Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal sensory perception

  1. A neural model for compensation of sensory abnormalities in autism through feedback from a measure of global perception.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Gerardo

    2008-08-01

    Sensory abnormalities and weak central coherence (WCC), a processing bias for features and local information, are important characteristics associated with autism. This paper introduces a self-organizing map (SOM)-based computational model of sensory abnormalities in autism, and of a feedback system to compensate for them. Feedback relies on a measure of balance of coverage over four (sensory) domains. Different methods to compute this measure are discussed, as is the flexibility to configure the system using different control mechanisms. Statistically significant improvements throughout training are demonstrated for compensation of a simple (i.e., monotonically decreasing) hypersensitivity in one of the domains. Fine-tuning control parameters can lead to further gains, but a standard setup results in good performance. Significant improvements are also shown for complex hypersensitivities (i.e., increasing and decreasing through time) in two domains. Although naturally best suited to compensate hypersensitivities--stimuli filtering may mitigate neuron migration to a hypersensitive domain--the system is also shown to perform effectively when compensating hyposensitivities. With poor coverage balance in the model akin to poor global perception, WCC would be consistent with inadequate feedback, resulting in uncontrolled hyper- and/or hyposensitivities characteristic of autism, as seen in the topologies of the resulting SOMs.

  2. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2017-05-05

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  4. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  5. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  6. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  7. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  8. Sensory adaptation for timing perception

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  9. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  10. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autistic traits and abnormal sensory experiences in adults.

    PubMed

    Horder, Jamie; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, M Andreina; Murphy, Declan G

    2014-06-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and now form part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, but it is unclear whether they characterize the 'broader phenotype' of the disorder. We recruited adults (n = 772) with and without an ASD and administered the Autism Quotient (AQ) along with the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS), and the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (GSQ), all questionnaire measures of abnormal sensory responsivity. Autism traits were significantly correlated with scores on all three sensory scales (AQ/GSQ r = 0.478; AQ/AASP r = 0.344; AQ/CAPS r = 0.333; all p < 0.001). This relationship was linear across the whole range of AQ scores and was true both in those with, and without, an ASD diagnosis. It survived correction for anxiety trait scores, and other potential confounds such as mental illness and migraine.

  12. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  13. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  14. Sensory perception in overdenture patients.

    PubMed

    Kay, W D; Abes, M S

    1976-06-01

    The discussion of overdentures has been confined to their capacity to use abutment teeth to improve neuromuscular control of mandibular movement. Use of overdentures has been favored often because of their mechanical advantages, but seldom because of the sensory role of the retained abutment teeth. Even though the retained teeth may be periodontally diseased, they still may provide sufficient support for the transmission of masticatory pressures and sufficient periodontal ligament receptors to initiate a jaw opening reflex. Whereas conflicting evidence shows that the periodontal nerve receptors play a role in mandibular positional sensibility (proprioception), pressure perception by the periodontal ligament remains a primary stimulus for the jaw opening reflex. Additional investigations will be essential to a complete understanding of the role of the periodontal ligament receptors. However, recognition of the importance of the periodontal ligament receptors to the overdenture patient as a source of sensory input is vital.

  15. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  16. Dendritic Spikes in Sensory Perception.

    PubMed

    Manita, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    What is the function of dendritic spikes? One might argue that they provide conditions for neuronal plasticity or that they are essential for neural computation. However, despite a long history of dendritic research, the physiological relevance of dendritic spikes in brain function remains unknown. This could stem from the fact that most studies on dendrites have been performed in vitro. Fortunately, the emergence of novel techniques such as improved two-photon microscopy, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), and optogenetic tools has provided the means for vital breakthroughs in in vivo dendritic research. These technologies enable the investigation of the functions of dendritic spikes in behaving animals, and thus, help uncover the causal relationship between dendritic spikes, and sensory information processing and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the roles of dendritic spikes in brain function would provide mechanistic insight into the relationship between the brain and the mind. In this review article, we summarize the results of studies on dendritic spikes from a historical perspective and discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the role of dendritic spikes in sensory perception.

  17. Dendritic Spikes in Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Manita, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    What is the function of dendritic spikes? One might argue that they provide conditions for neuronal plasticity or that they are essential for neural computation. However, despite a long history of dendritic research, the physiological relevance of dendritic spikes in brain function remains unknown. This could stem from the fact that most studies on dendrites have been performed in vitro. Fortunately, the emergence of novel techniques such as improved two-photon microscopy, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), and optogenetic tools has provided the means for vital breakthroughs in in vivo dendritic research. These technologies enable the investigation of the functions of dendritic spikes in behaving animals, and thus, help uncover the causal relationship between dendritic spikes, and sensory information processing and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the roles of dendritic spikes in brain function would provide mechanistic insight into the relationship between the brain and the mind. In this review article, we summarize the results of studies on dendritic spikes from a historical perspective and discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the role of dendritic spikes in sensory perception. PMID:28261060

  18. Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cury, R G; Galhardoni, R; Fonoff, E T; Perez Lloret, S; Dos Santos Ghilardi, M G; Barbosa, E R; Teixeira, M J; Ciampi de Andrade, D

    2016-02-01

    Pain and sensory abnormalities are present in a large proportion of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and have a significant negative impact in quality of life. It remains undetermined whether pain occurs secondary to motor impairment and to which extent it can be relieved by improvement of motor symptoms. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind sensory changes and pain in PD and to assess the modulatory effects of motor treatment on these sensory abnormalities. A comprehensive literature search was performed. We selected studies investigating sensory changes and pain in PD and the effects of levodopa administration and deep brain stimulation (DBS) on these symptoms. PD patients have altered sensory and pain thresholds in the off-medication state. Both levodopa and DBS improve motor symptoms (i.e.: bradykinesia, tremor) and change sensory abnormalities towards normal levels. However, there is no direct correlation between sensory/pain changes and motor improvement, suggesting that motor and non-motor symptoms do not necessarily share the same mechanisms. Whether dopamine and DBS have a real antinociceptive effect or simply a modulatory effect in pain perception remain uncertain. These data may provide useful insights into a mechanism-based approach to pain in PD, pointing out the role of the dopaminergic system in pain perception and the importance of the characterization of different pain syndromes related to PD before specific treatment can be instituted.

  19. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  20. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  1. Abnormal Sensory Experiences, Synaesthesia, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluegge, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that sensory processing may be affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this letter is to highlight a few recent studies on the topic and tie the findings to a recently identified epidemiological risk factor for ASD, principally environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide (N[subscript…

  2. A physical basis for sensory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwich, Kenneth H.

    2014-11-01

    It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

  3. The pattern of sensory processing abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Garver, Carolyn R; Grannemann, Bruce D; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Johnson, Danny G; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L

    2006-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nature of sensory dysfunction in persons with autism. The cross-sectional study examined auditory, visual, oral, and touch sensory processing, as measured by the Sensory Profile, in 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3-56 years of age, gender-and age-matched to community controls. Persons with autism had abnormal auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory processing that was significantly different from controls. This finding was also apparent when the high and low thresholds of these modalities were examined separately. At later ages for the group with autism, lower levels of abnormal sensory processing were found, except for low threshold touch, which did not improve significantly. There was a significant interaction in low threshold auditory and low threshold visual, suggesting that the two groups change differently over time on these variables. These results suggest that sensory abnormalities in autism are global in nature (involving several modalities) but have the potential to improve with age.

  4. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  5. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  6. Autistic Traits and Abnormal Sensory Experiences in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horder, Jamie; Wilson, C. Ellie; Mendez, M. Andreina; Murphy, Declan G.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and now form part of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition" (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, but it is unclear whether they characterize the "broader phenotype" of the disorder. We recruited adults (n = 772) with and without an ASD and…

  7. Autistic Traits and Abnormal Sensory Experiences in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horder, Jamie; Wilson, C. Ellie; Mendez, M. Andreina; Murphy, Declan G.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and now form part of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition" (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, but it is unclear whether they characterize the "broader phenotype" of the disorder. We recruited adults (n = 772) with and without an ASD and…

  8. Composite foods: from structure to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Elke

    2017-02-22

    An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties of both liquid and solid foods can be related to textural attributes such as thickness and firmness, they do not always correlate to more complex sensory attributes, such as creamy and smooth. These attributes are often a result of different contributions, including lubrication aspects and interactions between food and components present in the oral cavity. In this review, the different contributions for a variety of composite foods, such as dispersions, emulsions and emulsion-filled gels, are discussed. The rheological properties are discussed in relation to specific structural characteristics of the foods, which are then linked to lubrication aspects and sensory perception.

  9. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  10. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  11. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  12. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  13. Subtle Sensory Abnormalities Detected by Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Flor, Herta; Rasche, Dirk; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Rolko, Claudia; Yilmaz, Pinar; Ruppolt, Marc; Capelle, H Holger; Tronnier, Volker; Krauss, Joachim K

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls. Observational study. University Hospital, Departments of Neurosurgery, Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. QST was conducted on 48 patients with idiopathic TN and 27 controls matched for age and gender using the standardized protocol of the German Neuropathic Pain Network. Stimulations were performed bilaterally in the distribution of the trigeminal branches. The patients had no prior invasive treatment, and medications at the time of examination were noted. In patients with TN deficits in warm and cold sensory detection thresholds in the affected and also the non-affected nerve branches were found. Tactile sensation thresholds were elevated in the involved nerve branches compared to the contralateral side. More data are needed on the correlation of such findings with the length of history of TN and with changes of the morphology of the trigeminal nerve. QST shows subtle sensory abnormalities in patients with TN despite not being detected in routine clinical examination. Our data may provide a basis for further research on the development of TN and also on improvement after treatment. Quantitative sensory testing, trigeminal neuralgia, facial pain, neuropathic pain, microvascular decompression, cranial nerve.

  14. Abnormal white matter microstructure in children with sensory processing disorders☆

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Julia P.; Marco, Elysa J.; Desai, Shivani; Fourie, Emily; Harris, Julia; Hill, Susanna S.; Arnett, Anne B.; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2013-01-01

    Sensory processing disorders (SPD) affect 5–16% of school-aged children and can cause long-term deficits in intellectual and social development. Current theories of SPD implicate primary sensory cortical areas and higher-order multisensory integration (MSI) cortical regions. We investigate the role of white matter microstructural abnormalities in SPD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI was acquired in 16 boys, 8–11 years old, with SPD and 24 age-, gender-, handedness- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls. Behavior was characterized using a parent report sensory behavior measure, the Sensory Profile. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to detect significant group differences in white matter integrity and to determine if microstructural parameters were significantly correlated with behavioral measures. Significant decreases in FA and increases in MD and RD were found in the SPD cohort compared to controls, primarily involving posterior white matter including the posterior corpus callosum, posterior corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiations. Strong positive correlations were observed between FA of these posterior tracts and auditory, multisensory, and inattention scores (r = 0.51–0.78; p < 0.001) with strong negative correlations between RD and multisensory and inattention scores (r = − 0.61–0.71; p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate reduced white matter microstructural integrity in children with SPD. We find that the disrupted white matter microstructure predominantly involves posterior cerebral tracts and correlates strongly with atypical unimodal and multisensory integration behavior. These findings suggest abnormal white matter as a biological basis for SPD and may also distinguish SPD from overlapping clinical conditions such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24179836

  15. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P < 0.01). Patients with sensory stroke but without CPSP (non-pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P < 0.05). In patients with CPSP, changes in CDT, PHS, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  16. Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Sachidhanandam, Shankar; Sreenivasan, Varun; Kyriakatos, Alexandros; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2013-11-01

    Neocortical activity can evoke sensory percepts, but the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We trained mice to detect single brief whisker stimuli and report perceived stimuli by licking to obtain a reward. Pharmacological inactivation and optogenetic stimulation demonstrated a causal role for the primary somatosensory barrel cortex. Whole-cell recordings from barrel cortex neurons revealed membrane potential correlates of sensory perception. Sensory responses depended strongly on prestimulus cortical state, but both slow-wave and desynchronized cortical states were compatible with task performance. Whisker deflection evoked an early (<50 ms) reliable sensory response that was encoded through cell-specific reversal potentials. A secondary late (50-400 ms) depolarization was enhanced on hit trials compared to misses. Optogenetic inactivation revealed a causal role for late excitation. Our data reveal dynamic processing in the sensory cortex during task performance, with an early sensory response reliably encoding the stimulus and later secondary activity contributing to driving the subjective percept.

  17. Contralateral electrodiagnosis in patients with abnormal median distal sensory latency.

    PubMed

    Hoogstins, Charlotte E S; Becker, Stéphanie J E; Ring, David

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that electrodiagnostic evidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) on the contralateral, less-severe side correlates with disease severity. We retrospectively reviewed 285 adults that had bilateral electrodiagnostic testing and a median distal sensory latency (DSL) greater than 3.6 ms on at least one side. Variables associated with abnormal contralateral median DSL were analyzed in bivariable and multivariable analysis. Patients with a nonrecordable median DSL on the worst side were significantly more likely to have electrodiagnostic evidence of contralateral CTS compared to patients with a prolonged DSL on the worst side (90 versus 65 %, respectively; p < 0.001). Bilateral symptoms were reported by 75 % of patients. The best logistic regression model for electrodiagnostic evidence of contralateral CTS included nonrecordable median DSL of the worst side and polyneuropathy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.14, respectively). The finding that disease severity relates to the probability of contralateral abnormalities is consistent with the concept that CTS is typically bilateral. Patients with CTS on one side should be advised of the likelihood that it can be present or may develop on the other side.

  18. The role of oral processing in dynamic sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kylie D; Grigor, John M V; Cheong, Jean Ne; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Bronlund, John E; Morgenstern, Marco P

    2011-03-01

    Food oral processing is not only important for the ingestion and digestion of food, but also plays an important role in the perception of texture and flavor. This overall sensory perception is dynamic and occurs during all stages of oral processing. However, the relationships between oral operations and sensory perception are not yet fully understood. This article reviews recent progress and research findings on oral food processing, with a focus on the dynamic character of sensory perception of solid foods. The reviewed studies are discussed in terms of both physiology and food properties, and cover first bite, mastication, and swallowing. Little is known about the dynamics of texture and flavor perception during mastication and the importance on overall perception. Novel approaches use time intensity and temporal dominance techniques, and these will be valuable tools for future research on the dynamics of texture and flavor perception.

  19. Emerging Role of Sensory Perception in Aging and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Sensory perception comprises gustatory (taste) and olfactory (smell) modalities as well as somatosensory (pain, heat, and tactile mechanosensory) inputs, which are detected by a multitude of sensory receptors. These sensory receptors are contained in specialized ciliated neurons where they detect changes in environmental conditions and participate in behavioral decisions ranging from food choice to avoiding harmful conditions, thus insuring basic survival in metazoans. Recent genetic studies, however, indicate that sensory perception plays additional physiological functions, notably influencing energy homeostatic processes and longevity through neuronal circuits originating from sensory tissues. Here we review how these findings are redefining metabolic signaling and establish a prominent role of sensory neuroendocrine processes in controlling health span and lifespan, with a goal of translating this knowledge towards managing age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A neural model to study sensory abnormalities and multisensory effects in autism.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Computational modeling plays an increasingly prominent role in complementing critical research in the genetics, neuroscience, and psychology of autism. This paper presents a model that supports the notion that weak central coherence, a processing bias for features and local information, may be responsible for perception abnormalities by failing to "control" sensory issues in autism. The model has a biologically plausible architecture based on a self-organizing map. It incorporates temporal information in input stimuli, with emphasis on real auditory signals, and provides a mechanism to model multisensory effects. Through comprehensive simulations the paper studies the effect of a control mechanism (akin to central coherence) in compensating the effects of temporal information in the presentation of stimuli, sensory abnormalities, and crosstalk between domains. The mechanism is successful in balancing out timing effects, basic hypersensitivities and, to a lesser degree, multisensory effects. An analysis of the effect of the control mechanism's onset time on performance suggests that most of the potential benefits are still attainable even when started rather late in the learning process. This high level of adaptability shown by the neural network highlights the importance of appropriate teaching and intervention throughout the lifetime of persons with autism and other neurological disorders.

  1. The Pattern of Sensory Processing Abnormalities in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Johnson, Danny G.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nature of sensory dysfunction in persons with autism. The cross-sectional study examined auditory, visual, oral, and touch sensory processing, as measured by the Sensory Profile, in 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3-56 years of age, gender- and age-matched to community controls. Persons with autism…

  2. Visual perception of ADHD children with sensory processing disorder.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyerim; Woo, Young Jae; Kang, Je Wook; Choi, Yeon Woo; Kim, Kyeong Mi

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the visual perception difference between ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder, and the relationship between sensory processing and visual perception of the children with ADHD. Participants were 47 outpatients, aged 6-8 years, diagnosed with ADHD. After excluding those who met exclusion criteria, 38 subjects were clustered into two groups, ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder (SPD), using SSP reported by their parents, then subjects completed K-DTVP-2. Spearman correlation analysis was run to determine the relationship between sensory processing and visual perception, and Mann-Whitney-U test was conducted to compare the K-DTVP-2 score of two groups respectively. The ADHD children with SPD performed inferiorly to ADHD children without SPD in the on 3 quotients of K-DTVP-2. The GVP of K-DTVP-2 score was related to Movement Sensitivity section (r=0.368(*)) and Low Energy/Weak section of SSP (r=0.369*). The result of the present study suggests that among children with ADHD, the visual perception is lower in those children with co-morbid SPD. Also, visual perception may be related to sensory processing, especially in the reactions of vestibular and proprioceptive senses. Regarding academic performance, it is necessary to consider how sensory processing issues affect visual perception in children with ADHD.

  3. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arthritis of the hand can limit a person’s ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Methods Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. Results All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. Discussion We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception. PMID:22575001

  4. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  5. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  6. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  7. Statin use and peripheral sensory perception: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    West, Brenton; Williams, Cylie M; Jilbert, Elise; James, Alicia M; Haines, Terry P

    2014-06-01

    Peripheral sensory neuropathy is a neurological deficit resulting in decreased detection of sensation through the peripheral nervous system. Peripheral sensory neuropathy is commonly diagnosed with the use of a monofilament and either a tuning fork or neurothesiometer. Statins are a widely used medication and there has been some debate of association with their use and peripheral sensory neuropathy. This pilot study aimed to test the sensory perception of participants with long-term statin use and compare these results to their peers who were not taking statins. Thirty participants were recruited and equally divided into a statin and non-statin group. Healthy participants were screened by their medical and medication history, Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk assessment, and random blood glucose level. An assessor who was blinded to the participant group conducted sensory assessments using a 10 g monofilament and neurothesiometer. There was no difference in monofilament testing results between the groups. The statin group was less sensate at the styloid process (p = 0.031) and medial malleolus (p = 0.003) than the control group. Results at the hallux were not statistically significant (p = 0.183). This result is suggestive of a potential association between long-term statin use and a decrease in peripheral sensory perception. This may be because of peripheral sensory neuropathy. Limitations such as consideration of participant height, participant numbers, and inability to analyze results against statin groups are reported. As statins are a life-saving medication, careful consideration should be applied to these results and further research be conducted to determine if these results are applicable to larger populations.

  8. The Bayesian brain: phantom percepts resolve sensory uncertainty.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Freeman, Walter

    2014-07-01

    Phantom perceptions arise almost universally in people who sustain sensory deafferentation, and in multiple sensory domains. The question arises 'why' the brain creates these false percepts in the absence of an external stimulus? The model proposed answers this question by stating that our brain works in a Bayesian way, and that its main function is to reduce environmental uncertainty, based on the free-energy principle, which has been proposed as a universal principle governing adaptive brain function and structure. The Bayesian brain can be conceptualized as a probability machine that constantly makes predictions about the world and then updates them based on what it receives from the senses. The free-energy principle states that the brain must minimize its Shannonian free-energy, i.e. must reduce by the process of perception its uncertainty (its prediction errors) about its environment. As completely predictable stimuli do not reduce uncertainty, they are not worthwhile of conscious processing. Unpredictable things on the other hand are not to be ignored, because it is crucial to experience them to update our understanding of the environment. Deafferentation leads to topographically restricted prediction errors based on temporal or spatial incongruity. This leads to an increase in topographically restricted uncertainty, which should be adaptively addressed by plastic repair mechanisms in the respective sensory cortex or via (para)hippocampal involvement. Neuroanatomically, filling in as a compensation for missing information also activates the anterior cingulate and insula, areas also involved in salience, stress and essential for stimulus detection. Associated with sensory cortex hyperactivity and decreased inhibition or map plasticity this will result in the perception of the false information created by the deafferented sensory areas, as a way to reduce increased topographically restricted uncertainty associated with the deafferentation. In conclusion, the

  9. Sensory perception changes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary somatosensory cortex in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Francisco J; Díaz-Corrales, Francisco; Carrillo, Fatima; Fernández-del-Olmo, Miguel; Koch, Giacomo; Mir, Pablo

    2011-09-01

    Sensory symptoms are common nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. It has been hypothesized that abnormal central processing of sensory signals occurs in Parkinson's disease and is related to dopaminergic treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the alterations in sensory perception induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease and the modulatory effects of dopaminergic treatment. Fourteen patients with Parkinson's disease with and without dopaminergic treatment and 13 control subjects were included. Twenty milliseconds after peripheral electrical tactile stimuli in the contralateral thumb, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right primary somatosensory cortex was delivered. We evaluated the perception of peripheral electrical tactile stimuli at 2 conditioning stimulus intensities, set at 70% and 90% of the right resting motor threshold, using different interstimulus intervals. At 70% of the resting motor threshold, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right primary somatosensory cortex induced an increase in positive responses at short interstimulus intervals (1-7 ms) in controls but not in patients with dopaminergic treatment. At 90% of the resting motor threshold, controls and patients showed similar transcranial magnetic stimulation effects. Changes in peripheral electrical tactile stimuli perception after paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary somatosensory cortex are altered in patients with Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic treatment compared with controls. These findings suggest that primary somatosensory cortex excitability could be involved in changes in somatosensory integration in Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic treatment.

  10. Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-04-05

    This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research.

  11. Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C. J.; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research. PMID:22371612

  12. Spatial sensory organization and body representation in pain perception.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Longo, Matthew R

    2013-02-18

    Pain is a subjective experience that protects the body. This function implies a special relation between the brain mechanisms underlying pain perception and representation of the body. All sensory systems involve the body for the trivial reason that sensory receptors are located in the body. The nociceptive system of detecting noxious stimuli comprises two classes of peripheral afferents, Aδ and C nociceptors, that cover almost the entire body surface. We review evidence from experimental studies of pain in humans and other animals suggesting that Aδ skin nociceptors project to a spatially-organised, somatotopic map in the primary somatosensory cortex. While the relation between pain perception and homeostatic regulation of bodily systems is widely acknowledged, the organization of nociceptive information into spatial maps of the body has received little attention. Importantly, the somatotopic neural organization of pain systems can shed light on pain-related plasticity and pain modulation. Finally, we show that the neural coding of noxious stimuli, and consequent experience of pain, are both strongly influenced when cognitive representations of the body are activated by viewing the body, as opposed to viewing another object - an effect we term 'visual analgesia'. We argue that pain perception involves some of the representational properties of exteroceptive senses, such as vision and touch. Pain, however, has the unique feature that the content of representation is the body itself, rather than any external object of perception. We end with some suggestions regarding how linking pain to body representation could shed light on clinical conditions, notably chronic pain.

  13. Abnormal cortical sensory activation in dystonia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Stephen; Francis, Sue; Kelly, Edward; McGlone, Francis; Bowtell, Richard; Sawle, Guy V

    2003-06-01

    Despite the obvious motor manifestations of focal dystonia, it is recognised that the sensory system plays an important role in this condition. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines the sensory representations of individual digits both within the subregions of the primary sensory cortex (SI) and in other nonprimary sensory areas. Patients with focal dystonia and controls were scanned during vibrotactile stimulation of both the index (digit 2) and little (digit 5) fingers of their dominant hand (which was the affected hand in all the dystonic subjects). The activation maps obtained were analysed for location, size, and magnitude of activation and three-dimensional (3-D) orientation of digit representations. Data from both groups were compared. There were significant differences in the average 3-D separation between the two digit representations in area 1 of SI between subject groups (9.6 +/- 1.2 mm for controls and 4.1 +/- 0.2 mm for dystonic subjects). There were also strong trends for reversed ordering of the representation of the two digits in both the secondary sensory cortex and posterior parietal area between the two groups. In addition, in dystonic subjects, there was significant under activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII/area 40) for both digits and in the posterior parietal area for digit 5. These results indicate the presence of widespread activation abnormalities in the cortical sensory system in dystonia.

  14. Role of plant sensory perception in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2015-02-01

    The sedentary lifestyle of plants can give the false impression that they are passive participants in interactions with other organisms and the broader environment. In fact, plants have evolved sophisticated perceptual abilities that allow them to monitor and respond to a wide range of changing biotic and abiotic conditions. In this paper, we discuss recent research exploring the diverse ways in which plant sensory abilities mediate interactions between plants and animals, especially insects. Such interactions include the detection and capture of animal prey by carnivorous plants, active plant responses to pollinator visitation, the perception of various cues associated with the immediate presence and feeding of herbivores, and plant responses to (olfactory) cues indicating the threat of future herbivory. We are only beginning to understand the full range of sensory cues that mediate such interactions and to elucidate the mechanisms by which plants perceive, interpret, and respond to them. Nevertheless, it is clear that plants continually gather information about their environments via a range of sensory modalities and actively respond in ways that profoundly influence their interactions with other organisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Two sensory channels mediate perception of fingertip force.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Trevor; Hollins, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments we examined the ability of humans to exert forces accurately with the fingertips, and to perceive those forces. In experiment 1 participants used visual feedback to apply a range of fingertip forces with the distal pad of the thumb. Participants made magnitude discriminations regarding these forces, and their just noticeable differences were calculated at a series of standards by means of a two-interval, forced-choice tracking paradigm. As the standard increased, participants demonstrated a relative improvement in force discrimination; and the presence of a possible inflection point, at approximately 400 g, suggested that two sensory channels may contribute to performance. If this is the case, the operative channel at low forces is almost certainly the slowly adapting type I (SA-I) channel, while another mechanoreceptor class, the SA-II nail unit, is a plausible mediator of the more accurate performance seen at high force levels. To test this two-channel hypothesis in experiment 2, we hydrated participants' thumbnails in order to reduce nail rigidity and thus prevent stimulation of underlying SA-II mechanoreceptors. This technique was found to reduce sensory accuracy in a force-matching task at high forces (1000 g) while leaving low force matching (100 g) unimpaired. Taken together, these results suggest that two sensory channels mediate the perception of fingertip forces in humans: one channel predominating at low forces (below approximately 400 g) and another responsible for perceiving high forces which is likely mediated by the SA-II nail unit.

  16. Perception of oral food breakdown. The concept of sensory trajectory.

    PubMed

    Lenfant, Francine; Loret, Chrystel; Pineau, Nicolas; Hartmann, Christoph; Martin, Nathalie

    2009-06-01

    Texture perceived in mouth largely depends on the behaviour of the food when it is broken down and transformed by the mouth elements. Texture results from a dynamic process in which texture attributes are continuously analysed by the oral sensory systems during mastication. However, the particular sequence of perceptual events that occur during oral food breakdown remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to describe the succession of perceptual events that happen in mouth during mastication and to show that for each food a texture pathway can be built. This for, we used a sensory method enabling to evaluate the dynamics of texture perceptions during food consumption: the Temporal Dominance of Sensation. On different breakfast cereals, we measured the sensation dominating at each point of the mastication process. We showed that the dynamics of appearance and disappearance of each texture sensation experienced in mouth during the eating process differed among cereals. However, some common features in this sensory trajectory were also observed for the category of products studied. Hardness, crackliness and crispness were rather perceived at the beginning of the mastication period, brittleness and lightness in the middle and stickiness at the end.

  17. Nurses with sensory disabilities: their perceptions and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Fennie, Kristopher; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara

    2011-01-01

    A survey design was used to explore the perceptions and characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) with sensory disabilities and their risk for leaving their jobs. An earlier study found that nurses with disabilities are leaving nursing and that employers do not appear to support these nurses. Work instability and the mismatch between a nurse's perceptions of his or her ability and the demands of their work increase risk for job retention problems. This study's convenience sample of U.S. RNs had hearing, vision, or communication disabilities. Participants completed a demographic form, three U.S. Census questions, and the Nurse-Work Instability Survey. Hospital nurses were three times more likely to be at risk for retention problems. Nurses with hearing disabilities were frustrated at work. Hearing difficulties increased with years spent working as a nurse. Many nurses with sensory disabilities have left nursing. Early intervention may prevent work instability and increase retention, and rehabilitation nurses are ideally positioned to lead early intervention programs.

