tones with different acoustic frequencies and durations, visual stimuli with different spatial locations and colors, sequential vision of irregular shapes) and different ranges of inter-cue time intervals (fast and slow). Motor requirements were small, with vocal responses and no time restrictions. Perception of visual and acoustic stimuli was generally preserved in patients and controls. The number of errors was significantly higher in the faster tempo of sequence presentation in learning of sequences of tones of different frequencies and in learning of sequences of visual stimuli of different spatial locations and different colors. No difference in tempo between the groups was shown. The total number of errors between the two groups was identical in the sequence conditions. No major disturbances in acquisition or discrimination of various sensory sequences were observed in the group of cerebellar patients. Sequence learning may be impaired only in tasks with significant motor demands.

  18. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  19. Convergence of multimodal sensory pathways to the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Ryosuke; Mabuchi, Yuta; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals. PMID:27404960

  20. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  1. Activity Participation and Sensory Features among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Lauren M.; Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory features are highly prevalent among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have been shown to cluster into four patterns of response, including hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, enhanced perception, and sensory interests, repetitions and seeking behaviors. Given the lack of large-scale research on the differential effects…

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of three sensory tests for diagnosis of sensory disturbances.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Ming; Yang, Yi; Hou, Yi; Yang, Jian-Tao; Qin, Ben-Gang; Fu, Guo; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of sensory disturbances is extremely challenging, partly because the utility of sensory tests is questionable. Transection of C7 nerve root provides an objective assessment model to determine the diagnostic accuracy of sensory tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments (SWM; Sammons Preston, Bolingbrook, IL), static two-point discrimination (s2PD), and current perception threshold (CPT) tests in patients with contralateral C7 nerve root transfer. The contralateral index finger of patients was tested preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively, including the Revised Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2), SWM, s2PD, and CPT tests. The SF-MPQ-2 was used as a gold standard for sensory disturbances. A total of 38 patients were included in the study. The likelihood probability ratio of SWM and CPT tests generated small shifts in probability, whereas the s2PD test did not show any capacity to detect sensory disturbances. The areas under the curves (AUC) for SWM and CPT tests were 0.724 and 0.697, respectively. Based on different positive test standards, the AUCs for s2PD (≥ 6 mm) and s2PD (≥ 7 mm) tests were 0.632 and 0.658, respectively. When CPT and SWM tests were combined as a measure, the AUC increased to 0.763. The SWM and CPT tests show a small capacity to detect sensory disturbances, whereas the s2PD test does not show any diagnostic capacity. To better understand sensory disturbances, a comprehensive testing protocol including valid measures of physical impairment and symptom-specific measurement tools should be adopted. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Sensory empathy and enactment.

    PubMed

    Zanocco, Giorgio; De Marchi, Alessandra; Pozzi, Francesco

    2006-02-01

    The authors propose the concept of sensory empathy which emerges through contact between analyst and patient as they get in touch with an area concerning the primary bond. This area is not so much based on thoughts and fantasies as it is on physical sensations. Sensory empathy has to do with that instrument described by Freud as pertaining to the unconscious of any human, which enables one person to interpret unconscious communications of another person. The authors link this concept to that of enactment precisely because the latter concerns unconscious, early elements that fi nd in the act a fi rst meaningful expression. It involves both analyst and patient. In other words, the authors wish to emphasize the importance of the analytical process maintaining contact with that immense field of human interaction that can be defined as primary sensory area and which becomes intertwined with the evolution of affects. Clinical examples are provided to clarify these hypotheses.

  4. Sensory aspects in myasthenia gravis: A translational approach.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Leon-Ariza, Juan S; Prada, Diddier; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis is a paradigmatic muscle disorder characterized by abnormal fatigue and muscle weakness that worsens with activities and improves with rest. Clinical and research studies done on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have advanced our knowledge of the muscle involvement in myasthenia. Current views still state that sensory deficits are not "features of myasthenia gravis". This article discusses the gap that exists on sensory neural transmission in myasthenia that has remained after >300years of research in this neurological disorder. We outline the neurobiological characteristics of sensory and motor synapses, reinterpret the nanocholinergic commonalities that exist in both sensory and motor pathways, discuss the clinical findings on altered sensory pathways in myasthenia, and propose a novel way to score anomalies resulting from multineuronal inability associated sensory troubles due to eugenic nanocholinergic instability and autoimmunity. This medicine-based evidence could serve as a template to further identify novel targets for studying new medications that may offer a better therapeutic benefit in both sensory and motor dysfunction for patients. Importantly, this review may help to re-orient current practices in myasthenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ravages of Diabetes on Gastrointestinal Sensory-Motor Function: Implications for Pathophysiology and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Drewes, Anne Mohr; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Zhao, Jingbo

    2016-02-01

    Symptoms related to functional and sensory abnormalities are frequently encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. Most symptoms are associated with impaired gastric and intestinal function. In this review, we discuss basic concepts of sensory-motor dysfunction and how they relate to clinical findings and gastrointestinal abnormalities that are commonly seen in diabetes. In addition, we review techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of sensory-motor function. Such technological advances, while not readily available in the clinical setting, may facilitate stratification and individualization of therapy in diabetic patients in the future. Unraveling the structural, mechanical, and sensory remodeling in diabetes disease is based on a multidisciplinary approach that can bridge the knowledge from a variety of scientific disciplines. The final goal is to increase the understanding of the damage to GI structures and to sensory processing of symptoms, in order to assist clinicians with developing an optimal mechanics based treatment.

  7. Assessment of Sensory Processing Characteristics in Children between 3 and 11 Years Old: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jorquera-Cabrera, Sara; Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Rodriguez-Gil, Gemma; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of sensory perception, discrimination, integration, modulation, praxis, and other motor skills, such as posture, balance, and bilateral motor coordination, is necessary to identify the sensory and motor factors influencing the development of personal autonomy. The aim of this work is to study the assessment tools currently available for identifying different patterns of sensory processing. There are 15 tests available that have psychometric properties, primarily for the US population. Nine of them apply to children in preschool and up to grade 12. The assessment of sensory processing is a process that includes the use of standardized tests, administration of caregiver questionnaires, and clinical observations. The review of different studies using PRISMA criteria or Osteba Critical Appraisal Cards reveals that the most commonly used tools are the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, the Sensory Processing Measure, and the Sensory Profile.

  8. Assessment of Sensory Processing Characteristics in Children between 3 and 11 Years Old: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jorquera-Cabrera, Sara; Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Rodriguez-Gil, Gemma; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of sensory perception, discrimination, integration, modulation, praxis, and other motor skills, such as posture, balance, and bilateral motor coordination, is necessary to identify the sensory and motor factors influencing the development of personal autonomy. The aim of this work is to study the assessment tools currently available for identifying different patterns of sensory processing. There are 15 tests available that have psychometric properties, primarily for the US population. Nine of them apply to children in preschool and up to grade 12. The assessment of sensory processing is a process that includes the use of standardized tests, administration of caregiver questionnaires, and clinical observations. The review of different studies using PRISMA criteria or Osteba Critical Appraisal Cards reveals that the most commonly used tools are the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, the Sensory Processing Measure, and the Sensory Profile. PMID:28424762

  9. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory integration and praxis patterns in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Roley, Susanne Smith; Mailloux, Zoe; Parham, L Diane; Schaaf, Roseann C; Lane, Christianne Joy; Cermak, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We sought to characterize sensory integration (SI) and praxis patterns of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discern whether these patterns relate to social participation. We extracted Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) and Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) scores from clinical records of children with ASD ages 4-11 yr (N=89) and used SIPT and SPM standard scores to describe SI and praxis patterns. Correlation coefficients were generated to discern relationships among SI and praxis scores and these scores' associations with SPM Social Participation scores. Children with ASD showed relative strengths in visual praxis. Marked difficulties were evident in imitation praxis, vestibular bilateral integration, somatosensory perception, and sensory reactivity. SPM Social Participation scores were inversely associated with areas of deficit on SIPT measures. Children with ASD characteristically display strengths in visuopraxis and difficulties with somatopraxis and vestibular functions, which appear to greatly affect participation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Sensory feedback - Dependent neural de-orchestration: The effect of altered sensory feedback on Musician's Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, F P-H; Eddy, M-L; Ruiz, M Herrojo; Großbach, M; Altenmüller, E O

    2015-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a task-specific movement disorder related to extensive expert music performance training. Similar to other forms of focal dystonia, MD involves sensory deficits and abnormal patterns of sensorimotor integration. The present study investigated the impaired cortical sensorimotor network of pianists who suffer from MD by employing altered auditory and tactile feedback during scale playing with multichannel EEG. 9 healthy professional pianists and 9 professional pianists suffering from right hand MD participated in an experiment that required repeated scale playing on a MIDI piano under altered sensory feedback while EEG was measured. The comparison of EEG data in healthy pianists and pianists suffering from MD revealed a higher degree of inter-regional phase synchronisation between the frontal and parietal regions and between the temporal and central regions in the patient group and in conditions that are relevant to the long-trained auditory-motor coupling (normal auditory feedback and complete deprivation of auditory feedback), but such abnormalities decreased in conditions with delayed auditory feedback and altered tactile feedback. These findings support the hypothesis that the impaired sensorimotor integration of MD patients is specific to the type of overtrained task that the patients were trained for and can be modified with altered sensory feedback.

  12. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  13. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  14. The Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire: Validation of a French Language Version and Refinement of Sensory Profiles of People with High Autism-Spectrum Quotient.

    PubMed

    Sapey-Triomphe, Laurie-Anne; Moulin, Annie; Sonié, Sandrine; Schmitz, Christina

    2017-11-30

    Sensory sensitivity peculiarities represent an important characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We first validated a French language version of the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (GSQ) (Robertson and Simmons in J Autism Dev Disord 43(4):775-784, 2013). The GSQ score was strongly positively correlated with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (r = 0.81, p < 10 -6 , n = 245). We further examined sensory profiles of groups with high versus low AQ. The high AQ group scored higher at the GSQ than the low AQ group for every sensory modality. Moreover, the high AQ group showed greater consistency in their patterns of hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity between sensory modalities, and stronger correlations between hyper and hyposensitivity. Results are discussed in the context of theories accounting for atypical sensory perception in ASD.

  15. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J; Lafeber, Harrie N; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-02-01

    Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. To investigate somatosensory registration, multisensory integration and sensory modulation. 57 very preterm school-age children (mean age=9.2years) were compared to 56 gender and age matched full-term children. Group differences on somatosensory registration tasks (Registration of Light Touch, Sensory Discrimination of Touch, Position Sense, Graphestesia), a computerized multisensory integration task, and the parent-reported Sensory Profile were investigated using t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. In comparison to full-term children, very preterm children are less accurate on somatosensory registration tasks, including Registration of Light Touch (d=0.34), Position Sense (d=0.31) and Graphestesia (d=0.42) and show more sensory modulation difficulties (d=0.41), including both behavioral hyporesponsivity (d=0.52) and hyperresponsivity (d=0.56) to sensory stimuli. Tactile discrimination and multisensory integration efficiency were not affected in very preterm children. Aspects of sensory processing were only modestly related. Very preterm children show sensory processing difficulties regarding somatosensory registration and sensory modulation, and preserved multisensory (audio-visual) integration. Follow-up care for very preterm children should involve screening of sensory processing difficulties at least up to school age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reverse hierarchy theory and medical image perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, T.; Manning, D. J.

    2009-02-01

    We are unsure about what information is extracted from an image to allow a decision about pathology to be made. Our knowledge of the interplay between top down processing or bottom up, local or global perception, perceptual or cognitive processes is uncertain. However recent research has emphasised the importance of the global or holistic look in medical image perception in which recognition of abnormalities precedes search. Reverse Hierarchy Theory [1] is a useful general theory that helps to explain this. It also enables us to understand what information is extracted from an image and how this relates to expertise. Essentially the theory states that perceptual learning begins at high levels areas and progresses down to lower level areas when better signal to noise is needed. So perceptual learning, defined as an improvement in sensory abilities after training, stems from a gradual top down guided increase in usability of first high then lower level task relevant information. Evaluation of the scan paths of groups of observers with different levels of expertise when undertaking a lung nodule perception task seems to be consistent with the theory. Experts' perception is generally immediate and holistic suggesting high level representations whereas those with an intermediate level of expertise tend to be more variable in their scan paths. Interestingly naÃve observers have eye tracking metrics that are more similar to experts suggesting they take a common sense approach using perceptual skills we all have as they lack experience in being able to access the low level information from the chest radiograph.

  17. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  18. Using a Standardized Clinical Quantitative Sensory Testing Battery to Judge the Clinical Relevance of Sensory Differences Between Adjacent Body Areas.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Violeta; Oertel, Bruno G; Lötsch, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Skin sensitivity to sensory stimuli varies among different body areas. A standardized clinical quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery, established for the diagnosis of neuropathic pain, was used to assess whether the magnitude of differences between test sites reaches clinical significance. Ten different sensory QST measures derived from thermal and mechanical stimuli were obtained from 21 healthy volunteers (10 men) and used to create somatosensory profiles bilateral from the dorsum of the hands (the standard area for the assessment of normative values for the upper extremities as proposed by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) and bilateral at volar forearms as a neighboring nonstandard area. The parameters obtained were statistically compared between test sites. Three of the 10 QST parameters differed significantly with respect to the "body area," that is, warmth detection, thermal sensory limen, and mechanical pain thresholds. After z-transformation and interpretation according to the QST battery's standard instructions, 22 abnormal values were obtained at the hand. Applying the same procedure to parameters assessed at the nonstandard site forearm, that is, z-transforming them to the reference values for the hand, 24 measurements values emerged as abnormal, which was not significantly different compared with the hand (P=0.4185). Sensory differences between neighboring body areas are statistically significant, reproducing prior knowledge. This has to be considered in scientific assessments where a small variation of the tested body areas may not be an option. However, the magnitude of these differences was below the difference in sensory parameters that is judged as abnormal, indicating a robustness of the QST instrument against protocol deviations with respect to the test area when using the method of comparison with a 95 % confidence interval of a reference dataset.

  19. Auditory perception in individuals with Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Rance, Gary; Corben, Louise; Barker, Elizabeth; Carew, Peter; Chisari, Donella; Rogers, Meghan; Dowell, Richard; Jamaluddin, Saiful; Bryson, Rochelle; Delatycki, Martin B

    2010-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited ataxia with a range of progressive features including axonal degeneration of sensory nerves. The aim of this study was to investigate auditory perception in affected individuals. Fourteen subjects with genetically defined FRDA participated. Two control groups, one consisting of healthy, normally hearing individuals and another comprised of subjects with sensorineural hearing loss, were also assessed. Auditory processing was evaluated using structured tasks designed to reveal the listeners' ability to perceive temporal and spectral cues. Findings were then correlated with open-set speech understanding. Nine of 14 individuals with FRDA showed evidence of auditory processing disorder. Gap and amplitude modulation detection levels in these subjects were significantly elevated, indicating impaired encoding of rapid signal changes. Electrophysiologic findings (auditory brainstem response, ABR) also reflected disrupted neural activity. Speech understanding was significantly affected in these listeners and the degree of disruption was related to temporal processing ability. Speech analyses indicated that timing cues (notably consonant voice onset time and vowel duration) were most affected. The results suggest that auditory pathway abnormality is a relatively common consequence of FRDA. Regular auditory evaluation should therefore be part of the management regime for all affected individuals. This assessment should include both ABR testing, which can provide insights into the degree to which auditory neural activity is disrupted, and some functional measure of hearing capacity such as speech perception assessment, which can quantify the disorder and provide a basis for intervention. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  1. NMR spectrometers as "magnetic tongues": prediction of sensory descriptors in canned tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Malmendal, Anders; Amoresano, Claudia; Trotta, Roberta; Lauri, Ilaria; De Tito, Stefano; Novellino, Ettore; Randazzo, Antonio

    2011-10-26

    The perception of odor and flavor of food is a complicated physiological and psychological process that cannot be explained by simple models. Quantitative descriptive analysis is a technique used to describe sensory features. Nevertheless, the availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. In this frame, we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a predictive tool to measure sensory descriptors. In particular, we have used an NMR metabolomic approach that allowed us to differentiate the analyzed samples based on their chemical composition. We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints recorded for canned tomato samples to the sensory descriptors bitterness, sweetness, sourness, saltiness, tomato and metal taste, redness, and density, suggesting that NMR might be a very useful tool for the characterization of sensory features of tomatoes.