  18. Sensory Perception: An Overlooked Target of Occupational Exposure to Metals

    PubMed Central

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2003-01-01

    The effect of exposure to industrial metals on sensory perception of workers has received only modest interest from the medical community to date. Nevertheless, some experimental and epidemiological data exist showing that industrial metals can affect vision, hearing and olfactory function, and a similar effect is also suggested for touch and taste. In this review the main industrial metals involved are discussed. An important limit in available knowledge is that, to date, the number of chemicals studied is relatively small. Another is that the large majority of the studies have evaluated the effect of a single chemical on a single sense. As an example, we know that mercury can impair hearing, smell, taste, touch and also vision, but we have scant idea if, in the same worker, a relation exists between impairments in different senses, or if impairments are independent. Moreover, workers are frequently exposed to different chemicals; a few available results suggest that a co-exposure may have no effect, or result in both an increase and a decrease of the effect, as observed for hearing loss, but this aspect certainly deserves much more study. As a conclusion, exposure to industrial metals can affect sensory perception, but knowledge of this effect is yet incomplete, and is largely inadequate especially for an estimation of “safe” thresholds of exposure. These data support the desirability of further good quality studies in this field. PMID:18365054

  19. "Chilled" pork--Part II. Consumer perception of sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare consumer perception of the sensory quality of grilled Canadian pork destined for Japanese and domestic markets, with particular reference to export selection criteria imposed by Japanese importers and transportation conditions. Consumers from Quebec, Canada tasted local and export quality pork subjected to "chilled" (aged 43 days at -1.7 °C) or conventional ageing (5 days at 3.1 °C). Consumers' scores (out of 10) were higher (P<0.05) in the "chilled" than conventionally aged pork for tenderness (6.8 vs 5.7), juiciness (6.6 vs 6.0), taste liking (6.4 vs 5.9) and overall acceptability (6.7 vs 6.1). When informed that the conventionally aged, domestic quality pork was destined for the domestic market, consumer scores increased significantly (P<0.05). No effect of information was observed on the perception of the 'chilled' export quality meat, perhaps a consequence of the high sensory quality observed prior to labelling.

  20. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P < .001). SPQ scores were correlated with AQ scores both across groups (r = .-38) and within the ASC (r = -.18) and control groups (r = -.15). Principal component analyses conducted separately in both groups indicated that one factor comprising 35 items consistently assesses sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach’s alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). Conclusions The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension. PMID:24791196

  1. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child's sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P < .001). SPQ scores were correlated with AQ scores both across groups (r = .-38) and within the ASC (r = -.18) and control groups (r = -.15). Principal component analyses conducted separately in both groups indicated that one factor comprising 35 items consistently assesses sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension.

  2. Effects of clozapine on perceptual abnormalities and sensory gating: a preliminary cross-sectional study in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Cermolacce, Michel; Faget, Catherine; Ystad, Sølvi; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Lancon, Christophe; Vion-Dury, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of second-generation antipsychotics (clozapine or another second-generation antipsychotic) on perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit. Although clozapine is known to improve sensory gating assessed neurophysiologically, we hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine would report less perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit than patients treated with other second-generation antipsychotics do. Forty patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were investigated (10 patients treated with clozapine and 30 patients treated with another second-generation antipsychotic drug). Perceptual abnormalities were assessed with the Sensory Gating Inventory. Sensory gating was assessed through electroencephalogram with the auditory event-related potential method by measuring P50 amplitude changes in a dual click conditioning-testing procedure. Patients treated with clozapine present normal sensory gating and report less perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating than patients treated with other second-generation antipsychotics do. Although the cross-sectional design of this study is limited because causal inferences cannot be clearly concluded, the present study suggests clinical and neurophysiological advantages of clozapine compared with other second-generation antipsychotics and provides a basis for future investigations on the effect of this treatment on perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  5. Distal attribution and distance perception in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Siegle, Joshua H; Warren, William H

    2010-01-01

    In sensory substitution, the user may be directly aware of distal objects, as in everyday perception, or make explicit cognitive inferences based on an awareness of the proximal stimulation. Anecdotal evidence supports the experience of distal attribution, but so far there have been few rigorous experimental tests of the claim. In this study, blindfolded participants observed a target light using a device consisting of a finger-mounted photodiode that drives tactile vibra-tion on the back. With the blindfold off and the target removed, participants moved a reference object to match the perceived egocentric distance of the target. Participants who were instructed to attend to the distal target improved significantly during 2 h of practice, whereas those instructed to attend to proximal variables showed no improvement. Unsigned error increased with ratings of proximal attention, but decreased with ratings of target object solidity, consistent with distal attribution. Performance transferred to the non-dominant arm and to a rotated body orientation, demonstrating that learning did not depend on a joint-specific sensorimotor relationship between target distance and arm configuration. The results experimentally confirm that distal attribution can occur in sensory substitution, based on a perceptual strategy rather than an explicit cognitive strategy. Moreover, they suggest that the informational basis for distal attribution is not a joint-specific sensorimotor relation, but a more abstract spatial invariant.

  6. Distal attribution and distance perception in sensory substitution

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Joshua H.; Warren, William H.

    2013-01-01

    In sensory substitution, the user may be directly aware of distal objects, as in everyday perception, or make explicit cognitive inferences based on an awareness of the proximal stimulation. Anecdotal evidence supports the experience of distal attribution, but so far there have been few rigorous experimental tests of the claim. In this study, blindfolded participants observed a target light using a device consisting of a finger-mounted photodiode that drives tactile vibration on the back. With the blindfold off and the target removed, participants moved a reference object to match the perceived egocentric distance of the target. Participants who were instructed to attend to the distal target improved significantly during two hours of practice, whereas those instructed to attend to proximal variables showed no improvement. Unsigned error increased with ratings of proximal attention but decreased with ratings of target object solidity, consistent with distal attribution. Performance transferred to the non-dominant arm and to a rotated body orientation, demonstrating that learning did not depend on a joint-specific sensorimotor relationship between target distance and arm configuration. The results experimentally confirm that distal attribution can occur in sensory substitution, based on a perceptual strategy rather than an explicit cognitive strategy. Moreover, they suggest that the informational basis for distal attribution is not a joint-specific sensorimotor relation, but a more abstract spatial invariant. PMID:20402243

  7. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation.

    PubMed

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system.

  8. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M.; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system. PMID:27559306

  9. FMRI reveals abnormal central processing of sensory and pain stimuli in ill Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Gandhi, Parina; Goyal, Aman; Jiang, Lei; Fang, Yan; Ouyang, Luo; Ganji, Sandeepkumar; Buhner, David; Ringe, Wendy; Spence, Jeffrey; Biggs, Melanie; Briggs, Richard; Haley, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Many veterans chronically ill from the 1991 Gulf War exhibit symptoms of altered sensation, including chronic pain. In this study of 55 veterans of a Construction Battalion previously examined in 1995-1996 and 1997-1998, brain activation to innocuous and noxious heat stimuli was assessed in 2008-2009 with a quantitative sensory testing fMRI protocol in control veterans and groups representing three syndrome variants. Testing outside the scanner revealed no significant differences in warm detection or heat pain threshold among the four groups. In the fMRI study, Syndrome 1 and Syndrome 2, but not Syndrome 3, exhibited hypo-activation to innocuous heat and hyper-activation to noxious heat stimuli compared to controls. The results indicate abnormal central processing of sensory and painful stimuli in 2 of 3 variants of Gulf War illness and call for a more comprehensive study with a larger, representative sample of veterans.

  10. [Multidimensionality of inner speech and its relationship with abnormal perceptions].

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Agudelo, William; Vélez-Urrego, Juan David; Gaviria-Castaño, Gilberto; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador

    Inner speech is a common human experience. Recently, there have been studies linking this experience with cognitive functions, such as problem solving, reading, writing, autobiographical memory, and some disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In addition, inner speech is recognised as the main source of auditory hallucinations. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factor structure of Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ) in a sample of the Colombian population. Furthermore, it aims at establishing a link between VISQ and abnormal perceptions. This was a cross-sectional study in which 232 college students were assessed using the VISQ and the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS). Through an exploratory factor analysis, a structure of three factors was found: Other Voices in the Internal Speech, Condensed Inner speech, and Dialogical/Evaluative Inner speech, all of them with acceptable levels of reliability. Gender differences were found in the second and third factor, with higher averages for women. Positive correlations were found among the three VISQ and the two CAPS factors: Multimodal Perceptual Alterations and Experiences Associated with the Temporal Lobe. The results are consistent with previous findings linking the factors of inner speech with the propensity to auditory hallucination, a phenomenon widely associated with temporal lobe abnormalities. The hallucinations associated with other perceptual systems, however, are still weakly explained. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal Size-Dependent Modulation of Motion Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Galuta, Ilia A; Davletshina, Maria S; Orekhova, Elena V; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    Excitation/Inhibition (E/I) imbalance in neural networks is now considered among the core neural underpinnings of autism psychopathology. In motion perception at least two phenomena critically depend on E/I balance in visual cortex: spatial suppression (SS), and spatial facilitation (SF) corresponding to impoverished or improved motion perception with increasing stimuli size, respectively. While SS is dominant at high contrast, SF is evident for low contrast stimuli, due to the prevalence of inhibitory contextual modulations in the former, and excitatory ones in the latter case. Only one previous study (Foss-Feig et al., 2013) investigated SS and SF in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our study aimed to replicate previous findings, and to explore the putative contribution of deficient inhibitory influences into an enhanced SF index in ASD-a cornerstone for interpretation proposed by Foss-Feig et al. (2013). The SS and SF were examined in 40 boys with ASD, broad spectrum of intellectual abilities (63 < IQ < 127) and 44 typically developing (TD) boys, aged 6-15 years. The stimuli of small (1°) and large (12°) radius were presented under high (100%) and low (1%) contrast conditions. Social Responsiveness Scale and Sensory Profile Questionnaire were used to assess the autism severity and sensory processing abnormalities. We found that the SS index was atypically reduced, while SF index abnormally enhanced in children with ASD. The presence of abnormally enhanced SF in children with ASD was the only consistent finding between our study and that of Foss-Feig et al. While the SS and SF indexes were strongly interrelated in TD participants, this correlation was absent in their peers with ASD. In addition, the SF index but not the SS index correlated with the severity of autism and the poor registration abilities. The pattern of results is partially consistent with the idea of hypofunctional inhibitory transmission in visual areas in ASD. Nonetheless, the absence of

  12. Abnormal Size-Dependent Modulation of Motion Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Davletshina, Maria S.; Orekhova, Elena V.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2017-01-01

    Excitation/Inhibition (E/I) imbalance in neural networks is now considered among the core neural underpinnings of autism psychopathology. In motion perception at least two phenomena critically depend on E/I balance in visual cortex: spatial suppression (SS), and spatial facilitation (SF) corresponding to impoverished or improved motion perception with increasing stimuli size, respectively. While SS is dominant at high contrast, SF is evident for low contrast stimuli, due to the prevalence of inhibitory contextual modulations in the former, and excitatory ones in the latter case. Only one previous study (Foss-Feig et al., 2013) investigated SS and SF in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our study aimed to replicate previous findings, and to explore the putative contribution of deficient inhibitory influences into an enhanced SF index in ASD—a cornerstone for interpretation proposed by Foss-Feig et al. (2013). The SS and SF were examined in 40 boys with ASD, broad spectrum of intellectual abilities (63 < IQ < 127) and 44 typically developing (TD) boys, aged 6–15 years. The stimuli of small (1°) and large (12°) radius were presented under high (100%) and low (1%) contrast conditions. Social Responsiveness Scale and Sensory Profile Questionnaire were used to assess the autism severity and sensory processing abnormalities. We found that the SS index was atypically reduced, while SF index abnormally enhanced in children with ASD. The presence of abnormally enhanced SF in children with ASD was the only consistent finding between our study and that of Foss-Feig et al. While the SS and SF indexes were strongly interrelated in TD participants, this correlation was absent in their peers with ASD. In addition, the SF index but not the SS index correlated with the severity of autism and the poor registration abilities. The pattern of results is partially consistent with the idea of hypofunctional inhibitory transmission in visual areas in ASD. Nonetheless, the absence of

  13. Abnormal Pitch Perception Produced by Cochlear Implant Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects’ acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1–2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the “mean” shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large “variance” of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  14. Disturbed sensory perception of changes in thermoalgesic stimuli in patients with small fiber neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Medici, Conrado; Barraza, Gonzalo; Castillo, Carlos D; Morales, Merche; Schestatsky, Pedro; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of functional deficits in small fibre neuropathies (SFN) requires using ancillary tests other than conventional neurophysiological techniques. One of the tests with most widespread use is thermal threshold determination, as part of quantitative sensory testing. Thermal thresholds typically reflect one point in the whole subjective experience elicited by a thermal stimulus. We reasoned that more information could be obtained by analyzing the subjective description of the ongoing sensation elicited by slow temperature changes (dynamic thermal testing, DTT). Twenty SFN patients and 20 healthy subjects were requested to describe, by using an electronic visual analog scale system, the sensation perceived when the temperature of a thermode was made to slowly change according to a predetermined pattern. The thermode was attached to the left ventral forearm or the distal third of the left leg and the stimulus was either a monophasic heat or cold stimuli that reached 120% of pain threshold and reversed to get back to baseline at a rate of 0.5 °C/s. Abnormalities seen in patients in comparison to healthy subjects were: (1) delayed perception of temperature changes, both at onset and at reversal, (2) longer duration of pain perception at peak temperature, and (3) absence of an overshoot sensation after reversal, ie, a transient perception of the opposite sensation before the temperature reached again baseline. The use of DTT increases the yield of thermal testing for clinical and physiological studies. It adds information that can be discriminant between healthy subjects and SFN patients and shows physiological details about the process of activation and inactivation of temperature receptors that may be abnormal in SFN.

  15. Abnormal sensory reactivity in preterm infants during the first year correlates with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Chorna, Olena; Solomon, Jessica E; Slaughter, James C; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2014-11-01

    Sensory experience is the basis for learning in infancy. In older children, abnormal sensory reactivity is associated with behavioural and developmental disorders. We hypothesised that in preterm infants, abnormal sensory reactivity during infancy would be associated with perinatal characteristics and correlate with 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a prospective observational study of infants with birth weight ≤1500 g using the Test of Sensory Function in Infants (TSFI) in the first year. Infants with gestational age ≤30 weeks were tested with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID III) at 24 months. Of the 72 participants evaluated at 4-12 months corrected age (median 8 months), 59 (82%) had a least one TSFI score concerning for abnormal sensory reactivity. Lower gestational age was associated with abnormal reactivity to deep pressure and vestibular stimulation (p<0.001). Poor ocular-motor control predicted worse cognitive and motor scores in early childhood (OR 16.7; p=0.004), but was tightly correlated to the presence of severe white matter injury. Poor adaptive motor function in response to tactile stimuli predicted worse BSID III motor (p=0.01) and language scores (p=0.04) at 2 years, even after adjusting for confounders. Abnormal sensory reactivity is common in preterm infants; is associated with immaturity at birth, severe white matter injury and lower primary caregiver education; and predicts neurodevelopmental delays. Early identification of abnormal sensory reactivity of very preterm infants may promote parental support and education and may facilitate improved neurodevelopment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Sensory perception and aging in model systems: from the outside in.

    PubMed

    Linford, Nancy J; Kuo, Tsung-Han; Chan, Tammy P; Pletcher, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Sensory systems provide organisms from bacteria to humans with the ability to interact with the world. Numerous senses have evolved that allow animals to detect and decode cues from sources in both their external and internal environments. Recent advances in understanding the central mechanisms by which the brains of simple organisms evaluate different cues and initiate behavioral decisions, coupled with observations that sensory manipulations are capable of altering organismal lifespan, have opened the door for powerful new research into aging. Although direct links between sensory perception and aging have been established only recently, here we discuss these initial discoveries and evaluate the potential for different forms of sensory processing to modulate lifespan across taxa. Harnessing the neurobiology of simple model systems to study the biological impact of sensory experiences will yield insights into the broad influence of sensory perception in mammals and may help uncover new mechanisms of healthy aging.

  17. Sensory Perception and Aging in Model Systems: From the Outside In

    PubMed Central

    Linford, Nancy J.; Kuo, Tsung-Han; Chan, Tammy P.; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems provide organisms from bacteria to human with the ability to interact with the world. Numerous senses have evolved that allow animals to detect and decode cues from sources in both their external and internal environments. Recent advances in understanding the central mechanisms by which the brains of simple organisms evaluate different cues and initiate behavioral decisions, coupled with observations that sensory manipulations are capable of altering organism lifespan, have opened the door for powerful new research into aging. While direct links between sensory perception and aging have been established only recently, here we discuss these initial discoveries and evaluate the potential for different forms of sensory processing to modulate lifespan across taxa. Harnessing the neurobiology of simple model systems to study the biological impact of sensory experiences will yield insights into the broad influence of sensory perception in mammals and may help uncover new mechanisms of healthy aging. PMID:21756108

  18. The interplay between sensory processing abnormalities, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways between sensory abnormalities and RRBs, and the role anxiety and IU may have. We gathered caregiver report data for 53 children with ASD aged 8-16 years. We found sensory under responsiveness and sensory over responsiveness were significantly associated with repetitive motor and insistence on sameness behaviours, and the relationships significantly mediated by IU and anxiety. Our findings indicate different mechanisms may underpin repetitive motor and insistence on sameness RRBs, which can inform treatment interventions.

  19. Health science students' perceptions of motor and sensory aphasia caused by stroke.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study explored health science students' perceptions of motor aphasia and sensory aphasia caused by stroke to provide basic material for the improvement of rehabilitation practitioners' perceptions of aphasia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 642 freshmen and sophomores majoring in health science. Perceptions of aphasia were surveyed on a semantic differential scale using the Anchoring Vignette Method and the difference in perception of the two types of aphasia was analyzed using multi-dimensional scaling. [Results] The analysis revealed that motor aphasia and sensory aphasia have mutually corresponding images. Motor aphasia had high levels of 'quiet', 'passive' 'dumb', 'unstable' and 'gloomy' images, while sensory aphasia had high levels of 'noisy', 'unstable', 'cheerful', 'sensitive', 'fluctuating in emotions', 'active', 'dumb' and 'gloomy' images. [Conclusion] A systematic education is required to be implemented in the future to improve health science students' negative perceptions of the aftereffects of stroke such as aphasia.

  20. Perceptibility and the "Choice Experience": User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences Inform Vaginal Prevention Product Design.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kate Morrow; Dunsiger, Shira; Vargas, Sara E; Fava, Joseph L; Shaw, Julia G; Rosen, Rochelle K; Kiser, Patrick F; Kojic, E Milu; Friend, David R; Katz, David F

    The development of pericoital (on demand) vaginal HIV prevention technologies remains a global health priority. Clinical trials to date have been challenged by nonadherence, leading to an inability to demonstrate product efficacy. The work here provides new methodology and results to begin to address this limitation. We created validated scales that allow users to characterize sensory perceptions and experiences when using vaginal gel formulations. In this study, we sought to understand the user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) that characterize the preferred product experience for each participant. Two hundred four women evaluated four semisolid vaginal formulations using the USPE scales at four randomly ordered formulation evaluation visits. Women were asked to select their preferred formulation experience for HIV prevention among the four formulations evaluated. The scale scores on the Sex-associated USPE scales (e.g., Initial Penetration and Leakage) for each participant's selected formulation were used in a latent class model analysis. Four classes of preferred formulation experiences were identified. Sociodemographic and sexual history variables did not predict class membership; however, four specific scales were significantly related to class: Initial Penetration, Perceived Wetness, Messiness, and Leakage. The range of preferred user experiences represented by the scale scores creates a potential target range for product development, such that products that elicit scale scores that fall within the preferred range may be more acceptable, or tolerable, to the population under study. It is recommended that similar analyses should be conducted with other semisolid vaginal formulations, and in other cultures, to determine product property and development targets.

  1. Evoked and induced oscillatory activity contributes to abnormal auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Popov, Tzvetan; Jordanov, Todor; Weisz, Nathan; Elbert, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Miller, Gregory A

    2011-05-01

    The ratio of magnetoencephalogram-recorded brain responses occurring 50ms after paired clicks (S2-evoked M50/S1-evoked M50) serves as a measure of sensory gating. An abnormally large ratio is commonly found in schizophrenia. Whether this abnormality indicates impaired gating is debated. Using event-related oscillations the present study sought to elucidate processes contributing to the phenomenon of altered M50 gating ratio. Schizophrenia inpatients (n=50) showed the expected large M50 gating ratio relative to 48 healthy controls, which correlated with less induced frontally generated activity in the 10-15Hz frequency band starting 200ms before the onset of S2. Patients also produced smaller alpha (8-12Hz) and gamma (60-80Hz) responses to S1. Results suggest that the deviant gating ratio in schizophrenia is a consequence of a complex alteration in the processing of incoming information that cannot be attributed to impaired gating alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Action preparation modulates sensory perception in unseen personal space: An electrophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Job, Xavier E; de Fockert, Jan W; van Velzen, José

    2016-08-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological evidence has demonstrated that preparation of goal-directed actions modulates sensory perception at the goal location before the action is executed. However, previous studies have focused on sensory perception in areas of peripersonal space. The present study investigated visual and tactile sensory processing at the goal location of upcoming movements towards the body, much of which is not visible, as well as visible peripersonal space. A motor task cued participants to prepare a reaching movement towards goals either in peripersonal space in front of them or personal space on the upper chest. In order to assess modulations of sensory perception during movement preparation, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to task-irrelevant visual and tactile probe stimuli delivered randomly at one of the goal locations of the movements. In line with previous neurophysiological findings, movement preparation modulated visual processing at the goal of a movement in peripersonal space. Movement preparation also modulated somatosensory processing at the movement goal in personal space. The findings demonstrate that tactile perception in personal space is subject to similar top-down sensory modulation by motor preparation as observed for visual stimuli presented in peripersonal space. These findings show for the first time that the principles and mechanisms underlying adaptive modulation of sensory processing in the context of action extend to tactile perception in unseen personal space.

  3. Effects of acupuncture on sensory perception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Baeumler, Petra I; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory profiles in order to fully characterize its

  4. Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory Perception: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baeumler, Petra I.; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Results Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Conclusions Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory

  5. Cortical plasticity as a mechanism for storing Bayesian priors in sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Köver, Hania; Bao, Shaowen

    2010-05-05

    Human perception of ambiguous sensory signals is biased by prior experiences. It is not known how such prior information is encoded, retrieved and combined with sensory information by neurons. Previous authors have suggested dynamic encoding mechanisms for prior information, whereby top-down modulation of firing patterns on a trial-by-trial basis creates short-term representations of priors. Although such a mechanism may well account for perceptual bias arising in the short-term, it does not account for the often irreversible and robust changes in perception that result from long-term, developmental experience. Based on the finding that more frequently experienced stimuli gain greater representations in sensory cortices during development, we reasoned that prior information could be stored in the size of cortical sensory representations. For the case of auditory perception, we use a computational model to show that prior information about sound frequency distributions may be stored in the size of primary auditory cortex frequency representations, read-out by elevated baseline activity in all neurons and combined with sensory-evoked activity to generate a perception that conforms to Bayesian integration theory. Our results suggest an alternative neural mechanism for experience-induced long-term perceptual bias in the context of auditory perception. They make the testable prediction that the extent of such perceptual prior bias is modulated by both the degree of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of spontaneous activity in primary auditory cortex. Given that cortical over-representation of frequently experienced stimuli, as well as perceptual bias towards such stimuli is a common phenomenon across sensory modalities, our model may generalize to sensory perception, rather than being specific to auditory perception.

  6. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways…

  7. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways…

  8. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterized collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast) that can be isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit) will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and will guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage, and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008, also through organoleptic evaluation (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives). This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives, which can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the system for commercial classification, through assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived. PMID:23675370

  9. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterized collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast) that can be isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit) will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and will guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage, and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008, also through organoleptic evaluation (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives). This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives, which can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the system for commercial classification, through assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived.

  10. Sensory basis of refreshing perception: role of psychophysiological factors and food experience.

    PubMed

    Labbe, D; Almiron-Roig, E; Hudry, J; Leathwood, P; Schifferstein, H N J; Martin, N

    2009-08-04

    Refreshing is a term often used to characterize certain types of foods and beverages. This review first explores what is known from sensory and consumer studies on refreshing perception in relation to food and beverage consumption. It then presents and discusses the similarities between sensory characteristics perceived as refreshing with those perceived during and after drinking water. In general, refreshing drinks and beverages seem to help alleviate symptoms experienced during water deprivation, including thirst, mouth dryness and mental fatigue. The role that learning may have in the construction of refreshing perception during each food experience is also discussed. The review showed that a refreshing value (perceived or expected) tends to be associated with foods sharing some characteristics with water in terms of their sensory profile (clear, cold, liquid); and that food experiences may induce associative learning about perceptions of existing or new products marketed as refreshing.

  11. Prestimulus influences on auditory perception from sensory representations and decision processes.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Stephanie J; McNair, Steven W; Kayser, Christoph

    2016-04-26

    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task.

  12. Prestimulus influences on auditory perception from sensory representations and decision processes

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task. PMID:27071110

  13. Sensory and Emotional Perception of Wooden Surfaces through Fingertip Touch

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Shiv R.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on tactile experiences have investigated a wide range of material surfaces across various skin sites of the human body in self-touch or other touch modes. Here, we investigate whether the sensory and emotional aspects of touch are related when evaluating wooden surfaces using fingertips in the absence of other sensory modalities. Twenty participants evaluated eight different pine and oak wood surfaces, using sensory and emotional touch descriptors, through the lateral motion of active fingertip exploration. The data showed that natural and smooth wood surfaces were perceived more positively in emotional touch than coated surfaces. We highlight the importance of preserving the naturalness of the surface texture in the process of wood-surface treatment so as to improve positive touch experiences, as well as avoid negative ones. We argue that the results may offer possibilities in the design of wood-based interior products with a view to improving consumer touch experiences. PMID:28348541

  14. Multi-sensory integration as a result of perception

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1988-09-13

    For the most part, research into multi-sensor data fusion has concentrated on two areas: sensing and sensor modeling, and the creation of some central, usually geometric, representation of the world. From our perspective, this approach is narrow and local. The perceptual system will in fact need to integrate sensed data in many different ways/endash/homogeneously, heterogeneously, supportively, and directly. Integration of sensory information takes place at several different levels and utilizes several different mechanisms. A first level of integration takes place as sensor primitives are extracted from the world and combined to form more complex features. As these features are identified, they may be used to invoke motor functions which extract other, related, features from the object being perceived. This use of one set of sensory inputs to guide the extraction of others may be thought of as the second level of integration carried out by the perceptual system. Finally, at the highest level, multiple, disparate sensory features are aggregated into a heterogeneous central representation of the object as a whole. How the information contained within this aggregrate is used by the system is a function of both the available information and the task at hand. Thus, at this level, integration may be thought of as a top-down, knowledge-driven process. This paper explores how this model of multi-sensory integration might be implemented and utilized within a robotic system equipped with visual and tactile sensors. 21. refs., 5 figs.

  15. From Percept to Concept: The Sensorial Path to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, Martha

    1993-01-01

    The use of Montessori sensorial materials presents challenges for classroom practitioners. These materials are designed to assist a child's development by leading the child, through use and manipulation, toward eventual mental abstraction of the concepts related to the materials. The questions of when and how to intervene in the child's activities…

  16. Shared sensory estimates for human motion perception and pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio; Osborne, Leslie C

    2015-06-03

    Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358515-16$15.00/0.

  17. Shared Sensory Estimates for Human Motion Perception and Pursuit Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. PMID:26041919

  18. Abnormal movement-related suppression of sensory evoked potentials in upper limb dystonia.

    PubMed

    Macerollo, A; Chen, J C; Parees, I; Sadnicka, A; Kassavetis, P; Bhatia, K P; Kilner, J M; Rothwell, J C; Edwards, M J

    2016-03-01

    Gating of sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) around the onset of a voluntary movement is a physiological phenomenon with centripetal and central components, and may reflect sensorimotor integration required for normal movement control. Our objective was the investigation of SEP suppression at the onset of movement and the interaction between SEP suppression and vibration of the limb. Fourteen patients with primary focal/segmental dystonia and 17 age-matched healthy volunteers were studied. SEPs were elicited after electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded over the scalp at three sites according to the International 10-20 System (F3, C3 and P3). SEPs were recorded in four conditions: at rest, at the onset of movement (a self-paced abduction movement of the right thumb), both in the absence and in the presence of vibration of the limb. Repeated measures anova revealed that there was a significant main effect of group [F(1, 11.1) = 0.471, P = 0.002]. Post hoc exploration of this effect revealed it to be due to an absence of SEP suppression at movement onset in patients (mean ratio SEP movement onset/rest 1.15 at F3, 1.13 at C3, 1.01 at P3) compared to controls, who had SEP suppression at movement onset (mean ratio SEP movement onset/rest 0.79 at F3, 0.78 at C3, 0.77 at P3). With vibration, SEP suppression reduced in both patients and controls to a similar extent. These results demonstrate abnormal SEP suppression at the onset of movement in patients with primary dystonia, and in addition that vibration of the limb reduces SEP suppression in patients and controls. © 2016 EAN.