  2. The sensory system: More than just a window to the external world.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Christi M; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional importance of the sensory system lies in its ability to perceive external information about the world, emerging discoveries suggest that sensory perception has a greater impact on health and longevity than was previously appreciated. These effects are conserved across species. In this mini-review, we discuss the specific sensory cues that have been identified to significantly impact organismal physiology and lifespan. Ongoing work in the aging field has begun to identify the downstream molecules that mediate the broad effects of sensory signals. Candidates include FOXO, neuropeptide F (NPF), adipokinetic hormone (AKH), dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. We then discuss the many implications that arise from our current understanding of the effects of sensory perception on health and longevity.

  3. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  4. Quantitative sensory testing (QST). English version.

    PubMed

    Mücke, M; Cuhls, H; Radbruch, L; Baron, R; Maier, C; Tölle, T; Treede, R-D; Rolke, R

    2016-01-29

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a standardized and formalized clinical sensitivity test. Testing describes a subjective (psychophysical) method that entails a cooperation of the person to be examined. Within its framework, calibrated stimuli are applied to capture perception and pain thresholds, thus providing information on the presence of sensory plus or minus signs. The presented QST battery imitates natural thermal or mechanical stimuli. The aim is to acquire symptom patterns of sensory loss (for the functioning of the thick and thin nerve fibers) as well as a gain of function (hyperalgesia, allodynia, hyperpathia) with a simultaneous detection of cutaneous and deep tissue sensibility. Most of the tested QST parameters are normally distributed only after a logarithmic transformation (secondary normal distribution)-except the number of paradoxical heat sensations, of cold and heat pain thresholds, and vibration detection thresholds. A complete QST profile can be measured within 1 h. QST is suitable not only for clinical trials but also in practice as a diagnostic method to characterize the function of the somatosensory system-from the peripheral nerve fiber receptor to the projection pathways to the brain.

  5. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sensory Function in Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Ashur, Molly M; Johnston, Nicole K; Dixson, Danielle L

    2017-07-01

    Ocean acidification has been identified as a major contributor to ocean ecosystem decline, impacting the calcification, survival, and behavior of marine organisms. Numerous studies have observed altered sensory perception of chemical, auditory, and visual cues after exposure to elevated CO2. Sensory systems enable the observation of the external environment and therefore play a critical role in survival, communication, and behavior of marine organisms. This review seeks to (1) summarize the current knowledge of sensory impairment caused by ocean acidification, (2) discuss potential mechanisms behind this disruption, and (3) analyze the expected taxa differences in sensitivities to elevated CO2 conditions. Although a lack of standardized methodology makes cross-study comparisons challenging, trends and biases arise from this synthesis including a substantial focus on vertebrates, larvae or juveniles, the reef ecosystem, and chemosensory perception. Future studies must broaden the scope of the field by diversifying the taxa and ecosystems studied, incorporating ontogenetic comparisons, and focusing on cryptic sensory systems such as electroreception, magnetic sense, and the lateral line system. A discussion of possible mechanisms reveals GABAA receptor reversal as the conspicuous physiological mechanism. However, the potential remains for alternative disruption through structure or cue changes. Finally, a taxonomic comparison of physiological complexity reveals few trends in sensory sensitivities to lowered pH, but we hypothesize potential correlations relating to habitat, life history or relative use of sensory systems. Elevated CO2, in concordance with other global and local stressors, has the potential to drastically shift community composition and structure. Therefore research addressing the extent of sensory impairment, the underlying mechanisms, and the differences between taxa is vital for improved predictions of organismal response to ocean acidification.

  6. Divergent sensory phenotypes in nonspecific arm pain: comparisons with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Niamh; Hall, Toby; Doody, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether distinct sensory phenotypes were identifiable in individuals with nonspecific arm pain (NSAP) and whether these differed from those in people with cervical radiculopathy. A secondary question considered whether the frequency of features of neuropathic pain, kinesiophobia, high pain ratings, hyperalgesia, and allodynia differed according to subgroups of sensory phenotypes. Cross-sectional study. Higher education institution. Forty office workers with NSAP, 17 people with cervical radiculopathy, and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (N=97). Not applicable. Participants were assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST) comprising thermal and vibration detection thresholds and thermal and pressure pain thresholds; clinical examination; and relevant questionnaires. Sensory phenotypes were identified for each individual in the patient groups using z-score transformation of the QST data. Individuals with NSAP and cervical radiculopathy present with a spectrum of sensory abnormalities; a dominant sensory phenotype was not identifiable in individuals with NSAP. No distinct pattern between clinical features and questionnaire results across sensory phenotypes was identified in either group. When considering sensory phenotypes, neither individuals with NSAP nor individuals with cervical radiculopathy should be considered homogeneous. Therefore, people with either condition may warrant different intervention approaches according to their individual sensory phenotype. Issues relating to the clinical identification of sensory hypersensitivity and the validity of QST are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1-8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9-24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  8. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1–8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9–24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches. PMID:28182728

  9. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  10. Active sensing via movement shapes spatiotemporal patterns of sensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Sarah A; Roth, Eatai; Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Previous work has shown that animals alter their locomotor behavior to increase sensing volumes. However, an animal's own movement also determines the spatial and temporal dynamics of sensory feedback. Because each sensory modality has unique spatiotemporal properties, movement has differential and potentially independent effects on each sensory system. Here we show that weakly electric fish dramatically adjust their locomotor behavior in relation to changes of modality-specific information in a task in which increasing sensory volume is irrelevant. We varied sensory information during a refuge-tracking task by changing illumination (vision) and conductivity (electroreception). The gain between refuge movement stimuli and fish tracking responses was functionally identical across all sensory conditions. However, there was a significant increase in the tracking error in the dark (no visual cues). This was a result of spontaneous whole-body oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) produced by the fish. These movements were costly: in the dark, fish swam over three times further when tracking and produced more net positive mechanical work. The magnitudes of these oscillations increased as electrosensory salience was degraded via increases in conductivity. In addition, tail bending (1.5 to 2.35 Hz), which has been reported to enhance electrosensory perception, occurred only during trials in the dark. These data show that both categories of movements - whole-body oscillations and tail bends - actively shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of electrosensory feedback.

  11. [Sensory functions and Alzheimer's disease: a multi-disciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Kenigsberg, Paul-Ariel; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Berard, Alain; Boucart, Muriel; Bouccara, Didier; Brand, Gérard; Charras, Kevin; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Gzil, Fabrice; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Madjlessi, Arach; Malaquin-Pavan, Évelyne; Penicaud, Luc; Platel, Hervé; Pozzo, Thierry; Reintjens, Christophe; Salmon, Éric; Vergnon, Laurent; Robert, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Relations between sensory functions and Alzheimer's disease are still under-explored. To understand them better, the Fondation Médéric Alzheimer has brought together a multi-disciplinary expert group. Aristote's five senses must be enhanced by today's knowledge of proprioception, motor cognition and pain perception. When cognition breaks down, the person with dementia perceives the world around her with her sensory experience, yet is unable to integrate all this information to understand the context. The treatment of multiple sensory inputs by the brain is closely linked to cognitive processes. Sensory deficits reduce considerably the autonomy of people with dementia in their daily life and their relations with others, increase their social isolation and the risk of accidents. Professionals involved with neurodegenerative diseases remain poorly aware of sensory deficits, which can bias the results of cognitive tests. However, there are simple tools to detect these deficits, notably for vision, hearing and balance disorders, which can be corrected. Many interventions for cognitive rehabilitation or quality of life improvement are based on sensory functions. The environment of people with dementia must be adapted to become understandable, comfortable, safe and eventually therapeutic.

  12. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  13. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    PubMed

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P < 0.001), gustative (sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P < 0.001, cold P < 0.001), and tactile (P < 0.001) detection thresholds than the others. The vibration detection threshold was high only for subjects over 75 years old (P < 0.001). The electric and deep pain detection thresholds were different for the 61-75 years old group (P ≤ 0.001). Women in all age groups had lower gustative (sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The impact of systemic cortical alterations on perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    Perception is the process of transmitting and interpreting sensory information, and the primary somatosensory (SI) area in the human cortex is the main sensory receptive area for the sensation of touch. The elaborate neuroanatomical connectivity that subserves the neuronal communication between adjacent and near-adjacent regions within sensory cortex has been widely recognized to be essential to normal sensory function. As a result, systemic cortical alterations that impact the cortical regional interaction, as associated with many neurological disorders, are expected to have significant impact on sensory perception. Recently, our research group has developed a novel sensory diagnostic system that employs quantitative sensory testing methods and is able to non-invasively assess central nervous system healthy status. The intent of this study is to utilize quantitative sensory testing methods that were designed to generate discriminable perception to objectively and quantitatively assess the impacts of different conditions on human sensory information processing capacity. The correlation between human perceptions with observations from animal research enables a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of human perception. Additional findings on different subject populations provide valuable insight of the underlying mechanisms for the development and maintenance of different neurological diseases. During the course of the study, several protocols were designed and utilized. And this set of sensory-based perceptual metrics was employed to study the effects of different conditions (non-noxious thermal stimulation, chronic pain stage, and normal aging) on sensory perception. It was found that these conditions result in significant deviations of the subjects' tactile information processing capacities from normal values. Although the observed shift of sensory detection sensitivity could be a result of enhanced peripheral activity, the changes in the effects

  15. ON THE PERCEPTION OF PROBABLE THINGS

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Perception is influenced both by the immediate pattern of sensory inputs and by memories acquired through prior experiences with the world. Throughout much of its illustrious history, however, study of the cellular basis of perception has focused on neuronal structures and events that underlie the detection and discrimination of sensory stimuli. Relatively little attention has been paid to the means by which memories interact with incoming sensory signals. Building upon recent neurophysiological/behavioral studies of the cortical substrates of visual associative memory, I propose a specific functional process by which stored information about the world supplements sensory inputs to yield neuronal signals that can account for visual perceptual experience. This perspective represents a significant shift in the way we think about the cellular bases of perception. PMID:22542178

  16. Metacognition in Multisensory Perception.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Spence, Charles; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-10-01

    Metacognition - the ability to monitor one's own decisions and representations, their accuracy and uncertainty - is considered a hallmark of intelligent behavior. Little is known about metacognition in our natural multisensory environment. To form a coherent percept, the brain should integrate signals from a common cause but segregate those from independent causes. Multisensory perception thus relies on inferring the world's causal structure, raising new challenges for metacognition. We discuss the extent to which observers can monitor their uncertainties not only about their final integrated percept but also about the individual sensory signals and the world's causal structure. The latter causal metacognition highlights fundamental links between perception and other cognitive domains such as social and abstract reasoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological and Perceptual Sensory Attenuation Have Different Underlying Neurophysiological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Davare, Marco; Kilner, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action. The fields investigating these two areas have remained isolated, so the relationship between them is unclear. The current study delivered median nerve stimulation to produce SEPs during a force-matching paradigm (used to quantify perceptual sensory attenuation) in healthy human subjects to determine whether SEP gating correlated with the behavior. Our results revealed that these two forms of attenuation have dissociable neurophysiological correlates and are likely functionally distinct, which has important implications for understanding neurological disorders in which one form of sensory attenuation but not the other is impaired. Time–frequency analyses revealed a negative correlation over sensorimotor cortex between gamma-oscillatory activity and the magnitude of perceptual sensory attenuation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-band power is related to prediction error and that this might underlie perceptual sensory attenuation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We demonstrate that there are two functionally and mechanistically distinct forms of sensory gating. The literature regarding somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) gating is commonly cited as a potential mechanism underlying perceptual sensory attenuation; however, the formal relationship between physiological and perceptual sensory

  18. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  19. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  20. Perception in the Invisible World of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novemsky, Lisa; Gautreau, Ronald

    Physics learning involves a change in the habitual perception of the everyday world. In order to describe the real world scientifically, an individual must develop perception and cognition capable of reconstructing the world from raw sensory data and incorporating acquired knowledge of the scientific community. The introductory physics student…

  1. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  2. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  3. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J.

    2013-01-01

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision—and perception at large—is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images—a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception. PMID:23942129

  4. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  5. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object.

  6. Balancing sensory inputs: Sensory reweighting of ankle proprioception and vision during a bipedal posture task.

    PubMed

    Kabbaligere, Rakshatha; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    During multisensory integration, it has been proposed that the central nervous system (CNS) assigns a weight to each sensory input through a process called sensory reweighting. The outcome of this integration process is a single percept that is used to control posture. The main objective of this study was to determine the interaction between ankle proprioception and vision during sensory integration when the two inputs provide conflicting sensory information pertaining to direction of body sway. Sensory conflict was created by using bilateral Achilles tendon vibration and contracting visual flow and produced body sway in opposing directions when applied independently. Vibration was applied at 80Hz, 1mm amplitude and the visual flow consisted of a virtual reality scene with concentric rings retreating at 3m/s. Body sway elicited by the stimuli individually and in combination was evaluated in 10 healthy young adults by analyzing center of pressure (COP) displacement and lower limb kinematics. The magnitude of COP displacement produced when vibration and visual flow were combined was found to be lesser than the algebraic sum of COP displacement produced by the stimuli when applied individually. This suggests that multisensory integration is not merely an algebraic summation of individual cues. Instead the observed response might be a result of a weighted combination process with the weight attached to each cue being directly proportional to the relative reliability of the cues. The moderating effect of visual flow on postural instability produced by vibration points to the potential use of controlled visual flow for balance training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Design of a robotic device for assessment and rehabilitation of hand sensory function.

    PubMed

    Lambercy, Olivier; Robles, Alejandro Juárez; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a robotic interface for assessment and therapy of hand sensory function. The device can provide three types of well controlled stimuli: (i) angular displacement at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint using a remote-center-of-motion double-parallelogram structure, (ii) vibration stimuli at the fingertip, proximal phalange and palm, and (iii) pressure at the fingertip, while recording position, interaction force and feedback from the user over a touch screen. These stimuli offer a novel platform to investigate sensory perception in healthy subjects and patients with sensory impairments, with the potential to assess deficits and actively train detection of specific sensory cues in a standardized manner. A preliminary study with eight healthy subjects demonstrates the feasibility of using the Robotic Sensory Trainer to assess the sensory perception threshold in MCP angular position. An average just noticeable difference (JND) in the MCP joint angle of 2.46° (14.47%) was found, which is in agreement with previous perception studies. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Perception as a closed-loop convergence process.

    PubMed

    Ahissar, Ehud; Assa, Eldad

    2016-05-09

    Perception of external objects involves sensory acquisition via the relevant sensory organs. A widely-accepted assumption is that the sensory organ is the first station in a serial chain of processing circuits leading to an internal circuit in which a percept emerges. This open-loop scheme, in which the interaction between the sensory organ and the environment is not affected by its concurrent downstream neuronal processing, is strongly challenged by behavioral and anatomical data. We present here a hypothesis in which the perception of external objects is a closed-loop dynamical process encompassing loops that integrate the organism and its environment and converging towards organism-environment steady-states. We discuss the consistency of closed-loop perception (CLP) with empirical data and show that it can be synthesized in a robotic setup. Testable predictions are proposed for empirical distinction between open and closed loop schemes of perception.