  19. Perception of Body Ownership Is Driven by Bayesian Sensory Inference

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Majed; Chung, Albert Jin; Shams, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that human perception of body ownership is highly malleable. A well-known example is the rubber hand illusion (RHI) wherein ownership over a dummy hand is experienced, and is generally believed to require synchronized stroking of real and dummy hands. Our goal was to elucidate the computational principles governing this phenomenon. We adopted the Bayesian causal inference model of multisensory perception and applied it to visual, proprioceptive, and tactile stimuli. The model reproduced the RHI, predicted that it can occur without tactile stimulation, and that synchronous stroking would enhance it. Various measures of ownership across two experiments confirmed the predictions: a large percentage of individuals experienced the illusion in the absence of any tactile stimulation, and synchronous stroking strengthened the illusion. Altogether, these findings suggest that perception of body ownership is governed by Bayesian causal inference—i.e., the same rule that appears to govern the perception of outside world. PMID:25658822

  20. Mutations in the Heme Exporter FLVCR1 Cause Sensory Neurodegeneration with Loss of Pain Perception.

    PubMed

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Castori, Marco; di Rocco, Maja; Ungelenk, Martin; Gießelmann, Sebastian; Di Capua, Matteo; Madeo, Annalisa; Grammatico, Paola; Bartsch, Sophie; Hübner, Christian A; Altruda, Fiorella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Kurth, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    Pain is necessary to alert us to actual or potential tissue damage. Specialized nerve cells in the body periphery, so called nociceptors, are fundamental to mediate pain perception and humans without pain perception are at permanent risk for injuries, burns and mutilations. Pain insensitivity can be caused by sensory neurodegeneration which is a hallmark of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs). Although mutations in several genes were previously associated with sensory neurodegeneration, the etiology of many cases remains unknown. Using next generation sequencing in patients with congenital loss of pain perception, we here identify bi-allelic mutations in the FLVCR1 (Feline Leukemia Virus subgroup C Receptor 1) gene, which encodes a broadly expressed heme exporter. Different FLVCR1 isoforms control the size of the cytosolic heme pool required to sustain metabolic activity of different cell types. Mutations in FLVCR1 have previously been linked to vision impairment and posterior column ataxia in humans, but not to HSAN. Using fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with sensory neurodegeneration, we here show that the FLVCR1-mutations reduce heme export activity, enhance oxidative stress and increase sensitivity to programmed cell death. Our data link heme metabolism to sensory neuron maintenance and suggest that intracellular heme overload causes early-onset degeneration of pain-sensing neurons in humans.

  1. Mutations in the Heme Exporter FLVCR1 Cause Sensory Neurodegeneration with Loss of Pain Perception

    PubMed Central

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Castori, Marco; di Rocco, Maja; Ungelenk, Martin; Gießelmann, Sebastian; Di Capua, Matteo; Madeo, Annalisa; Grammatico, Paola; Hübner, Christian A.; Altruda, Fiorella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Kurth, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is necessary to alert us to actual or potential tissue damage. Specialized nerve cells in the body periphery, so called nociceptors, are fundamental to mediate pain perception and humans without pain perception are at permanent risk for injuries, burns and mutilations. Pain insensitivity can be caused by sensory neurodegeneration which is a hallmark of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs). Although mutations in several genes were previously associated with sensory neurodegeneration, the etiology of many cases remains unknown. Using next generation sequencing in patients with congenital loss of pain perception, we here identify bi-allelic mutations in the FLVCR1 (Feline Leukemia Virus subgroup C Receptor 1) gene, which encodes a broadly expressed heme exporter. Different FLVCR1 isoforms control the size of the cytosolic heme pool required to sustain metabolic activity of different cell types. Mutations in FLVCR1 have previously been linked to vision impairment and posterior column ataxia in humans, but not to HSAN. Using fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with sensory neurodegeneration, we here show that the FLVCR1-mutations reduce heme export activity, enhance oxidative stress and increase sensitivity to programmed cell death. Our data link heme metabolism to sensory neuron maintenance and suggest that intracellular heme overload causes early-onset degeneration of pain-sensing neurons in humans. PMID:27923065

  2. Altered oral sensory perception in tongue thrusters with an anterior open bite.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Sridhar; Avathvadi Venkatesan, Srinivasan; Rangachari, Sivaram

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral sensory perception in patients with an anterior open bite (AOB) and associated tongue thrusting activity. This study was performed in the Department of Orthodontics, Government Dental Hospital, Chennai, on 30 subjects (16 females and 14 males) aged from 12 to 17 years with an AOB associated with a tongue thrust and in a control group of 100 subjects (53 females and 47 males aged from 12 to 17 years) with a normal occlusion and no oral habits. Stereognosis and two-point discrimination (2PD) were employed for evaluation of oral sensory perception. Statistical comparison was undertaken using a Student's t-test. Stereognostic ability was altered in children with an AOB associated with a tongue thrust (t = 15.2, probability of occurrence P < 0.01). The mean oral stereognostic score in the control group was 31.8 and in tongue thrusters 25.3. The AOB group also showed a diminished 2PD threshold at the tip of the tongue [control group 1.08 mm, tongue thrusters with an AOB 1.64 mm (t = 7.3, P < 0.01)]. This finding highlights the fact that the tongue plays a vital role in oral sensory perception. Oral stereognostic tests and 2PD as diagnostic tools are valuable in the evaluation of oral sensory perception.

  3. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 7, 8, 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-9. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical Health, Sensory Perception. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The format consists of four columns: a basic context guide for teachers, a listing of major understandings and fundamental concepts which children can achieve, resource materials for classroom teachers, and supplementary…

  4. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Sensory perceptions, the organs involved, and eye and hearing care. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six different sectional steps organized around a gradual, ascending understanding of the sense organs. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The material is divided into…

  5. Time perception impairs sensory-motor integration in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Marina; Chaves, Fernanda; Teixeira, Silmar; Carvalho, Diana; Peressutti, Caroline; Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Menéndez-González, Manuel; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2013-10-16

    It is well known that perception and estimation of time are fundamental for the relationship between humans and their environment. However, this temporal information processing is inefficient in patients with Parkinson' disease (PD), resulting in temporal judgment deficits. In general, the pathophysiology of PD has been described as a dysfunction in the basal ganglia, which is a multisensory integration station. Thus, a deficit in the sensorimotor integration process could explain many of the Parkinson symptoms, such as changes in time perception. This physiological distortion may be better understood if we analyze the neurobiological model of interval timing, expressed within the conceptual framework of a traditional information-processing model called "Scalar Expectancy Theory". Therefore, in this review we discuss the pathophysiology and sensorimotor integration process in PD, the theories and neural basic mechanisms involved in temporal processing, and the main clinical findings about the impact of time perception in PD.

  6. Evidence for distinct mechanisms underlying attentional priming and sensory memory for bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis, M A B; Kristjánsson, Á; Brascamp, J W

    2015-08-01

    Attentional selection in visual search paradigms and perceptual selection in bistable perception paradigms show functional similarities. For example, both are sensitive to trial history: They are biased toward previously selected targets or interpretations. We investigated whether priming by target selection in visual search and sensory memory for bistable perception are related. We did this by presenting two trial types to observers. We presented either ambiguous spheres that rotated over a central axis and could be perceived as rotating in one of two directions, or search displays in which the unambiguously rotating target and distractor spheres closely resembled the two possible interpretations of the ambiguous stimulus. We interleaved both trial types within experiments, to see whether priming by target selection during search trials would affect the perceptual outcome of bistable perception and, conversely, whether sensory memory during bistable perception would affect target selection times during search. Whereas we found intertrial repetition effects among consecutive search trials and among consecutive bistable trials, we did not find cross-paradigm effects. Thus, even though we could ascertain that our experiments robustly elicited processes of both search priming and sensory memory for bistable perception, these same experiments revealed no interaction between the two.

  7. Health science students’ perceptions of motor and sensory aphasia caused by stroke

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study explored health science students’ perceptions of motor aphasia and sensory aphasia caused by stroke to provide basic material for the improvement of rehabilitation practitioners’ perceptions of aphasia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 642 freshmen and sophomores majoring in health science. Perceptions of aphasia were surveyed on a semantic differential scale using the Anchoring Vignette Method and the difference in perception of the two types of aphasia was analyzed using multi-dimensional scaling. [Results] The analysis revealed that motor aphasia and sensory aphasia have mutually corresponding images. Motor aphasia had high levels of ‘quiet’, ‘passive’ ‘dumb’, ‘unstable’ and ‘gloomy’ images, while sensory aphasia had high levels of ‘noisy’, ‘unstable’, ‘cheerful’, ‘sensitive’, ‘fluctuating in emotions’, ‘active’, ‘dumb’ and ‘gloomy’ images. [Conclusion] A systematic education is required to be implemented in the future to improve health science students’ negative perceptions of the aftereffects of stroke such as aphasia. PMID:27390413

  8. Visceral perception: sensory transduction in visceral afferents and nutrients.

    PubMed

    Raybould, H E

    2002-07-01

    The possible mechanisms that may be involved in nutrient detection in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract are reviewed. There is strong functional and electrophysiological evidence that both intrinsic and extrinsic primary afferent neurones mediate mechano- and chemosensitive responses in the gastrointestinal tract. This review focuses on the extrinsic afferent pathways as these are the ones that convey information to the central nervous system which is clearly necessary for perception to occur.

  9. The social-sensory interface: category interactions in person perception

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Kerri L.; Adams, Reginald B.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Research is increasingly challenging the claim that distinct sources of social information—such as sex, race, and emotion—are processed in discrete fashion. Instead, there appear to be functionally relevant interactions that occur. In the present article, we describe research examining how cues conveyed by the human face, voice, and body interact to form the unified representations that guide our perceptions of and responses to other people. We explain how these information sources are often thrown into interaction through bottom-up forces (e.g., phenotypic cues) as well as top-down forces (e.g., stereotypes and prior knowledge). Such interactions point to a person perception process that is driven by an intimate interface between bottom-up perceptual and top-down social processes. Incorporating data from neuroimaging, event-related potentials (ERP), computational modeling, computer mouse-tracking, and other behavioral measures, we discuss the structure of this interface, and we consider its implications and adaptive purposes. We argue that an increased understanding of person perception will likely require a synthesis of insights and techniques, from social psychology to the cognitive, neural, and vision sciences. PMID:23087622

  10. Determination of absolute threshold and just noticeable difference in the sensory perception of pungency.

    PubMed

    Orellana-Escobedo, L; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Olivas, G I; Guerrero-Beltran, J A; Jimenez-Castro, J; Sepulveda, D R

    2012-03-01

    Absolute threshold and just noticeable difference (JND) were determined for the perception of pungency using chili pepper in aqueous solutions. Absolute threshold and JND were determined using 2 alternative forced-choice sensory tests tests. High-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine capsaicinoids concentration in samples used for sensory analysis. Sensory absolute threshold was 0.050 mg capsaicinoids/kg sample. Five JND values were determined using 5 reference solutions with different capsaicinoids concentration. JND values changed proportionally as capsaicinoids concentration of the reference sample solutions changed. Weber fraction remained stable for the first 4 reference capsaicinoid solutions (0.05, 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17 mg/kg) but changed when the most concentrated reference capsaicinoids solution was used (0.23 mg/kg). Quantification limit for instrumental analysis was 1.512 mg/kg capsaicinoids. Sensory methods employed in this study proved to be more sensitive than instrumental methods. Practical Application: A better understanding of the process involved in the sensory perception of pungency is currently required because "hot" foods are becoming more popular in western cuisine. Absolute thresholds and differential thresholds are useful tools in the formulation and development of new food products. These parameters may help in defining how much chili pepper is required in a formulated product to ensure a perceptible level of pungency, as well as in deciding how much more chili pepper is required in a product to produce a perceptible increase in its pungency. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Adaptive and maladaptive neural compensatory consequences of sensory deprivation-From a phantom percept perspective.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Anusha; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-06-01

    It is suggested that the brain undergoes plastic changes in order to adapt to changing environmental needs. Sensory deprivation results in decreased input to the brain leading to adaptive or maladaptive changes. Although several theories hypothesize the mechanism of these adaptive and maladaptive changes, the course of action taken by the brain heavily depends on the age of incidence of damage. The growing body of literature on the topic proposes that maladaptive changes in the brain are instrumental in creating phantom percepts, defined as the perception of a sensory experience in the absence of a physical stimulus. The current article reviews the mechanisms of adaptive and maladaptive plasticity in the brain in congenital, early, and late-onset sensory deprivation in conjunction with the phantom percepts in the different sensory domains. We propose that the mechanisms of adaptive and maladaptive plasticity fall under a universal construct of updating hierarchical Bayesian prediction errors. This theory of the Bayesian brain hypothesizes that the brain constantly compares its internal milieu with changing environmental cues and either adjusts its predictions or discards the change, depending on the novelty or salience of the external stimulus. We propose that adaptive plasticity reflects both successful bottom-up compensation and top-down updating of the model while maladaptive plasticity reflects failure in one or both mechanisms, resulting in a constant prediction-error. Finally, we hypothesize that phantom percepts are generated by the brain as a solution to this prediction error and are thus a manifestation of unsuccessful adaptation to sensory deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relation of sensory perception with chemical composition of bioprocessed lingonberry.

    PubMed

    Viljanen, Kaarina; Heiniö, Raija-Liisa; Juvonen, Riikka; Kössö, Tuija; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2014-08-15

    The impact of bioprocessing on lingonberry flavour was studied by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis (organic acids, mannitol, phenolic compounds, sugars and volatile compounds). Bioprocessing of lingonberries with enzymes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or yeast, or their combination (excluding pure LAB fermentation) affected their perceived flavour and chemical composition. Sweetness was associated especially with enzyme treatment but also with enzyme+LAB treatment. Yeast fermentation caused significant changes in volatile aroma compounds and perceived flavour, whereas minor changes were detected in LAB or enzyme-treated berries. Increased concentration of organic acids, ethanol and some phenolic acids correlated with perceived fermented odour/flavour in yeast fermentations, in which increase in benzoic acid level was significant. In enzymatic treatment decreasing anthocyanins correlated well with decreased perceived colour intensity. Enzyme treatment is a potential tool to decrease naturally acidic flavour of lingonberry. Fermentation, especially with yeast, could be an interesting new approach to increase the content of natural preservatives, such as antimicrobial benzoic acid.

  13. The effects of negative emotions on sensory perception: fear but not anger decreases tactile sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2014-01-01

    Emotions and sensory perceptions are closely intertwined. Of the five senses, sight has been by far the most extensively studied sense in emotion research. Relatively less is known about how emotions influence the other four senses. Touch is essential for nonverbal communication in both humans and other animals. The current investigation tested competing hypotheses about the effect of fear on tactile perception. One hypothesis based on evolutionary considerations predicts that fear enhances sensory perception, including tactile sensitivity. A competing hypothesis based on research on peripheral psychophysiology predicts that fear should decrease tactile sensitivity. Two experiments that induced negative emotional states and measured two-point discrimination ability at the fingertip found that fear reduces tactile sensitivity relative to anger or a neutral control condition (Studies 1 and 2). These findings did not appear to be driven by participants' naïve beliefs about the influence of emotions on touch (Study 3). The results represent the first evidence of the causal impact of emotional states on tactile sensitivity, are consistent with prior evidence for the peripheral physiological effects of fear, and offer novel empirical grounds for developing and advancing theories of emotional influences on sensory perception.

  14. The effects of negative emotions on sensory perception: fear but not anger decreases tactile sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Nicholas J.; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions and sensory perceptions are closely intertwined. Of the five senses, sight has been by far the most extensively studied sense in emotion research. Relatively less is known about how emotions influence the other four senses. Touch is essential for nonverbal communication in both humans and other animals. The current investigation tested competing hypotheses about the effect of fear on tactile perception. One hypothesis based on evolutionary considerations predicts that fear enhances sensory perception, including tactile sensitivity. A competing hypothesis based on research on peripheral psychophysiology predicts that fear should decrease tactile sensitivity. Two experiments that induced negative emotional states and measured two-point discrimination ability at the fingertip found that fear reduces tactile sensitivity relative to anger or a neutral control condition (Studies 1 and 2). These findings did not appear to be driven by participants’ naïve beliefs about the influence of emotions on touch (Study 3). The results represent the first evidence of the causal impact of emotional states on tactile sensitivity, are consistent with prior evidence for the peripheral physiological effects of fear, and offer novel empirical grounds for developing and advancing theories of emotional influences on sensory perception. PMID:25202299

  15. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. The role of sensory perception in the development and targeting of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-01-01

    To examine tobacco industry research on smoking-related sensory effects, including differences in sensory perception across smoker groups, and to determine whether this research informed targeted product development and impacted the development of commercial tobacco products. We searched previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available online through document databases housed at Tobacco Documents Online, the British American Tobacco Document Archive and the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. We identified relevant documents using a snowball sampling method to first search the databases using an initial set of key words and to then establish further search terms. Sensory research is a priority within the tobacco industry directly impacting commercial markets both in the United States and internationally. Sensory factors contribute to smoker satisfaction and product acceptance, and play an important role in controlling puffing behavior. Cigarette manufacturers have capitalized on distinct sensory preferences across gender, age and ethnic groups by tailoring products for specific populations. Regulation of tobacco products is needed to address product changes that are used to reinforce or contribute to tobacco dependence; for instance, the incorporation of additives that target attributes such as smoothness, harshness and aftertaste. Greater understanding of the role of sensory effects on smoking behavior may also help to inform the development of tobacco treatment options that support long-term tobacco abstinence.

  17. The evolutionarily conserved transcription factor PRDM12 controls sensory neuron development and pain perception.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Vanja; Cole, Tiffany; Van Campenhout, Claude; Khoung, Thang M; Leung, Calvin; Vermeiren, Simon; Novatchkova, Maria; Wenzel, Daniel; Cikes, Domagoj; Polyansky, Anton A; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Meixner, Arabella; Bellefroid, Eric J; Neely, G Gregory; Penninger, Josef M

    2015-01-01

    PR homology domain-containing member 12 (PRDM12) belongs to a family of conserved transcription factors implicated in cell fate decisions. Here we show that PRDM12 is a key regulator of sensory neuronal specification in Xenopus. Modeling of human PRDM12 mutations that cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) revealed remarkable conservation of the mutated residues in evolution. Expression of wild-type human PRDM12 in Xenopus induced the expression of sensory neuronal markers, which was reduced using various human PRDM12 mutants. In Drosophila, we identified Hamlet as the functional PRDM12 homolog that controls nociceptive behavior in sensory neurons. Furthermore, expression analysis of human patient fibroblasts with PRDM12 mutations uncovered possible downstream target genes. Knockdown of several of these target genes including thyrotropin-releasing hormone degrading enzyme (TRHDE) in Drosophila sensory neurons resulted in altered cellular morphology and impaired nociception. These data show that PRDM12 and its functional fly homolog Hamlet are evolutionary conserved master regulators of sensory neuronal specification and play a critical role in pain perception. Our data also uncover novel pathways in multiple species that regulate evolutionary conserved nociception.

  18. Abnormal Tilt Perception During Centrifugation in Patients with Vestibular Migraine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joanne; Lewis, Richard F

    2016-06-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM), defined as vestibular symptoms caused by migraine mechanisms, is very common but poorly understood. Because dizziness is often provoked in VM patients when the semicircular canals and otolith organs are stimulated concurrently (e.g., tilting the head relative to gravity), we measured tilt perception and eye movements in patients with VM and in migraine and normal control subjects during fixed-radius centrifugation, a paradigm that simultaneously modulates afferent signals from the semicircular canals and otoliths organs. Twenty-four patients (8 in each category) were tested with a motion paradigm that generated an inter-aural centrifugal force of 0.36 G, resulting in a 20° tilt of the gravito-inertial force in the roll plane. We found that percepts of roll tilt developed slower in VM patients than in the two control groups, but that eye movement responses, including the shift in the eye's rotational axis, were equivalent in all three groups. These results demonstrate a change in vestibular perception in VM that is unaccompanied by changes in vestibular-mediated eye movements and suggest that either the brain's integration of canal and otolith signals or the dynamics of otolith responses are aberrant in patients with VM.

  19. Sensory signals in neural populations underlying tactile perception and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Antony W; Wheat, Heather E

    2004-01-01

    For humans to manipulate an object successfully, the motor control system must have accurate information about parameters such as the shape of the stimulus, its position of contact on the skin, and the magnitude and direction of contact force. The same information is required for perception during haptic exploration of an object. Much of these data are relayed by the mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the glabrous skin of the digits. Single afferent responses are modulated by all the relevant stimulus parameters. Thus, only in complete population reconstructions is it clear how each of the parameters can be signaled to the brain independently when many are changing simultaneously, as occurs in most normal movements or haptic exploration. Modeling population responses reveals how resolution is affected by neural noise and intrinsic properties of the population such as the pattern and density of innervation and the covariance of response variability.

  20. Sensory and decision-related activity propagate in a cortical feedback loop during touch perception.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Eun; Yang, Hongdian; Minamisawa, Genki; O'Connor, Daniel H

    2016-09-01

    The brain transforms physical sensory stimuli into meaningful perceptions. In animals making choices about sensory stimuli, neuronal activity in successive cortical stages reflects a progression from sensation to decision. Feedforward and feedback pathways connecting cortical areas are critical for this transformation. However, the computational functions of these pathways are poorly understood because pathway-specific activity has rarely been monitored during a perceptual task. Using cellular-resolution, pathway-specific imaging, we measured neuronal activity across primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices of mice performing a tactile detection task. S1 encoded the stimulus better than S2, while S2 activity more strongly reflected perceptual choice. S1 neurons projecting to S2 fed forward activity that predicted choice. Activity encoding touch and choice propagated in an S1-S2 loop along feedforward and feedback axons. Our results suggest that sensory inputs converge into a perceptual outcome as feedforward computations are reinforced in a feedback loop.

  1. Cracking the Neural Code for Sensory Perception by Combining Statistics, Intervention, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D; Piasini, Eugenio; Latham, Peter E; Fellin, Tommaso

    2017-02-08

    The two basic processes underlying perceptual decisions-how neural responses encode stimuli, and how they inform behavioral choices-have mainly been studied separately. Thus, although many spatiotemporal features of neural population activity, or "neural codes," have been shown to carry sensory information, it is often unknown whether the brain uses these features for perception. To address this issue, we propose a new framework centered on redefining the neural code as the neural features that carry sensory information used by the animal to drive appropriate behavior; that is, the features that have an intersection between sensory and choice information. We show how this framework leads to a new statistical analysis of neural activity recorded during behavior that can identify such neural codes, and we discuss how to combine intersection-based analysis of neural recordings with intervention on neural activity to determine definitively whether specific neural activity features are involved in a task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brief Report: Sensory Abnormalities as Distinguishing Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Robins, Diana L.; Bakeman, Roger; Adamson, Lauren B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sensory profile of young children with ASD compared to young children with other developmental delays (DD) at first ASD assessment. Results found that young children with ASD had more tactile and taste/smell sensitivities and difficulties with auditory filtering than young children with other DD.…

  3. Knockdown of poc1b causes abnormal photoreceptor sensory cilium and vision impairment in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Conghui; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Fang; Liu, Qin

    2015-10-02

    Proteomic analysis of the mouse photoreceptor sensory cilium identified a set of cilia proteins, including Poc1 centriolar protein b (Poc1b). Previous functional studies in human cells and zebrafish embryos implicated that Poc1b plays important roles in centriole duplication and length control, as well as ciliogenesis. To study the function of Poc1b in photoreceptor sensory cilia and other primary cilia, we expressed a tagged recombinant Poc1b protein in cultured renal epithelial cells and rat retina. Poc1b was localized to the centrioles and spindle bundles during cell cycle progression, and to the basal body of photoreceptor sensory cilia. A morpholino knockdown and complementation assay of poc1b in zebrafish showed that loss of poc1b led to a range of morphological anomalies of cilia commonly associated with human ciliopathies. In the retina, the development of retinal laminae was significantly delayed and the length of photoreceptor outer segments was shortened. Visual behavior studies revealed impaired visual function in the poc1b morphants. In addition, ciliopathy-associated developmental defects, such as small eyes, curved body axis, heart defects, and shortened cilia in Kupffer's vesicle, were observed as well. These data suggest that poc1b is required for normal development and ciliogenesis of retinal photoreceptor sensory cilia and other cilia. Furthermore, this conclusion is supported by recent findings that mutations in POC1B gene have been identified in patients with inherited retinal dystrophy and syndromic retinal ciliopathy.

  4. Brief Report: Sensory Abnormalities as Distinguishing Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Robins, Diana L.; Bakeman, Roger; Adamson, Lauren B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sensory profile of young children with ASD compared to young children with other developmental delays (DD) at first ASD assessment. Results found that young children with ASD had more tactile and taste/smell sensitivities and difficulties with auditory filtering than young children with other DD.…

  5. Brief Report: Assessment of Sensory Abnormalities in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, James; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2004-01-01

    Sensory functioning has long been considered crucial in the life of people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) (Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (1992). "The Biology of Autistic Syndromes" (2nd ed.). London: Mac Keith press.) However, much of the research is methodologically flawed and based on child populations and adults' retrospective accounts (O…

  6. Central poststroke pain: correlation of MRI with clinical pain characteristics and sensory abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bowsher, D; Leijon, G; Thuomas, K A

    1998-11-01

    To correlate MRI and sensory changes in patients with spontaneous lesions in the cerebral "pain pathway." The authors used MRI and quantitative somatosensory testing in 73 patients with central poststroke pain (CPSP) and in 13 patients with pain-free stroke with sensory deficit. Lesions in any part of the discriminatory somatosensory pathway may or may not produce CPSP. Most CPSP patients have multiple lesions, many probably unrelated to pain. Ventroposterior thalamic nuclear lesions are more likely to produce half-body pain than lesions elsewhere (including the brainstem). In supratentorial lesions, the greatest pain is more likely to be in an extremity, and in infratentorial lesions, the greatest pain is likely to be in the face. Supratentorial CPSP patients have a deficit of sharpness and cold (peripherally mediated by A delta fibers) than pain-free stroke patients, whereas patients with infratentorial CPSP additionally have a deficit of C-fiber-mediated warmth and hot pain. Burning pain is more common than nonburning pain in younger patients. Warmth and cold, but not hot pain, exhibiting central convergence (spatial summation) are more affected in CPSP patients with burning than nonburning pain. Allodynic CPSP patients had a significantly greater deficit for warmth than patients without allodynia. Different stroke sites produce different patterns of sensory deficit. The progression from painless sensory deficit to CPSP is not purely quantitative.

  7. Consistency of abnormal sensory gating in first-admission and chronic schizophrenia across quantification methods.

    PubMed

    Schubring, David; Popov, Tzvetan; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2017-09-21

    The auditory P50/M50 ERP/event-related field is subject to sensory gating, with partial suppression of the amplitude of the second of two (S1 and S2) clicks presented 500 ms apart. Schizophrenia patients have less gating, although quantification methods and associated effect sizes vary across studies using first-admission and/or using chronic patients. The present study evaluated the impact of several methods of quantifying gating in first-admission (FA) and chronic (CHR) schizophrenia patients and in healthy controls (HC). Magnetoencephalogram was measured in 35 FA, 58 CHR, and 28 HC during a paired-click protocol. Sensory gating was quantified on sensor and source levels as a ratio (S2/S1) and as a S1-minus-S2 difference, with M50 amplitude scored relative to baseline and relative to M100 and to M40. Independent of quantification method, patients showed less sensory gating than HC, with medium-to-large effect sizes, without differences between FA and CHR. Results indicate that the frequently reported sensory gating deficit in schizophrenia is robust to variations in quantification methods and stage of disorder. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Brief Report: Assessment of Sensory Abnormalities in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, James; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2004-01-01

    Sensory functioning has long been considered crucial in the life of people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) (Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (1992). "The Biology of Autistic Syndromes" (2nd ed.). London: Mac Keith press.) However, much of the research is methodologically flawed and based on child populations and adults' retrospective accounts (O…

  9. Effects of static magnetic fields on cognition, vital signs, and sensory perception: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Nees, Frauke; Meyer, Patric; Semmler, Wolfhard; Flor, Herta

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate whether cognitive processes, sensory perception, and vital signs might be influenced by static magnetic fields in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which could pose a risk for health personnel and patients, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that examined effects of static magnetic fields. Studies covering the time from 1992 to 2007 were selected. Cohen's d effects sizes were used and combined in different categories of neuropsychology (reaction time, visual processing, eye-hand coordination, and working memory). Additionally, effects of static magnetic fields on sensory perception and vital signs were analyzed. In the category "neuropsychology," only effects on the visual system were homogeneous, showing a statistically significant impairment as a result of exposure to static magnetic fields (d = -0.415). Vital signs were not affected and effects on sensory perceptions included an increase of dizziness and vertigo, primarily caused by movement during static magnetic field gradient exposures. The number of studies dealing with this topic is very small and the experimental set-up of some of the analyzed studies makes it difficult to accurately determine the effects of static magnetic fields by themselves, excluding nonspecific factors. The implications of these results for MRI lead to suggestions for improvement in research designs.

  10. Comparison of current perception threshold electrical testing to clinical sensory testing for lingual nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Ziccardi, Vincent B; Dragoo, Joel; Eliav, Eli; Benoliel, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    We performed a retrospective study of lingual nerve injury assessment comparing the techniques of current perception threshold testing versus clinical sensory testing. We designed and implemented a cross-sectional study and enrolled a patient sample with lingual nerve injuries presenting for treatment to the principal investigator. The predictor variables were clinical sensory testing modalities (ie, temperature, nocioception, vibration, 2-point discrimination, brush stroke, and von Frey monofilament perception). The primary outcome variable was the electrical current perception thresholds of the tongue dorsum (neurometer measurements at 5, 250, and 2,000 Hz). Comparisons were established with the ipsilateral affected and contralateral unaffected lingual nerve distributions. The associations between the clinical sensory testing and current perception threshold measurements were assessed using correlation coefficients, with the level of statistical significance set at P < .05. A total of 40 patients (13 males and 27 females) were included in the present study. The average age of these patients was 34 years (range 13 to 66). Significant correlations were observed between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 2,000 Hz and the 2-point discrimination, reaction to brushing, reaction to vibration, and von Frey fiber thresholds, between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 250 Hz to the nociceptive and thermal thresholds, and between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 5 Hz to thermal stimuli. The significant correlations observed in the present study indicate that current perception threshold can be a complementary or alternative tool in the assessment and evaluation of lingual nerve injuries. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of sensory loss on the perception of verticality in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Truijen, Steven; Lafosse, Christophe; Wuyts, Floris P; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatosensory loss and perception of verticality in stroke patients suffering single-hemisphere lesions. Somatosensory loss was measured using the Rivermead Assessment for Somatosensory Performance (RASP). Perception of verticality was assessed with the Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) and the Subjective Postural Vertical (SPV) tests. Absolute Values of SVV and SPV were used to analyze the amount of deviation in relation to somatosensory loss. Thirty-two patients were included in the study (mean age = 45.91 SD = 31.88 years). Analysis showed that somatosensory loss was related to results of the SVV (r = -0.552, p = 0.001, Pearson Rank) and the SPV (r = -0.661, p < 0.001, Spearman Ï). Furthermore, results showed that both joint-related (SVV: r = -0.411, p = 0.019, Pearson Rank; SPV: r = -0.597, p = 0.001, Spearman Ï) and skin-related (SVV: r = -0.595, p < 0.001, Pearson Rank; SPV: r = -0.663, p < 0.001, Spearman Ï) somatosensory information is related to verticality perception. This study provides evidence that perception of verticality is related to somatosensory loss, which means that somatosensory loss will lead to a larger amount of deviation of SVV and SPV in relation to the gravitational vector. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that both SVV and SPV are influenced by somatosensory loss. • Somatosensory information is related to both visual and postural aspects of verticality perception. • Both joint- and cutaneous-related modalities of sensory information are related to perception of verticality. • Sensory training could be important in the recovery of verticality perception.

  12. Taurine replacement attenuates hyperalgesia and abnormal calcium signaling in sensory neurons of STZ-D rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Obrosova, Irina G; Abatan, Omorodola; Tian, Dequan; Larkin, Dennis; Stuenkel, Edward L; Stevens, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of painful diabetic neuropathy is poorly understood, but may result from neuronal hyperexcitability secondary to alterations of Ca2+ signaling in sensory neurons. The naturally occurring amino acid taurine functions as an osmolyte, antioxidant, Ca2+ modulator, inhibitory neurotransmitter, and analgesic such that its depletion in diabetes may predispose one to neuronal hyperexcitability and pain. This study reports the effects of taurine replacement on hyperalgesia and sensory neuron Ca2+ homeostasis in streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ-D) rats. Nondiabetic and STZ-D rats were treated with a 2% taurine-supplemented diet for 6-12 wk. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were determined by measuring hindpaw withdrawal latency to radiant heat and the withdrawal threshold to the von Frey anesthesiometer. Intracellular Ca2+ signaling was explored in neurons from L4-L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), using fura 2 fluorescence. Taurine replacement of diabetic rats attenuated deficits of nerve conduction and prevented reductions of mechanical and thermal withdrawal threshold and latency, respectively. In small DRG sensory neurons from diabetic rats, recovery of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to KCl was slowed and 73% corrected by taurine. The amplitudes of caffeine and ATP-induced [Ca2+]i transients were decreased by 47 and 27% (P < 0.05), respectively, in diabetic rat DRG sensory neurons and corrected by 74 and 93% (P < 0.05), respectively, by taurine replacement. These data indicate that taurine is important in the regulation of neuronal Ca2+ signaling and that taurine deficiency may predispose one to nerve hyperexcitability and pain, complicating diabetes.

  13. Peripheral tactile sensory perception of older adults improved using subsensory electrical noise stimulation.

    PubMed

    Breen, Paul P; Serrador, Jorge M; O'Tuathail, Claire; Quinlan, Leo R; McIntosh, Caroline; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2016-08-01

    Loss of tactile sensory function is common with aging and can lead to numbness and difficulty with balance and gait. In previous work we found that subsensory electrical noise stimulation (SENS) applied to the tibial nerve improved tactile perception in the soles of the feet of healthy adults. In this work we aimed to determine if SENS remained effective in an older adult population with significant levels of sensory loss. Older adult subjects (N=8, female = 4, aged 65-80) had SENS applied via surface electrodes placed proximally to the medial and lateral malleoli. Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) were assessed in six conditions, two control conditions (no SENS) and four SENS conditions (zero mean ±15µA, 30µA, 45µA and 60µA SD). VPT was assessed at three sites on the plantar aspect of the foot. Vibration perception was significantly improved in the presence of ±30µA SENS and by 16.2±2.4% (mean ± s.e.m.) when optimised for each subject. The improvement in perception was similar across all VPT test sites. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

  15. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    PubMed Central

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  16. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception.

  17. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    PubMed Central

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  18. Impact of model fat emulsions on sensory perception using repeated spoon to spoon ingestion.

    PubMed

    Appelqvist, I A M; Poelman, A A M; Cochet-Broch, M; Delahunty, C M

    2016-06-01

    Eating is a dynamic behaviour, in which food interacts with the mechanical and physiological environment of the mouth. This dynamic interaction changes the oral surfaces leaving particles of food and building up a film on the oral surfaces, which may impact on the temporal perception during the eating experience. The effect of repeated spoon to spoon ingestion of oil in water emulsion products (2%-50% w/w oil) was evaluated using descriptive in-mouth and after swallowing sensory attributes. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated that fatty mouthfeel and afterfeel perception (measured post swallowing) increased with the number of spoonfuls for emulsions containing 50% fat. This effect is likely due to the build-up of oil droplet layers deposited on the mouth surfaces. There was an enhancement of fatty afterfeel intensity for 50% fat emulsions containing the more lipophilic aroma ethylhexanoate compared to ethyl butanoate, indicating a cross-modal interaction. No increase in these attributes from spoon to spoon was observed for the low oil emulsions; since most of the oil in the emulsion was swallowed and very little oil was likely to be left in the mouth. Sweetness perception increased as fat level increased in the emulsion due to an increase in the effective concentration of sugar in the aqueous phase. However, the sweetness perceived did not change from spoon to spoon, suggesting that any oil-droplets deposited on the oral surfaces did not form a complete barrier, restricting access of the sucrose to the taste buds. This study highlights the importance of measuring the dynamic nature of eating and demonstrated change in sensory perception occurring with repeated ingestion of model emulsions, which was likely due to a change in mouth environment.

  19. Reduced GABAergic inhibition and abnormal sensory symptoms in children with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puts, Nicolaas A J; Harris, Ashley D; Crocetti, Deana; Nettles, Carrie; Singer, Harvey S; Tommerdahl, Mark; Edden, Richard A E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-08-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized by the presence of chronic tics. Individuals with TS often report difficulty with ignoring (habituating to) tactile sensations, and some patients perceive that this contributes to a "premonitory urge" to tic. While common, the physiological basis of impaired tactile processing in TS, and indeed tics themselves, remain poorly understood. It has been well established that GABAergic processing plays an important role in shaping the neurophysiological response to tactile stimulation. Furthermore, there are multiple lines of evidence suggesting that a deficit in GABAergic transmission may contribute to symptoms found in TS. In this study, GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was combined with a battery of vibrotactile tasks to investigate the role of GABA and atypical sensory processing in children with TS. Our results show reduced primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) GABA concentration in children with TS compared with healthy control subjects (HC), as well as patterns of impaired performance on tactile detection and adaptation tasks, consistent with altered GABAergic function. Moreover, in children with TS SM1 GABA concentration correlated with motor tic severity, linking the core feature of TS directly to in vivo brain neurochemistry. There was an absence of the typical correlation between GABA and frequency discrimination performance in TS as was seen in HC. These data show that reduced GABA concentration in TS may contribute to both motor tics and sensory impairments in children with TS. Understanding the mechanisms of altered sensory processing in TS may provide a foundation for novel interventions to alleviate these symptoms. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Fusion of multi-sensory saliency maps for automated perception and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.

    2009-05-01

    In many real-world situations and applications that involve humans or machines (e.g., situation awareness, scene understanding, driver distraction, workload reduction, assembly, robotics, etc.) multiple sensory modalities (e.g., vision, auditory, touch, etc.) are used. The incoming sensory information can overwhelm processing capabilities of both humans and machines. An approach for estimating what is most important in our sensory environment (bottom-up or goal-driven) and using that as a basis for workload reduction or taking an action could be of great benefit in applications involving humans, machines or human-machine interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for determining high saliency stimuli in multi-modal sensory environments, e.g., vision, sound, touch, etc. In such environments, the high saliency stimuli could be a visual object, a sound source, a touch event, etc. The high saliency stimuli are important and should be attended to from perception, cognition or/and action perspective. The system accomplishes this by the fusion of saliency maps from multiple sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory) into a single, fused multimodal saliency map that is represented in a common, higher-level coordinate system. This paper describes the computational model and method for generating multi-modal or fused saliency map. The fused saliency map can be used to determine primary and secondary foci of attention as well as for active control of a hardware/device. Such a computational model of fused saliency map would be immensely useful for a machine-based or robot-based application in a multi-sensory environment. We describe the approach, system and present preliminary results on a real-robotic platform.

  1. Does lower limb revascularization result in an improvement in sensory perception thresholds?

    PubMed

    Toursarkissian, Boulos; Connaughton, James C; D'Ayala, Marcus; Shireman, Paula K; Harrison, Amy; Schoolfield, John; Sykes, Mellick T

    2002-05-01

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease are susceptible to neuropathy from chronic hypoxia. We wished to determine whether revascularization of chronically ischemic limbs results in any clinical changes in peripheral sensory thresholds. We prospectively measured quantitative vibration perception thresholds (VPT) using a Horwell neurothesiometer (in volts) in patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass, preoperatively and up to 6 month postoperatively. The bypassed limbs' preoperative VPT values were higher (lesser sensory perception) than the contralateral control limbs' preoperative values (mean score differences: 6 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 10 at toe and foot levels respectively; p ? 0.004). Preoperative VPT values were not different from the 6-month postoperative values for the revascularized legs at toe and foot levels for all 55 patients (mean score change of ?0.84 and ?1.32, p > 0.5). The contralateral limbs' VPT values did not change significantly over the 6-month period (mean change scores of 2.9, p > 0.15, and 2, p > 0.30, for toe and foot, respectively). A comparison of preoperative values between limbs that were eventually amputated and saved revealed no statistically significant differences. This study suggests that revascularization does not result in a clinically detectable improvement in sensory neuropathy. It may, however, prevent further degradation. The degree of preoperative neuropathy does not affect outcome in terms of limb salvage.

  2. Taste perception and sensory sensitivity: Relationship to feeding problems in boys with Barth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M; Meeley, Lauren E; Bendixen, Roxanna M

    2015-03-01

    Feeding problems are common in boys with Barth syndrome and may contribute to the population's propensity for growth delay and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe these feeding issues and examine altered taste perception and sensory sensitivity as contributing factors. A cross-sectional, two-group comparison design was used to examine feeding preferences and behaviors, chemical taste perception, and sensory sensitivities in fifty boys with (n=24) and without (n=26) Barth ages 4-17 years. Taste perception was measured using chemical test strips saturated with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and sodium benzoate (NaB). Feeding problems were documented by parents using a Food Inventory, while sensory sensitivities were recorded using a Short Sensory Profile. Boys with Barth differed significantly from typical peers with regards to problem feeding behaviors. For boys with Barth, food refusal and food selectivity were identified as being present in 50% the sample, while 70% of had identified problems related to gagging or swallowing foods. About half of all Barth families noted that their child's eating habits did not match the family's and that separate meals were often prepared. As demonstrated in previous research, about 50% of boys with Barth demonstrated probable or definite differences in taste/smell sensitivity, which was significantly higher than controls. On tests of chemical taste perception, boys with Barth were significantly more likely to be supertasters to PTC and non-tasters to NaB. Taster-status did not directly relate to the presence of feeding problems, however, taste/smell sensitivity did significantly relate to food selectivity by type and texture. Results indicate feeding problems in at least 50-70% of boys with Barth syndrome, and suggest that behaviors are often present before 6 months of age. Differences in taste perception may influence dietary choices in boys with Barth, particularly their craving of salty foods

  3. Taste perception and sensory sensitivity: Relationship to feeding problems in boys with Barth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M.; Meeley, Lauren E.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding problems are common in boys with Barth syndrome and may contribute to the population’s propensity for growth delay and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe these feeding issues and examine altered taste perception and sensory sensitivity as contributing factors. Methodology A cross-sectional, two-group comparison design was used to examine feeding preferences and behaviors, chemical taste perception, and sensory sensitivities in fifty boys with (n=24) and without (n=26) Barth ages 4–17 years. Taste perception was measured using chemical test strips saturated with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and sodium benzoate (NaB). Feeding problems were documented by parents using a Food Inventory, while sensory sensitivities were recorded using a Short Sensory Profile. Results Boys with Barth differed significantly from typical peers with regards to problem feeding behaviors. For boys with Barth, food refusal and food selectivity were identified as being present in 50% the sample, while 70% of had identified problems related to gagging or swallowing foods. About half of all Barth families noted that their child’s eating habits did not match the family’s and that separate meals were often prepared. As demonstrated in previous research, about 50% of boys with Barth demonstrated probable or definite differences in taste/smell sensitivity, which was significantly higher than controls. On tests of chemical taste perception, boys with Barth were significantly more likely to be supertasters to PTC and non-tasters to NaB. Taster-status did not directly relate to the presence of feeding problems, however, taste/smell sensitivity did significantly relate to food selectivity by type and texture. Conclusions Results indicate feeding problems in at least 50–70% of boys with Barth syndrome, and suggest that behaviors are often present before 6 months of age. Differences in taste perception may influence dietary choices in boys with

  4. Perception and the strongest sensory memory trace of multi-stable displays both form shortly after the stimulus onset.

    PubMed

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relation between perception and sensory memory of multi-stable structure-from-motion displays. The latter is an implicit visual memory that reflects a recent history of perceptual dominance and influences only the initial perception of multi-stable displays. First, we established the earliest time point when the direction of an illusory rotation can be reversed after the display onset (29-114 ms). Because our display manipulation did not bias perception towards a specific direction of illusory rotation but only signaled the change in motion, this means that the perceptual dominance was established no later than 29-114 ms after the stimulus onset. Second, we used orientation-selectivity of sensory memory to establish which display orientation produced the strongest memory trace and when this orientation was presented during the preceding prime interval (80-140 ms). Surprisingly, both estimates point towards the time interval immediately after the display onset, indicating that both perception and sensory memory form at approximately the same time. This suggests a tighter integration between perception and sensory memory than previously thought, warrants a reconsideration of its role in visual perception, and indicates that sensory memory could be a unique behavioral correlate of the earlier perceptual inference that can be studied post hoc.

  5. The development and validation of sensory and emotional scales of touch perception.

    PubMed

    Guest, Steve; Dessirier, Jean Marc; Mehrabyan, Anahit; McGlone, Francis; Essick, Greg; Gescheider, George; Fontana, Anne; Xiong, Rui; Ackerley, Rochelle; Blot, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    No comprehensive language exists that describes the experience of touch. Three experiments were conducted to take steps toward establishing a touch lexicon. In Experiment I, 49 participants rated how well 262 adjectives described sensory, emotional and evaluative aspects of touch. In Experiment II, participants rated pairwise dissimilarities of the most descriptive words of the set. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions representing semantic-perceptual spaces underlying the words resulted in a touch perception task (TPT) consisting of 26 'sensory' attributes (e.g., bumpiness) and 14 'emotional' attributes (e.g., pleasurable). In Experiment III, 40 participants used the TPT to rate unseen textured materials that were moved actively or received passively against the index fingerpad, volar forearm, and two underarm sites. MDS confirmed similar semantic-perceptual structures in Experiments II and III. Factor analysis of Experiment III data decomposed the sensory attribute ratings into factors labeled Roughness, Slip, Pile and Firmness, and the emotional attribute ratings into Comfort and Arousal factors. Factor scores varied among materials and sites. Greater intensity of sensory and emotional responses were reported when participants passively, as opposed to actively, received stimuli. The sensitivity of the TPT in identifying body site and mode of touch-related perceptual differences affirms the validity and utility of this novel linguistic/perceptual tool.

  6. A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA). © 2013.

  7. Identification of an epidermal keratinocyte AMPA glutamate receptor involved in dermatopathies associated with sensory abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Cabañero, David; Irie, Takeshi; Celorrio, Marta; Trousdale, Christopher; Owens, David M.; Virley, David; Albrecht, Phillip J.; Caterina, Michael J.; Rice, Frank L.; Morón, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal keratinocytes are increasingly recognized as active participants in the sensory transduction of itch and pain, processes known to involve primary afferent glutamatergic neurons. However the role of keratinocyte glutamate signaling in sensory functioning is not fully understood. Here, we present the observation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) in epidermal keratinocytes. Methods Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses were conducted to assess the expression of AMPAR subunits in epidermal keratinocytes in mouse and human skin samples, and in organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes. In addition, RTPCR further confirmed the expression of GluA4-containing AMPAR in epidermal keratinocytes. Results We found prominent immunolabeling (IL) for the GluA4 subunit of AMPAR in keratinocytes of glabrous and hairy skin of mouse epidermis, as well as in human epidermal keratinocytes. RTPCR confirmed Gria4 transcript expression in epidermal mouse keratinocytes. In addition, expression of GRIA4 mRNA was confirmed in epidermal human keratinocytes by in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical studies conducted in human skin biopsies from patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) demonstrate that keratinocyte expression of GluA4 can be altered under pathological conditions. Moreover, a decrease of GluA4 expression was observed in organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes after direct application of algogenic agents. Conclusions We provide evidence that GluA4-containing AMPAR are expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, that human pruritic and painful dermatopathologies have alterations in the keratinocyte expression levels of GluA4-containing AMPAR, and that itch and pain producing substances can directly regulate their production in keratinocytes. PMID:28210712

  8. A longitudinal descriptive study of self-reported abnormal smell and taste perception in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Steven; Broman, Daniel A; Olofsson, Jonas K; Wulff, Marianne

    2004-06-01

    Self-reported abnormal sensitivity, qualitative distortions and phantom sensations with respect to smell and taste was assessed with a longitudinal design, based on questions referring to gestational weeks 13-16 and 31-34 of pregnancy in comparison with 9-12 weeks post partum and with non-pregnant women with corresponding time durations and intervals. The results show that abnormal smell and/or taste perception was reported by 76% of the pregnant women, typically believed to be caused by their pregnancy. Increased smell sensitivity was found to be very common at the early stage of pregnancy (67% of all pregnant respondents) and occasionally accompanied by qualitative smell distortions (17%) and phantom smells (14%). The smell abnormalities were less common at the late pregnancy stage and almost absent post partum. Abnormal taste sensitivity was fairly commonly reported (26%), often described as increased bitter sensitivity and decreased salt sensitivity. These results, suggesting that abnormal smell and/or taste perception is experienced by a large majority of pregnant women, imply that further research is needed to understand to what extent these chemosensory changes may underlie food aversions and craving with implications for food intake during pregnancy.

  9. Relationship between Sensory Perception and Frailty in a Community-Dwelling Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Somekawa, S; Mine, T; Ono, K; Hayashi, N; Obuchi, S; Yoshida, H; Kawai, H; Fujiwara, Y; Hirano, H; Kojima, M; Ihara, K; Kim, H

    2017-01-01

    Aging anorexia, defined as loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, has been postulated as a risk factor for frailty. Impairments of taste and smell perception in elderly people can lead to reduced enjoyment of food and contribute to the anorexia of aging. To evaluate the relationship between frailty and taste and smell perception in elderly people living in urban areas. Data from the baseline evaluation of 768 residents aged ≥ 65 years who enrolled in a comprehensive geriatric health examination survey was analyzed. Fourteen out of 29-items of Appetite, Hunger, Sensory Perception questionnaire (AHSP), frailty, age, sex, BMI, chronic conditions and IADL were evaluated. AHSP was analyzed as the total score of 8 taste items (T) and 6 smell items (S). Frailty was diagnosed using a modified Fried's frailty criteria. The area under the receiver operator curves for detection of frailty demonstrated that T (0.715) had moderate accuracy, but S (0.657) had low accuracy. The cutoffs, sensitivity, specificity and Youden Index (YI) values for each perception were T: Cutoff 26.5 (YI: 0.350, sensitivity: 0.639, specificity: 0.711) and S: Cutoff 18.5 (YI: 0.246, sensitivity: 0.690, specificity: 0.556). Results from multiple logistic regression models, after adjusting for age, sex, IADL and chronic conditions showed that participants under the T cutoff were associated with exhaustion and those below the S cutoff were associated with slow walking speed. The adjusted logistic models for age, sex, IADL and chronic conditions showed significant association between T and frailty (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.29-6.12), but not between S and frailty (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.83-3.63). Taste and smell perception, particularly taste perception, were associated with a greater risk of frailty in community-dwelling elderly people. These results suggest that lower taste and smell perception may be an indicator of frailty in old age.

  10. Somatosensory Representations Link the Perception of Emotional Expressions and Sensory Experience.

    PubMed

    Kragel, Philip A; LaBar, Kevin S

    2016-01-01

    Studies of human emotion perception have linked a distributed set of brain regions to the recognition of emotion in facial, vocal, and body expressions. In particular, lesions to somatosensory cortex in the right hemisphere have been shown to impair recognition of facial and vocal expressions of emotion. Although these findings suggest that somatosensory cortex represents body states associated with distinct emotions, such as a furrowed brow or gaping jaw, functional evidence directly linking somatosensory activity and subjective experience during emotion perception is critically lacking. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate decoding techniques, we show that perceiving vocal and facial expressions of emotion yields hemodynamic activity in right somatosensory cortex that discriminates among emotion categories, exhibits somatotopic organization, and tracks self-reported sensory experience. The findings both support embodied accounts of emotion and provide mechanistic insight into how emotional expressions are capable of biasing subjective experience in those who perceive them.

  11. Sensory and nonsensory influences on children's performance of dichotic pitch perception tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Veronica T.; Giaschi, Deborah E.; Low, Pauline; Edgell, Dorothy

    2005-05-01

    Dichotic pitch perception reflects the auditory system's use of binaural cues to perceptually separate different sound sources and to determine the spatial location of sounds. Several studies were conducted to identify factors that influence children's dichotic pitch perception thresholds. An initial study of school children revealed an age-related improvement in thresholds for lateralizing dichotic pitch tones. In subsequent studies potential sensory and nonsensory limitations on young children's performance of dichotic pitch lateralization tasks were examined. A training study showed that with sufficient practice, young children lateralize dichotic pitch stimuli as well as adults, indicating an age difference in perceptual learning of the lateralization task. Changing the task requirements so that young children made a judgment about the pitch of dichotic pitch tones, rather than the spatial location of the tones, also resulted in significantly better thresholds. These findings indicate that nonsensory factors limit young children's performance of dichotic pitch tasks..

  12. Somatosensory Representations Link the Perception of Emotional Expressions and Sensory Experience123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies of human emotion perception have linked a distributed set of brain regions to the recognition of emotion in facial, vocal, and body expressions. In particular, lesions to somatosensory cortex in the right hemisphere have been shown to impair recognition of facial and vocal expressions of emotion. Although these findings suggest that somatosensory cortex represents body states associated with distinct emotions, such as a furrowed brow or gaping jaw, functional evidence directly linking somatosensory activity and subjective experience during emotion perception is critically lacking. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate decoding techniques, we show that perceiving vocal and facial expressions of emotion yields hemodynamic activity in right somatosensory cortex that discriminates among emotion categories, exhibits somatotopic organization, and tracks self-reported sensory experience. The findings both support embodied accounts of emotion and provide mechanistic insight into how emotional expressions are capable of biasing subjective experience in those who perceive them. PMID:27280154

  13. Sensory perception, nutritional role, and challenges of flavored milk for children and adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Drake, MaryAnne

    2015-04-01

    Milk and milk products provide essential nutrients for both adults and children. However, overall milk consumption of both adults and children does not meet the recommendations from Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Flavored milk can increase milk consumption for children and adolescents, but the added sugar content raises concern. Since the removal or reduction of flavored milk decreases milk consumption for children, it is important to understand all aspects of flavored milk in order to increase milk consumption while minimizing sugar intake. This review will address adult and children perception of flavored milk as well as its nutrition, regulations in school meal programs, and challenges. Understanding the sensory perception of both adults and children for flavored milk can help food developers and manufacturers to address attractive attributes while reducing the sugar content to meet the needs of a healthy diet. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Sensory biology. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Maude W; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J; Klasing, Kirk C; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-08-22

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species.

  15. Age-dependent gait abnormalities in mice lacking the Rnf170 gene linked to human autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Chanki; Kim, Jeongjin; Shin, Hee-Sup; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-12-20

    Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 170 (RNF170) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to mediate ubiquitination-dependent degradation of type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR1). It has recently been demonstrated that a point mutation of RNF170 gene is linked with autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), which is characterized by an age-dependent increase of walking abnormalities, a rare genetic disorder reported in only two families. Although this mutant allele is known to be dominant, the functional identity thereof has not been clearly established. Here, we generated mice lacking Rnf170 (Rnf170(-/-)) to evaluate the effect of its loss of function in vivo. Remarkably, Rnf170(-/-) mice began to develop gait abnormalities in old age (12 months) in the form of asynchronous stepping between diagonal limb pairs with a fixed step sequence during locomotion, while age-matched wild-type mice showed stable gait patterns using several step sequence repertoires. As reported in ADSA patients, they also showed a reduced sensitivity for proprioception and thermal nociception. Protein blot analysis revealed that the amount of Itpr1 protein was significantly elevated in the cerebellum and spinal cord but intact in the cerebral cortex in Rnf170(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the loss of Rnf170 gene function mediates ADSA-associated phenotypes and this gives insights on the cure of patients with ADSA and other age-dependent walking abnormalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Abnormal Sensory Protein Expression and Urothelial Dysfunction in Ketamine-Related Cystitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of sensory protein expression and urothelial dysfunction in ketamine-related cystitis (KC) in humans. Methods Biopsies of bladder mucosa were performed in 29 KC patients during cystoscopy. Then specimens were analyzed for tryptase, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) with immunofluorescence staining and quantification. In addition, 10 healthy control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Another 16 whole bladder specimens obtained from partial cystectomy were also analyzed for the muscarinic receptors M2 and M3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), β-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), and the P2X3 receptor by western blotting. In addition, 3 normal control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Results The KC bladder mucosa revealed significantly less expression of ZO-1 and E-cadherin, and greater expression of TUNEL and tryptase activity than the control samples. The expression of M3 and β3-AR in the KC specimens was significantly greater than in the controls. The expression of iNOS, eNOS, M2, and P2X3 was not significantly different between the KC and control specimens. Conclusions The bladder tissue of KC patients revealed significant urothelial dysfunction, which was associated with mast-cell mediated inflammation, increased urothelial cell apoptosis, and increased expression of the M3 and β3-AR. PMID:27706016

  17. Sensory-motor system identification of active perception in ecologically valid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, William; Thomik, Andreas; Faisal, A. Aldo

    2015-03-01

    The brain is a dynamical system mapping sensory inputs to motor actions. This relationship has been widely characterised by reductionist controlled experiments. Here we present work moving out of the lab ``into the wild'' to capture, rather than constrain, sensory inputs and motor outputs, by recording 90% of sensory inputs using head mounted eye-tracking, scene camera and microphone as well as recording 95% of skeletal motor outputs by motion tracking 51 degrees of freedom in the body and a total of 40 degrees of freedom from the hands. We can thus begin to systematically characterise the perception-action loop through system identification. This enables use to evaluate classical relationships in ecologically valid settings and behaviours including 3 daily scenarios: breakfast in the kitchen, evening chores and activities and in-door ambulation . This level of data richness (97 DOF, 60Hz), coupled with the extensive recordings of natural perceptual and behavioural data (total > 30 hrs, 10 subjects) enables us to answer general questions of how lab tasks and protocols will produce systematically different results from those found in daily life.