  9. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  10. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  11. Sensory Processing in Preterm Preschoolers and Its Association with Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jenna N.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Loe, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of abnormal sensory processing have been related to preterm birth, but have not yet been studied specifically in preterm preschoolers. The degree of association between sensory processing and other domains is important for understanding the role of sensory processing symptoms in the development of preterm children. Aims To test two related hypotheses: (1) preterm preschoolers have more sensory processing symptoms than full term preschoolers and (2) sensory processing is associated with both executive function and adaptive function in preterm preschoolers. Study Design Cross-sectional study Subjects Preterm children (≤34 weeks of gestation; n = 54) and full term controls (≥37 weeks of gestation; n = 73) ages 3-5 years. Outcome Measures Sensory processing was assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. Executive function was assessed with (1) parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Preschool version and (2) a performance-based battery of tasks. Adaptive function was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Results Preterm preschoolers showed significantly more sensory symptoms than full term controls. A higher percentage of preterm than full term preschoolers had elevated numbers of sensory symptoms (37% vs. 12%). Sensory symptoms in preterm preschoolers were associated with scores on executive function measures, but were not significantly associated with adaptive function. Conclusions Preterm preschoolers exhibited more sensory symptoms than full term controls. Preterm preschoolers with elevated numbers of sensory symptoms also showed executive function impairment. Future research should further examine whether sensory processing and executive function should be considered independent or overlapping constructs. PMID:25706317

  12. Sensory Adapted Dental Environments to Enhance Oral Care for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cermak, Sharon A.; Stein Duker, Leah I.; Williams, Marian E.; Dawson, Michael E.; Lane, Christianne J.; Polido, José C.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot and feasibility study examined the impact of a sensory adapted dental environment (SADE) to reduce distress, sensory discomfort, and perception of pain during oral prophylaxis for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 44 children ages 6-12 (n = 22 typical, n = 22 ASD). In an experimental crossover design, each…

  13. Sensory feedback for upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Steven S; Fettiplace, Michael; Darbandi, Bejan

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the neurophysiological basis of how to provide sensory feedback to users with an upper limb prosthesis and discuss some of the theoretical issues that need to be considered when directly stimulating neurons in the somatosensory system. We focus on technologies that are currently available and discuss approaches that are most likely to succeed in providing natural perception from the artificial hand to the user. First, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing feedback by stimulating directly the remaining afferents that originally innervated the arm and hand. In particular, we pay close attention to the normal functional roles that the peripheral afferents play in perception. What are the consequences and implications of stimulating these afferents? We then discuss whether it is reasonable to stimulate neurons in the ascending pathways that carry the information from the afferents to the cortex or directly in neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. We show that for some modalities there are advantages for stimulating in the spinal cord, while for others it is advantageous to stimulate directly in the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we discuss results from a current experiment in which we used electrical stimuli in primary somatosensory cortex to restore the percept of the intensity of a mechanical probe indented into the hand. The results suggest that the simple percept of stimulus intensity can be provided to the animal from a single finger using four electrodes. We propose that significantly more electrodes will be needed to reproduce more complex aspects of tactile perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from postnatal day 11 (P11) to postnatal day 23 (P23) (a manipulation previously found to disrupt gerbil cortical properties), or from P23-P35. Fifteen days after earplug removal and restoration of normal thresholds, animals were tested on their ability to detect the presence of amplitude modulation (AM), a temporal cue that supports vocal communication. Animals reared with earplugs from P11-P23 displayed elevated AM detection thresholds, compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, an identical period of earplug rearing at a later age (P23-P35) did not impair auditory perception. Although the AM thresholds of earplug-reared juveniles improved during a week of repeated testing, a subset of juveniles continued to display a perceptual deficit. Furthermore, although the perceptual deficits induced by transient earplug rearing had resolved for most animals by adulthood, a subset of adults displayed impaired performance. Control experiments indicated that earplugging did not disrupt the integrity of the auditory periphery. Together, our results suggest that P11-P23 encompasses a critical period during which sensory deprivation disrupts central mechanisms that support auditory perceptual skills. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory systems are particularly malleable during development. This heightened degree of plasticity is beneficial because it enables the acquisition of complex skills, such as music or language. However, this plasticity comes with a cost: nervous system development

  15. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: clinical characteristics, conventional electrophysiology and quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Rolke, Roman; Rolke, Silke; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Geber, Christian; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    Workers exposed to vibrating tools may develop hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). We assessed the somatosensory phenotype using quantitative sensory testing (QST) in comparison to electrophysiology to characterize (1) the most sensitive QST parameter for detecting sensory loss, (2) the correlation of QST and electrophysiology, and (3) the frequency of a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in HAVS. QST, cold provocation tests, fine motor skills, and median nerve neurography were used. QST included thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds. Thirty-two patients were examined (54 ± 11 years, 91% men) at the more affected hand compared to 16 matched controls. Vibration detection threshold was the most sensitive parameter to detect sensory loss that was more pronounced in the sensitivity range of Pacinian (150 Hz, x12) than Meissner's corpuscles (20 Hz, x3). QST (84% abnormal) was more sensitive to detect neural dysfunction than conventional electrophysiology (37% abnormal). Motor (34%) and sensory neurography (25%) were abnormal in HAVS. CTS frequency was not increased (9.4%). Findings are consistent with a mechanically-induced, distally pronounced motor and sensory neuropathy independent of CTS. HAVS involves a neuropathy predominantly affecting large fibers with a sensory damage related to resonance frequencies of vibrating tools. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Parkinson disease affects peripheral sensory nerves in the pharynx.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Nyirenda, Themba; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2013-07-01

    Dysphagia is very common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and often leads to aspiration pneumonia, the most common cause of death in PD. Current therapies are largely ineffective for dysphagia. Because pharyngeal sensation normally triggers the swallowing reflex, we examined pharyngeal sensory nerves in PD patients for Lewy pathology.Sensory nerves supplying the pharynx were excised from autopsied pharynges obtained from patients with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (n = 10) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 4). We examined the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX), the pharyngeal sensory branch of the vagus nerve (PSB-X), and the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) innervating the laryngopharynx. Immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated α-synuclein was used to detect Lewy pathology. Axonal α-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal sensory nerves were identified in all of the PD subjects but not in the controls. The density of α-synuclein-positive lesions was greater in PD patients with dysphagia versus those without dysphagia. In addition, α-synuclein-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the ISLN were much more abundant than those in cranial nerve IX and PSB-X. These findings suggest that pharyngeal sensory nerves are directly affected by pathologic processes in PD. These abnormalities may decrease pharyngeal sensation, thereby impairing swallowing and airway protective reflexes and contributing to dysphagia and aspiration.

  18. Neurological abnormalities in chronic benzene poisoning. A study of six patients with aplastic anemia and two with preleukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Baslo, A.; Aksoy, M.

    1982-04-01

    Neurological, electromyographical and motor conduction velocity examinations were applied to 6 patients with aplastic anemia and two cases of preleukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene. In addition, sensory conduction velocities were measured in three patients. Neurological abnormalities were found in four out of six pancytopenic individuals. There was a certain relationship between the presence of neurological abnormalities and the period of cessation of the exposure. In the two patients with preleukemia similar neurologic abnormalities were found.

  19. Somatosensory Profiles but Not Numbers of Somatosensory Abnormalities of Neuropathic Pain Patients Correspond with Neuropathic Pain Grading

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research. PMID:22927981

  20. Predictive motor control of sensory dynamics in Auditory Active Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Morillon, Benjamin; Hackett, Troy A.; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations present potential physiological substrates for brain operations that require temporal prediction. We review this idea in the context of auditory perception. Using speech as an exemplar, we illustrate how hierarchically organized oscillations can be used to parse and encode complex input streams. We then consider the motor system as a major source of rhythms (temporal priors) in auditory processing, that act in concert with attention to sharpen sensory representations and link them across areas. We discuss the anatomo-functional pathways that could mediate this audio-motor interaction, and notably the potential role of the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we reposition temporal predictions in the context of internal models, discussing how they interact with feature-based or spatial predictions. We argue that complementary predictions interact synergistically according to the organizational principles of each sensory system, forming multidimensional filters crucial to perception. PMID:25594376

  1. Central Nervous System Underpinnings of Sensory Hypersensitivity in Migraine: Insights from Neuroimaging and Electrophysiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Demarquay, Geneviève; Mauguière, François

    2016-10-01

    Whereas considerable data have been generated about the pathophysiology of pain processing during migraine attacks, relatively little is known about the neural basis of sensory hypersensitivity. In migraine, the term "hypersensitivity" encompasses different and probably distinct pathophysiological aspects of sensory sensitivity. During attacks, many patients have enhanced sensitivity to visual, auditory and/or olfactory stimuli, which can enhance headache while interictally, migraineurs often report abnormal sensitivity to environmental stimuli that can cause nonpainful discomfort. In addition, sensorial stimuli can influence and trigger the onset of migraine attacks. The pathophysiological mechanisms and the origin of such sensitivity (individual predisposition to develop migraine disease or consequence of repeated migraine attacks) are ill understood. Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies allow for noninvasive measures of neuronal responses to external stimuli and have contributed to our understanding of mechanisms underlying sensory hypersensitivity in migraine. The purpose of this review is to present pivotal neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies that explored the basal state of brain responsiveness to sensory stimuli in migraineurs, the alterations in habituation and attention to sensory inputs, the fluctuations of responsiveness to sensory stimuli before and during migraine attacks, and the relations between sensory hypersensitivity and clinical sensory complaints. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  2. Focal dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE).

    PubMed

    Perruchoud, David; Murray, Micah M; Lefebvre, Jeremie; Ionta, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic-functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE). Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration.

  3. Focal dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE)

    PubMed Central

    Perruchoud, David; Murray, Micah M.; Lefebvre, Jeremie; Ionta, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic–functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE). Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration. PMID:24999327

  4. Atypical sensory processing is common in extremely low gestational age children.

    PubMed

    Rahkonen, Petri; Lano, Aulikki; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Autti, Taina; Valanne, Leena; Andersson, Sture; Metsäranta, Marjo

    2015-05-01

    Atypical sensory processing is common in children born extremely prematurely. We investigated sensory processing abilities in extremely low gestational age (ELGA) children and analysed associated neonatal risk factors, neuroanatomical findings and neurodevelopmental outcome. We carried out a prospective study of 44 ELGA children, including 42 who had undergone brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age, when they were 2 years of corrected age. Their sensory processing abilities were assessed with the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile questionnaire and their neurodevelopmental with a structured Hempel neurological examination, Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition. Sensory profiles were definitely or probably atypical (<-1 SD) in half of the ELGA children, and the most common behavioural pattern was low registration (23%). Sensation seeking was associated with abnormalities in grey and/or white matter in the brain MRI (p < 0.01). Atypical oral sensory processing was associated with surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (p = 0.02, adjusted p < 0.01). Atypical sensory processing in ELGA children was common, and children with neonatal neuroanatomical lesions tended to present specific behavioural responses to sensory stimuli. Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus may predispose infants to feeding problems due to atypical oral sensory processing. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Tactile sensory system: encoding from the periphery to the cortex.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lynette A; Smith, Allan M

    2014-01-01

    Specialized mechanoreceptors in the skin respond to mechanical deformation and provide the primary input to the tactile sensory system. Although the morphology of these receptors has been documented, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the relation between cutaneous receptor morphology and the associated physiological responses to stimulation. Labelled-line models of somatosensory processes in which specific mechanoreceptors are associated with particular sensory qualities fail to account for the evidence showing that all types of tactile afferent units respond to a varying extent to most types of natural stimuli. Neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments have provided the framework for determining the relation between peripheral afferent or cortical activity and tactile perception. Neural codes derived from these afferent signals are evaluated in terms of their capacity to predict human perceptual performance. One particular challenge in developing models of the tactile sensory system is the dual use of sensory signals from the skin. In addition to their perceptual function they serve as inputs to the sensorimotor control system involved in manipulation. Perceptions generated through active touch differ from those resulting from passive stimulation of the skin because they are the product of self-generated exploratory processes. Recent research in this area has highlighted the importance of shear forces in these exploratory movements and has shown that fingertip skin is particularly sensitive to shear generated during both object manipulation and tactile exploration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    PubMed

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  7. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A comparison of 2 methods of endoscopic laryngeal sensory testing: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kaneoka, Asako; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Walsh, Kayo; Raade, Adele S; Langmore, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the association between laryngeal sensory deficits and penetration or aspiration. Two methods of testing laryngeal sensation were carried out to determine which was more highly correlated with Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores. Healthy participants and patients with dysphagia received an endoscopic swallowing evaluation including 2 sequential laryngeal sensory tests-air pulse followed by touch method. Normal/impaired responses were correlated with PAS scores. Fourteen participants completed the endoscopic swallowing evaluation and both sensory tests. The air pulse method identified sensory impairment with greater frequency than the touch method (P<.0001). However, the impairment identified by the air pulse method was not associated with abnormal PAS scores (P=.46). The sensory deficits identified by the touch method were associated with abnormal PAS scores (P=.05). Sensory impairment detected by the air pulse method does not appear to be associated with risk of penetration/aspiration. Significant laryngeal sensory loss revealed by the touch method is associated with compromised airway protection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Electrodermal and behavioral responses of children with autism spectrum disorders to sensory and repetitive stimuli.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hessl, David; Macari, Suzanne L; Ozonoff, Sally; Green, Cherie; Rogers, Sally J

    2014-08-01

    Parents frequently report that their children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) respond atypically to sensory stimuli. Repetitive behaviors are also part of the ASD behavioral profile. Abnormal physiological arousal may underlie both of these symptoms. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of sympathetic nervous system arousal. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to pilot methods for collecting EDA data in young children and (2) to examine hypothesized relationships among EDA, and sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD as compared with children with typical development. EDA was recorded on 54 young children with ASD and on 33 children with typical development (TD) during a protocol that included baseline, exposure to sensory and repetitive stimuli, and play. Parents completed standardized questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors. Frequency and type of repetitive behavior during play was coded offline. Comparisons between EDA data for ASD and TD groups indicated no significant between-group differences in any measures. Parents of children with ASD reported more abnormal responses to sensory stimuli and more repetitive behaviors, but scores on these measures were not significantly correlated with EDA or with frequency of observed repetitive behaviors. Parent report of frequency and severity of sensory symptoms was significantly correlated with reports of repetitive behaviors in both groups. Although parents of children with ASD report high levels of sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors, these differences are not related to measured EDA arousal or reactivity. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sensory filtering phenomenology in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lorraine P; White, Patricia M

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory filtering, or problems with suppressing irrelevant environmental sensory stimuli, has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the relationship of sensory filtering deficits to specific PTSD symptoms versus an association with general trauma exposure is unclear. These relationships were examined by administering self-report measures of trauma exposure, PTSD, and sensory gating phenomenology to undergraduate participants with PTSD (n=32), with trauma history but without PTSD (n=144), and with minimal trauma history (n=153). Subjects with PTSD reported greater filtering disruption than individuals in the trauma only and low trauma groups, who did not differ. Individuals endorsing reexperiencing and numbing symptoms, and females endorsing hypervigilance, reported disrupted sensory filtering phenomenology. These results suggest that impaired filtering differentiates between individuals with PTSD symptoms and asymptomatic individuals exposed to multiple traumas and low-trauma controls.

  11. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hormonal abnormalities in obesity.

    PubMed

    Zumoff, B

    1988-01-01

    We have found a number of interesting hormonal abnormalities in obese men and women: 1) Obese women have normal levels of estrone, total estradiol, and total testosterone, but as a consequence of their subnormal levels of SHBG, their levels of free estradiol and free testosterone are significantly elevated. 2) Massive weight loss in obese women (to still elevated weight) results in normalization of the previously elevated free estradiol and free testosterone. 3) Obese women have normal plasma DHEA levels, but a significant, age-invariant decrease of the plasma DHEA/T ratio, which could be due to increased tissue activity of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. 4) Massive weight loss produces an age-dependent effect on DHEA levels in obese women: the levels increase to supranormal values in women around age 20, with diminishing increases at higher premenopausal ages and no increase at all at perimenopausal age. 5) Obese men have elevated levels of estrone and both free and total estradiol, and subnormal levels of free and total testosterone and of FSH; all these abnormalities are proportional to the degree of obesity. They also have relatively subnormal LH levels, i.e. normal in the face of hypotestosteronemia. The combination of these findings represents a state of mild hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG), which we believe to be induced by the hyperestrogenemia. 6) Normalization of the estrogen levels of obese men, by suppression of adrenocortical secretion of aromatase substrates or by inhibition of aromatase, tends to normalize the HHG. 7) Massive weight loss in obese men normalizes their HHG without any decrease in plasma estrogen levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Improving Academic Scores Through Sensory Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, A. Jean

    1972-01-01

    Investigated were the effects of a remedial program stressing sensory integration on the academic performance of learning disabled children with certain identifiable types of sensory integrative dysfunction. (KW)

  15. Family-Centered Management of Sensory Challenges of Children With Autism: Single-Case Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effectiveness of a sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach to changing problematic routines for young children with autism. Three mothers of young children with autism, atypical sensory processing, and global developmental delay each participated in a single-case experimental ABA design study. Mothers selected a problematic daily routine linked to sensory challenges as the focus of four intervention sessions provided in the home. Changes in mothers' perceptions of the children's behavior were the primary outcome, measured daily on a visual analog scale. Visual and descriptive analyses were undertaken. The sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach showed promise for changing sensory-related problem behaviors of young children with autism, but the degree and maintenance of the intervention effect varied among participants. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  17. Peripheral nerve abnormalities in pediatric patients with spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Takahiro; Komaki, Hirofumi; Saito, Yuko; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    We examined the specific nerve conduction deficits distinguishing spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) subtypes I and II. Five SMA I patients (age, 0.2-1.1 years) and 10 SMA II patients (age, 1.0-2.8 years) were examined. Patients were compared to age-matched controls for motor and sensory conduction velocity (MCV and SCV) changes, compound muscle and sensory nerve action potential amplitudes (CMAP and SNAP), and F-wave occurrence (FO). Slower MCVs were found in three of five SMA I patients; all five exhibited markedly decreased CMAP amplitudes. Tibial nerve CMAP amplitudes significantly reduced in SMA II patients (p<0.01). Slower SCVs and decreased SNAP amplitudes were observed in three of five SMA I patients but not in SMA II patients. Although FOs were reduced in both extremities of SMA I patients, the reduction was prominent in the tibial nerve of SMA II patients (p=0.031). Loss of motor units may be widespread in the early stage of SMA I, while specific to the legs in young SMA II patients. SMA I showed sensory nerve degeneration, especially of large myelinated fibers. SMA II showed no sensory nerve abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Food for patients at nutritional risk: a model of food sensory quality to promote intake.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Janice; Holm, Lotte; Frøst, Michael Bom; Kondrup, Jens

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to investigate food sensory quality as experienced and perceived by patients at nutritional risk within the context of establishing a framework to develop foods to develop foods to promote intake. Patients at nutritional risk (NRS-2002; food intake ≤ 75% of requirements) were observed at meals in hospital (food choice, hunger/fullness/appetite scores). This was followed by a semi-structured interview based on the observations and focusing on food sensory perception and eating ability as related to food quality. Two weeks post-discharge, a 3-day food record was taken and interviews were repeated by phone. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analysed thematically. Patients (N = 22) from departments of gastrointestinal surgery, oncology, infectious medicine, cardiology, and hepatology were interviewed at meals (N = 65) in hospital (82%) and post-discharge (18%). Food sensory perception and eating ability dictated specific food sensory needs (i.e., appearance, aroma, taste, texture, temperature, and variety defining food sensory quality to promote intake) within the context of motivation to eat including: pleasure, comfort, and survival. Patients exhibited large inter- and intra-individual variability in their food sensory needs. The study generated a model for optimising food sensory quality and developing user-driven, innovative foods to promote intake in patients at nutritional risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of selective and divided attention on sensory precision and integration.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Brian; Wozny, David R; Shams, Ladan

    2016-02-12

    In our daily lives, our capacity to selectively attend to stimuli within or across sensory modalities enables enhanced perception of the surrounding world. While previous research on selective attention has studied this phenomenon extensively, two important questions still remain unanswered: (1) how selective attention to a single modality impacts sensory integration processes, and (2) the mechanism by which selective attention improves perception. We explored how selective attention impacts performance in both a spatial task and a temporal numerosity judgment task, and employed a Bayesian Causal Inference model to investigate the computational mechanism(s) impacted by selective attention. We report three findings: (1) in the spatial domain, selective attention improves precision of the visual sensory representations (which were relatively precise), but not the auditory sensory representations (which were fairly noisy); (2) in the temporal domain, selective attention improves the sensory precision in both modalities (both of which were fairly reliable to begin with); (3) in both tasks, selective attention did not exert a significant influence over the tendency to integrate sensory stimuli. Therefore, it may be postulated that a sensory modality must possess a certain inherent degree of encoding precision in order to benefit from selective attention. It also appears that in certain basic perceptual tasks, the tendency to integrate crossmodal signals does not depend significantly on selective attention. We conclude with a discussion of how these results relate to recent theoretical considerations of selective attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensory deficit and the risk of pedestrian injury.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I.; Norton, R.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between sensory deficit and the risk of child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. SETTING: The Auckland region of New Zealand. METHODS: A community based case-control study was conducted. Cases (n = 190) were all children (< 15 years) killed or hospitalised as a result of a pedestrian injury occurring on a public road between 1 January 1992 and 1 March 1994. Controls (n = 479) were a random sample of the child population. RESULTS: The risk of pedestrian injury for children whose parents reported abnormal vision was over four times that of children with reported normal vision (odds ratio = 4.25, 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 10.8). The risk of injury for children whose parents reported abnormal hearing was close to twice that of children with reported normal hearing (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 3.61). CONCLUSIONS: Children with sensory deficits constitute a high risk group for pedestrian injuries. Paediatricians caring for children with sensory impairments should be aware of this increased risk. PMID:9345986

  1. From perception to action: a spatiotemporal cortical map.

    PubMed

    Crochet, Sylvain; Petersen, Carl C H

    2014-01-08

    In this issue of Neuron, Guo et al. (2014) optogenetically probe contributions of different cortical regions to tactile sensory perception, finding that somatosensory cortex is necessary for acquisition of sensory information and frontal cortex is necessary for planning motor output. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Abnormal sudomotor skin responses to temperature and pain stimuli in syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Veciana, M; Valls-Solé, J; Schestatsky, P; Montero, J; Casado, V

    2007-05-01

    Thermoalgesic sensory deficits in patients with syringomyelia may escape objective documentation with conventional electrophysiological techniques. We examined six patients with radiologically proven centrospinal cavities and patchy thermoalgesic sensory deficits by recording the evoked potentials and the sympathetic sudomotor skin responses (SSR) to laser stimuli. While electrical stimuli to the affected areas induced evoked potentials and SSRs of normal latency and amplitude, CO2 laser stimulation induced absent or abnormally reduced evoked potentials. Also, warmth and heat pain stimulation with a Peltier thermode induced absent or abnormal SSRs when applied over the affected areas but well defined SSRs when applied to the corresponding contralateral areas. Our results reveal the utility of recording the SSR to pain and temperature stimuli over specific body sites to demonstrate impairment of pain and temperature pathways in patients with syringomyelia. Comparison of electrical versus laser and temperature induced SSRs is an objective means to evaluate the selective thermoalgesic sensory deficit in these patients.

  3. Agreeable Smellers and Sensitive Neurotics – Correlations among Personality Traits and Sensory Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Ilona; Springborn, Maria; Lötsch, Jörn; Johnston, Amy N. B.; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124) completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality. PMID:21556139

  4. Diabetic neuropathy and the sensory neuron: new aspects of pathogenesis and their treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2018-03-13

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) continues to be generally considered as a "microvascular" complication of diabetes mellitus alongside nephropathy and retinopathy. The microvascular hypothesis, however, may be tempered by the concept that diabetes directly targets dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. This neuron specific concept, supported by accumulating evidence, might account for important features of DPN, such as its early sensory neuron degeneration. Diabetic sensory neurons develop neuronal atrophy alongside a series of mRNA changes related to declines in structural proteins, increases in heat shock protein (HSP), increases in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), declines in growth factor signaling and other changes. Insulin is recognized as a potent neurotrophic factor, and insulin ligation enhances neurite outgrowth through activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway within sensory neurons and attenuates phenotypic features of experimental DPN. Several interventions, including as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonism, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) inhibition, and HSP overexpression, to activate growth signals in sensory neurons, prevent or reverse neuropathic abnormalities in experimental DPN. Diabetic sensory neurons display a unique pattern of microRNA alterations, a key element of mRNA silencing. For example, let-7i is widely expressed in sensory neurons, supports their growth, and is depleted in experimental DPN; its replenishment improves features of DPN models. Finally, impairment of pre-mRNA splicing in diabetic sensory neurons including abnormal nuclear RNA metabolism and structure with loss of SMN proteins, a neuron survival molecule, and overexpression of CWC22, a splicing factor, offer further novel insights. This review addresses these new aspects of DPN sensory neurodegeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. Objective To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Design Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. Results QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Conclusions Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury. PMID:24624368

  6. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

  7. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Elbasan, Bülent; Kayıhan, Hlya; Duzgun, Irem

    2012-04-30

    The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p < 0.05). According to the results of somatosensory perception tests, significant differences were found in kinesthesia, manual form perception, finger identification, figure-ground perception, localization of tactile stimuli, double tactile stimuli perception (p < 0.05). Control group was better in motor planning (p < 0.05). Comprehension, expression, social communication, problem solving, and memory skills were significant in favor of the control group (p < 0.05). Graphestesia and self-care domain was found to be correlated (r = 0,491, p = 0.002) between the groups. Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  8. [Guitarist's cramp: management with sensory re-education].

    PubMed

    Chaná-Cuevas, P; Kunstmann-Rioseco, C; Rodríguez-Riquelme, T

    Dystonia is defined as a sustained co-contraction of agonistic and antagonistic muscles that can cause twisting, twitching and abnormal postures. Occupational dystonias are included in a special group of pathologies that are secondary to a repeated effort related to the professional activity carried out by the sufferer, as can occur in guitarists, violinists and trumpet players, for example. Its pathophysiology includes descriptions of disorders affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems. Studies conducted in monkeys have shown that, through sensory stimulation, repeated movements can give rise to central anomalies in the somatosensory cortex, with growth of the receptive fields that are stimulated and deformation of the separations between those fields. We describe the case of a professional guitarist with a seven-year history of symptoms. A neurological examination revealed a co-contraction in the right hand that triggered the extension of the index and little fingers, which made it difficult for him to play his instrument. The patient was submitted to sensory re-education therapy with the use of a splint and a two-month routine of exercises. The response was evaluated using a subjective scale of the patient's symptoms and measurements of the maximum angles of flexion and extension of the affected fingers. Both methods reduced the patient's discomfort and allowed him to exhibit greater skill when playing the guitar. Occupational dystonias produced by repeated stimulation present alterations in the sensory region of the cortex, with the involvement of motor performance that improves with sensory re-education therapy.

  9. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  10. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of Cntnap2 (Caspr2) in multiple levels of sensory systems.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Aaron; Salomon, Daniela; Barak, Noy; Pen, Yefim; Tsoory, Michael; Kimchi, Tali; Peles, Elior

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and copy number variation analyses have linked contactin associated protein 2 (Caspr2, gene name Cntnap2) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In line with these findings, mice lacking Caspr2 (Cntnap2(-/-)) were shown to have core autism-like deficits including abnormal social behavior and communication, and behavior inflexibility. However the role of Caspr2 in ASD pathogenicity remains unclear. Here we have generated a new Caspr2:tau-LacZ knock-in reporter line (Cntnap2(tlacz/tlacz)), which enabled us to monitor the neuronal circuits in the brain expressing Caspr2. We show that Caspr2 is expressed in many brain regions and produced a comprehensive report of Caspr2 expression. Moreover, we found that Caspr2 marks all sensory modalities: it is expressed in distinct brain regions involved in different sensory processings and is present in all primary sensory organs. Olfaction-based behavioral tests revealed that mice lacking Caspr2 exhibit abnormal response to sensory stimuli and lack preference for novel odors. These results suggest that loss of Caspr2 throughout the sensory system may contribute to the sensory manifestations frequently observed in ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Auditory abnormalities in autism: toward functional distinctions among findings.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, Gabriella R; Fan, Jin; Gorman, Jack M

    2005-09-01

    Recently, findings on a wide range of auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism have been reported. To date, functional distinctions among these varied findings are poorly established. Such distinctions should be of interest to clinicians and researchers alike given their potential therapeutic and experimental applications. This review suggests three general trends among these findings as a starting point for future analyses. First, studies of auditory perception of linguistic and social auditory stimuli among individuals with autism generally have found impaired perception versus normal controls. Such findings may correlate with impaired language and communication skills and social isolation observed among individuals with autism. Second, studies of auditory perception of pitch and music among individuals with autism generally have found enhanced perception versus normal controls. These findings may correlate with the restrictive and highly focused behaviors observed among individuals with autism. Third, findings on the auditory perception of non-linguistic, non-musical stimuli among autism patients resist any generalized conclusions. Ultimately, as some researchers have already suggested, the distinction between impaired global processing and enhanced local processing may prove useful in making sense of apparently discordant findings on auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism.

  13. The neural career of sensory-motor metaphors.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rutvik H; Binder, Jeffrey R; Conant, Lisa L; Mano, Quintino R; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2011-09-01

    The role of sensory-motor systems in conceptual understanding has been controversial. It has been proposed that many abstract concepts are understood metaphorically through concrete sensory-motor domains such as actions. Using fMRI, we compared neural responses with literal action (Lit; The daughter grasped the flowers), metaphoric action (Met; The public grasped the idea), and abstract (Abs; The public understood the idea) sentences of varying familiarity. Both Lit and Met sentences activated the left anterior inferior parietal lobule, an area involved in action planning, with Met sentences also activating a homologous area in the right hemisphere, relative to Abs sentences. Both Met and Abs sentences activated the left superior temporal regions associated with abstract language. Importantly, activation in primary motor and biological motion perception regions was inversely correlated with Lit and Met familiarity. These results support the view that the understanding of metaphoric action retains a link to sensory-motor systems involved in action performance. However, the involvement of sensory-motor systems in metaphor understanding changes through a gradual abstraction process whereby relatively detailed simulations are used for understanding unfamiliar metaphors, and these simulations become less detailed and involve only secondary motor regions as familiarity increases. Consistent with these data, we propose that anterior inferior parietal lobule serves as an interface between sensory-motor and conceptual systems and plays an important role in both domains. The similarity of abstract and metaphoric sentences in the activation of left superior temporal regions suggests that action metaphor understanding is not completely based on sensory-motor simulations but relies also on abstract lexical-semantic codes.

  14. Sensory memory of illusory depth in structure-from-motion.

    PubMed

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Lissner, Anna; Füllekrug, Jana; Braun, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    When multistable displays (stimuli consistent with two or more equally plausible perceptual interpretations) are presented intermittently, their perceptions are stabilized by sensory memory. Independent memory traces are generated not only for different types of multistable displays (Maier, Wilke, Logothetis, & Leopold, Current Biology 13:1076-1085, 2003), but also for different ambiguous features of binocular rivalry (Pearson & Clifford, Journal of Vision 4:196-202, 2004). In the present study, we examined whether a similar independence of sensory memories is observed in structure-from-motion (SFM), a multistable display with two ambiguous properties. In SFM, a 2-D planar motion creates a vivid impression of a rotating 3-D volume. Both the illusory rotation and illusory depth (i.e., how close parts of an object appear to the observer) of an SFM object are ambiguous. We dissociated the sensory memories of these two ambiguous properties by using an intermittent presentation in combination with a forced-ambiguous-switch paradigm (Pastukhov, Vonau, & Braun, PLoS ONE 7:e37734, 2012). We demonstrated that the illusory depth of SFM generates a sensory memory trace that is independent from that of illusory rotation. Despite this independence, the specificities levels of the sensory memories were identical for illusory depth and illusory rotation. The history effect was weakened by a change in the volumetric property of a shape (whether it was a hollow band or a filled drum volume), but not by changes in color or size. We discuss how these new results constrain models of sensory memory and SFM processing.

  15. Sensory and motor secondary symptoms as indicators of brain vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the primary symptoms that distinguish one disorder from the next, clinicians have identified, yet largely overlooked, another set of symptoms that appear across many disorders, termed secondary symptoms. In the emerging era of systems neuroscience, which highlights that many disorders share common deficits in global network features, the nonspecific nature of secondary symptoms should attract attention. Herein we provide a scholarly review of the literature on a subset of secondary symptoms––sensory and motor. We demonstrate that their pattern of appearance––across a wide range of psychopathologies, much before the full-blown disorder appears, and in healthy individuals who display a variety of negative symptoms––resembles the pattern of appearance of network abnormalities. We propose that sensory and motor secondary symptoms can be important indicators of underlying network aberrations and thus of vulnerable brain states putting individuals at risk for psychopathology following extreme circumstances. PMID:24063566

  16. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Phan, Mimi L; Bieszczad, Kasia M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded.