  18. Sensory and decision-related activity propagate in a cortical feedback loop during touch perception

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sung Eun; Yang, Hongdian; Minamisawa, Genki; O’Connor, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The brain transforms physical sensory stimuli into meaningful perceptions. In animals making choices about sensory stimuli, neuronal activity in successive cortical stages reflects a progression from sensation to decision. Feedforward and feedback pathways connecting cortical areas are critical for this transformation. However, the computational roles of these pathways are poorly understood because pathway-specific activity has rarely been monitored during a perceptual task. Using cellular-resolution, pathway-specific imaging, we measured neuronal activity across primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices of mice performing a tactile detection task. S1 encoded the stimulus better than S2, while S2 activity more strongly reflected perceptual choice. S1 neurons projecting to S2 fed forward activity that predicted choice. Activity encoding touch and choice propagated in an S1–S2 loop along feedforward and feedback axons. Our results suggest that sensory inputs converge into a perceptual outcome as feedforward computations are reinforced in a feedback loop. PMID:27437910

  19. The cellular and circuit basis for evolutionary change in sensory perception in mormyrid fishes.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Alejandro; Kohashi, Tsunehiko; Lu, Anan; Carlson, Bruce A

    2017-06-19

    Species differences in perception have been linked to divergence in gross neuroanatomical features of sensory pathways. The anatomical and physiological basis of evolutionary change in sensory processing at cellular and circuit levels, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show how specific changes to a sensory microcircuit are associated with the evolution of a novel perceptual ability. In mormyrid fishes, the ability to detect variation in electric communication signals is correlated with an enlargement of the midbrain exterolateral nucleus (EL), and a differentiation into separate anterior (ELa) and posterior (ELp) regions. We show that the same cell types and connectivity are found in both EL and ELa/ELp. The evolution of ELa/ELp, and the concomitant ability to detect signal variation, is associated with a lengthening of incoming hindbrain axons to form delay lines, allowing for fine temporal analysis of signals. The enlargement of this brain region is also likely due to an overall increase in cell numbers, which would allow for processing of a wider range of timing information.

  20. Cytokine expression correlates with differential sensory perception between lye and no-lye relaxers.

    PubMed

    Tackey, Robert N; Bryant, Harold; Parks, Felicia M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in perceived sensory scalp discomfort between guanidine carbonate/calcium hydroxide (no-lye) and sodium hydroxide (lye) relaxer technologies have been reported by users for decades. However, the biochemical processes responsible for the perceived differences have not been fully studied. We have used an in vitro three-dimensional skin model with well-developed epidermis to explore the expression of cytokines that may partially explain the biological response resulting in differences in sensory perception. The cytokines selected were prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1a (IL-1a), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) because they have been shown to participate in irritant-induced discomfort. We show that lye relaxer induced over 350% increase in PGE2 expression over untreated control compared to 200% by no-lye in the early phase (4 h) postexposure epidermal response. Expression of IL-1a in the early phase showed no significant difference between lye and no-lye; however, no-lye induced higher levels (p < 0.0001) in 24 and 48 h. Concomitantly, no-lye induced increased expression of IL-1ra compared to lye at all time points. Given the association of PGE2 with nociceptive activation, these findings suggest that the perceived variation in sensory discomfort reported by consumers between lye and no-lye relaxers may be associated with differences in induced PGE2 expression.

  1. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Frank; O’Regan, J. Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences. PMID:28195187

  2. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Frank; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2017-02-14

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences.

  3. Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: a possible role in sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Wallach, J V

    2009-01-01

    While the endogenous hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, have been acknowledged as naturally occurring components of the mammalian body for decades, their biological function remains as elusive now as it was at the time of their discovery. The recent discovery of the trace amine associated receptors and the activity of DMT and other hallucinogenic compounds at these receptor sites leads to the hypothesis that the endogenous hallucinogens act as neurotransmitters of a subclass of these trace amine receptors. Additionally, while activity at the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor has been proposed as being responsible for the hallucinogenic affects of administered hallucinogens, in their natural setting the 5-HT2A receptor may not interact with the endogenous hallucinogens at all. Additionally 5-HT2A agonist activity is unable to account for the visual altering effects of many of the administered hallucinogens; these effects may be mediated by one of the endogenous hallucinogen trace amine receptors rather than the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Therefore, activity at the trace amine receptors, in addition to serotonin receptors, may play a large role in the sensory altering effects of administered hallucinogens and the trace amine receptors along with their endogenous hallucinogen ligands may serve an endogenous role in mediating sensory perception in the mammalian central nervous system. Thus the theory proposed states that these compounds act as true endogenous hallucinogenic transmitters acting in regions of the central nervous system involved in sensory perception.

  4. Effects of electrode size and spacing on sensory modalities in the phantom thumb perception area for the forearm amputees.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Chai, G H; Zhu, K H; Lan, N; Sui, X H

    2015-01-01

    Tactile sensory feedback plays a key role in accomplishing the dexterous manipulation of prosthetic hands for the amputees, and the non-invasive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of the phantom finger perception (PFP) area would be an effective way to realize sensory feedback clinically. In order to realize the high-spatial-resolution tactile sensory feedback in the PFP region, we investigated the effects of electrode size and spacing on the tactile sensations for potentially optimizing the surface electrode array configuration. Six forearm-amputated subjects were recruited in the psychophysical studies. With the diameter of the circular electrode increasing from 3 mm to 12 mm, the threshold current intensity was enhanced correspondingly under different sensory modalities. The smaller electrode could potentially lead to high sensation spatial resolution. Whereas, the smaller the electrode, the less the number of sensory modalities. For an Φ-3 mm electrode, it is even hard for the subject to perceive any perception modalities under normal stimulating current. In addition, the two-electrode discrimination distance (TEDD) in the phantom thumb perception area decreased with electrode size decreasing in two directions of parallel or perpendicular to the forearm. No significant difference of TEDD existed along the two directions. Studies in this paper would guide the configuration optimization of the TENS electrode array for potential high spatial-resolution sensory feedback.

  5. Motion makes sense: an adaptive motor-sensory strategy underlies the perception of object location in rats.

    PubMed

    Saraf-Sinik, Inbar; Assa, Eldad; Ahissar, Ehud

    2015-06-10

    Tactile perception is obtained by coordinated motor-sensory processes. We studied the processes underlying the perception of object location in freely moving rats. We trained rats to identify the relative location of two vertical poles placed in front of them and measured at high resolution the motor and sensory variables (19 and 2 variables, respectively) associated with this whiskers-based perceptual process. We found that the rats developed stereotypic head and whisker movements to solve this task, in a manner that can be described by several distinct behavioral phases. During two of these phases, the rats' whiskers coded object position by first temporal and then angular coding schemes. We then introduced wind (in two opposite directions) and remeasured their perceptual performance and motor-sensory variables. Our rats continued to perceive object location in a consistent manner under wind perturbations while maintaining all behavioral phases and relatively constant sensory coding. Constant sensory coding was achieved by keeping one group of motor variables (the "controlled variables") constant, despite the perturbing wind, at the cost of strongly modulating another group of motor variables (the "modulated variables"). The controlled variables included coding-relevant variables, such as head azimuth and whisker velocity. These results indicate that consistent perception of location in the rat is obtained actively, via a selective control of perception-relevant motor variables. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358777-13$15.00/0.

  6. Sensory perception in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus: a model organism for space research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrochano, Luis M.

    2016-07-01

    Fungi use signals from the environment to regulate growth, development, and metabolism. The growth of the fruiting bodies, sporangiophores, of Phycomyces blakesleeanus is governed by several environmental signals, including light, gravity, touch, wind, and the presence of nearby objects. These signals allow sporangiophore growth towards open air for efficient spore dispersal. The sporangiophores of Phycomyces are giant isolated cells that can reach several cm in length. The large size of the sporangiophores facilitates genetic screens for tropic mutants, and the sexual cycle allows the genetic analysis of tropic mutations. The availability of the Phycomyces genome sequence and a collection of SNPs allow gene identification by genome mapping and gene sequencing. In addition, the size of the sporangiophore facilitates physiological analysis of tropic growth using computerized tracking devices. These experimental approaches will help to understand the mechanisms of sensory perception and how cell growth is regulated by environmental signals. The perception of light by Phycomyces has been investigated in most detail. Most fungi use proteins similar to WC-1 and WC-2 from Neurospora crassa for sensing blue light. In N. crassa and other fungi these two proteins form a photoreceptor and transcription factor complex that binds to the promoters of light-regulated genes to activate transcription. Phycomyces have multiple wc genes and two of them encode a photoreceptor complex composed of MadA and MadB that is required for all responses to light. The tropic response to gravity is much slower than to light, and require the presence of floating lipid globules and protein crystals that may be part of the gravity sensory system. Light and gravity interact to modify the direction of growth of the sporangiophore but the mechanisms that allow the coordination of a single response to different environmental signals remain to be defined. The giant sporangiophore of Phycomyces is an

  7. Timescale- and Sensory Modality-Dependency of the Central Tendency of Time Perception.

    PubMed

    Murai, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    When individuals are asked to reproduce intervals of stimuli that are intermixedly presented at various times, longer intervals are often underestimated and shorter intervals overestimated. This phenomenon may be attributed to the central tendency of time perception, and suggests that our brain optimally encodes a stimulus interval based on current stimulus input and prior knowledge of the distribution of stimulus intervals. Two distinct systems are thought to be recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second intervals. Sub-second timing is subject to local sensory processing, whereas supra-second timing depends on more centralized mechanisms. To clarify the factors that influence time perception, the present study investigated how both sensory modality and timescale affect the central tendency. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to reproduce sub- or supra-second intervals, defined by visual or auditory stimuli. In the sub-second range, the magnitude of the central tendency was significantly larger for visual intervals compared to auditory intervals, while visual and auditory intervals exhibited a correlated and comparable central tendency in the supra-second range. In Experiment 2, the ability to discriminate sub-second intervals in the reproduction task was controlled across modalities by using an interval discrimination task. Even when the ability to discriminate intervals was controlled, visual intervals exhibited a larger central tendency than auditory intervals in the sub-second range. In addition, the magnitude of the central tendency for visual and auditory sub-second intervals was significantly correlated. These results suggest that a common modality-independent mechanism is responsible for the supra-second central tendency, and that both the modality-dependent and modality-independent components of the timing system contribute to the central tendency in the sub-second range.

  8. Perception Evolution Network Based on Cognition Deepening Model--Adapting to the Emergence of New Sensory Receptor.

    PubMed

    Xing, Youlu; Shen, Furao; Zhao, Jinxi

    2016-03-01

    The proposed perception evolution network (PEN) is a biologically inspired neural network model for unsupervised learning and online incremental learning. It is able to automatically learn suitable prototypes from learning data in an incremental way, and it does not require the predefined prototype number or the predefined similarity threshold. Meanwhile, being more advanced than the existing unsupervised neural network model, PEN permits the emergence of a new dimension of perception in the perception field of the network. When a new dimension of perception is introduced, PEN is able to integrate the new dimensional sensory inputs with the learned prototypes, i.e., the prototypes are mapped to a high-dimensional space, which consists of both the original dimension and the new dimension of the sensory inputs. In the experiment, artificial data and real-world data are used to test the proposed PEN, and the results show that PEN can work effectively.

  9. Role of pulp in flavor release and sensory perception in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Rega, Barbara; Fournier, Nicole; Nicklaus, Sophie; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-06-30

    This work elucidates the role of suspended solids in sensorial perception and flavor release in orange juice. The coarsest pulp (insoluble particles with a diameter of >2 microm) accounted for two major physicochemical effects in orange juice samples: it retained large amounts of aroma compounds, including terpenes and aldehydes, and modified the rheological properties of the juice matrix. These phenomena strongly affected the chemical composition of the vapor phase in the juice samples. On the other hand, orange juice cloud (finest insoluble particles with a diameter of <2 microm) also showed a strong retention effect on ethyl butanoate or hexanal, probably due to the occurrence of molecular interactions with cloud macromolecules. The amount and the size of the suspended solids critically modified not only the texture perception but also the odor and the overall flavor perception, including the "freshly squeezed" and the "artificial flavor" descriptors. The addition of a natural pulp to low-pulp juices increases the fresh orange juice character, a finding that is explained by both physicochemical (fresh pulp contains high amounts of key aroma compounds, including acetaldehyde and mono- and sesquiterpenes) and cognitive effects, mainly due to the tactile properties of the pulp.

  10. Illusions of force perception: the role of sensori-motor predictions, visual information, and motor errors.

    PubMed

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Verstynen, Timothy; Hon, Andrew; Zhang, Yi; Ivry, Richard B

    2007-05-01

    Internal predictions influence the perception of force. When we support an object with one hand and lift it up with the other, we expect the force to disappear from the first, postural hand. In a virtual reality system, we violated this prediction by maintaining the force on the postural hand, whereas the object was still seen and felt to be lifted by the lifting hand. In this situation, participants perceived an illusionary increase in force on the postural hand, which was, in reality, constant. We test three possible mechanisms of how force perception may be influenced in this context. First, we showed that part of the illusion can be linked to a sensorimotor prediction--the predicted sensory consequences based on an efference copy of the lifting action. The illusion is reduced when the object is lifted by an external force. We also showed that the illusion changes on a trial-by-trial basis, paralleling the fast adaptation of the postural response. Second, motor errors that arise from a miscalibrated forward model do not contribute to the illusion; the illusion was unchanged even when we prevented motor errors by supporting the postural hand. Finally, visual information signaling the removal of the object is sufficient to elicit part of the illusion. These results argue that both sensorimotor predictions and visual object information, but not motor errors, influence force perception.

  11. Enhanced Olfactory Sensory Perception of Threat in Anxiety: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A.; Li, Wen

    2012-01-01

    The current conceptualization of threat processing in anxiety emphasizes emotional hyper-reactivity, which mediates various debilitating symptoms and derangements in anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated olfactory sensory perception of threat as an alternative causal mechanism of anxiety. Combining an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with an olfactory discrimination task, we examined how anxiety modulates basic perception of olfactory threats at behavioral and neural levels. In spite of subthreshold presentation of negative and neutral odors, a positive systematic association emerged between negative odor discrimination accuracy and anxiety levels. In parallel, the right olfactory primary (piriform) cortex indicated augmented response to subthreshold negative (vs. neutral) odors as a function of individual differences in anxiety. Using a psychophysiological interaction analysis, we further demonstrated amplified functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and emotion-related regions (amygdala and hippocampus) in response to negative odor, particularly in anxiety. Finally, anxiety also intensified skin conductance response to negative (vs. neutral) odor, indicative of potentiated emotional arousal to subliminal olfactory threat in anxiety. Together, these findings elucidate exaggerated processing of olfactory threat in anxiety across behavioral, autonomic physiological, and neural domains. Critically, our data emphasized anxiety-related hyper-sensitivity of the primary olfactory cortex and basic olfactory perception in response to threat, highlighting neurosensory mechanisms that may underlie the deleterious symptoms of anxiety. PMID:22866182

  12. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  13. Research Forum on Changes in Sensory Perception in Middle-Aged Adults: A Summary of a Special Session at Hearing Across the Lifespan (HEAL) 2014.

    PubMed

    Humes, Larry E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the special research forum on sensory-processing changes in middle-aged adults. This is a brief written introduction to the special session, which included five presentations, each emphasizing a slightly different aspect of sensory perception. The effects of aging on sensory processing, including auditory processing and speech perception, are not confined to older adults but begin in middle age in many cases.

  14. Imposed visual feedback delay of an action changes mass perception based on the sensory prediction error.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takuya; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    While performing an action, the timing of when the sensory feedback is given can be used to establish the causal link between the action and its consequence. It has been shown that delaying the visual feedback while carrying an object makes people feel the mass of the object to be greater, suggesting that the feedback timing can also impact the perceived quality of an external object. In this study, we investigated the origin of the feedback timing information that influences the mass perception of the external object. Participants made a straight reaching movement while holding a manipulandum. The movement of the manipulandum was presented as a cursor movement on a monitor. In Experiment 1, various delays were imposed between the actual trajectory and the cursor movement. The participants' perceived mass of the manipulandum significantly increased as the delay increased to 400 ms, but this gain did not reach significance when the delay was 800 ms. This suggests the existence of a temporal tuning mechanism for incorporating the visual feedback into the perception of mass. In Experiment 2, we examined whether the increased mass perception during the visual delay was due to the prediction error of the visual consequence of an action or to the actual delay of the feedback itself. After the participants adapted to the feedback delay, the perceived mass of the object became lighter than before, indicating that updating the temporal prediction model for the visual consequence diminishes the overestimation of the object's mass. We propose that the misattribution of the visual delay into mass perception is induced by the sensorimotor prediction error, possibly when the amount of delay (error) is within the range that can reasonably include the consequence of an action.

  15. On the origin of sensory impairment and altered pain perception in Prader-Willi syndrome: a neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Priano, Lorenzo; Miscio, Giacinta; Grugni, Graziano; Milano, Eva; Baudo, Silvia; Sellitti, Luigi; Picconi, Roberto; Mauro, Alessandro

    2009-09-01

    High pain threshold is a supportive diagnosis criterion for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study we investigate sensory pathways in PWS, in order to evaluate peripheral or central involvement in altered sensory perception. 14 adult PWS patients, 10 obese non-diabetic people and 10 age-matched controls underwent: (a) motor/sensory nerve conduction velocities at the upper and lower limbs; (b) palmar/plantar sympathetic skin response; (c) somatosensory evoked potentials from upper/lower limbs; (d) quantitative sensory testing to measure sensory threshold for vibration, warm and cold sensation, heat and cold-induced pain and (e) blood sample analysis to evaluate glucose and insulin levels and to calculate the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Electroneurographic examination, sympathetic skin response and somatosensory evoked potentials were all within normal ranges. In the PWS group, thermal and pain thresholds but not vibratory were significantly higher than in healthy and obese people (p<0.05). Sensory threshold did not correlate with BMI nor with QUICKI. Our data suggest that altered perception in PWS does not seem attributable to a peripheral nerve derangement due to metabolic factors or obesity. Impairment of the small nociceptive neurons of dorsal root ganglia or involvement of hypothalamic region may not be excluded.

  16. Sensory investigation of yogurt flavor perception: mutual influence of volatiles and acidity.

    PubMed

    Ott, A; Hugi, A; Baumgartner, M; Chaintreau, A

    2000-02-01

    The sensory properties of traditional acidic and mild, less acidic yogurts were characterized by a trained panel using a descriptive approach. Many of the descriptive attributes varied almost linearly with pH, showing either a positive or negative correlation with increasing acidity. The panel was very sensitive to acidity differences, as demonstrated by the linear relationship between acidity perception and pH. Important flavor differences were found between the two classes of yogurt. They were mainly due to differences in acidity and not to different concentrations of the three impact aroma compounds, acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, and 2, 3-pentanedione. This emphasizes the importance of acidity in yogurt flavor. Deodorization and impact aroma compound addition had much less influence on yogurt flavor than pH variations.

  17. The visual perception of natural motion: abnormal task-related neural activity in DYT1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sako, Wataru; Fujita, Koji; Vo, An; Rucker, Janet C; Rizzo, John-Ross; Niethammer, Martin; Carbon, Maren; Bressman, Susan B; Uluğ, Aziz M; Eidelberg, David

    2015-12-01

    Although primary dystonia is defined by its characteristic motor manifestations, non-motor signs and symptoms have increasingly been recognized in this disorder. Recent neuroimaging studies have related the motor features of primary dystonia to connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways. It is not known, however, whether the non-motor manifestations of the disorder are associated with similar circuit abnormalities. To explore this possibility, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study primary dystonia and healthy volunteer subjects while they performed a motion perception task in which elliptical target trajectories were visually tracked on a computer screen. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of healthy subjects performing this task have revealed selective activation of motor regions during the perception of 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion (defined respectively as trajectories with kinematic properties that either comply with or violate the two-thirds power law of motion). Several regions with significant connectivity changes in primary dystonia were situated in proximity to normal motion perception pathways, suggesting that abnormalities of these circuits may also be present in this disorder. To determine whether activation responses to natural versus unnatural motion in primary dystonia differ from normal, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 10 DYT1 dystonia and 10 healthy control subjects at rest and during the perception of 'natural' and 'unnatural' motion. Both groups exhibited significant activation changes across perceptual conditions in the cerebellum, pons, and subthalamic nucleus. The two groups differed, however, in their responses to 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion in these regions. In healthy subjects, regional activation was greater during the perception of natural (versus unnatural) motion (P < 0.05). By contrast, in DYT1 dystonia subjects, activation was relatively greater

  18. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  19. A computational relationship between thalamic sensory neural responses and contrast perception.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaoguang; Purushothaman, Gopathy; Casagrande, Vivien A

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the relationship between sensory neural responses and perceptual decisions remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. Decades of experimental and modeling work in the sensory cortex have demonstrated that a perceptual decision pool is usually composed of tens to hundreds of neurons, the responses of which are significantly correlated not only with each other, but also with the behavioral choices of an animal. Few studies, however, have measured neural activity in the sensory thalamus of awake, behaving animals. Therefore, it remains unclear how many thalamic neurons are recruited and how the information from these neurons is pooled at subsequent cortical stages to form a perceptual decision. In a previous study we measured neural activity in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) during a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) contrast detection task, and found that single LGN neurons were significantly correlated with the monkeys' behavioral choices, despite their relatively poor contrast sensitivity and a lack of overall interneuronal correlations. We have now computationally tested a number of specific hypotheses relating these measured LGN neural responses to the contrast detection behavior of the animals. We modeled the perceptual decisions with different numbers of neurons and using a variety of pooling/readout strategies, and found that the most successful model consisted of about 50-200 LGN neurons, with individual neurons weighted differentially according to their signal-to-noise ratios (quantified as d-primes). These results supported the hypothesis that in contrast detection the perceptual decision pool consists of multiple thalamic neurons, and that the response fluctuations in these neurons can influence contrast perception, with the more sensitive thalamic neurons likely to exert a greater influence.

  20. Changes in sensory perception of sports drinks when consumed pre, during and post exercise.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ajmol; Duizer, Lisa; Foster, Kylie; Grigor, John; Wei, Wenqi

    2011-03-28

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory perceptions towards different formulations of sports drinks when consumed before, at various points during, and following exercise. Following familiarization 14 recreational runners underwent four trials in a single blind counterbalanced design. Each trial utilised one of four different solutions: 7.5% carbohydrate, 421 mg L(-1) electrolyte (HiC-HiE); 7.5% carbohydrate, 140 mg L(-1) electrolyte (HiC-LoE); 1.3% carbohydrate, 421 mg L(-1) electrolyte (LoC-HiE) and water. Subjects were provided with 50-ml samples to ingest and then rate (using a 100-mm line scale) the intensity of sweetness, saltiness, thirst-quenching ability and overall liking before (-30 min), during (0, 30 and 60 min) and following (90 and 120 min) treadmill running exercise. Ratings of sweetness for all energy-containing drinks were higher during exercise relative to pre- and post-exercise conditions (P<0.05); ratings also increased with duration of exercise (P<0.001). Sweetness ratings for LoC-HiE increased during exercise (P<0.05) but remained the same for other beverages. Ratings of saltiness decreased for all energy-containing drinks during exercise relative to pre-exercise (P<0.05); ratings decreased with duration of exercise in these drinks (P<0.05). Ratings of thirst-quenching ability (P=0.039) and overall liking (P=0.013) increased with duration of exercise with all beverages. Significant changes in sensory perception occur when consuming sports drinks during exercise relative to non-exercise conditions. Temporal changes also occur during exercise itself which leads to enhanced liking of all beverages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-sensory landscape assessment: the contribution of acoustic perception to landscape evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yonghong; Luo, Tao; Breitung, Werner; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Tianhai

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the contribution of visual and acoustic preference to multi-sensory landscape evaluation was quantitatively compared. The real landscapes were treated as dual-sensory ambiance and separated into visual landscape and soundscape. Both were evaluated by 63 respondents in laboratory conditions. The analysis of the relationship between respondent's visual and acoustic preference as well as their respective contribution to landscape preference showed that (1) some common attributes are universally identified in assessing visual, aural and audio-visual preference, such as naturalness or degree of human disturbance; (2) with acoustic and visual preferences as variables, a multi-variate linear regression model can satisfactorily predict landscape preference (R(2 )= 0.740), while the coefficients of determination for a unitary linear regression model were 0.345 and 0.720 for visual and acoustic preference as predicting factors, respectively; (3) acoustic preference played a much more important role in landscape evaluation than visual preference in this study (the former is about 4.5 times of the latter), which strongly suggests a rethinking of the role of soundscape in environment perception research and landscape planning practice.

  3. Peripheral optogenetic stimulation induces whisker movement and sensory perception in head-fixed mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmee; Bandi, Akhil; Lee, Christian R; Margolis, David J

    2016-01-01

    We discovered that optical stimulation of the mystacial pad in Emx1-Cre;Ai27D transgenic mice induces whisker movements due to activation of ChR2 expressed in muscles controlling retraction and protraction. Using high-speed videography in anesthetized mice, we characterize the amplitude of whisker protractions evoked by varying the intensity, duration, and frequency of optogenetic stimulation. Recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized mice indicated that optogenetic whisker pad stimulation evokes robust yet longer latency responses than mechanical whisker stimulation. In head-fixed mice trained to report optogenetic whisker pad stimulation, psychometric curves showed similar dependence on stimulus duration as evoked whisker movements and S1 activity. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of S1 in expert mice was sufficient to substitute for peripheral stimulation. We conclude that whisker protractions evoked by optogenetic activation of whisker pad muscles results in cortical activity and sensory perception, consistent with the coding of evoked whisker movements by reafferent sensory input. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14140.001 PMID:27269285

  4. Listening to music can influence hedonic and sensory perceptions of gelati.

    PubMed

    Kantono, Kevin; Hamid, Nazimah; Shepherd, Daniel; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Grazioli, Gianpaolo; Carr, B Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The dominant taste sensations of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate) were determined using forty five trained panellists exposed to a silent reference condition and three music samples differing in hedonic ratings. The temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method was used to measure temporal taste perceptions. The emotional states of panellists were measured after each gelati-music pairing using a scale specifically developed for this study. The TDS difference curves showed significant differences between gelati samples and music conditions (p < 0.05). Sweetness was perceived more dominant when neutral and liked music were played, while bitterness was more dominant for disliked music. A joint Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) further explained the variability in sensory and emotion data. The first and second dimensions explained 78% of the variance, with the first dimension separating liked and disliked music and the second dimension separating liked music and silence. Gelati samples consumed while listening to liked and neutral music had positive scores, and were separated from those consumed under the disliked music condition along the first dimension. Liked music and disliked music were further correlated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Findings indicate that listening to music influenced the hedonic and sensory impressions of the gelati.

  5. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Methods Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Results Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Conclusions Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients. PMID:27689047

  8. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold.

    PubMed

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-09-01

    Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  9. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  10. Caramel as a Model System for Evaluating the Roles of Mechanical Properties and Oral Processing on Sensory Perception of Texture.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Ty B; Luck, Paige J; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation can have a significant impact on texture perception during oral processing. We hypothesized that slight modifications to caramel formulations would significantly alter mechanical and masticatory parameters, which can be used to explain differences in texture perception. A multidisciplinary approach was applied by evaluating relationships among mechanical properties, sensory texture, and oral processing. Caramels were utilized as a highly adhesive and cohesive model system and the formulation was adjusted to generate distinct differences in sensory hardness and adhesiveness. Descriptive analysis was used to determine sensory texture, and mechanical properties were evaluated by oscillatory rheology, creep recovery, and pressure sensitive tack measurements. Oral processing was measured by determining activity of anterior temporalis and masseter muscles via electromyography and tracking jaw movement during chewing. The substitution of agar or gelatin for corn syrup at 0.6% w/w of the total formulation resulted in increased sensory hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Creep recovery and pressure sensitive tack testing were more effective at differentiating among treatments than oscillatory rheology. Hardness correlated inversely with creep compliance, and both stickiness and tooth adhesiveness correlated with pressure sensitive adhesive force. Harder samples, despite being less adhesive, were associated with increased muscle activity and jaw movement during mastication. Tooth packing, not linked with any mechanical property, correlated with altered jaw movement. The combination of material properties and oral processing parameters were able to explain all sensory texture differences in a highly adhesive food.

  11. Biomimetic MEMS to assist, enhance, and expand human sensory perceptions: a survey on state-of-the-art developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarczuk, Teresa; Matin, Tina R.; Karman, Salmah B.; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Davaji, Benyamin; Macqueen, Mark O.; Mueller, Jeanette; Schmid, Ulrich; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2011-06-01

    The human senses are of extraordinary value but we cannot change them even if this proves to be a disadvantage in modern times. However, we can assist, enhance and expand these senses via MEMS. Current MEMS cover the range of the human sensory system, and additionally provide data about signals that are too weak for the human sensory system (in terms of signal strength) and signal types that are not covered by the human sensory system. Biomimetics deals with knowledge transfer from biology to technology. In our interdisciplinary approach existing MEMS sensor designs shall be modified and adapted (to keep costs at bay), via biomimetic knowledge transfer of outstanding sensory perception in 'best practice' organisms (e.g. thermoreception, UV sensing, electromagnetic sense). The MEMS shall then be linked to the human body (mainly ex corpore to avoid ethics conflicts), to assist, enhance and expand human sensory perception. This paper gives an overview of senses in humans and animals, respective MEMS sensors that are already on the market and gives a list of possible applications of such devices including sensors that vibrate when a blind person approaches a kerb stone edge and devices that allow divers better orientation under water (echolocation, ultrasound).

  12. Abnormal bias in subjective vertical perception in a post-stroke astasia patient

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Keisuke; Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Uehara, Shintaro; Kimura, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Post-stroke astasia is an inability to stand without external support despite having sufficient muscle strength. However, the dysfunction underlying astasia is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that astasia is the result of an abnormal bias in vertical perception, especially subjective postural vertical (SPV), mediated by somatosensory inputs. [Subjects and Methods] A patient with a right posterolateral thalamus hemorrhage had a tendency to fall toward the contralesional side during standing after 8 weeks of treatment. SPV, standing duration, and physical function were evaluated before and after a 1 week standard rehabilitation baseline period, and after a 1 week intervention period, where standing training requiring the patient to control his body orientation in reference to somatosensory inputs from his ipsilateral upper limb was added. [Results] SPV was biased toward the contralesional side before and after the 1 week baseline period. However, SPV improved into the normal range and he could stand for a longer duration after the intervention period. [Conclusion] This case suggests that abnormal SPV is one of the functional mechanisms underlying astasia, and it indicates the effectiveness of standing training with somatosensory information to improve abnormal SPV and postural disorders. PMID:27821973

  13. Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Frank; Keyser, Johannes; Goeke, Caspar; Krause, Carina; Wache, Susan; Lytochkin, Aleksey; Ebert, Manuel; Brunsch, Vincent; Wahn, Basil; Kaspar, Kai; Nagel, Saskia K.; Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich; Wolbers, Thomas; Büchel, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception. In the present study, we spell out this hypothesis in detail and investigate whether it is possible to learn new sensorimotor contingencies by sensory augmentation. Specifically, we designed an fMRI compatible sensory augmentation device, the feelSpace belt, which gives orientation information about the direction of magnetic north via vibrotactile stimulation on the waist of participants. In a longitudinal study, participants trained with this belt for seven weeks in natural environment. Our EEG results indicate that training with the belt leads to changes in sleep architecture early in the training phase, compatible with the consolidation of procedural learning as well as increased sensorimotor processing and motor programming. The fMRI results suggest that training entails activity in sensory as well as higher motor centers and brain areas known to be involved in navigation. These neural changes are accompanied with changes in how space and the belt signal are perceived, as well as with increased trust in navigational ability. Thus, our data on physiological processes and subjective experiences are compatible with the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be acquired using sensory augmentation. PMID:27959914

  14. Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception.

    PubMed

    König, Sabine U; Schumann, Frank; Keyser, Johannes; Goeke, Caspar; Krause, Carina; Wache, Susan; Lytochkin, Aleksey; Ebert, Manuel; Brunsch, Vincent; Wahn, Basil; Kaspar, Kai; Nagel, Saskia K; Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich; Wolbers, Thomas; Büchel, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception. In the present study, we spell out this hypothesis in detail and investigate whether it is possible to learn new sensorimotor contingencies by sensory augmentation. Specifically, we designed an fMRI compatible sensory augmentation device, the feelSpace belt, which gives orientation information about the direction of magnetic north via vibrotactile stimulation on the waist of participants. In a longitudinal study, participants trained with this belt for seven weeks in natural environment. Our EEG results indicate that training with the belt leads to changes in sleep architecture early in the training phase, compatible with the consolidation of procedural learning as well as increased sensorimotor processing and motor programming. The fMRI results suggest that training entails activity in sensory as well as higher motor centers and brain areas known to be involved in navigation. These neural changes are accompanied with changes in how space and the belt signal are perceived, as well as with increased trust in navigational ability. Thus, our data on physiological processes and subjective experiences are compatible with the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be acquired using sensory augmentation.

  15. Association between the number of fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue and sensory taste perception in children.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Hannah; Ahrens, Wohlfgang; Buchecker, Kirsten; Russo, Paola; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Background: To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective: Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design: Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study. Among those 56 children performed a taste threshold test for bitter and taste preference tests for sweet, salty, fatty and umami. The association between the number of FP and sensory taste perception was analysed. Results: There is a tendency towards a lower number of FP in children with a higher fat preference (30 vs. 25 papillae, p=0.06). Results show no association between the number of FP and neither the bitter taste thresholds nor taste preferences for sweet, salty and umami. Conclusion: Bitter taste threshold might be independent of the number of FP, while the perception of fat was associated with the number of FP.

  16. Pain-related anxiety influences pain perception differently in men and women: a quantitative sensory test across thermal pain modalities.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Welch, Patrick G; Katz, Joel; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2013-03-01

    The sexes differ with respect to perception of experimental pain. Anxiety influences pain perception more in men than in women; however, there lacks research exploring which anxiety constructs influence pain perception differentially between men and women. Furthermore, research examining whether depression is associated with pain perception differently between the sexes remains scant. The present investigation was designed to examine how trait anxiety, pain-related anxiety constructs (ie, fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity), and depression are associated with pain perception between the sexes. A total of 95 nonclinical participants (55% women) completed measures assessing the constructs of interest and participated in quantitative sensory testing using heat and cold stimuli administered by a Medoc Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System. The findings suggest that pain-related anxiety constructs, but not trait anxiety, are associated with pain perception. Furthermore, these constructs are associated with pain intensity ratings in men and pain tolerance levels in women. This contrasts with previous research suggesting that anxiety influences pain perception mostly or uniquely in men. Depression was not systematically associated with pain perception in either sex. Systematic relationships were not identified that allow conclusions regarding how fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity may contribute to pain perception differentially in men and women; however, anxiety sensitivity was associated with increased pain tolerance, a novel finding needing further examination. The results provide directions for future research and clinical endeavors and support that fear and anxiety are important features associated with hyperalgesia in both men and women.

  17. Sensory neuron-specific sodium channel SNS is abnormally expressed in the brains of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and humans with multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Joel A.; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman; Baker, David; Newcombe, Jia; Cuzner, M. Louise; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2000-10-01

    Clinical abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) have classically been considered to be caused by demyelination and/or axonal degeneration; the possibility of molecular changes in neurons, such as the deployment of abnormal repertoires of ion channels that would alter neuronal electrogenic properties, has not been considered. Sensory Neuron-Specific sodium channel SNS displays a depolarized voltage dependence, slower activation and inactivation kinetics, and more rapid recovery from inactivation than classical "fast" sodium channels. SNS is selectively expressed in spinal sensory and trigeminal ganglion neurons within the peripheral nervous system and is not expressed within the normal brain. Here we show that sodium channel SNS mRNA and protein, which are not present within the cerebellum of control mice, are expressed within cerebellar Purkinje cells in a mouse model of MS, chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. We also demonstrate SNS mRNA and protein expression within Purkinje cells from tissue obtained postmortem from patients with MS, but not in control subjects with no neurological disease. These results demonstrate a change in sodium channel expression in neurons within the brain in an animal model of MS and in humans with MS and suggest that abnormal patterns of neuronal ion channel expression may contribute to clinical abnormalities such as ataxia in these disorders.

  18. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): somatosensory abnormalities in 1236 patients with different neuropathic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Maier, C; Baron, R; Tölle, T R; Binder, A; Birbaumer, N; Birklein, F; Gierthmühlen, J; Flor, H; Geber, C; Huge, V; Krumova, E K; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Magerl, W; Maihöfner, C; Richter, H; Rolke, R; Scherens, A; Schwarz, A; Sommer, C; Tronnier, V; Uçeyler, N; Valet, M; Wasner, G; Treede, R-D

    2010-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is accompanied by both positive and negative sensory signs. To explore the spectrum of sensory abnormalities, 1236 patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain were assessed by quantitative sensory testing (QST) following the protocol of DFNS (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain), using both thermal and mechanical nociceptive as well as non-nociceptive stimuli. Data distributions showed a systematic shift to hyperalgesia for nociceptive, and to hypoesthesia for non-nociceptive parameters. Across all parameters, 92% of the patients presented at least one abnormality. Thermosensory or mechanical hypoesthesia (up to 41%) was more frequent than hypoalgesia (up to 18% for mechanical stimuli). Mechanical hyperalgesias occurred more often (blunt pressure: 36%, pinprick: 29%) than thermal hyperalgesias (cold: 19%, heat: 24%), dynamic mechanical allodynia (20%), paradoxical heat sensations (18%) or enhanced wind-up (13%). Hyperesthesia was less than 5%. Every single sensory abnormality occurred in each neurological syndrome, but with different frequencies: thermal and mechanical hyperalgesias were most frequent in complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral nerve injury, allodynia in postherpetic neuralgia. In postherpetic neuralgia and in central pain, subgroups showed either mechanical hyperalgesia or mechanical hypoalgesia. The most frequent combinations of gain and loss were mixed thermal/mechanical loss without hyperalgesia (central pain and polyneuropathy), mixed loss with mechanical hyperalgesia in peripheral neuropathies, mechanical hyperalgesia without any loss in trigeminal neuralgia. Thus, somatosensory profiles with different combinations of loss and gain are shared across the major neuropathic pain syndromes. The characterization of underlying mechanisms will be needed to make a mechanism-based classification feasible. Copyright (c) 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain after local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal dorsal root ganglion (DRG), quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6 immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8 because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7 because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain and that some pain conditions may be mediated primarily by myelinated A fiber sensory neurons.

  20. Vibrotactile perception threshold measurements for diagnosis of sensory neuropathy. Description of a reference population.

    PubMed

    Lundström, R; Strömberg, T; Lundborg, G

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the fact that impairment of the tactile sense may occur independently of other disturbances in the vibration syndrome has rekindled an interest in developing a diagnostic method for early detection of vibration-induced neuropathy. There is also evidence suggesting that vibrotactile measurements represent a valuable diagnostic tool in compressive neuropathies, such as the carpal tunnel syndrome. The method may also become useful for diagnosing sensory neuropathies caused by other factors, such as solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, alcoholism, and diabetes. However, before vibrotactile measurement can be accepted and established as a tool for clinical diagnostic purposes, for screening, and in research, the level and the shape of the normal threshold curve have to be specified. With the purpose of assembling normative data, the vibrotactile perception thresholds (8-500 Hz) of the right index fingertip were measured in 171 healthy males (19-75 years) not exposed to vibration. A Békésy audiometer was modified to operate in combination with a vibration exciter, instead of headphones, at frequencies lower than usual (8-500 Hz). The results showed that the perception thresholds increased from about 100 dB to about 140 dB (rel. 10(-6) m/s2rms) as a function of frequency and age. The frequency-dependent changes were not linear, however, but displayed a peak in sensitivity at 125 Hz. Threshold changes due to aging were most pronounced at the highest frequencies. It is of the utmost importance that these natural changes are taken into account when making comparisons between groups or individuals.

  1. A review of abnormalities in the perception of visual illusions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel J; Hodgekins, Joanne; Chouinard, Philippe A; Chouinard, Virginie-Anne; Sperandio, Irene

    2017-06-01

    Specific abnormalities of vision in schizophrenia have been observed to affect high-level and some low-level integration mechanisms, suggesting that people with schizophrenia may experience anomalies across different stages in the visual system affecting either early or late processing or both. Here, we review the research into visual illusion perception in schizophrenia and the issues which previous research has faced. One general finding that emerged from the literature is that those with schizophrenia are mostly immune to the effects of high-level illusory displays, but this effect is not consistent across all low-level illusions. The present review suggests that this resistance is due to the weakening of top-down perceptual mechanisms and may be relevant to the understanding of symptoms of visual distortion rather than hallucinations as previously thought.

  2. Bayesian and “Anti-Bayesian” Biases in Sensory Integration for Action and Perception in the Size–Weight Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Brayanov, Jordan B.

    2010-01-01

    Which is heavier: a pound of lead or a pound of feathers? This classic trick question belies a simple but surprising truth: when lifted, the pound of lead feels heavier—a phenomenon known as the size–weight illusion. To estimate the weight of an object, our CNS combines two imperfect sources of information: a prior expectation, based on the object's appearance, and direct sensory information from lifting it. Bayes' theorem (or Bayes' law) defines the statistically optimal way to combine multiple information sources for maximally accurate estimation. Here we asked whether the mechanisms for combining these information sources produce statistically optimal weight estimates for both perceptions and actions. We first studied the ability of subjects to hold one hand steady when the other removed an object from it, under conditions in which sensory information about the object's weight sometimes conflicted with prior expectations based on its size. Since the ability to steady the supporting hand depends on the generation of a motor command that accounts for lift timing and object weight, hand motion can be used to gauge biases in weight estimation by the motor system. We found that these motor system weight estimates reflected the integration of prior expectations with real-time proprioceptive information in a Bayesian, statistically optimal fashion that discounted unexpected sensory information. This produces a motor size–weight illusion that consistently biases weight estimates toward prior expectations. In contrast, when subjects compared the weights of two objects, their perceptions defied Bayes' law, exaggerating the value of unexpected sensory information. This produces a perceptual size–weight illusion that biases weight perceptions away from prior expectations. We term this effect “anti-Bayesian” because the bias is opposite that seen in Bayesian integration. Our findings suggest that two fundamentally different strategies for the integration of prior

  3. The Facts of Sense: A Semiotics of Perception and Sensory Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents four successive perspectives on the senses. The first is on objectivism, the second is a view from sensory psychology, the third on phenomenology, and the fourth is that of sensory anthropology. (Author/VWL)

  4. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Gilbert, Jessica L; Tieman, Denise M; Odabasi, Asli Z; Moskowitz, Howard R; Folta, Kevin M; Klee, Harry J; Sims, Charles A; Whitaker, Vance M; Clark, David G

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  5. Variability of pudendal and median nerve sensory perception thresholds in healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Normative current perception thresholds (CPTs) are used for the evaluation of sensory function in a variety of diseases. To evaluate the reproducibility of CPT measurements with sinusoidal current in healthy volunteers. Neuroselective CPT evaluations of the median and pudendal nerve in healthy volunteers were repeated with 1 week interval (T1 and T2). In the study group (N = 41) no difference between genders for age (MW-U: P = 0.91) and BMI (t-test: P = 0.18) were found. No significant difference between T1 and T2 was found (Paired t-test: all P-values > 0.05), although the intraclass correlation for each person was low. The variability of measures for the pudendal nerve was: ICC 2 kHz: 0.41; 250 Hz: 0.30; 5 Hz: 0.38, and for the median nerve respectively: 0.58; 0.46; 0.40. Normal CPTs were shown for the pudendal nerve: 2 kHz: 51%; 250 Hz: 76%; 5 Hz: 71%, and median nerve respectively: 78%; 98%; 80%. The pudendal nerve showed more deviating values compared to the median nerve. Both nerves showed deviating values. CPT values with sinusoidal current assessed with 1 week interval, showed a weak intraclass correlation. This finding limits the use of CPT values with this current for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Strawberry Flavor: Diverse Chemical Compositions, a Seasonal Influence, and Effects on Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Schwieterman, Michael L.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Jaworski, Elizabeth A.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Gilbert, Jessica L.; Tieman, Denise M.; Odabasi, Asli Z.; Moskowitz, Howard R.; Folta, Kevin M.; Klee, Harry J.; Sims, Charles A.; Whitaker, Vance M.; Clark, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products. PMID:24523895

  7. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p < .001) and 250 Hz ( p = .002), respectively, were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. This study suggests that patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures may experience hypoesthesia in the injured leg, which contrasts with the finding of hyperesthesia previously observed in other chronic pain conditions but is in accord with patients with nerve injuries and surgeries. This is the first study to examine peripheral sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  8. Intact perception but abnormal orientation towards face-like objects in young children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Quentin; Rogé, Bernadette; Afzali, Mohammad H.; Baduel, Sophie; Kruck, Jeanne; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-01-01

    There is ample behavioral evidence of diminished orientation towards faces as well as the presence of face perception impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms of these deficits are still unclear. We used face-like object stimuli that have been shown to evoke pareidolia in typically developing (TD) individuals to test the effect of a global face-like configuration on orientation and perceptual processes in young children with ASD and age-matched TD controls. We show that TD children were more likely to look first towards upright face-like objects than children with ASD, showing that a global face-like configuration elicit a stronger orientation bias in TD children as compared to children with ASD. However, once they were looking at the stimuli, both groups spent more time exploring the upright face-like object, suggesting that they both perceived it as a face. Our results are in agreement with abnormal social orienting in ASD, possibly due to an abnormal tuning of the subcortical pathway, leading to poor orienting and attention towards faces. Our results also indicate that young children with ASD can perceive a generic face holistically, such as face-like objects, further demonstrating holistic processing of faces in ASD. PMID:26912096

  9. Sensory processing in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mirallave, Ana; Morales, Merche; Cabib, Christopher; Muñoz, Esteban J; Santacruz, Pilar; Gasull, Xavier; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2017-05-01

    An intriguing electrophysiological feature of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) is the delayed latency and decreased amplitude of somatosensory long-latency evoked potentials (LLeps). We investigated whether such dysfunction was associated with delayed conscious perception of the sensory stimulus. Sixteen HD patients and 16 control subjects faced a computer screen showing the Libet's clock (Libet et al., 1983). In Rest trials, subjects had to memorize the position of the clock handle at perception of either electrical or thermal stimuli (AW). In React, additionally, they were asked to make a fist with their right hand, in a simple reaction time task (SRT). LLseps were recorded from Cz in both conditions. LLeps negative peak latency (N2) and SRT were abnormally delayed in patients in all conditions. AW was only abnormally prolonged in the React condition but the time difference between AW and the negative peak of the LLeps was not different in the two groups. There was a significant negative correlation between SRT and AW or LLeps amplitude in patients but not in healthy subjects. Our HD patients did not show abnormalities in conscious perception of sensory stimuli but their LLeps abnormalities were more marked when they had to react. This is compatible with failure to detect stimulus salience rather than with a cognitive defect. HD patients at early stages of the disease have preserved subjective perception of sensation but faulty sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental visual perception deficits with no indications of prosopagnosia in a child with abnormal eye movements.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Doron, Ravid

    2017-06-01

    Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias. Here, we studied BN, a 9 y.o. boy who has normal basic-level vision, abnormal (limited) oculomotor pursuit and saccades, and shows developmental object and contour integration deficits but with no indication of prosopagnosia. Although we cannot infer causation from the data presented here, we suggest that normal pursuit and saccades could be critical for the development of contour integration and object perception. While faces and perhaps reading, when fixated upon, take up a small portion of central visual field and require only small eye movements to be properly processed, common objects typically prevail in mid-peripheral visual field and rely on longer-distance voluntary eye movements as saccades to be brought to fixation. While retinal information feeds into early visual cortex in an eccentricity orderly manner, we hypothesize that propagation of non-foveal information to mid and high-order visual cortex critically relies on circuitry involving eye movements. Limited or atypical eye movements, as in the case of BN, may hinder normal information flow to mid-eccentricity biased high-order visual cortex, adversely affecting its development and consequently inducing visual perceptual deficits predominantly for categories associated with these regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Variation of an Odorant Receptor OR7D4 and Sensory Perception of Cooked Meat Containing Androstenone

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Kathrine; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Skuterud, Ellen; Mainland, Joel D.; Lea, Tor; Hersleth, Margrethe; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Although odour perception impacts food preferences, the effect of genotypic variation of odorant receptors (ORs) on the sensory perception of food is unclear. Human OR7D4 responds to androstenone, and genotypic variation in OR7D4 predicts variation in the perception of androstenone. Since androstenone is naturally present in meat derived from male pigs, we asked whether OR7D4 genotype correlates with either the ability to detect androstenone or the evaluation of cooked pork tainted with varying levels of androstenone within the naturally-occurring range. Consistent with previous findings, subjects with two copies of the functional OR7D4 RT variant were more sensitive to androstenone than subjects carrying a non-functional OR7D4 WM variant. When pork containing varying levels of androstenone was cooked and tested by sniffing and tasting, subjects with two copies of the RT variant tended to rate the androstenone-containing meat as less favourable than subjects carrying the WM variant. Our data is consistent with the idea that OR7D4 genotype predicts the sensory perception of meat containing androstenone and that genetic variation in an odorant receptor can alter food preferences. PMID:22567099

  12. Mitochondrial abnormality in sensory, but not motor, axons in paclitaxel-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Xiao, W H; Zheng, H; Zheng, F Y; Nuydens, R; Meert, T F; Bennett, G J

    2011-12-29

    The dose-limiting side effect of the anti-neoplastic agent, paclitaxel, is a chronic distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy that produces sensory dysfunction (hypoesthesia and neuropathic pain) but little or no distal motor dysfunction. Similar peripheral neuropathies are seen with chemotherapeutics in the vinca alkaloid, platinum-complex, and proteasome inhibitor classes. Studies in rats suggest that the cause is a mitotoxic effect on axonal mitochondria. If so, then the absence of motor dysfunction may be due to mitotoxicity that affects sensory axons but spares motor axons. To investigate this, paclitaxel exposure levels in the dorsal root, ventral root, dorsal root ganglion, peripheral nerve, and spinal cord were measured, and the ultrastructure and the respiratory function of mitochondria in dorsal roots and ventral roots were compared. Sensory and motor axons in the roots and nerve had comparably low exposure to paclitaxel and exposure in the spinal cord was negligible. However, sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion had a very high and remarkably persistent (up to 10 days or more after the last injection) exposure to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel evoked a significant increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in the myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons of the dorsal root (as seen previously in the peripheral nerve) but not in the motor axons of the ventral root. Stimulated mitochondrial respiration in the dorsal root was significantly depressed in paclitaxel-treated animals examined 2-4 weeks after the last injection, whereas respiration in the ventral root was normal. We conclude that the absence of motor dysfunction in paclitaxel-evoked peripheral neuropathy may be due to the absence of a mitotoxic effect in motor neuron axons, whereas the sensory dysfunction may be due to a mitotoxic effect resulting from the primary afferent neuron's cell body being exposed to high and persistent levels of paclitaxel.

  13. Perception of Graphical Virtual Environments by Blind Users via Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Buchs, Galit; Abboud, Sami; Lavi-Rotbain, Ori; Amedi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Graphical virtual environments are currently far from accessible to blind users as their content is mostly visual. This is especially unfortunate as these environments hold great potential for this population for purposes such as safe orientation, education, and entertainment. Previous tools have increased accessibility but there is still a long way to go. Visual-to-audio Sensory-Substitution-Devices (SSDs) can increase accessibility generically by sonifying on-screen content regardless of the specific environment and offer increased accessibility without the use of expensive dedicated peripherals like electrode/vibrator arrays. Using SSDs virtually utilizes similar skills as when using them in the real world, enabling both training on the device and training on environments virtually before real-world visits. This could enable more complex, standardized and autonomous SSD training and new insights into multisensory interaction and the visually-deprived brain. However, whether congenitally blind users, who have never experienced virtual environments, will be able to use this information for successful perception and interaction within them is currently unclear.We tested this using the EyeMusic SSD, which conveys whole-scene visual information, to perform virtual tasks otherwise impossible without vision. Congenitally blind users had to navigate virtual environments and find doors, differentiate between them based on their features (Experiment1:task1) and surroundings (Experiment1:task2) and walk through them; these tasks were accomplished with a 95% and 97% success rate, respectively. We further explored the reactions of congenitally blind users during their first interaction with a more complex virtual environment than in the previous tasks-walking down a virtual street, recognizing different features of houses and trees, navigating to cross-walks, etc. Users reacted enthusiastically and reported feeling immersed within the environment. They highlighted the

  14. Perception of Graphical Virtual Environments by Blind Users via Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Buchs, Galit; Abboud, Sami; Lavi-Rotbain, Ori; Amedi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Graphical virtual environments are currently far from accessible to blind users as their content is mostly visual. This is especially unfortunate as these environments hold great potential for this population for purposes such as safe orientation, education, and entertainment. Previous tools have increased accessibility but there is still a long way to go. Visual-to-audio Sensory-Substitution-Devices (SSDs) can increase accessibility generically by sonifying on-screen content regardless of the specific environment and offer increased accessibility without the use of expensive dedicated peripherals like electrode/vibrator arrays. Using SSDs virtually utilizes similar skills as when using them in the real world, enabling both training on the device and training on environments virtually before real-world visits. This could enable more complex, standardized and autonomous SSD training and new insights into multisensory interaction and the visually-deprived brain. However, whether congenitally blind users, who have never experienced virtual environments, will be able to use this information for successful perception and interaction within them is currently unclear.We tested this using the EyeMusic SSD, which conveys whole-scene visual information, to perform virtual tasks otherwise impossible without vision. Congenitally blind users had to navigate virtual environments and find doors, differentiate between them based on their features (Experiment1:task1) and surroundings (Experiment1:task2) and walk through them; these tasks were accomplished with a 95% and 97% success rate, respectively. We further explored the reactions of congenitally blind users during their first interaction with a more complex virtual environment than in the previous tasks–walking down a virtual street, recognizing different features of houses and trees, navigating to cross-walks, etc. Users reacted enthusiastically and reported feeling immersed within the environment. They highlighted the

  15. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  16. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated.

  17. Multimodal sensory integration during sequential eating--linking chewing activity, aroma release, and aroma perception over time.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Ségolène; Blancher, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The respective effects of chewing activity, aroma release from a gelled candy, and aroma perception were investigated. Specifically, the study aimed at 1) comparing an imposed chewing and swallowing pattern (IP) and free protocol (FP) on panelists for in vivo measurements, 2) investigating carryover effects in sequential eating, and 3) studying the link between instrumental data and their perception counterpart. Chewing activity, in-nose aroma concentration, and aroma perception over time were measured by electromyography, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and time intensity, respectively. Model gel candies were flavored at 2 intensity levels (low-L and high-H). The panelists evaluated 3 sequences (H then H, H then L, and L then H) in duplicates with both IP and FP. They scored aroma intensity over time while their in-nose aroma concentrations and their chewing activity were measured. Overall, only limited advantages were found in imposing a chewing and swallowing pattern for instrumental and sensory data. In addition, the study highlighted the role of brain integration on perceived intensity and dynamics of perception, in the framework of sequential eating without rinsing. Because of the presence of adaptation phenomena, contrast effect, and potential taste and texture cross-modal interaction with aroma perception, it was concluded that dynamic in-nose concentration data provide only one part of the perception picture and therefore cannot be used alone in prediction models.