  17. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Mimi L.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded. PMID:26881129

  18. Descriptive sensory profiling of double emulsions with gelled and non-gelled inner water phase.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, A K L; Piqueras-Fiszman, B; de Graaf, C; Scholten, E; Stieger, M

    2016-07-01

    The use of double emulsions (w 1 /o/w 2 ) has been acknowledged as a promising strategy to reduce oil content in several food applications. Despite the potential of double emulsions for oil reduction, their sensory properties have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated sensory perception of double emulsions by descriptive sensory profiling using a trained panel (n=11). Two sets of emulsions with either 30 or 50% dispersed phase fraction were studied. Each set differed in composition (gelled and non-gelled inner w 1 phase, gelatin as gelling agent) and fat reduction level (30 to 50%), but was similar in oil droplet size and viscosity. Fat reduction level depended on the amount of water droplets entrapped inside the oil droplets. Emulsions were evaluated on nine attributes describing taste (T), mouth-feel (MF) and after-feel (AF) perception, including thickness (MF), creaminess (MF, AF), fattiness (MF, AF), and cohesiveness (MF). The replacement of oil by small water droplets w 1 did not decrease the intensity of fat-related attributes. When inner w 1 droplets were gelled, 47wt.% of oil could be replaced while increasing the intensity of fat-related attributes. This indicates that the sensory perception of single and double emulsions with gelled and non-gelled w 1 phase is mainly determined by the total oil droplet surface area. The composition of the inner water phase (gelled or not) also influences the sensory perception of double emulsions. We conclude that fat reduction up to 47wt.% can be achieved in double emulsions while maintaining or enhancing fat-related sensory perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracing the Trajectory of Sensory Plasticity across Different Stages of Speech Learning in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reetzke, Rachel; Xie, Zilong; Llanos, Fernando; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2018-04-18

    Although challenging, adults can learn non-native phonetic contrasts with extensive training [1, 2], indicative of perceptual learning beyond an early sensitivity period [3, 4]. Training can alter low-level sensory encoding of newly acquired speech sound patterns [5]; however, the time-course, behavioral relevance, and long-term retention of such sensory plasticity is unclear. Some theories argue that sensory plasticity underlying signal enhancement is immediate and critical to perceptual learning [6, 7]. Others, like the reverse hierarchy theory (RHT), posit a slower time-course for sensory plasticity [8]. RHT proposes that higher-level categorical representations guide immediate, novice learning, while lower-level sensory changes do not emerge until expert stages of learning [9]. We trained 20 English-speaking adults to categorize a non-native phonetic contrast (Mandarin lexical tones) using a criterion-dependent sound-to-category training paradigm. Sensory and perceptual indices were assayed across operationally defined learning phases (novice, experienced, over-trained, and 8-week retention) by measuring the frequency-following response, a neurophonic potential that reflects fidelity of sensory encoding, and the perceptual identification of a tone continuum. Our results demonstrate that while robust changes in sensory encoding and perceptual identification of Mandarin tones emerged with training and were retained, such changes followed different timescales. Sensory changes were evidenced and related to behavioral performance only when participants were over-trained. In contrast, changes in perceptual identification reflecting improvement in categorical percept emerged relatively earlier. Individual differences in perceptual identification, and not sensory encoding, related to faster learning. Our findings support the RHT-sensory plasticity accompanies, rather than drives, expert levels of non-native speech learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Quantitative electroencephalographic abnormalities in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Jeffrey B; Bennett, Robert M; Simons, David G; Smith, Susan J; Nagpal, Sunil; Deering, Donald E

    2010-07-01

    There is increasing acceptance that pain in fibromyalgia (FM) is a result of dysfunctional sensory processing in the spinal cord and brain, and a number of recent imaging studies have demonstrated abnormal central mechanisms. The objective of this report is to statistically compare quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) measures in 85 FM patients with age and gender matched controls in a normative database. A statistically significant sample (minimum 60 seconds from each subject) of artifact-free EEG data exhibiting a minimum split-half reliability ratio of 0.95 and test-retest reliability ratio of 0.90 was used as the threshold for acceptable data inclusion. FM subject EEG data was compared to EEGs of age and gender matched healthy subjects in the Lifespan Normative Database and analyzed using NeuroGuide 2.0 software. Analyses were based on spectral absolute power, relative power and coherence. Clinical evaluations included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Beck Depression Inventory and Fischer dolorimetry for pain pressure thresholds. Based on Z-statistic findings, the EEGs from FM subjects differed from matched controls in the normative database in three features: (1) reduced EEG spectral absolute power in the frontal International 10-20 EEG measurement sites, particularly in the low- to mid-frequency EEG spectral segments; (2) elevated spectral relative power of high frequency components in frontal/central EEG measurement sites; and (3) widespread hypocoherence, particularly in low- to mid-frequency EEG spectral segments, in the frontal EEG measurement sites. A consistent and significant negative correlation was found between pain severity and the magnitude of the EEG abnormalities. No relationship between EEG findings and medicine use was found. It is concluded that qEEG analysis reveals significant differences between FM patients compared to age and gender matched healthy controls in a normative database, and has the potential to be a clinically

  1. Factors associated with abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Cross-sectional, school-based study. Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18 years, and the response rate was 97%. The dependent variable was scores on the Eating Attitudes Test-26, with scores > or = 20 indicating abnormal eating attitudes. Bivariate analysis included independent Student t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied for the identification of the predictive factors, which were associated independently with abnormal eating attitudes. A 2-sided P value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes was 16.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that females, urban residents, and those with a body mass index outside normal range, a perception of being overweight, body dissatisfaction, and a family member on a diet were independently related to abnormal eating attitudes. The results indicate that a proportion of Greek adolescents report abnormal eating attitudes and suggest that multiple factors contribute to the development of these attitudes. These findings are useful for further research into this topic and would be valuable in designing preventive interventions. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperactivation balances sensory processing deficits during mood induction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Miriam; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    While impairments in emotion recognition are consistently reported in schizophrenia, there is some debate on the experience of emotion. Only few studies investigated neural correlates of emotional experience in schizophrenia. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared a standard visual mood induction paradigm with an audiovisual method aimed at eliciting emotions more automatically. To investigate the interplay of sensory, cognitive and emotional mechanisms during emotion experience, we examined connectivity patterns between brain areas. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and sixteen healthy subjects participated in two different mood inductions (visual and audiovisual) that were administered for different emotions (happiness, sadness and neutral). Confirming the dissociation of behavioral and neural correlates of emotion experience, patients rated their mood similarly to healthy subjects but showed differences in neural activations. Sensory brain areas were activated less, increased activity emerged in higher cortical areas, particularly during audiovisual stimulation. Connectivity was increased between primary and secondary sensory processing areas in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in filtering and processing sensory information alongside increased higher-order cognitive effort compensating for perception deficits in the affective domain. This may suffice to recover emotion experience in ratings of clinically stable patients but may fail during acute psychosis.

  3. Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Micah; Frank, Darya; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Fardo, Francesca; Winston, Joel S; Hauser, Tobias U; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision. Across measures of perceptual bias, uncertainty, and physiological arousal we found that arousing disgust cues modulated the encoding of sensory noise. Furthermore, the degree to which trial-by-trial pupil fluctuations encoded this nonlinear interaction correlated with trial level confidence. Our results suggest that unexpected arousal regulates perceptual precision, such that subjective confidence reflects the integration of both external sensory and internal, embodied states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18103.001 PMID:27776633

  4. Hyperactivation balances sensory processing deficits during mood induction in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C.; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    While impairments in emotion recognition are consistently reported in schizophrenia, there is some debate on the experience of emotion. Only few studies investigated neural correlates of emotional experience in schizophrenia. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared a standard visual mood induction paradigm with an audiovisual method aimed at eliciting emotions more automatically. To investigate the interplay of sensory, cognitive and emotional mechanisms during emotion experience, we examined connectivity patterns between brain areas. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and sixteen healthy subjects participated in two different mood inductions (visual and audiovisual) that were administered for different emotions (happiness, sadness and neutral). Confirming the dissociation of behavioral and neural correlates of emotion experience, patients rated their mood similarly to healthy subjects but showed differences in neural activations. Sensory brain areas were activated less, increased activity emerged in higher cortical areas, particularly during audiovisual stimulation. Connectivity was increased between primary and secondary sensory processing areas in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in filtering and processing sensory information alongside increased higher-order cognitive effort compensating for perception deficits in the affective domain. This may suffice to recover emotion experience in ratings of clinically stable patients but may fail during acute psychosis. PMID:23051903

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in bilateral brachial neuritis with pure sensory involvement.

    PubMed

    Gazioglu, Sibel; Boz, Cavit; Sarı, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Brachial neuritis is characterized by shoulder and arm pain followed by weakness and atrophy of affected muscles and sensory loss in the arm. Isolated sensory involvement of the brachial plexus is very rare. Diagnosis of brachial neuritis is usually based on clinical history and examination, with the confirmation by electrodiagnostic tests. A 72-year-old woman presented with numbness and tingling in the bilateral upper extremities. While nerve conduction examination revealed only sensory abnormalities of the bilateral upper extremities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickening and hyperintensity of the bilateral brachial plexus. We report a case of bilateral brachial neuritis with clinical and electrophysiological pure sensory involvement diagnosed using brachial plexus MRI. Although electrophysiological examination is thought to be the best diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of brachial neuritis, its findings sometimes indicate a distal lesion, while the involvement of the whole brachial plexus can be seen in MRI.

  6. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  7. Motor and sensory effects of ipsilesional upper extremity hypothermia and contralesional sensory training for chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lima, Núbia Maria; Menegatti, Karina Cândido; Yu, Érica; Sacomoto, Natália Yumi; Oberg, Telma Dagmar; Honorato, Donizeti César

    2015-02-01

    As hypothermia by immersion can reduce the sensory nerve conduction velocity, this study hypothesized that the reduction of sensory input to the ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) using cryotherapy would reduce the inhibitory activity of the contralesional hemisphere in chronic stroke subjects. In this study, hypothermia was applied by immersing the ipsilesional UE in association with sensory training of the contralesional UE of stroke patients to assess the immediate (e.g. sensorimotor function, hemodynamics, and levels of comfort) and long-term (sensory and motor performances of the UEs) effects. The sample included 27 stroke patients allocated into group 1 (n = 14), which received conventional physiotherapy for the affected UE, and group 2 (n = 13), which underwent 10 sessions of immersion hypothermia of the ipsilesional wrist and hand. Assessments were performed pre- and post-treatment and at follow-up using esthesiometry, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the Nottingham Sensory Assessment, functional tests, tactile and weight discrimination, motor sequence, level of comfort, and hemodynamic parameters. The immediate effects of hypothermia using immersion of the ipsilesional UE in association with sensory training of the contralesional UE were hemodynamic stability during and after hypothermia, the absence of sensory abnormalities in the contralesional UE, hypoesthesia in the ipsilesional extremity (dermatomes C6 and C8) (P < 0.05), the maintenance of acceptable levels of comfort, and good patient compliance to the technique. The long-term effects included significant increases in scores on tests performed without functional vision, in scores on blindfolded functional tests, and in tactile localization and joint position sense for the contralesional hand in group 2 as well as the maintenance of these gains at long-term follow-up (5 weeks). Improvement was also found in the tactile function of the C6 and C7 dermatomes of the contralesional hand (P

  8. Relationship of body weight with gastrointestinal motor and sensory function: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bluemel, Sena; Menne, Dieter; Milos, Gabriella; Goetze, Oliver; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark; Steingoetter, Andreas

    2017-01-05

    Whether gastrointestinal motor and sensory function is primary cause or secondary effect of abnormal body weight is uncertain. Moreover, studies relating continuous postprandial sensations of satiation to measurable pathology are scarce. This work assessed postprandial gastrointestinal function and concurrent sensations of satiation across a wide range of body weight and after weight change. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity (OB) were investigated in reference to normal weight controls (HC). AN were additionally investigated longitudinally. Gastric emptying, antral contractions and oro-cecal transit after ingestion of a solid meal were investigated by MRI and 13 C-lactose-ureide breath test. The dependency of self-reported sensations of satiation on the varying degree of stomach filling during gastric emptying was compared between groups. 24 AN (BMI 14.4 (11.9-16.0) kg/m 2 ), 16 OB (34.9 (29.6-41.5) kg/m 2 ) and 20 HC (21.9 (18.9-24.9) kg/m 2 ) were studied. Gastric half-emptying time (t 50 ) was slower in AN than HC (p = 0.016) and OB (p = 0.007), and a negative association between t 50 and BMI was observed between BMI 12 and 25 kg/m 2 (p = 0.007). Antral contractions and oro-cecal transit were not different. For any given gastric content volume, self-reported postprandial fullness was greater in AN than in HC or OB (p < 0.001). After weight rehabilitation, t 50 in AN tended to become shorter (p = 0.09) and postprandial fullness was less marked (p < 0.01). A relationship between body weight and gastric emptying as well as self-reported feelings of satiation is present. AN have slower gastric emptying and heightened visceral perception compared to HC and OB. Longitudinal follow-up after weight rehabilitation in AN suggests these abnormalities are not a primary feature, but secondary to other factors that determine abnormal body weight. Registered July 20, 2009 at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00946816 ).

  9. Language-universal sensory deficits in developmental dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha; Wang, H-L Sharon; Cruz, Alicia; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina

    2011-02-01

    Studies in sensory neuroscience reveal the critical importance of accurate sensory perception for cognitive development. There is considerable debate concerning the possible sensory correlates of phonological processing, the primary cognitive risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Across languages, children with dyslexia have a specific difficulty with the neural representation of the phonological structure of speech. The identification of a robust sensory marker of phonological difficulties would enable early identification of risk for developmental dyslexia and early targeted intervention. Here, we explore whether phonological processing difficulties are associated with difficulties in processing acoustic cues to speech rhythm. Speech rhythm is used across languages by infants to segment the speech stream into words and syllables. Early difficulties in perceiving auditory sensory cues to speech rhythm and prosody could lead developmentally to impairments in phonology. We compared matched samples of children with and without dyslexia, learning three very different spoken and written languages, English, Spanish, and Chinese. The key sensory cue measured was rate of onset of the amplitude envelope (rise time), known to be critical for the rhythmic timing of speech. Despite phonological and orthographic differences, for each language, rise time sensitivity was a significant predictor of phonological awareness, and rise time was the only consistent predictor of reading acquisition. The data support a language-universal theory of the neural basis of developmental dyslexia on the basis of rhythmic perception and syllable segmentation. They also suggest that novel remediation strategies on the basis of rhythm and music may offer benefits for phonological and linguistic development.

  10. Sensory Processing Dysfunction in the Personal Experience and Neuronal Machinery of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Daniel C.; Freedman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing deficits, first investigated by Kraeplin and Bleuler as possible pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia, are now being re-characterized in the context of modern understanding of the involved molecular and neurobiological brain mechanisms. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria position these deficits as intermediaries between molecular and cellular mechanisms and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations. The pre-pulse inhibition of startle responses by a weaker preceding tone, the inhibitory gating of response to paired sensory stimuli characterized using the auditory P50 evoked response, and the detection of slightly different stimuli that elicits the cortical Mismatch Negativity potential demonstrate deficits in early sensory processing mechanisms, whose molecular and neurobiological bases are increasingly well understood. Deficits in sensory processing underlie more complex cognitive dysfunction and, vice versa, are affected by higher-level cognitive difficulties. These deficits are now being used to identify genes involved in familial transmission of the illness and to monitor potentially therapeutic drug effects for both treatment and prevention. This research also provides a clinical reminder that patients’ sensory perception of the surrounding world, even during treatment sessions, may differ considerable from others’ perceptions. A person’s ability to understand and interact effectively with surrounding world ultimately depends upon an underlying sensory experience of it. PMID:25553496

  11. Sensory pollution sources in buildings.

    PubMed

    Wargocki, P

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air in non-industrial buildings is polluted by people, their activities, tobacco smoking, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, building and furnishing materials, and electronic equipment. The sensory pollution loads on the air indoors quantified with an olf unit are summarized. They can be used to predict the impact of indoor pollution sources on the perceived air quality. Despite some limitations, they at present seem to be a suitable pragmatic tool for estimating the ventilation requirements for acceptable indoor air quality, based on perceived air quality. Control of pollution sources indoors and the avoidance of superfluous pollution sources is the most effective method to reduce sensory pollution loads in buildings. Data on sensory pollution loads can be used to predict ventilation requirements for acceptable perceived indoor air quality.

  12. [Sensory and autonomic neuropathies and pain-related channelopathies].

    PubMed

    Kurth, I

    2015-08-01

    Loss of pain perception can result from neurodevelopmental defects, degeneration of nociceptive fibers, or altered excitability of sensory neurons. Hereditary neurodegeneration leading to pain loss is classified as sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). Mutations in approximately 15 genes have been identified in the group of HSAN disorders. Hallmark of the disease is a liability to injury because of impaired acute pain as a warning system to prevent harm. The clinically overlapping "congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP)" is caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels, which control the excitability of nociceptors. However, mutations in the latter genes can also result in disorders with increased pain susceptibility. This review summarizes the clinical presentation of HSAN and pain-related channelopathies and discusses the underlying disease mechanisms.

  13. A cross-sectional survey of 3035 patients with fibromyalgia: subgroups of patients with typical comorbidities and sensory symptom profiles.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Stefanie E; Koroschetz, Jana; Gockel, Ulrich; Brosz, Mathias; Freynhagen, Rainer; Tölle, Thomas R; Baron, Ralf

    2010-06-01

    Patients with FM are heterogeneous. They present with a variety of pain qualities, sensory abnormalities and additional comorbidities. The aim was to identify clinically distinguishable subgroups of patients. This investigation uses epidemiological and clinical data of 3035 FM patients from a cross-sectional survey (painDETECT) to (i) describe characteristic epidemiological data and comorbidities and (ii) detect subgroups of patients with typical patterns of sensory symptoms and comorbidities. Clinically relevant sensory abnormalities (strongly, very strongly present) included pressure pain (58%), prickling (33%), burning (30%) and thermal hypersensitivity (24%). Pain attacks were complained by 40% of patients. Moderate to severe comorbid depression occurred in 66% of patients. Only approximately 30% of the patients had optimal sleep. A hierarchical cluster analysis using descriptors of sensory abnormalities as well as the extent of comorbidities revealed five distinct subgroups of patients showing a characteristic clinical profile. Four subgroups of patients suffer from severe sensory disturbances in various combinations but lack pronounced comorbidities. In one subgroup, however, severe comorbidities dominate the clinical picture. Differences in pathophysiological mechanisms of pain generation can be attributed to each subgroup. The results of this study indicate that FM patients can be classified on the basis of their sensory symptoms and comorbidities by the use of a patient-reported questionnaire. Subgrouping of patients with FM may be used for future research and to tailor optimal treatment strategies for the appropriate patient.

  14. Sensory Neuronopathy and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alberto R. M.; Nunes, Marcelo B.; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory neuronopathies (SNs) are a specific subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases characterized by primary degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and their projections. Multifocal sensory symptoms often associated to ataxia are the classical features of SN. Several different etiologies have been described for SNs, but immune-mediated damage plays a key role in most cases. SN may herald the onset of some systemic autoimmune diseases, which further emphasizes how important the recognition of SN is in clinical practice. We have thus reviewed available clinical, neurophysiological, and therapeutic data on autoimmune disease-related SN, namely, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and celiac disease. PMID:22312482

  15. Exploring the Public's Sensory Genotypes and Phenotypes through Innovative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The genetic diversity contained in a population can be used to engage the audience in an understanding of human genotypes and phenotypes. With a series of simple examples of well-documented sensory phenotypes related to the perception of colour, aromas or food preference, the diversity of the audience can be easily explored. The collecting of…

  16. Progress in the Understanding of Sensory and Perceptual Processes in Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haith, Marshall M.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on investigations of infant sensation and perception over the past 25 years. Describes the knowledge base concerning the sensory and perceptual world of the infant in the mid-1960s. Methodological highlights in the study of vision and audition are covered. (RJC)

  17. Only Self-Generated Actions Create Sensori-Motor Systems in the Developing Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Swain, Shelley N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research shows that sensory and motor systems interact during perception, but how these connections among systems are created during development is unknown. The current work exposes young children to novel "verbs" and objects through either (a) actively exploring the objects or (b) by seeing an experimenter interact with the objects.…

  18. Abnormal late visual responses and alpha oscillations in neurofibromatosis type 1: a link to visual and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) affects several areas of cognitive function including visual processing and attention. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the visual deficits of children and adolescents with NF1 by studying visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain oscillations during visual stimulation and rest periods. Methods Electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) responses were measured during visual processing (NF1 n = 17; controls n = 19) and idle periods with eyes closed and eyes open (NF1 n = 12; controls n = 14). Visual stimulation was chosen to bias activation of the three detection mechanisms: achromatic, red-green and blue-yellow. Results We found significant differences between the groups for late chromatic VEPs and a specific enhancement in the amplitude of the parieto-occipital alpha amplitude both during visual stimulation and idle periods. Alpha modulation and the negative influence of alpha oscillations in visual performance were found in both groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest abnormal later stages of visual processing and enhanced amplitude of alpha oscillations supporting the existence of deficits in basic sensory processing in NF1. Given the link between alpha oscillations, visual perception and attention, these results indicate a neural mechanism that might underlie the visual sensitivity deficits and increased lapses of attention observed in individuals with NF1. PMID:24559228

  19. Autism: tactile perception and emotion.

    PubMed

    Pernon, E; Pry, R; Baghdadli, A

    2007-08-01

    For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Several experiments were carried out using different forms of tactile stimulation (passive and active subjects). Our data showed specific responses in children with autism and intellectual disability. These children displayed a strong (positive) valence to the stimulation provided. They were very attracted to the stimulation and were excited by it.

  20. Development of sensorial experiments and their implementation into undergraduate laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    "Visualization" of chemical phenomena often has been limited in the teaching laboratories to the sense of sight. We have developed chemistry experiments that rely on senses other than eyesight to investigate chemical concepts, make quantitative determinations, and familiarize students with chemical techniques traditionally designed using only eyesight. Multi-sensory learning can benefit all students by actively engaging them in learning through stimulation or an alternative way of experiencing a concept or ideas. Perception of events or concepts usually depends on the information from the different sensory systems combined. The use of multi-sensory learning can take advantage of all the senses to reinforce learning as each sense builds toward a more complete experience of scientific data. Research has shown that multi-sensory representations of scientific phenomena is a valuable tool for enhancing understanding of chemistry as well as displacing misconceptions through experience. Multi-sensory experiences have also been shown to enrich memory performance. There are few experiments published which utilize multiple senses in the teaching laboratory. The sensorial experiments chosen were conceptually similar to experiments currently performed in undergraduate laboratories; however students collect different types of data using multi-sensory observations. The experiments themselves were developed by using chemicals that would provide different sensory changes or capitalizing on sensory observations that were typically overlooked or ignored and obtain similar and precise results as in traditional experiments. Minimizing hazards and using safe practices are especially essential in these experiments as students utilize senses traditionally not allowed to be used in the laboratories. These sensorial experiments utilize typical equipment found in the teaching laboratories as well as inexpensive chemicals in order to aid implementation. All experiments are rigorously tested

  1. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative Sensation and Autonomic Test Abnormalities in Transthyretin Amyloidosis Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hwee; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Low, Phillip A.; Dyck, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the value of standard quantitative autonomic (QAT) and sensation (QST) tests in detecting, characterizing, and quantitating the severity of transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-A-PN). This information is needed for prospective therapeutic trials, epidemiologic surveys and medical practice. We reviewed thirty six patients with TTR-A-PN who were evaluated between 1997 and 2007. They had neurologic, genetic, electrodiagnostic, and autonomic reflex screen evaluations and allowed their medical records and test results to be evaluated for research purposes. Of these, 22 patients had also been tested by quantitative sensation tests (QSTs). The median symptom duration was 4 years (range 1 to 30 years). Among quantitative nerve tests evaluated, composite scores of nerve conduction (Σ 5 NC nds), a composite score of QSTs (Σ3QST nds), and quantitative autonomic tests (QSART, HRdb, and CASS) gave high frequencies of abnormality. These results show that peripheral autonomic and small fiber sensory dysfunction is prominent and characteristic of most of the patients we studied. However this involvement was not selective for small-diameter sensory and autonomic nerve fibers; large motor and sensory fibers were also shown to be dysfunctional. Dysfunction of large fibers was approximately as frequent as that of small fibers. This study provides a rationale for use of QAT, QST, and Σ 5 NC nds as standard, objective and quantitative measures for quantitating the severity of TTR-A-PN in epidemiologic surveys, therapeutic trials and medical practice. PMID:19618439

  3. Can tactile sensory processing differentiate between children with autistic disorder and asperger's disorder?

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-05-01

    There are debates whether autistic disorder (autism) and Asperger's disorder are two distinct disorders. Moreover, interventional sensory occupational therapy should consider the clinical characteristics of patients. Already, commonalities and differences between Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder are not well studied. The aim of this study is to compare tactile sensory function of children with autistic disorder and children with Asperger's disorder. Tactile sensory function was compared between 36 children with autism and 19 children with Asperger's disorder. The two disorders were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The parent-reported Tactile Dysfunction Checklist was used to assess the three aspects of hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and poor tactile perception and discrimination. Developmental coordination was also assessed. Developmental coordination problems total score was not associated with group. The mean (standard deviation) score of tactile hyper-responsivity was not different between the groups. Tactile hyporesponsivity and poor tactile perception and discrimination scores were statistically higher in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder group. These results for the first time indicated that at least some aspects of tactile perception can differentiate these two disorders. Children with autistic disorder have more tactile sensory seeking behaviors than children with Asperger's disorder. Moreover, the ability of children with autistic disorder for tactile discrimination and sensory perception is less than those with Asperger's disorder. Interventional sensory therapy in children with autistic disorder should have some characteristics that can be different and specific for children with Asperger's disorder. Formal intelligence quotient testing was not performed on all of the children evaluated, which is a limitation to this study. In some cases, a clinical estimation of

  4. Can Tactile Sensory Processing Differentiate Between Children with Autistic Disorder and Asperger's Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective There are debates whether autistic disorder (autism) and Asperger's disorder are two distinct disorders. Moreover, interventional sensory occupational therapy should consider the clinical characteristics of patients. Already, commonalities and differences between Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder are not well studied. The aim of this study is to compare tactile sensory function of children with autistic disorder and children with Asperger's disorder. Methods Tactile sensory function was compared between 36 children with autism and 19 children with Asperger's disorder. The two disorders were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The parent-reported Tactile Dysfunction Checklist was used to assess the three aspects of hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and poor tactile perception and discrimination. Developmental coordination was also assessed. Results Developmental coordination problems total score was not associated with group. The mean (standard deviation) score of tactile hyper-responsivity was not different between the groups. Tactile hyporesponsivity and poor tactile perception and discrimination scores were statistically higher in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder group. Conclusion These results for the first time indicated that at least some aspects of tactile perception can differentiate these two disorders. Children with autistic disorder have more tactile sensory seeking behaviors than children with Asperger's disorder. Moreover, the ability of children with autistic disorder for tactile discrimination and sensory perception is less than those with Asperger's disorder. Interventional sensory therapy in children with autistic disorder should have some characteristics that can be different and specific for children with Asperger's disorder. Formal intelligence quotient testing was not performed on all of the children evaluated, which is a limitation to this study. In

  5. Habits of the Sensory System and Mental Health: Understanding Sensory Dissonance.

    PubMed

    Bailliard, Antoine L

    2015-01-01

    In occupational therapy, research has studied sensory function predominantly in relation to sensory disorders. There is a gap in the literature exploring how sensory experiences affect mental health. This study sought to provide a phenomenological understanding of how people relate experiences of sensory dissonance to their mental health. Ten immigrants from Latin America participated in semistructured interviews and video observations of their occupational behavior. Participants' experiences of sensory dissonance provoked negative mental states and distress. Participants reported poor mental health following sensory experiences that were incongruent with their habits of sensing. They also intentionally used sensory anchors to induce positive mental states and connect with past occupational experiences. Occupational therapy practitioners should be mindful of how sensory environments can facilitate or impede intervention. Practitioners are encouraged to harness clients' sensory habits and use sensory anchors as a form of sensory scaffolding to facilitate therapeutic gains. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  7. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  8. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  9. Neurophysiological evidence for generalized sensory neuronopathy in cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szmulewicz, David J; Seiderer, Linda; Halmagyi, G Michael; Storey, Elsdon; Roberts, Leslie

    2015-04-01

    Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a recently described multisystem ataxia defined by the presence of cerebellar ataxia, bilateral vestibulopathy, and a somatosensory deficit. The characteristic clinical sign is an abnormal visually enhanced vestibuloocular reflex. The somatosensory deficit contributes to a significant level of disability in CANVAS. This study was a neurophysiological investigation of 14 patients with CANVAS. Findings revealed uniformly absent sensory nerve action potentials in all limbs, abnormal blink reflexes in 13 of 14 patients, and abnormal masseter reflexes in 6 of 11 patients. Tibial H-reflexes were absent in 11 of 14 patients. Somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal in 10 of the 11 patients tested, and brainstem auditory evoked responses were abnormal in 3 of 8. Cutaneous silent period responses were abnormal in 7 of 14 patients. We suggest that a sensory neuronopathy should be sought in cerebellar and/or vestibular ataxias, particularly where the degree of ataxia is out of proportion to the clinically identified cerebellar and/or vestibular dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Listening to teachers: Views on delivery of a classroom based sensory intervention for students with autism.

    PubMed

    Mills, Caroline; Chapparo, Christine

    2018-02-01

    Occupational therapists consider the impact of autism spectrum disorder on occupational performance at school. Occupational therapists work with teachers to support student participation. Atypical sensory processing is common in children with autism. Therefore, collaborating with teachers to enable students with autism to appropriately process sensory information within classrooms may be necessary. This qualitative pilot study aimed to capture teachers' perceptions of using a Sensory Activity Schedule, a sensory based intervention, in the classroom. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse semi-structured interview responses from 19 qualified teachers who taught children with autism from seven different autism specific special schools in NSW. Teachers were asked about their motivation to complete the intervention as well as helpful and difficult aspects of the intervention. Three main categories and eight sub-categories were identified from the 19 respondents who reported that helping their students was an important motivation for using a Sensory Activity Schedule as well as the opportunity to evaluate whether sensory based intervention was beneficial. Teachers reported that learning new ideas, working with an occupational therapist and seeing an increase in concentration and a reduction in undesired behaviours were positive aspects of utilising the intervention. Timing, staffing and fidelity of the intervention were areas of concern. Collaboration with classroom teachers is an essential part of school-based occupational therapy. Insights from teachers who implemented a sensory based intervention in the classroom assist occupational therapists to better support students with autism spectrum disorder in schools. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Oral infections, comorbidities and sensory evidences in elderly: Cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nathalia Santos Viana; da Silva, Luciana Alvarenga; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Siqueira, Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli de

    2017-11-01

    Oral infections affect the general health and overlap with chronic diseases due to infectious-immune mechanisms. On the other side, sensory abnormalities may be symptoms of this association. To evaluate the prevalence of oral infections, comorbidities, health parameters and sensory abnormalities in elderly patients. Thirty (30) elderly with mean age 70.4 yo, distributed according to ages were evaluated with a protocol that included demographics, comorbidities, medications, laboratory tests, blood pressure, heart rate, mini-mental state examination, clinical oral evaluation and systematized sensory testing (gustative, olfactory, thermal, mechanical and pain thresholds). Data were tabled and statistically analyzed. Twenty-three (76.6%) subjects had chronic diseases that increased according to the age. Seventeen (56.7%) elderly were having medication. Mean probing pocket depth was 1.90mm±0.39mm, mean clinical attachment level was 0.76mm±0.54mm and mean gingival bleeding index was 29.10%±29.05%. All periodontal indexes increased with age (p <0.05) and were associated with comorbidities and use of medication. Patients with chronic diseases had more numbness and pricking sensations (p=0.031; p=0.000). Main sensory findings were: abnormal gustative and vibratory thresholds, which were associated with hematological parameters (blood count, cholesterol levels and glycaemia). Periodontal parameters were associated with facial cold threshold (p=0.000). This study showed an association between systemic diseases, periodontal indexes and sensory thresholds. Sensory findings were associated with blood parameters and are potential tools for periodical health evaluation. Inflammatory or neural mechanisms need further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reorganization of the somatosensory cortex in hemiplegic cerebral palsy associated with impaired sensory tracts.

    PubMed

    Papadelis, Christos; Butler, Erin E; Rubenstein, Madelyn; Sun, Limin; Zollei, Lilla; Nimec, Donna; Snyder, Brian; Grant, Patricia Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST). The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD) children. With MEG, we mapped the functionally active regions in the contralateral S1 during tactile stimulation of the thumb, middle, and little fingers of both hands. Using these MEG-defined functional active regions as regions of interest for PDT, we estimated the diffusion parameters of the AST. Somatosensory function was assessed via two-point discrimination tests. Our MEG data showed: (i) an abnormal somatotopic organization in all children with HCP in either one or both of their hemispheres; (ii) longer Euclidean distances between the digit maps in the S1 of children with HCP compared to TD children; (iii) suppressed gamma responses at early latencies for both hemispheres of children with HCP; and (iv) a positive correlation between the Euclidean distances and the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere of children with HCP. Our MEG-guided PDT data showed: (i) higher mean and radian diffusivity of the AST in children with HCP; (ii) a positive correlation between the axial diffusivity of the AST with the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere; and (iii) a negative correlation between the gamma power change and the AD of the AST for the MA hemisphere. Our findings associate for the first time bilateral cortical functional reorganization in the S1 of HCP children with

  13. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  14. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  15. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. touché is required for touch evoked generator potentials within vertebrate sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Low, Sean E.; Ryan, Joel; Sprague, Shawn M.; Hirata, Hiromi; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Hume, Richard I.; Kuwada, John Y.; Saint-Amant, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The process by which light-touch in vertebrates is transformed into an electrical response in cutaneous mechanosensitive neurons is a largely unresolved question. To address this question we undertook a forward genetic screen in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to identify mutants exhibiting abnormal touch-evoked behaviors, despite the presence of sensory neurons and peripheral neurites. One family, subsequently named touché, was found to harbor a recessive mutation which produced offspring that were unresponsive to light-touch, but responded to a variety of other sensory stimuli. The optogenetic activation of motor behaviors by touché mutant sensory neurons expressing ChannelRhodopsin-2 suggested that the synaptic output of sensory neurons was intact, consistent with a defect in sensory neuron activation. To explore sensory neuron activation we developed an in vivo preparation permitting the precise placement of a combined electrical and tactile stimulating probe upon eGFP positive peripheral neurites. In wild type larva electrical and tactile stimulation of peripheral neurites produced action potentials detectable within the cell body. In a subset of these sensory neurons an underlying generator potential could be observed in response to subthreshold tactile stimuli. A closer examination revealed that the amplitude of the generator potential was proportional to the stimulus amplitude. When assayed touché mutant sensory neurons also responded to electrical stimulation of peripheral neurites similar to wild type larvae, however tactile stimulation of these neurites failed to uncover a subset of sensory neurons possessing generator potentials. These findings suggest that touché is required for generator potentials, and that generator potentials underlie responsiveness to light-touch in zebrafish. PMID:20631165

  17. Phantom percepts: Tinnitus and pain as persisting aversive memory networks

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Dirk; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen; Romo, Ranulfo; Langguth, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    Phantom perception refers to the conscious awareness of a percept in the absence of an external stimulus. On the basis of basic neuroscience on perception and clinical research in phantom pain and phantom sound, we propose a working model for their origin. Sensory deafferentation results in high-frequency, gamma band, synchronized neuronal activity in the sensory cortex. This activity becomes a conscious percept only if it is connected to larger coactivated “(self-)awareness” and “salience” brain networks. Through the involvement of learning mechanisms, the phantom percept becomes associated to distress, which in turn is reflected by a simultaneously coactivated nonspecific distress network consisting of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala. Memory mechanisms play a role in the persistence of the awareness of the phantom percept, as well as in the reinforcement of the associated distress. Thus, different dynamic overlapping brain networks should be considered as targets for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:21502503

  18. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  19. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  20. A Bayesian approach to person perception.