  18. The impact of facial abnormalities and their spatial position on perception of cuteness and attractiveness of infant faces

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer; Roberson, Debi

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that how “cute” an infant is perceived to be has consequences for caregiving. Infants with facial abnormalities receive lower ratings of cuteness, but relatively little is known about how different abnormalities and their location affect these aesthetic judgements. The objective of the current study was to compare the impact of different abnormalities on the perception of infant faces, while controlling for infant identity. In two experiments, adult participants gave ratings of cuteness and attractiveness in response to face images that had been edited to introduce common facial abnormalities. Stimulus faces displayed either a haemangioma (a small, benign birth mark), strabismus (an abnormal alignment of the eyes) or a cleft lip (an abnormal opening in the upper lip). In Experiment 1, haemangioma had less of a detrimental effect on ratings than the more severe abnormalities. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the position of a haemangioma on the face. We found small but robust effects of this position, with abnormalities in the top and on the left of the face receiving lower cuteness ratings. This is consistent with previous research showing that people attend more to the top of the face (particularly the eyes) and to the left hemifield. PMID:28749958

  19. A comparative study of aroma-active compounds between dark and milk chocolate: relationship to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbin; Liu, Mengya; He, Congcong; Song, Huanlu; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ye; Yang, Haiying; Su, Xiaoxia

    2015-04-01

    The most important aroma-active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. A total of 32 major aroma-active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27-729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur-containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma-active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Sensory quality of functional beverages: bitterness perception and bitter masking of olive leaf extract fortified fruit smoothies.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Peter; Braun, Nina; Schulze, Nadine; Kunz, Benno

    2010-08-01

    Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains high amounts of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of these polyphenols makes OLE a promising ingredient for functional food. OLE causes very strong bitterness perception and can therefore only be formulated in low concentrations. In this research, bitter detection and recognition thresholds of OLE-fortified fruit smoothies were determined by a trained sensory panel (n = 11). Masking of the OLE's bitter taste was investigated with addition of sodium cyclamate, sodium chloride, and sucrose by means of a standardized ranking method and a scale test. Detection (5.78 mg/100 g) and recognition thresholds (8.05 mg/100 g) of OLE polyphenols confirmed the low formulation limits when bitterness was not masked by other substances. At higher polyphenol levels of 20 mg/100 g, sodium cyclamate and sucrose were able to reduce bitter taste perception by 39.9% and 24.9%, respectively, whereas sodium chloride could not effectively mask bitterness. Practical Application: Development of functional food poses new challenges for the food industry. A major problem in this field is the high bitterness of natural polyphenol-containing extracts with potential health benefits. This research was conducted to understand the sensory impact of olive leaf extract (OLE), a novel food ingredient with very bitter taste. In product development, the data of this research can be considered for formulation limits and the general sensory quality of OLE-fortified food and beverages.

  1. Migraine is associated with altered processing of sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Harriott, Andrea M; Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-11-01

    Migraine is associated with derangements in perception of multiple sensory modalities including vision, hearing, smell, and somatosensation. Compared to people without migraine, migraineurs have lower discomfort thresholds in response to special sensory stimuli as well as to mechanical and thermal noxious stimuli. Likewise, the environmental triggers of migraine attacks, such as odors and flashing lights, highlight basal abnormalities in sensory processing and integration. These alterations in sensory processing and perception in migraineurs have been investigated via physiological studies and functional brain imaging studies. Investigations have demonstrated that migraineurs during and between migraine attacks have atypical stimulus-induced activations of brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions that participate in sensory processing. A lack of normal habituation to repetitive stimuli during the interictal state and a tendency towards development of sensitization likely contribute to migraine-related alterations in sensory processing.

  2. The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-04-01

    The use of menthol in cigarettes is actively promoted by the tobacco industry for its perceived sensory benefits, and smokers of menthol cigarettes commonly differ from nonmenthol smokers in markers of smoking behavior and addiction. In this study, we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe the relationships between sensory perception and the attitudes, preferences, and patterns of cigarette use among menthol smokers. Two unique types of menthol smoker emerged from this analysis: those who cannot tolerate the harshness and irritation associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes, and those who seek out the specific menthol flavor and associated physical sensation. Among the first segment of menthol smokers, menthol reduces negative sensory characteristics associated with smoking. This segment of smokers may include a large proportion of occasional smokers or young people, as well as smokers who have "traded down" to a less strong cigarette because of perceived harshness or negative health effects. Some established menthol smokers, on the other hand, appear to be tolerant of and even actively seek stronger sensory attributes, including higher menthol levels. Smokers of these "stronger" menthols have traditionally been disproportionately Black and male. Some beginning or occasional smokers may adopt menthols for their mild properties and to cover up the taste of tobacco, but then develop a stronger desire for the menthol taste over time. Future research measuring smoking behavior and evaluating cessation outcomes of menthol smokers should consider the duration of menthol use and differentiate smokers according to their reasons for using menthols.

  3. Effects of foot and ankle devices on balance, gait and falls in adults with sensory perception loss: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Joanne; Hatton, Anna L.; Rome, Keith; Kent, Bridie

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. Objectives The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. Inclusion criteria Types of participants Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest The current review evaluated any foot or ankle device, including but not restricted to, all types of footwear (therapeutic and retail), insoles (customized and prefabricated) and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). Types of studies In the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT), the review considered experimental and epidemiological study designs, except case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies. Outcomes The primary outcome was number of falls. Secondary outcome measures were clinical or laboratory measures of balance or gait. Search strategy A search for published and unpublished literature from inception to March 2015 written in the English language was conducted across a number of major electronic databases. A three-step search strategy was developed using MeSH terminology and keywords to ensure all that relevant materials are captured. Methodological quality Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two reviewers, who appraised each study independently, using standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. Data extraction Quantitative data were extracted from the studies that were identified as meeting the criteria for methodological quality using the standardized JBI data extraction tools. Data synthesis Due to the heterogeneity of

  4. Effects of foot and ankle devices on balance, gait and falls in adults with sensory perception loss: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paton, Joanne; Hatton, Anna L; Rome, Keith; Kent, Bridie

    2016-12-01

    Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss. The current review evaluated any foot or ankle device, including but not restricted to, all types of footwear (therapeutic and retail), insoles (customized and prefabricated) and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). In the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT), the review considered experimental and epidemiological study designs, except case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies. The primary outcome was number of falls. Secondary outcome measures were clinical or laboratory measures of balance or gait. A search for published and unpublished literature from inception to March 2015 written in the English language was conducted across a number of major electronic databases. A three-step search strategy was developed using MeSH terminology and keywords to ensure all that relevant materials are captured. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two reviewers, who appraised each study independently, using standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. Quantitative data were extracted from the studies that were identified as meeting the criteria for methodological quality using the standardized JBI data extraction tools. Due to the heterogeneity of populations, interventions and outcome measures, meta-analyses were not possible and results are presented in narrative form. Nine trials (from 10 papers) involving 238 participants, (14 with multiple sclerosis and 16 with

  5. Indigenous and traditional plants: South African parents' knowledge, perceptions and uses and their children's sensory acceptance.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven, Marinka; Osei, Jennifer; Greeff, Minrie; Kruger, Annamarie; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2013-11-25

    The dietary shift from indigenous and traditional plants (ITPs) to cash crops and exotic plant food sources increases the risk of malnutrition and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, especially in poor rural communities. Farm communities in South Africa have been associated with poor nutritional status and extreme poverty. ITPs have been found to be affordable sources of several micronutrients. However, knowledge of and the use of these plants are declining, and little is known about the child's acceptance of dishes prepared with ITPs. This knowledge can be used to improve the general acceptance of ITPs. This study aimed to gain insight into parents' knowledge and perceptions and their use of ITPs in a farming community in the North West Province and to assess children's acceptance of and preference for dishes made with African leafy vegetables (ALVs) and Swiss chard. Parents (n = 29) responsible for food preparation for children in grade 2 to 4 in two schools were purposively selected for four focus group discussions. A sensory evaluation assessed the children's (n = 98) acceptance of, preference for and intended consumption of dishes made with leafy vegetables. The dishes were made of Amaranthus spp., Cleome gynandra, Cucurbita maxima, Vigna unguiculata and Beta vulgaris. Parents mentioned 30 edible ITPs during the focus group discussions. Parents had knowledge of available ITPs and their use as food. Location, seasonal variation and rainfall affected the availability of and access to ITPs. Sun-dried ITPs were stored in sacks for later use. ITPs were perceived as healthy, affordable and delicious, hence acceptable to the parents. The children also evaluated the dishes made with ALVs as acceptable in terms of colour, smell and taste. Swiss chard was preferred, most likely because of the children's exposure to this vegetable. Children indicated that they would like to eat these leafy vegetables twice a week. These results look promising for

  6. The role of starch and saliva in tribology studies and the sensory perception of protein-added yogurts.

    PubMed

    Morell, Pere; Chen, Jianshe; Fiszman, Susana

    2017-02-22

    Increasing the protein content of yogurts would be a good strategy for enhancing their satiating ability. However, the addition of protein can affect product palatability, contributing astringency or an inhomogeneous texture. Increasingly, studies mimicking oral tribology and oral lubrication have been attracting interest among food researchers because of their link with oral texture sensations. In the present study, four double-protein stirred yogurts were prepared by adding extra skimmed milk powder (MP) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) and by adding a physically modified starch to each (samples MPS and WPCS, respectively) to increase the consistency of the yogurts. The lubricating properties of the four yogurts were examined by tribological methods with the aim of relating these properties to the sensory perception described by flash profiling. Samples were also analysed after mixing with saliva. The tribology results clearly showed that addition of starch reduced the friction coefficient values regardless of the type of protein. Saliva addition produced a further decrease in the friction coefficient values in all the samples. Consequently, adding saliva is recommended when performing tribology measurements of foods in order to give a more realistic picture. The sensory results confirmed that the addition of starch reduced the astringent sensation, especially in sample WPC, while the MP and MPS samples were creamier and smoother. On the other hand, the astringency of sample WPC was not explained by the tribology results. Since this sample was described as "grainy", "gritty", "rough", "acid" and "sour", further studies are necessary to investigate the role of the number, size, shape and distribution of particles in yogurt samples, their role in astringency perception and their interaction with the perception of the tastes mentioned. Oral tribology has shown itself to be an in vitro technique that may aid a better understanding of the dynamics of in

  7. Effects of Flavor and Texture on the Sensory Perception of Gouda-Type Cheese Varieties during Ripening Using Multivariate Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Makoto; Iwasawa, Ai; Suzuki-Iwashima, Ai; Iida, Fumiko

    2015-12-01

    The impact of flavor composition, texture, and other factors on desirability of different commercial sources of Gouda-type cheese using multivariate analyses on the basis of sensory and instrumental analyses were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and steam distillation extraction (SDE)-GC/MS, and fatty acid composition, low-molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, and organic acids, as well pH, texture, and color were measured to determine their relationship with sensory perception. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed to discriminate between 2 different ripening periods in 7 sample sets, revealing that ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid increased with increasing sensory attribute scores for sweetness, fruity, and sulfurous. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was constructed to predict the desirability of cheese using these parameters. We showed that texture and buttery flavors are important factors affecting the desirability of Gouda-type cheeses for Japanese consumers using these multivariate analyses. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The perceptions of force and of movement in a man without large myelinated sensory afferents below the neck.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, J D; Sedgwick, E M

    1992-01-01

    1. Motor memory and the sense of effort have been investigated in a man with a complete large fibre sensory neuropathy for over 16 years. The perceptions of pain, heat, cold and muscular fatigue remained but he was without perceptions of light touch and proprioception below the neck. 2. The subject was able to discriminate weights held in the hand with an accuracy only slightly worse than control subjects (20 g in 200 g) when forearm movement and visual inspection were allowed. With eyes shut however he could only distinguish a weight of 200 g from 400 g. It is concluded that a crude sense of effort remains which may have a peripheral origin. 3. A limited motor memory was also present, which allowed him to maintain a posture or continue a simple repetitive movement. No novel movement was possible without visual feedback. 4. Differences in movement ability between this subject and others with similar if less pure sensory neuropathies are ascribed to rehabilitation. PMID:1522522

  9. Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Ammann, Claudia; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Ruffini, Giulio; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2016-01-21

    The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. Although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for "closing the loop" is now becoming a major research theme. While intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. In the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. More specifically, we determined the effects of tACS on sensory local field potentials (LFPs) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. We demonstrated that tACS of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm.

  10. The Role of Sensory Perception, Emotionality and Lifeworld in Auditory Word Processing: Evidence from Congenital Blindness and Synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Judith; Domahs, Frank; Kauschke, Christina

    2017-06-22

    Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the processing of nouns during an auditory lexical decision task. Participants came from three populations differing in their visual-perceptual experience: congenitally blind persons, word-color synesthetes, and sighted non-synesthetes. Specifically, three features with potential relevance to concreteness were manipulated: sensory perception, emotionality, and Husserlian lifeworld, a concept related to the inner versus the outer world of the self. In addition to a classical concreteness effect, our results revealed a significant effect of lifeworld: words that are closely linked to the internal states of humans were processed faster than words referring to the outside world. When lifeworld was introduced as predictor, there was no effect of emotionality. Concerning participants' perceptual experience, an interaction between participant group and item characteristics was found: the effects of both concreteness and lifeworld were more pronounced for blind compared to sighted participants. We will discuss the results in the context of embodied semantics, and we will propose an approach to concreteness based on the individual's bodily experience and the relatedness of a given concept to the self.

  11. Linguistic asymmetry, egocentric anchoring, and sensory modality as factors for the observed association between time and space perception.

    PubMed

    Choy, Eunice E Hang; Cheung, Him

    2017-05-17

    Temporal and spatial representations have been consistently shown to be inextricably intertwined. However, the exact nature of time-space mapping remains unknown. On the one hand, the conceptual metaphor theory postulates unilateral, asymmetric mapping of time onto space, that is, time is perceived in spatial terms but the perception of space is relatively independent of time. On the other hand, a theory of magnitude assumes bilateral and symmetric interactions between temporal and spatial perceptions. In the present paper, we argue that the concepts of linguistic asymmetry, egocentric anchoring, and sensory modality provide potential explanations for why evidences favoring both asymmetry and symmetry have been obtained. We first examine the asymmetry model and suggest that language plays a critical role in it. Next, we discuss the symmetry model in relation to egocentric anchoring and sensory modality. We conclude that since these three factors may jointly account for some conflicting past results regarding the strength and directionality of time-space mapping, they should be taken into serious consideration in future test designs.

  12. Changes in sensory and pain perception thresholds after linear polarized near-infrared light radiation in the trigeminal region.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Koji; Watanabe, Naoshi; Higashinaka, Shuichi; Maeda, Sho; Shiba, Ryosuke

    2005-07-01

    Linearly polarized light in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum has recently been associated with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders including temporomandibular disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term linearly polarized near-infrared light radiation in the trigeminal region affects sensory and pain perception thresholds in the trigeminally mediated region and in the cervically mediated region of normal subjects. Thirty-five normal female volunteers participated in this study. Each subject received an 8-minute course of irradiation in the right cheek, and sensory/nociceptive perception thresholds were compared before and immediately after the irradiation in the right cheek and the right forearm. As a result, this study demonstrated a significant elevation of the heat-induced pain threshold in both regions and a tendency for the warm sensation threshold to elevate in the cervical region. In addition, a significant increase in vibratory sensitivity was observed in the trigeminal region. In conclusion, our results provided additional evidence that the warming sensation has a negative feedback influence on heat pain intensity in humans, and provides a theoretical basis for the application of linear polarized near-infrared light radiation to the trigeminal region.

  13. Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Ammann, Claudia; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Ruffini, Giulio; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. Although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for “closing the loop” is now becoming a major research theme. While intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. In the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. More specifically, we determined the effects of tACS on sensory local field potentials (LFPs) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. We demonstrated that tACS of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm. PMID:26790614

  14. Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers. © 2013.

  15. Predicting consumer liking and preference based on emotional responses and sensory perception: A study with basic taste solutions.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shilpa S; Chapko, Matthew J; Seo, Han-Seok

    2017-10-01

    Traditional methods of sensory testing focus on capturing information about multisensory perceptions, but do not necessarily measure emotions elicited by these food and beverages. The objective of this study was to develop an optimum model of predicting overall liking (rating) and preference (choice) based on taste intensity and evoked emotions. One hundred and two participants (51 females) were asked to taste water, sucrose, citric acid, salt, and caffeine solutions. Their emotional responses toward each sample were measured by a combination of a self-reported emotion questionnaire (EsSense25), facial expressions, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. In addition, their perceived intensity and overall liking were measured. After a break, participants re-tasted the samples and ranked them according to their preference. The results showed that emotional responses measured using self-reported emotion questionnaire and facial expression analysis along with perceived taste intensity performed best to predict overall liking as well as preference, while ANS measures showed limited contribution. Contrary to some previous research, this study demonstrated that not only negative emotions, but also positive ones could help predict consumer liking and preference. In addition, since there were subtle differences in the prediction models of overall liking and preference, both aspects should be taken into account to understand consumer behavior. In conclusion, combination of evoked emotions along with sensory perception could help better understand consumer acceptance as well as preference toward basic taste solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Reproductive experience modified dendritic spines on cortical pyramidal neurons to enhance sensory perception and spatial learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeng-Rung; Lim, Seh Hong; Chung, Sin-Cun; Lee, Yee-Fun; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat’s sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task. By intracellular dye injection and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction, the dendritic arbors and spines of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were revealed for closer analysis. The results showed that motherhood and reproductive experience increased dendritic spines but not arbors or the lengths of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, lactating rats had a higher incidence of spines than pregnant or primiparous rats. The increase of dendritic spines was coupled with increased expression of the glutamatergic postsynaptic marker protein (PSD-95), especially in lactating rats. On the basis of the present results, it is concluded that motherhood enhanced rat sensory perception and spatial memory and was accompanied by increases in dendritic spines on output neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampus. The effect was sustained for at least 6 weeks after the weaning of the pups. PMID:27784858

  17. Reproductive experience modified dendritic spines on cortical pyramidal neurons to enhance sensory perception and spatial learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeng-Rung; Lim, Seh Hong; Chung, Sin-Cun; Lee, Yee-Fun; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan

    2017-01-27

    Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task. By intracellular dye injection and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction, the dendritic arbors and spines of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were revealed for closer analysis. The results showed that motherhood and reproductive experience increased dendritic spines but not arbors or the lengths of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, lactating rats had a higher incidence of spines than pregnant or primiparous rats. The increase of dendritic spines was coupled with increased expression of the glutamatergic postsynaptic marker protein (PSD-95), especially in lactating rats. On the basis of the present results, it is concluded that motherhood enhanced rat sensory perception and spatial memory and was accompanied by increases in dendritic spines on output neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampus. The effect was sustained for at least 6 weeks after the weaning of the pups.

  18. Brain processes during the perception of sensory signals in men with high and low output α-frequencies.

    PubMed

    Morenko, Alevtyna

    2014-10-01

    Human functional capabilities largely depend upon genetic qualities of person's nervous system. The registration of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) is among the physiological technigues allowing making a direct estimation of specific features of the nervous system, in particular, the human brain activity. The study is devoted to the investigation of brain processes in men with high and low levels of individual α-frequency determined in a quiescent state during the perception of sensory signals. A test group consisting of 104 right-hand healthy men from the ages of 19 to 21 was divided into two groups according to the magnitude of their individual α- frequency (IAF) median - groups with high (n = 53, IA ≥ 10,04 Hz) and low (n = 51, IAF≤10,03 Hz) levels of IAF. The power and coherence of the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex as well as inter group differences were evaluated in a quiescent state and during the perception of sensory signals by Subjects. A localized power increase of the EEG α1-waves are registered in frontal areas, β1, β2- oscillations - in the anterior cortex, γ- activity - around the scalp and its decrease is present in the posterior temporal, parietal and occipital cortex leads, especially in the α- and β- frequency spectrum during the perception of sensory signals in men with a high IAF. The generalized depression of the θ-, α- and β- activity of the cortex is fixed in individuals with a low IAF while the expression of γ- waves is more local. The generalized increase of data in EEG coherence fluctuations throughout the frequency spectrum of the EEG in the cortex is set in all Subjects. The dextrocerebral preponderance is observable in posterior structures of the Subjects' right hemisphere. A localized decrease of the coherence concerning θ-, α1-, α3-, β- and γ- oscillations are traced in the frontal and anterior temporal areas of the left hemisphere. We are of the opinion that the establishment of such

  19. Smokers' sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a light/low tar cigarette and perceptions of harm.

    PubMed

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Quah, Anne C K; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    The sensory belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are smoother can also influence the belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are less harmful. However, the 'light' concept is one of several factors influencing beliefs. No studies have examined the impact of the sensory belief about one's own brand of cigarettes on perceptions of harm. The current study examines whether a smoker's sensory belief that their brand is smoother is associated with the belief that their brand is less harmful and whether sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a 'light/low tar' cigarette and relative perceptions of harm among smokers in China. Data are from 5209 smokers who were recruited using a stratified multistage sampling design and participated in Wave 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers and non-smokers in seven cities. Smokers who agreed that their brand of cigarettes was smoother were significantly more likely to say that their brand of cigarettes was less harmful (p<0.001, OR=6.86, 95% CI 5.64 to 8.33). Mediational analyses using the bootstrapping procedure indicated that both the direct effect of 'light/low tar' cigarette smokers on the belief that their cigarettes are less harmful (b=0.24, bootstrapped bias corrected 95% CI 0.13 to 0.34, p<0.001) and the indirect effect via their belief that their cigarettes are smoother were significant (b=0.32, bootstrapped bias-corrected 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37, p<0.001), suggesting that the mediation was partial. These results demonstrate the importance of implementing tobacco control policies that address the impact that cigarette design and marketing can have in capitalising on the smoker's natural associations between smoother sensations and lowered perceptions of harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Influence of phenolic compounds on the sensorial perception and volatility of red wine esters in model solution: an insight at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Lorrain, Bénédicte; Tempere, Sophie; Iturmendi, Nerea; Moine, Virginie; de Revel, Gilles; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    Impact of (+)-catechin and gallic acid on sensory perception and volatility of isoamyl acetate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl butyrate and ethyl octanoate was investigated in model solutions, by means of triangle tests, detection threshold determination and HS-GC-MS analyses. Catechin significantly altered the sensory perception of most esters (ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl butyrate and ethyl octanoate) while gallic acid displayed no impact. Ethyl butyrate and ethyl octanoate odour thresholds doubled or tripled in the presence of catechin, underlining a retention impact of phenolic compounds in liquid matrix. The headspace analyses displayed a decrease only in ethyl octanoate volatility in presence of catechin, whereas no significant difference in other esters concentrations was observed. This study indicated that phenolic compounds have a variable impact on aroma compounds' volatility and their sensory perception. The polarity of phenolic and volatile compounds as well as their spatial conformation also appeared to influence the interaction strength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic inactivation and pharmacological blockade of sigma-1 receptors prevent paclitaxel-induced sensory-nerve mitochondrial abnormalities and neuropathic pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel, a widely-used antineoplastic drug, produces a painful peripheral neuropathy that in rodents is associated with peripheral-nerve mitochondrial alterations. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) is a ligand-regulated molecular chaperone involved in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and pain hypersensitivity. This receptor plays a key role in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, but it is not known whether it also modulates mitochondrial abnormalities. In this study, we used a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain to test the involvement of the σ1R in the mitochondrial abnormalities associated with paclitaxel, by using genetic (σ1R knockout mice) and pharmacological (σ1R antagonist) approaches. Results Paclitaxel administration to wild-type (WT) mice produced cold- and mechanical-allodynia, and an increase in the frequency of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in myelinated A-fibers, but not in C-fibers, of the saphenous nerve. Behavioral and mitochondrial alterations were marked at 10 days after paclitaxel-administration and had resolved at day 28. In contrast, paclitaxel treatment did not induce allodynia or mitochondrial abnormalities in σ1R knockout mice. Moreover, the prophylactic treatment of WT mice with BD-1063 also prevented the neuropathic pain and mitochondrial abnormalities induced by paclitaxel. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of the σ1R is necessary for development of the sensory nerve mitochondrial damage and neuropathic pain produced by paclitaxel. Therefore, σ1R antagonists might have therapeutic value for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. PMID:24517272

  2. [Survey of sensory perception and patients' subjective assessment of the application of nasal sprays - the nasal-spray-sensoric-scale].

    PubMed

    Mösges, Ralph; Pasch, N; Sayar, A; Schmalz, P; Vent, J

    2009-09-01

    The Nasal Spray Evaluation Questionnaire is a standardized means to evaluate hedonicity of nasal sprays in the English speaking countries. To date, there is no such questionnaire for German speaking patients. The here presented study aimed at evaluating the translated questionnaire. Three nasal sprays were tested and the questionnaire was used to estimate sensory hedonicity. Finally, the questionnaire was improved and can now serve as a standardized means to measure nasal sensory perceptions. The questionnaire was literally translated from English to German. There were three groups of 60 patients each presenting with the sensation of a 'dry nose' to a secondary medical center with a board certified otolaryngologist. The ingredients of the three different nasal sprays varied only in one phytotherapeutic addition. The first evaluation of the nasal spray was conducted immediately after application of the nasal spray, and two minutes after application. A third and optional telephone survey was performed several days later after continuous use of the spray. The different evaluations of nasal sprays were already lined out after the first questionnaire. It could serve as a new, reliable and reproduceable tool for the evaluation of nasal sensory perceptions. The questionnaire served as an adequate tool to estimate hedonicity of nasal sprays. First results of the German version show, however, that it could facilitate the evaluation by restructuring the questionnaire. Continuously marking good grades with high points (maximum 100) and negative answers with low points (minimum 0 points) will unify and simplify the questionnaire. The translation of the Nasal Spray Evaluation Questionnaire into a German version can serve as a new standard tool for measuring nasal sensation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  3. The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on conscious perception of sensory inputs from hand palm and dorsum.

    PubMed

    Westgeest, Annette; Morales, Merche; Cabib, Christopher; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Conscious perception of sensory signals depends in part on stimulus salience, relevance and topography. Letting aside differences at skin receptor level and afferent fibres, it is the CNS that makes a contextual selection of relevant sensory inputs. We hypothesized that subjective awareness (AW) of the time at which a sensory stimulus is perceived, a cortical function, may be differently modified by cortical stimulation, according to site and type of the stimulus. In 24 healthy volunteers, we examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the assessment of AW to heat pain or weak electrical stimuli applied to either the hand palm or dorsum. We also recorded the vertex-evoked potentials to the same stimuli. The assessment was done before, during and after cathodal or anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex contralateral to the hand receiving the stimuli. At baseline, AW to thermal stimuli was significantly longer for palm than for dorsum (P < 0.01), while no differences between stimulation sites were observed for the electrical stimuli. Both cathodal and anodal tDCS caused a significant shortening of AW to thermal stimuli in the palm but not in the dorsum, and no effects on AW to electrical stimuli. Longer AW in the palm than in the dorsum may be attributable to differences in skin thickness. However, the selectivity of the effects of tDCS on AW to thermal stimulation of the glabrous skin reflects the specificity of CNS processing for site and type of sensory inputs. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Patterns of visual sensory and sensorimotor abnormalities in autism vary in relation to history of early language delay.

    PubMed

    Takarae, Yukari; Luna, Beatriz; Minshew, Nancy J; Sweeney, John A

    2008-11-01

    Visual motion perception and pursuit eye movement deficits have been reported in autism. However, it is unclear whether these impairments are related to each other or to clinical symptoms of the disorder. High-functioning individuals with autism (41 with and 36 without delayed language acquisition) and 46 control subjects participated in the present study. All three subject groups were matched on chronological age and Full-Scale IQ. The autism group with delayed language acquisition had bilateral impairments on visual motion discrimination tasks, whereas the autism group without delay showed marginal impairments only in the left hemifield. Both autism groups showed difficulty tracking visual targets, but only the autism group without delayed language acquisition showed increased pursuit latencies and a failure to show the typical rightward directional advantage in pursuit. We observed correlations between performance on the visual perception and pursuit tasks in both autism groups. However, pursuit performance was correlated with manual motor skills only in the autism group with delayed language, suggesting that general sensorimotor or motor disturbances are a significant additional factor related to pursuit deficits in this subgroup. These findings suggest that there may be distinct neurocognitive phenotypes in autism associated with patterns of early language development.

  5. Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Pain Thresholds and Sensory Perceptions in Chronic Pain Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shihab U; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lucy; St Hillary, Kristin; Cohen, Abigail; Vo, Trang; Houghton, Mary; Mao, Jianren

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been in clinical use for nearly four decades. In earliest observations, researchers found a significant increase in pain threshold during SCS therapy without changes associated with touch, position, and vibration sensation. Subsequent studies yielded diverse results regarding how SCS impacts pain and other sensory thresholds. This pilot study uses quantitative sensory testing (QST) to objectively quantify the impact of SCS on warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance. Nineteen subjects with an indwelling SCS device for chronic pain were subjected to QST with heat stimuli. QST was performed on an area of pain covered with SCS-induced paresthesia and an area without pain and without paresthesia, while the SCS was turned off and on. The temperature at which the patient detected warm sensation, heat pain, and maximal tolerable heat pain was used to define the thresholds. We found that all three parameters, the detection of warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance, were increased during the period when SCS was on compared with when it was off. This increase was observed in both painful and non-painful sites. The observed pain relief during SCS therapy seems to be related to its impact on increased sensory threshold as detected in this study. The increased sensory threshold on areas without pain and without the presence of SCS coverage may indicate a central (spinal and/or supra-spinal) influence from SCS. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  6. The Machine behind the Stage: A Neurobiological Approach toward Theoretical Issues of Sensory Perception.

    PubMed

    Moutoussis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to try and give a brief, scientific perspective on several issues raised in the Philosophy of Perception literature. This perspective gives a central role to the brain mechanisms that underlie perception: a percept is something that emerges when the brain is activated in a certain way and thus all perceptual experiences (whether veridical, illusory, or hallucinatory) have a common cause behind them, namely a given brain-activation pattern. What distinguishes between different cases of perception is what has caused this activation pattern, i.e., something very separate and very different from the perceptual experience itself. It is argued that separating the perceptual event from its hypothetical content, a direct consequence of the way everyday language is structured, creates unnecessary ontological complications regarding the nature of the hypothetical 'object' of perception. A clear distinction between the physical properties of the real world on the one hand (e.g., wavelength reflectance), and the psychological properties of perceptual experiences on the other (e.g., color) is clearly made. Finally, although perception is a way of acquiring knowledge/information about the world, this acquisition should be considered as a cognitive process which is separate to and follows perception. Therefore, the latter should remain neutral with respect to the 'correctness' or 'truth' of the knowledge acquired.

  7. The Machine behind the Stage: A Neurobiological Approach toward Theoretical Issues of Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Moutoussis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to try and give a brief, scientific perspective on several issues raised in the Philosophy of Perception literature. This perspective gives a central role to the brain mechanisms that underlie perception: a percept is something that emerges when the brain is activated in a certain way and thus all perceptual experiences (whether veridical, illusory, or hallucinatory) have a common cause behind them, namely a given brain-activation pattern. What distinguishes between different cases of perception is what has caused this activation pattern, i.e., something very separate and very different from the perceptual experience itself. It is argued that separating the perceptual event from its hypothetical content, a direct consequence of the way everyday language is structured, creates unnecessary ontological complications regarding the nature of the hypothetical ‘object’ of perception. A clear distinction between the physical properties of the real world on the one hand (e.g., wavelength reflectance), and the psychological properties of perceptual experiences on the other (e.g., color) is clearly made. Finally, although perception is a way of acquiring knowledge/information about the world, this acquisition should be considered as a cognitive process which is separate to and follows perception. Therefore, the latter should remain neutral with respect to the ‘correctness’ or ‘truth’ of the knowledge acquired. PMID:27679587

  8. Perception of olive oils sensory defects using a potentiometric taste device.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Ana C A; Silva, Lucas M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Rebello, Ligia P G; Dias, Luís G; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2018-01-01

    The capability of perceiving olive oils sensory defects and intensities plays a key role on olive oils quality grade classification since olive oils can only be classified as extra-virgin if no defect can be perceived by a human trained sensory panel. Otherwise, olive oils may be classified as virgin or lampante depending on the median intensity of the defect predominantly perceived and on the physicochemical levels. However, sensory analysis is time-consuming and requires an official sensory panel, which can only evaluate a low number of samples per day. In this work, the potential use of an electronic tongue as a taste sensor device to identify the defect predominantly perceived in olive oils was evaluated. The potentiometric profiles recorded showed that intra- and inter-day signal drifts could be neglected (i.e., relative standard deviations lower than 25%), being not statistically significant the effect of the analysis day on the overall recorded E-tongue sensor fingerprints (P-value = 0.5715, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test), which significantly differ according to the olive oils' sensory defect (P-value = 0.0084, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test). Thus, a linear discriminant model based on 19 potentiometric signal sensors, selected by the simulated annealing algorithm, could be established to correctly predict the olive oil main sensory defect (fusty, rancid, wet-wood or winey-vinegary) with average sensitivity of 75 ± 3% and specificity of 73 ± 4% (repeated K-fold cross-validation variant: 4 folds×10 repeats). Similarly, a linear discriminant model, based on 24 selected sensors, correctly classified 92 ± 3% of the olive oils as virgin or lampante, being an average specificity of 93 ± 3% achieved. The overall satisfactory predictive performances strengthen the feasibility of the developed taste sensor device as a complementary methodology for olive oils' defects analysis and subsequent

  9. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A.; Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD. PMID:27560378

  10. Auditory distance perception in humans: a review of cues, development, neuronal bases, and effects of sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Moore, Brian C J; Zahorik, Pavel; Cirstea, Silvia; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-02-01

    Auditory distance perception plays a major role in spatial awareness, enabling location of objects and avoidance of obstacles in the environment. However, it remains under-researched relative to studies of the directional aspect of sound localization. This review focuses on the following four aspects of auditory distance perception: cue processing, development, consequences of visual and auditory loss, and neurological bases. The several auditory distance cues vary in their effective ranges in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. The primary cues are sound level, reverberation, and frequency. Nonperceptual factors, including the importance of the auditory event to the listener, also can affect perceived distance. Basic internal representations of auditory distance emerge at approximately 6 months of age in humans. Although visual information plays an important role in calibrating auditory space, sensorimotor contingencies can be used for calibration when vision is unavailable. Blind individuals often manifest supranormal abilities to judge relative distance but show a deficit in absolute distance judgments. Following hearing loss, the use of auditory level as a distance cue remains robust, while the reverberation cue becomes less effective. Previous studies have not found evidence that hearing-aid processing affects perceived auditory distance. Studies investigating the brain areas involved in processing different acoustic distance cues are described. Finally, suggestions are given for further research on auditory distance perception, including broader investigation of how background noise and multiple sound sources affect perceived auditory distance for those with sensory loss.

  11. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A; Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Schwartz, Richard G; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD.

  12. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  13. Sensory perception of meat from entire male pigs processed by different heating methods.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Irene; Garrido, Ma Dolores; Egea, Macarena; Díaz, Pedro; Álvarez, Daniel; Oliver, Ma Angeles; Linares, Ma Belén

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of androstenone in pork from entire male pigs with different androstenone levels (High≥2mgkg(-1); Medium 0.5-0.7mgkg(-1)) applying four different heating methods (vacuum, grill, oven and frying). Androstenone (AND) perception was analysed during and after cooking by a trained panel. During cooking, the highest score for AND odour (greatest perception) was obtained with the grill and vacuum, while frying was the best option for reducing its perception, which was judged to be imperceptible for androstenone medium level (P<0.05). In cooked samples, there were level, heating method and its interaction effects for AND odour and flavour, meat flavour, juiciness and hardness (P<0.05). The samples treated by vacuum and frying had a proper texture profile. However the frying method provided the lowest score in AND perception, making it the best option for reducing both AND odour and flavour. In short, the use of different heating methods strongly affected AND perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Large-scale imaging of cortical dynamics during sensory perception and behavior.

    PubMed

    Wekselblatt, Joseph B; Flister, Erik D; Piscopo, Denise M; Niell, Cristopher M

    2016-06-01

    Sensory-driven behaviors engage a cascade of cortical regions to process sensory input and generate motor output. To investigate the temporal dynamics of neural activity at this global scale, we have improved and integrated tools to perform functional imaging across large areas of cortex using a transgenic mouse expressing the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP6s, together with a head-fixed visual discrimination behavior. This technique allows imaging of activity across the dorsal surface of cortex, with spatial resolution adequate to detect differential activity in local regions at least as small as 100 μm. Imaging during an orientation discrimination task reveals a progression of activity in different cortical regions associated with different phases of the task. After cortex-wide patterns of activity are determined, we demonstrate the ability to select a region that displayed conspicuous responses for two-photon microscopy and find that activity in populations of individual neurons in that region correlates with locomotion in trained mice. We expect that this paradigm will be a useful probe of information flow and network processing in brain-wide circuits involved in many sensory and cognitive processes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Accumulation of Inertial Sensory Information in the Perception of Whole Body Yaw Rotation.

    PubMed

    Nesti, Alessandro; de Winkel, Ksander; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2017-01-01

    While moving through the environment, our central nervous system accumulates sensory information over time to provide an estimate of our self-motion, allowing for completing crucial tasks such as maintaining balance. However, little is known on how the duration of the motion stimuli influences our performances in a self-motion discrimination task. Here we study the human ability to discriminate intensities of sinusoidal (0.5 Hz) self-rotations around the vertical axis (yaw) for four different stimulus durations (1, 2, 3 and 5 s) in darkness. In a typical trial, participants experienced two consecutive rotations of equal duration and different peak amplitude, and reported the one perceived as stronger. For each stimulus duration, we determined the smallest detectable change in stimulus intensity (differential threshold) for a reference velocity of 15 deg/s. Results indicate that differential thresholds decrease with stimulus duration and asymptotically converge to a constant, positive value. This suggests that the central nervous system accumulates sensory information on self-motion over time, resulting in improved discrimination performances. Observed trends in differential thresholds are consistent with predictions based on a drift diffusion model with leaky integration of sensory evidence.

  16. Accumulation of Inertial Sensory Information in the Perception of Whole Body Yaw Rotation

    PubMed Central

    de Winkel, Ksander; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2017-01-01

    While moving through the environment, our central nervous system accumulates sensory information over time to provide an estimate of our self-motion, allowing for completing crucial tasks such as maintaining balance. However, little is known on how the duration of the motion stimuli influences our performances in a self-motion discrimination task. Here we study the human ability to discriminate intensities of sinusoidal (0.5 Hz) self-rotations around the vertical axis (yaw) for four different stimulus durations (1, 2, 3 and 5 s) in darkness. In a typical trial, participants experienced two consecutive rotations of equal duration and different peak amplitude, and reported the one perceived as stronger. For each stimulus duration, we determined the smallest detectable change in stimulus intensity (differential threshold) for a reference velocity of 15 deg/s. Results indicate that differential thresholds decrease with stimulus duration and asymptotically converge to a constant, positive value. This suggests that the central nervous system accumulates sensory information on self-motion over time, resulting in improved discrimination performances. Observed trends in differential thresholds are consistent with predictions based on a drift diffusion model with leaky integration of sensory evidence. PMID:28125681

  17. A comparison of Japanese and Australian consumers' sensory perceptions of beef.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, Rod J; Nishimura, Takanori; Neath, Kate E; Watson, Ray

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of Japanese and Australian consumer sensory responses to beef, based on Meat Standards Australia methodology. Japanese and Australian consumers evaluated paired beef samples according to four sensory traits, and the weighted results were combined to produce a Meat Quality score (MQ4). The consumers also categorized the beef samples to one of four grades (unsatisfactory, good everyday, better than everyday and premium). The proportion of samples assigned to each grade was similar for Japanese and Australian consumers for yakiniku and shabu shabu cooking methods; however, Japanese consumers assigned lower scores to the grill samples. In terms of the MQ4 boundary scores between grades, these were very similar for both Japanese and Australian consumers across all cooking methods. In terms of the weightings for the four sensory traits, juiciness was more important for Japanese consumers than Australian for grill and shabu shabu cooking methods. Flavor had the highest weighting for both consumer groups. This study showed that a beef description system based on the MQ4 score, with some adjustments to the weightings and cut-off values, could be useful in describing the eating quality of beef for the Japanese consumer.

  18. Primary or secondary tasks? Dual-task interference between cyclist hazard perception and cadence control using cross-modal sensory aids with rider assistance bike computers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Tse

    2017-03-01

    This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals. The results indicated that synchronously using different sense organs to receive cadence feedback significantly affects hazard perception performance; direct visual information leads to the worst rider distraction, with a mean sensitivity to hazards (d') of -1.03. For systems with multiple interacting sensory aids, auditory aids were found to result in the greatest reduction in sensitivity to hazards (d' mean = -0.57), whereas tactile sensory aids reduced the degree of rider distraction (d' mean = -0.23). Our work complements existing work in this domain by advancing the understanding of how to design devices that deliver information subtly, thereby preventing disruption of a rider's perception of road hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits: Lexical Tone Perception Deficits in Chinese Children With Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; King Yiu, Fung

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of speech rhythm, such as rise time and intensity. This study set out to investigate to what extent suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., Cantonese lexical tone perception) and rise time sensitivity could distinguish Chinese children with dyslexia from typically developing children. Sixteen children with dyslexia and 44 age-matched controls were administered a Cantonese lexical tone perception task, psychoacoustic tasks, a nonverbal reasoning ability task, and word reading and dictation tasks. Children with dyslexia performed worse than controls on Cantonese lexical tone perception, rise time, and intensity. Furthermore, Cantonese lexical tone perception appeared to be a stable indicator that distinguishes children with dyslexia from controls, even after controlling for basic auditory processing skills. These findings suggest that suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., lexical tone perception) is a potential factor that accounts for reading difficulty in Chinese.

  20. Impaired Perception of Sensory Consonance and Dissonance in Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Meredith T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2016-03-01

    In light of previous research demonstrating poor pitch perception in cochlear implant (CI) users, we hypothesized that the presence of consonant versus dissonant chord accompaniment in real-world musical stimuli would not impact subjective assessment of degree of pleasantness in CI users. Consonance/dissonance are perceptual features of harmony resulting from pitch relationships between simultaneously presented musical notes. Generally, consonant sounds are perceived as pleasant and dissonant ones as unpleasant. CI users exhibit impairments in pitch perception, making music listening difficult and often unenjoyable. To our knowledge, consonance/dissonance perception has not been studied in the CI population. Twelve novel melodies were created for this study. By altering the harmonic structures of the accompanying chords, we created three permutations of varying dissonance for each melody (36 stimuli in all). Ten CI users and 12 NH listeners provided Likert scale ratings from -5 (very unpleasant) to +5 (very pleasant) for each of the stimuli. A two-way ANOVA showed main effects for Dissonance Level and Subject Type as well as a two-way interaction between the two. Pairwise comparisons indicated that NH stimuli pleasantness ratings decreased with increasing dissonance, whereas CI ratings did not. NH pleasantness ratings were consistently lower than CI ratings. For CI users, consonant versus dissonant chord accompaniment had no significant impact on whether a melody was considered pleasant or unpleasant. This finding may be partially responsible for the decreased enjoyment of many CI users during music perception and is another manifestation of impaired pitch perception in CI users.

  1. A Bayesian perspective on sensory and cognitive integration in pain perception and placebo analgesia.

    PubMed

    Anchisi, Davide; Zanon, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a component of any response to a treatment (effective or inert), but we still ignore why it exists. We propose that placebo analgesia is a facet of pain perception, others being the modulating effects of emotions, cognition and past experience, and we suggest that a computational understanding of pain may provide a unifying explanation of these phenomena. Here we show how Bayesian decision theory can account for such features and we describe a model of pain that we tested against experimental data. Our model not only agrees with placebo analgesia, but also predicts that learning can affect pain perception in other unexpected ways, which experimental evidence supports. Finally, the model can also reflect the strategies used by pain perception, showing that modulation by disparate factors is intrinsic to the pain process.

  2. Time perception impairs sensory-motor integration in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that perception and estimation of time are fundamental for the relationship between humans and their environment. However, this temporal information processing is inefficient in patients with Parkinson’ disease (PD), resulting in temporal judgment deficits. In general, the pathophysiology of PD has been described as a dysfunction in the basal ganglia, which is a multisensory integration station. Thus, a deficit in the sensorimotor integration process could explain many of the Parkinson symptoms, such as changes in time perception. This physiological distortion may be better understood if we analyze the neurobiological model of interval timing, expressed within the conceptual framework of a traditional information-processing model called “Scalar Expectancy Theory”. Therefore, in this review we discuss the pathophysiology and sensorimotor integration process in PD, the theories and neural basic mechanisms involved in temporal processing, and the main clinical findings about the impact of time perception in PD. PMID:24131660

  3. A Bayesian Perspective on Sensory and Cognitive Integration in Pain Perception and Placebo Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Anchisi, Davide; Zanon, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a component of any response to a treatment (effective or inert), but we still ignore why it exists. We propose that placebo analgesia is a facet of pain perception, others being the modulating effects of emotions, cognition and past experience, and we suggest that a computational understanding of pain may provide a unifying explanation of these phenomena. Here we show how Bayesian decision theory can account for such features and we describe a model of pain that we tested against experimental data. Our model not only agrees with placebo analgesia, but also predicts that learning can affect pain perception in other unexpected ways, which experimental evidence supports. Finally, the model can also reflect the strategies used by pain perception, showing that modulation by disparate factors is intrinsic to the pain process. PMID:25664586

  4. Effects of Agar Gel Strength and Fat on Oral Breakdown, Volatile Release, and Sensory Perception Using in Vivo and in Vitro Systems.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Eyres, Graham T; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Cochet-Broch, Maeva; Delahunty, Conor M; Lundin, Leif; Appelqvist, Ingrid M

    2015-10-21

    The density and composition of a food matrix affect the rates of oral breakdown and in-mouth flavor release as well as the overall sensory experience. Agar gels of increasing concentration (1.0, 1.7, 2.9, and 5% agarose) with and without added fat (0, 2, 5, and 10%) were spiked with seven aroma volatiles. Differences in oral processing and sensory perception were systematically measured by a trained panel using a discrete interval time intensity method. Volatile release was measured in vivo and in vitro by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Greater oral processing was required as agar gel strength increased, and the intensity of flavor-related sensory attributes decreased. Volatile release was inversely related to gel strength, showing that physicochemical phenomena were the main mechanisms underlying the perceived sensory changes. Fat addition reduced the amount of oral processing and had differential effects on release, depending on the fat solubility or lipophilicity of the volatiles.

  5. Trained sensory perception of pork eating quality as affected by fresh and cooked pork quality attributes and end-point cooked temperature.

    PubMed

    Moeller, S J; Miller, R K; Aldredge, T L; Logan, K E; Edwards, K K; Zerby, H N; Boggess, M; Box-Steffensmeier, J M; Stahl, C A

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluated individual and interactive influences of pork loin (n=679) ultimate ph (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and internal cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on trained sensory perception of palatability. Logistical regression analyses were used, fitting sensory responses as dependent variables and quality and cooked temperature as independent variables, testing quadratic and interactive effects. Incremental increases in cooked temperature reduced sensory juiciness and tenderness scores by 3.8% and 0.9%, respectively, but did not influence sensory flavor or saltiness scores. An increase of 4.9N in WBSF, from a base of 14.7N (lowest) to 58.8N (greatest) was associated with a 3.7% and 1.8% reduction in sensory tenderness and juiciness scores, respectively, with predicted sensory tenderness scores reduced by 3.55 units when comparing ends of the WBSF range. Modeled sensory responses for loins with pH of 5.40 and 5.60 had reduced tenderness, chewiness, and fat flavor ratings when compared with responses for loins with pH of 5.80 to 6.40, the range indicative of optimal sensory response. Loin IMF and L* were significant model effects; however, their influence on sensory attributes was small, with predicted mean sensory responses measurably improved only when comparing 6% and 1% IMF and L* values of 46.9 (dark) when compared with 65.0 (pale). Tenderness and juiciness scores, were related to a greater extent to loin WBSF and pH, and to a lesser extent to cooked temperature, IMF and L*. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A neuropeptide modulates sensory perception in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Robert; Wilson, Leonie; Warnock, Neil D.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) employ a sophisticated chemosensory apparatus to detect potential hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of relevant host-finding behaviours could facilitate improved EPN biocontrol approaches, and could lend insight to similar behaviours in economically important mammalian parasites. FMRFamide-like peptides are enriched and conserved across the Phylum Nematoda, and have been linked with motor and sensory function, including dispersal and aggregating behaviours in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway of Steinernema carpocapsae was characterised in silico, and employed to knockdown the expression of the FMRFamide-like peptide 21 (GLGPRPLRFamide) gene (flp-21) in S. carpocapsae infective juveniles; a first instance of RNAi in this genus, and a first in an infective juvenile of any EPN species. Our data show that 5 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-84%***) over a 48 h timecourse, which inhibits host-finding (chemosensory), dispersal, hyperactive nictation and jumping behaviours. However, whilst 1 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin also triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-51%**) over a 48 h timecourse, it does not trigger the null sensory phenotypes; statistically significant target knockdown can still lead to false negative results, necessitating appropriate experimental design. SPME GC-MS volatile profiles of two EPN hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor reveal an array of shared and unique compounds; these differences had no impact on null flp-21 RNAi phenotypes for the behaviours assayed. Localisation of flp-21 / FLP-21 to paired anterior neurons by whole mount in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry corroborates the RNAi data, further suggesting a role in sensory modulation. These data can underpin efforts to study these behaviours in other economically important parasites, and could facilitate

  7. A neuropeptide modulates sensory perception in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert; Wilson, Leonie; Sturrock, Matthew; Warnock, Neil D; Carrizo, Daniel; Cox, Deborah; Maule, Aaron G; Dalzell, Johnathan J

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) employ a sophisticated chemosensory apparatus to detect potential hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of relevant host-finding behaviours could facilitate improved EPN biocontrol approaches, and could lend insight to similar behaviours in economically important mammalian parasites. FMRFamide-like peptides are enriched and conserved across the Phylum Nematoda, and have been linked with motor and sensory function, including dispersal and aggregating behaviours in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway of Steinernema carpocapsae was characterised in silico, and employed to knockdown the expression of the FMRFamide-like peptide 21 (GLGPRPLRFamide) gene (flp-21) in S. carpocapsae infective juveniles; a first instance of RNAi in this genus, and a first in an infective juvenile of any EPN species. Our data show that 5 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-84%***) over a 48 h timecourse, which inhibits host-finding (chemosensory), dispersal, hyperactive nictation and jumping behaviours. However, whilst 1 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin also triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-51%**) over a 48 h timecourse, it does not trigger the null sensory phenotypes; statistically significant target knockdown can still lead to false negative results, necessitating appropriate experimental design. SPME GC-MS volatile profiles of two EPN hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor reveal an array of shared and unique compounds; these differences had no impact on null flp-21 RNAi phenotypes for the behaviours assayed. Localisation of flp-21 / FLP-21 to paired anterior neurons by whole mount in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry corroborates the RNAi data, further suggesting a role in sensory modulation. These data can underpin efforts to study these behaviours in other economically important parasites, and could facilitate

  8. Modelling Relations between Sensory Processing, Speech Perception, Orthographic and Phonological Ability, and Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2008-01-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling…

  9. Modelling Relations between Sensory Processing, Speech Perception, Orthographic and Phonological Ability, and Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2008-01-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling…

  10. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the biceps femoris and semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Colle, M J; Richard, R P; Killinger, K M; Bohlscheid, J C; Gray, A R; Loucks, W I; Day, R N; Cochran, A S; Nasados, J A; Doumit, M E

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of post-fabrication aging (2, 14, 21, 42, and 63days) on beef quality characteristics and consumer sensory perception of biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks. Lipid oxidation and aerobic plate counts increased (P<0.05) with longer aging periods and retail display times. An aging period by day of retail display interaction (P<0.05) was observed for a* and b* values of the BF and SM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values decreased (P<0.05) with longer aging for the SM, while no difference was observed for the BF. Consumer panel results revealed that longer aging periods increased (P<0.05) acceptability of the SM, tenderness of both muscles, and tended to increase (P=0.07) juiciness of the SM. Our results show that extended aging reduces retail color stability yet has positive effects on consumer perception of tenderness of both muscles and overall acceptability of the SM.

  11. Cassava traits and end-user preference: Relating traits to consumer liking, sensory perception, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Tomlins, Keith; Fliedel, Geneviève; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Westby, Andrew; Hershey, Clair; Dufour, Dominique

    2016-08-05

    Breeding efforts have focused on improving agronomic traits of the cassava plant however little research has been done to enhance the crop palatability. This review investigates the links between cassava traits and end-user preference in relation with sensory characteristics. The main trait is starch and its composition related to the textural properties of the food. Pectin degradation during cooking resulted in increased mealiness. Nutritional components such as carotenoids made the cassava yellow but also altered sweetness and softness; however, yellow cassava was more appreciated by consumers than traditional (white) varieties. Components formed during processing such as organic acids gave fermented cassava products an acidic taste that was appreciated but the fermented smell was not always liked. Anti-nutritional compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides were mostly related to bitter taste. Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD) affected the overall sensory characteristics and acceptability. Genes responsible for some of these traits were also investigated. Diversity in cassava food products can provide a challenge to identifying acceptance criteria. Socio-economic factors such as gender may also be critical. This review leads to questions in relation to the adaptation of cassava breeding to meet consumer needs and preference in order to maximize income, health and food security.

  12. Sensory and consumer perception of the addition of grape seed extracts in cookies.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, G; Moreno, M; Arozarena, I; Marín-Arroyo, M R; Bleibaum, R N; Bruhn, C M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand sensory and instrumental similarities and differences among an array of cookies made with bulk and microencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) and then to determine how these differences impact consumer acceptance. Total of 4 types of cookies (control, enriched with bulk GSE, and enriched with 2 different microencapsulated GSE) were evaluated by instrumental analyses, a sensory trained panel using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) methodology, and a consumer acceptance test that included a usage and attitude survey. The addition of GSE resulted in darker brown cookies; microencapsulation partially masked the color that the GSE conferred to the cookies. The cookies with the microencapsulated GSE showed a significant higher antioxidant activity, microencapsulation may have reduced the GSE heat degradation. The QDA(®) trained panelists found the enriched cookies to be more astringent and with aromas and flavors similar to whole grains flours. Consumers rated the control cookie and 1 GSE encapsulated cookie at parity; they were equally well liked (P > 0.05). When provided with information, nearly 60% of consumers stated that they were willing to purchase cookies enriched with antioxidants. This high positive percentage may increase if consumers received more education on the health benefits of antioxidant consumption. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Influence of package and health-related claims on perception and sensory acceptability of snack bars.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vinícius Rodrigues Arruda; Freitas, Tamara Beatriz de Oliveira; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Della Lucia, Suzana Maria; Melo, Laura Fernandes; Minim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues; Bressan, Josefina

    2017-11-01

    Concerns for health can lead to healthier food choices, especially if the consumer is well informed. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of package and health-related claims on Brazilian consumers' acceptance of snack bars. In order to evaluate package attributes, in focus groups discussions, 19 consumers chose the most important factors that influence their purchase decisions. Next, 102 consumers evaluated six commercial brands of snack bars in a three-session acceptance test: the first with no information about the product, the second containing the product package and the third with information on health-related claims associated with consumption of the bar. In general, package attributes, price and flavor were the most important factors that influence the purchase of snack bars. Health claims positively influenced consumer acceptance, but information concerning the absence of gluten and lactose did not significantly alter sensory acceptance. The presence of omega-3s, sugars, preservatives, flavorings and colorings have the potential to improve acceptability, because they were able to raise the acceptance of the seed bar, removing it from the rejection region. Protein and nut bars are not well known to the general public and the lower mean acceptance of the seed and protein bars demonstrated the need for sensorial improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory Feedback Training for Improvement of Finger Perception in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Aschmann, Simon; Lützow, Ines; Lampe, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To develop and to test a feedback training system for improvement of tactile perception and coordination of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. Methods. The fingers of 7 probands with cerebral palsy of different types and severity were stimulated using small vibration motors integrated in the fingers of a hand glove. The vibration motors were connected through a microcontroller to a computer and to a response 5-button keyboard. By pressing an appropriate keyboard button, the proband must indicate in which finger the vibration was felt. The number of incorrect responses and the reaction time were measured for every finger. The perception and coordination of fingers were estimated before and after two-week training using both clinical tests and the measurements. Results. Proper functioning of the developed system in persons with cerebral palsy was confirmed. The tactile sensation of fingers was improved in five of seven subjects after two weeks of training. There was no clear tendency towards improvement of selective use of fingers. Conclusion. The designed feedback system could be used to train tactile perception of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. An extensive study is required to confirm these findings. PMID:26124965

  15. Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquière, Pol

    2008-07-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling skills. In the visual modality, an analogous problem might interfere with literacy development by affecting orthographic skills. In this prospective longitudinal study, we tested dynamic auditory and visual processing, speech-in-noise perception, phonological ability and orthographic ability in 62 five-year-old preschool children. Predictive relations towards first grade reading and spelling measures were explored and the validity of the global magnocellular model was evaluated using causal path analysis. In particular, we demonstrated that dynamic auditory processing was related to speech perception, which itself was related to phonological awareness. Similarly, dynamic visual processing was related to orthographic ability. Subsequently, phonological awareness, orthographic ability and verbal short-term memory were unique predictors of reading and spelling development.

  16. Sensory Feedback Training for Improvement of Finger Perception in Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Aschmann, Simon; Lützow, Ines; Lampe, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To develop and to test a feedback training system for improvement of tactile perception and coordination of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. Methods. The fingers of 7 probands