    PubMed

    Clifford, C W G; Mareschal, I; Otsuka, Y; Watson, T L

    2015-11-01

    Here we propose a Bayesian approach to person perception, outlining the theoretical position and a methodological framework for testing the predictions experimentally. We use the term person perception to refer not only to the perception of others' personal attributes such as age and sex but also to the perception of social signals such as direction of gaze and emotional expression. The Bayesian approach provides a formal description of the way in which our perception combines current sensory evidence with prior expectations about the structure of the environment. Such expectations can lead to unconscious biases in our perception that are particularly evident when sensory evidence is uncertain. We illustrate the ideas with reference to our recent studies on gaze perception which show that people have a bias to perceive the gaze of others as directed towards themselves. We also describe a potential application to the study of the perception of a person's sex, in which a bias towards perceiving males is typically observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Segmental somatosensory-evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies, and other sensory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Koutlidis, R M; Ayrignac, X; Pradat, P-F; Le Forestier, N; Léger, J-M; Salachas, F; Maisonobe, T; Fournier, E; Viala, K

    2014-09-01

    Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recordings were performed with the aim of distinguishing chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from other sensory neuropathies. Four groups of 20 subjects each corresponded to patients with (1) possible sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, (2) patients with sensory polyneuropathy of unknown origin, (3) patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and (4) normal subjects. The patients selected for this study had preserved sensory potentials on electroneuromyogram and all waves were recordable in evoked potentials. Somatosensory-evoked potentials evaluations were carried out by stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle, recording peripheral nerve potential in the popliteal fossa, radicular potential and spinal potential at the L4-L5 and T12 levels, and cortical at C'z, with determination of distal conduction time, proximal and radicular conduction time and central conduction time. In the group of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, 80% of patients had abnormal conduction in the N8-N22 segment and 95% had abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. In the group of neuropathies, distal conduction was abnormal in most cases, whereas 60% of patients had no proximal abnormality. None of the patients in the group of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had an abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recording can be used to distinguish between atypical sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and other sensory neuropathies, at the early stage of the disease. Graphical representation of segmental conduction times provides a rapid and accurate visualization of the profile of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Congenital Abnormalities of the Pericardium.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Yuvrajsinh J; Shah, Ankit B; Poon, Michael; Kronzon, Itzhak

    2017-11-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the pericardium are a rare group of disorders that include congenital absence of the pericardium, pericardial cysts, and diverticula. These congenital defects result from alterations in the embryologic formation and structure of the pericardium. Although many cases are incidentally found, they can present as symptomatic, life-threatening disease. Owing to their rarity, many cases are inappropriately diagnosed. Alterations in the embryologic formation and structure may result in the formation of these congenital abnormalities. We review the presentation, diagnosis, and management of congenital absence of the pericardium, pericardial cysts, and diverticula. A summary of multimodality imaging features is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of seven salad rocket (Eruca sativa) accessions: The relationships between sensory attributes and volatile and non-volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Bell, Luke; Methven, Lisa; Signore, Angelo; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-03-01

    Sensory and chemical analyses were performed on accessions of rocket (Eruca sativa) to determine phytochemical influences on sensory attributes. A trained panel was used to evaluate leaves, and chemical data were obtained for polyatomic ions, amino acids, sugars and organic acids. These chemical data (and data of glucosinolates, flavonols and headspace volatiles previously reported) were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine variables statistically important to sensory traits. Significant differences were observed between samples for polyatomic ion and amino acid concentrations. PCA revealed strong, positive correlations between glucosinolates, isothiocyanates and sulfur compounds with bitterness, mustard, peppery, warming and initial heat mouthfeel traits. The ratio between glucosinolates and sugars inferred reduced perception of bitter aftereffects. We highlight the diversity of E. sativa accessions from a sensory and phytochemical standpoint, and the potential for breeders to create varieties that are nutritionally and sensorially superior to existing ones. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, J Robert; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves of the upper-limb. Nerve stimulation produced a selective sensory response on 19 of 20 contacts and 16 of 16 contacts in subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Stimulation elicited multiple, distinct percept areas on the phantom and residual limb. Consistent threshold, impedance, and percept areas have demonstrated that the neural interface is stable for the duration of this on-going, chronic study. We have achieved selective nerve response from multi-contact cuff electrodes by demonstrating characteristic percept areas and thresholds for each contact. Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory feedback system to date. Our approach demonstrates selectivity and stability can be achieved through an extraneural interface, which can provide sensory feedback to amputees.

  5. Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, J Robert; Tyler, Dustin J

    2017-01-01

    Objective Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. Approach Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves of the upper-limb. Main results Nerve stimulation produced a selective sensory response on 19 of 20 contacts and 16 of 16 contacts in subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Stimulation elicited multiple, distinct percept areas on the phantom and residual limb. Consistent threshold, impedance, and percept areas have demonstrated that the neural interface is stable for the duration of this on-going, chronic study. Significance We have achieved selective nerve response from multi-contact cuff electrodes by demonstrating characteristic percept areas and thresholds for each contact. Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory feedback system to date. Our approach demonstrates selectivity and stability can be achieved through an extraneural interface, which can provide sensory feedback to amputees. PMID:25627310

  6. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  7. Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Chu, Virginia W; Hornby, T George; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to improve our understanding of static and dynamic lower extremity sensory perception and the impact of sensory impairments on the control of walking in stroke survivors. Using a custom, real-time unloading system, we tested load perception at heel strike, mid stance and push off in 10 stroke survivors and compared their performance to 10 age-matched and 5 young adult control subjects. Dynamic load perception was based on a judgment of which leg was bearing more load, which was altered on a step by step basis. We also examined lower extremity static load perception, coordination, proprioception, balance, and gait symmetry. The stroke survivors performed significantly worse than the control subjects in dynamic load perception, coordination, proprioception, balance and gait symmetry. Gait symmetry correlated with static and dynamic load perception measures but not with age, proprioception, coordination, and balance. Sensory deficits related to load detection in the impaired limb could result in an increased uncertainty of limb load and a gait strategy in which stroke survivors minimize loading of the impaired limb. This new method of measuring lower extremity dynamic load perception provides a framework for understanding gait-related sensory impairments in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory tricks and brain excitability in cervical dystonia: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Stefano; Houdayer, Elise; Bianchi, Francesca; Tesfaghebriel Tekle, Habtom; Urban, Ivan Pietro; Butera, Calogera; Guerriero, Roberta; Cursi, Marco; Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo; Del Carro, Ubaldo

    2014-08-01

    Sensory tricks such as touching the face with fingertips often improve cervical dystonia [CD]. This study is to determine whether sensory tricks modulate motor cortex excitability, assessed by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation [p-pTMS]. Eight patients with rotational CD underwent p-pTMS, at rest and when the sensory trick was applied. To test intracortical inhibition [ICI] and facilitation [ICF], the amplitude ratio between conditioned and unconditioned cortical motor evoked potentials was measured at several interstimulus intervals (ISI 1, 3, 15, and 20 ms) and compared with controls mimicking patients' sensory tricks. At rest, a significant ICF enhancement was found at ISIs 15 through 20 in patients compared with controls, whereas no significant ICI changes were observed. Sensory tricks significantly reduced the abnormal ICF in patients and did not induce any change in controls. In our CD patients, sensory tricks seem to improve dystonia through an inhibitory effect on motor cortex excitability. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A; Ng, Hilarie; de la Hoz, Cristiane; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Cajal bodies (CBs), unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN) proteins was reduced - a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A.; Ng, Hilarie; de la Hoz, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Cajal bodies (CBs), unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN) proteins was reduced – a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy. PMID:28250049

  11. [Clinical techniques for use in neurological physical examinations. III. Sensory functions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, P L; Rodríguez-Pupo, L; Rodríguez-García, D

    The purpose of this work is to focus on the main practical aspects of the techniques used for the neurological physical examination of the sensory functions and to present an approach for the practice of this study. Despite the difficulty often involved in interpreting its results, today the formal examination of sensation is still an important part of a complete neurological evaluation and remains valid in the search for a correct diagnosis and suitable treatment. We recommend clinicians to carry out a brief but consistent and effective exploration in a systematic, flexible and orderly manner to check for abnormalities in the sensory functions. Should any anomalies be detected, then a more detailed and thorough neurological exploration must be performed selectively. We present a detailed review of the practical aspects of the main techniques used in the physical examination of this neurological category. In addition to the tests used to examine the peripheral and cortical sensory systems, we also describe other techniques designed to trigger pain or other sensory symptoms due to radicular lesions or injury to the median nerve. We present a detailed description of the main clinical techniques used in the neurological physical examination of the sensory functions, as well as an approach that allows them to be performed on adult patients. In addition, we underline the importance of physically examining the sensory functions in contemporary medicine and the need to continually perfect the way these techniques are performed in order to achieve an efficient clinical practice.

  12. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-28

    speech perception. A tactile hearing aid could eventually assist servicemembers who cannot benefit from a cochlear ... implant . Signal processing software could also be developed to enhance localization and identification of particular sounds (e.g., phones, car horns

  13. Impact of temperature and humidity on chemical and sensory emissions from building materials.

    PubMed

    Fang, L; Clausen, G; Fanger, P O

    1999-09-01

    The chemical and sensory emissions from five building materials (carpet, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring, sealant, floor varnish and wall paint) were tested under different combinations of temperature and relative humidity in the ranges 18-28 degrees C and 30-70% relative humidity (RH). The experiment was performed in a climate chamber where a specially designed test system was built to study emissions from the five materials. The test system could provide different temperatures and humidities of air around the materials, while the air, after being polluted by the emissions from the materials, could be reconditioned to 23 degrees C and 50% RH for sensory assessments. The experiment was designed to separate the direct impact of temperature and humidity on perception from the impact on sensory emission. The study found little influence of temperature on the emissions from the five materials whether expressed in chemical or sensory terms. The effect of humidity was found to be significant only for the waterborne materials--floor varnish and wall paint. Compared with the direct impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air quality, the impact of temperature and humidity on sensory emissions from the building materials has a secondary influence on perceived air quality.

  14. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-29

    flies ( Hermetia Illucens) to elicit controlled take-off and landing in free flight (Pilot experiments completed. Follow- up experiments in progress...neerii. 2) Location of odor sources in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. 3) Wing-haltere coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens...coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Tanvi Deora): One of the key sensory inputs for flight stability in Diptera comes from the haltere

  15. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Kazue; Tanigaki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25805966

  16. Early physiological abnormalities after simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Thomas F. W.; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Weed, Michael R.; Henriksen, Steven J.; Fox, Howard S.

    1998-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) damage and dysfunction are devastating consequences of HIV infection. Although the CNS is one of the initial targets for HIV infection, little is known about early viral-induced abnormalities that can affect CNS function. Here we report the detection of early physiological abnormalities in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. The acute infection caused a disruption of the circadian rhythm manifested by rises in body temperature, observed in all five individuals between 1 and 2 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), accompanied by a reduction in daily motor activity to 50% of control levels. Animals remained hyperthermic at 1 and 2 months p.i. and returned to preinoculation temperatures at 3 months after viral inoculation. Although motor activity recovered to baseline values at 1 month p.i., activity levels then decreased to approximately 50% of preinoculation values over the next 2 months. Analysis of sensory-evoked responses 1 month p.i. revealed distinct infection-induced changes in auditory-evoked potential peak latencies that persisted at 3 months after viral inoculation. These early physiological abnormalities may precede the development of observable cognitive or motor deficiencies and can provide an assay to evaluate agents to prevent or alleviate neuronal dysfunction. PMID:9844017

  17. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  18. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres’s theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular–proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

  19. Visual Aversive Learning Compromises Sensory Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Lee; Paz, Rony; Avidan, Galia

    2018-03-14

    Aversive learning is thought to modulate perceptual thresholds, which can lead to overgeneralization. However, it remains undetermined whether this modulation is domain specific or a general effect. Moreover, despite the unique role of the visual modality in human perception, it is unclear whether this aspect of aversive learning exists in this modality. The current study was designed to examine the effect of visual aversive outcomes on the perception of basic visual and auditory features. We tested the ability of healthy participants, both males and females, to discriminate between neutral stimuli, before and after visual learning. In each experiment, neutral stimuli were associated with aversive images in an experimental group and with neutral images in a control group. Participants demonstrated a deterioration in discrimination (higher discrimination thresholds) only after aversive learning. This deterioration was measured for both auditory (tone frequency) and visual (orientation and contrast) features. The effect was replicated in five different experiments and lasted for at least 24 h. fMRI neural responses and pupil size were also measured during learning. We showed an increase in neural activations in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala during aversive compared with neutral learning. Interestingly, the early visual cortex showed increased brain activity during aversive compared with neutral context trials, with identical visual information. Our findings imply the existence of a central multimodal mechanism, which modulates early perceptual properties, following exposure to negative situations. Such a mechanism could contribute to abnormal responses that underlie anxiety states, even in new and safe environments. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using a visual aversive-learning paradigm, we found deteriorated discrimination abilities for visual and auditory stimuli that were associated with visual aversive stimuli. We showed increased neural

  20. How the cerebellum may monitor sensory information for spatial representation

    PubMed Central

    Rondi-Reig, Laure; Paradis, Anne-Lise; Lefort, Julie M.; Babayan, Benedicte M.; Tobin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum has already been shown to participate in the navigation function. We propose here that this structure is involved in maintaining a sense of direction and location during self-motion by monitoring sensory information and interacting with navigation circuits to update the mental representation of space. To better understand the processing performed by the cerebellum in the navigation function, we have reviewed: the anatomical pathways that convey self-motion information to the cerebellum; the computational algorithm(s) thought to be performed by the cerebellum from these multi-source inputs; the cerebellar outputs directed toward navigation circuits and the influence of self-motion information on space-modulated cells receiving cerebellar outputs. This review highlights that the cerebellum is adequately wired to combine the diversity of sensory signals to be monitored during self-motion and fuel the navigation circuits. The direct anatomical projections of the cerebellum toward the head-direction cell system and the parietal cortex make those structures possible relays of the cerebellum influence on the hippocampal spatial map. We describe computational models of the cerebellar function showing that the cerebellum can filter out the components of the sensory signals that are predictable, and provides a novelty output. We finally speculate that this novelty output is taken into account by the navigation structures, which implement an update over time of position and stabilize perception during navigation. PMID:25408638

  1. An MRI-compatible hand sensory vibrotactile system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Slota, Gregory P; Seo, Na Jin; Webster, John G

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the application of vibrotactile noise to the wrist or back of the hand has been shown to enhance fingertip tactile sensory perception (Enders et al 2013), supporting the potential for an assistive device worn at the wrist, that generates minute vibrations to help the elderly or patients with sensory deficit. However, knowledge regarding the detailed physiological mechanism behind this sensory improvement in the central nervous system, especially in the human brain, is limited, hindering progress in development and use of such assistive devices. To enable investigation of the impact of vibrotactile noise on sensorimotor brain activity in humans, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible vibrotactile system was developed to provide vibrotactile noise during an MRI of the brain. The vibrotactile system utilizes a remote (outside the MR room) signal amplifier which provides a voltage from -40 to +40 V to drive a 12 mm diameter piezoelectric vibrator (inside the MR room). It is portable and is found to be MRI-compatible which enables its use for neurologic investigation with MRI. The system was also found to induce an improvement in fingertip tactile sensation, consistent with the previous study.

  2. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  3. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  4. Sensory hypoinnervation in club foot.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Ahmed, N; Khan, K M; Umer, M; Rashid, H; Hashmi, P; Umar, M

    2004-11-01

    We have compared the density of nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot with that of specimens obtained from the synovium of the hip at operations for developmental dysplasia. The study focused on the sensory neuropeptides substance P; calcitonin gene-related peptide; protein gene product 9.5, a general marker for mature peripheral nerve fibres; and growth associated protein 43, a neuronal marker for new or regenerating nerve fibres. In order to establish whether there might be any inherent difference we analysed the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive nerve fibres in the hip and ankle joints in young rats. Semi-quantitative analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of sensory and mature nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot compared with the control hips. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive fibres were reduced by 28%, substance P-positive fibres by 36% and protein gene product 9.5-positive fibres by 52% in club foot. The growth associated protein 43-positive fibres also seemed to be less in six samples of club foot. No difference in the density of CGRP-positive nerve fibres was observed in the synovium between ankle and hip joints in rats. The lack of sensory input may be responsible for the fibrosis and soft-tissue contractures associated with idiopathic club foot.

  5. Biological motion distorts size perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2017-02-01

    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions - stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived - do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size.

  6. Temporal expectation improves the quality of sensory information.

    PubMed

    Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Cravo, André M; Wyart, Valentin; Nobre, Anna C

    2012-06-13

    It is increasingly clear that we extract patterns of temporal regularity between events to optimize information processing. Whereas some of the mechanisms for facilitating action preparation and execution have been well documented, much less is understood about whether and how temporal expectations influence visual perception. We used a psychophysical paradigm and computational modeling to investigate the mechanisms by which temporal expectation can modulate visual perception. Visual targets appeared in a stream of noise-patches separated by a fixed (400 ms regular condition) or jittered (200/300/400/500/600 ms irregular condition) intervals. Targets were visual gratings tilted 45° clockwise or counter-clockwise, presented at one of seven contrast levels. Human observers were required to perform an orientation discrimination (i.e., left or right). Psychometric functions for contrast sensitivity fitted for the regular and irregular conditions indicated that temporal expectation modulates perceptual processing by enhancing the contrast sensitivity of visual targets. This increase in the signal strength was accompanied by a reduction in reaction times. A diffusion model indicated that rhythmic temporal expectation enhanced the signal-to-noise gain of the sensory evidence upon which decisions were made. These effects support the idea that temporal structure of external events can entrain the attentional focus and psychophysical data, optimizing the processing of relevant sensory information.

  7. Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2012-01-01

    The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

  8. Action-based effects on music perception

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  9. Action-based effects on music perception.

    PubMed

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-03

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  10. Gray matter volumes of early sensory regions are associated with individual differences in sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-12-01

    Sensory processing (i.e., the manner in which the nervous system receives, modulates, integrates, and organizes sensory stimuli) is critical when humans are deciding how to react to environmental demands. Although behavioral studies have shown that there are stable individual differences in sensory processing, the neural substrates that implement such differences remain unknown. To investigate this issue, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 51 healthy adults and individual differences in sensory processing were assessed using the Sensory Profile questionnaire (Brown et al.: Am J Occup Ther 55 (2001) 75-82). There were positive relationships between the Sensory Profile modality-specific subscales and gray matter volumes in the primary or secondary sensory areas for the visual, auditory, touch, and taste/smell modalities. Thus, the present results suggest that individual differences in sensory processing are implemented by the early sensory regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6206-6217, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pain Perception in Buddhism Perspective.

    PubMed

    Waikakul, Waraporn; Waikakul, Saranatra

    2016-08-01

    Dhamma, which Lord Buddha has presented to people after his enlightenment, analyzes every phenomenon and objects into their ultimate elements. The explanation of sensory system is also found in a part of Dhamma named Abhidhammapitaka, the Book of the Higher Doctrine in Buddhism. To find out the relationship between explanation of pain in the present neuroscience and the explanation of pain in Abhidhamma, the study was carried out by the use of a comprehensive review. The comparisons were in terms of peripheral stimulation, signal transmission, modulation, perception, suffering, determination and decision making for the responding to pain. We found that details of the explanation on pain mechanism and perception in Abhidhamma could associate well with our present scientific knowledge. Furthermore, more refinement information about the process and its function in particular aspects of pain perception were provided in Abhidhammapitaka.

  12. Abnormal Complex Auditory Pattern Analysis in Schizophrenia Reflected in an Absent Missing Stimulus Mismatch Negativity.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean F; McCathern, Alexis G

    2016-11-01

    The simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to tones deviating physically (in pitch, loudness, duration, etc.) from repeated standard tones is robustly reduced in schizophrenia. Although generally interpreted to reflect memory or cognitive processes, simple MMN likely contains some activity from non-adapted sensory cells, clouding what process is affected in schizophrenia. Research in healthy participants has demonstrated that MMN can be elicited by deviations from abstract auditory patterns and complex rules that do not cause sensory adaptation. Whether persons with schizophrenia show abnormalities in the complex MMN is unknown. Fourteen schizophrenia participants and 16 matched healthy underwent EEG recording while listening to 400 groups of 6 tones 330 ms apart, separated by 800 ms. Occasional deviant groups were missing the 4th or 6th tone (50 groups each). Healthy participants generated a robust response to a missing but expected tone. The schizophrenia group was significantly impaired in activating the missing stimulus MMN, generating no significant activity at all. Schizophrenia affects the ability of "primitive sensory intelligence" and pre-attentive perceptual mechanisms to form implicit groups in the auditory environment. Importantly, this deficit must relate to abnormalities in abstract complex pattern analysis rather than sensory problems in the disorder. The results indicate a deficit in parsing of the complex auditory scene which likely impacts negatively on successful social navigation in schizophrenia. Knowledge of the location and circuit architecture underlying the true novelty-related MMN and its pathophysiology in schizophrenia will help target future interventions.

  13. Altered Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Responses to Nonpainful Sensory Stimulation in Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Solá, Marina; Pujol, Jesus; Wager, Tor D.; Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Garcia-Blanco, Susana; Poca-Dias, Violant; Harrison, Ben J.; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Monfort, Jordi; Garcia-Fructuoso, Ferran; Deus, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic pain and enhanced responses to acute noxious events. However, the sensory systems affected in FM may extend beyond pain itself, as FM patients show reduced tolerance to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation. Characterizing the neural substrates of multisensory hypersensitivity in FM may thus provide important clues about the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. The aim of this study was to characterize brain responses to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation in FM patients and their relationship to subjective sensory sensitivity and clinical pain severity. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain response to auditory, visual, and tactile motor stimulation in 35 women with FM and 25 matched controls. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to establish the relationship between brain responses and 3 types of outcomes: subjective hypersensitivity to daily sensory stimulation, spontaneous pain, and functional disability. Results Patients reported increased subjective sensitivity (increased unpleasantness) in response to multisensory stimulation in daily life. Functional MRI revealed that patients showed reduced task-evoked activation in primary/secondary visual and auditory areas and augmented responses in the insula and anterior lingual gyrus. Reduced responses in visual and auditory areas were correlated with subjective sensory hypersensitivity and clinical severity measures. Conclusion FM patients showed strong attenuation of brain responses to nonpainful events in early sensory cortices, accompanied by an amplified response at later stages of sensory integration in the insula. These abnormalities are associated with core FM symptoms, suggesting that they may be part of the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:25220783

  14. Altered functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to nonpainful sensory stimulation in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    López-Solà, Marina; Pujol, Jesus; Wager, Tor D; Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Garcia-Blanco, Susana; Poca-Dias, Violant; Harrison, Ben J; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Monfort, Jordi; Garcia-Fructuoso, Ferran; Deus, Joan

    2014-11-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic pain and enhanced responses to acute noxious events. However, the sensory systems affected in FM may extend beyond pain itself, as FM patients show reduced tolerance to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation. Characterizing the neural substrates of multisensory hypersensitivity in FM may thus provide important clues about the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. The aim of this study was to characterize brain responses to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation in FM patients and their relationship to subjective sensory sensitivity and clinical pain severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain response to auditory, visual, and tactile motor stimulation in 35 women with FM and 25 matched controls. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to establish the relationship between brain responses and 3 types of outcomes: subjective hypersensitivity to daily sensory stimulation, spontaneous pain, and functional disability. Patients reported increased subjective sensitivity (increased unpleasantness) in response to multisensory stimulation in daily life. Functional MRI revealed that patients showed reduced task-evoked activation in primary/secondary visual and auditory areas and augmented responses in the insula and anterior lingual gyrus. Reduced responses in visual and auditory areas were correlated with subjective sensory hypersensitivity and clinical severity measures. FM patients showed strong attenuation of brain responses to nonpainful events in early sensory cortices, accompanied by an amplified response at later stages of sensory integration in the insula. These abnormalities are associated with core FM symptoms, suggesting that they may be part of the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Neurofilament light mutation causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with pyramidal signs.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Yujiro; Nomura, Miwa; Nakamura, Tomonori; Arata, Hitoshi; Yuan, Junhui; Yoshimura, Akiko; Okamoto, Yuji; Matsuura, Eiji; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    To identify novel mutations causing hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) with pyramidal signs, a variant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), we screened 28 CMT and related genes in four members of an affected Japanese family. Clinical features included weakness of distal lower limb muscles, foot deformity, and mild sensory loss, then late onset of progressive spasticity. Electrophysiological studies revealed widespread neuropathy. Electron microscopic analysis showed abnormal mitochondria and mitochondrial accumulation in the neurons and Schwann cells. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an abnormally thin corpus callosum. In all four, microarrays detected a novel heterozygous missense mutation c.1166A>G (p.Y389C) in the gene encoding the light-chain neurofilament protein (NEFL), indicating that NEFL mutations can result in a HMSN with pyramidal signs phenotype. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  16. Ethanol Affects the Development of Sensory Hair Cells in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%–1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  17. Ethanol affects the development of sensory hair cells in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Asuncion, James D; Matsui, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%-1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS.

  18. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  19. Effect of barium sulfate contrast medium on rheology and sensory texture attributes in a model food.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, O; Bulow, M; Ekman, S; Hall, G; Stading, M; Wendin, K

    2009-03-01

    The swallowing process can be visualized using videoradiography, by mixing food with contrast medium, e.g., barium sulfate (BaSO(4)), making it radiopaque. The sensory properties of foods may be affected by adding this medium. To evaluate if and to what extent sensory and rheological characteristics of mango purée were altered by adding barium sulfate to the food. This study evaluated four food samples based on mango purée, with no or added barium sulfate contrast medium (0%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5%), by a radiographic method, and measured sensory texture properties and rheological characteristics. The sensory evaluation was performed by an external trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis. The ease of swallowing the foods was also evaluated. The sensory texture properties of mango purée were significantly affected by the added barium in all evaluated attributes, as was the perception of particles. Moreover, ease of swallowing was significantly higher in the sample without added contrast medium. All samples decreased in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate, i.e., all samples were tension thinning. Shear viscosity was not as dependent on the concentration of BaSO(4) as extensional viscosity. Addition of barium sulfate to a model food of mango purée has a major impact on perceived sensory texture attributes as well as on rheological parameters.

  20. Movement restriction does not modulate sensory and perceptual effects of exercise-induced arm pain.

    PubMed

    Hübscher, Markus; Tu, Simon; Stanton, Tasha; Moseley, G Lorimer; Wand, Benedict M; Booth, John; McAuley, James H

    2015-05-01

    Movement restriction has been proposed as an important modulator of changes in sensory and perceptual function and motor imagery performance that are observed in musculoskeletal pain syndromes. There are no empirical data to support this view. The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of movement restriction on local and widespread sensory, perceptual and motor imagery changes after exercise-induced muscular pain. Further objectives were to investigate whether changes in sensory perception are correlated with pain intensity and tactile acuity or motor imagery performance. In forty healthy volunteers, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the non-dominant elbow flexors was induced using eccentric contractions until exhaustion. Participants were then randomised into two groups: a movement restriction group (wearing a sling) or a control group (not wearing a sling). Sensory and perceptual functions were measured using a range of sensory tests and a motor imagery performance task (left/right limb judgements). Movement restriction did not modulate any of the measures. We found concurrent mechanical hypoesthesia (p < 0.01), reduced tactile acuity (p = 0.02) and pressure hyperalgesia (p < 0.01) at the painful side. We found evidence of widespread pressure hyperalgesia. Impaired tactile acuity was associated with a decrease in pain threshold to pressure (r = -0.34, p = 0.03). Motor imagery performance was unchanged (p > 0.35) by pain or movement restriction. Short-term movement restriction did not influence local and widespread sensory changes induced by experimentally induced muscular pain.

  1. Multisensory Integration and Calibration in Children and Adults with and without Sensory and Motor Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica

    2015-01-01

    During the first years of life, sensory modalities communicate with each other. This process is fundamental for the development of unisensory and multisensory skills. The absence of one sensory input impacts on the development of other modalities. Since 2008 we have studied these aspects and developed our cross-sensory calibration theory. This theory emerged from the observation that children start to integrate multisensory information (such as vision and touch) only after 8-10 years of age. Before this age the more accurate sense teaches (calibrates) the others; when one calibrating modality is missing, the other modalities result impaired. Children with visual disability have problems in understanding the haptic or auditory perception of space and children with motor disabilities have problems in understanding the visual dimension of objects. This review presents our recent studies on multisensory integration and cross-sensory calibration in children and adults with and without sensory and motor disabilities. The goal of this review is to show the importance of interaction between sensory systems during the early period of life in order to correct perceptual development to occur.

  2. Characterization of red wines from South America based on sensory properties and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Granato, Daniel; Uchida Katayama, Flávia Chizuko; de Castro, Inar Alves

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that red wines constitute one of the most important sources of dietary polyphenolic antioxidants. However, it is still not known how some variables such as variety, vintage, country of origin, and retail price are associated with the antioxidant activity and sensory profile of South American red wines. In this regard, 80 samples produced in Brazil, Chile and Argentina were assessed in relation to their sensory properties, color and in vitro antioxidant activity, and results were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques. Samples were grouped in clusters, characterized by high, intermediate and low in vitro antioxidant activity, sensory properties and prices. It was possible to observe that wines with high antioxidant activity were associated to high retail prices and overall perception of sensory quality. South American wines produced from Vitis vinifera such as Syrah, Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon had higher in vitro antioxidant activity and also higher sensory quality than wines produced from Vitis labrusca. This result was independent of vintage (2002-2010), corroborating the idea that the same grape varietal, even when produced in different years, displays similar sensory characteristics and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Dissociating between sensory and perceptual deficits in PD: more than simply a motor deficit.

    PubMed

    Martens, Kaylena A Ehgoetz; Almeida, Quincy J

    2012-03-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally considered a motor output disorder, recent evidence suggests that people with PD may have sensory and perceptual impairments that may underlie movement impairments. Yet there has not been any direct testing of perceptual judgments, especially when manipulating the sensory feedback on which these judgments are made. The present study investigated how perception might be influenced by sensory feedback to contribute to height estimations and obstacle stepping in PD relative to healthy age-matched control participants. Perceptual judgment accuracy was evaluated by judging 3 typically encountered obstacle heights in 2 sensory feedback conditions: (1) vision of foot available and (2) without vision of foot (reliance on proprioceptive feedback to estimate height). Then participants proceeded to walk and step over the obstacle. Fifteen individuals with PD and 15 healthy control participants completed the task. As seen with toe elevation, toe elevation variability, and toe error measures, individuals with PD overestimated the obstacle height and were significantly more variable when relying solely on proprioception (in contrast to when vision was available) compared with healthy controls, although no differences between groups in obstacle crossing were found. These results support the notion that sensory deficits may contribute to inaccuracy of perceptual judgment and has the potential to contribute to gait behaviors such as tripping and falling, especially when vision is not available. Future studies should carefully consider the impact of sensory and perceptual deficits that might contribute to movement planning problems and consequentially movement impairments. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Sensory and sensorimotor gating in children with multiple complex developmental disorders (MCDD) and autism.

    PubMed

    Oranje, Bob; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman; Jan van der Gaag, Rutger; Kemner, Chantal

    2013-04-30

    Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) is a well-defined and validated behavioral subtype of autism with a proposed elevated risk of developing a schizophrenic spectrum disorder. The current study investigated whether children with MCDD show the same deficits in sensory gating that are commonly reported in schizophrenia, or whether they are indistinguishable from children with autism in this respect. P50 suppression and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex were assessed in children with MCDD (n=14) or autism (n=13), and healthy controls (n=12), matched on age and IQ. All subjects showed high levels of PPI and P50 suppression. However, no group differences were found. No abnormalities in sensory filtering could be detected in children with autism or MCDD. Since sensory gating deficits are commonly regarded as possible endophenotypic markers for schizophrenia, the current results do not support a high level of similarity between schizophrenia and MCDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  6. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat an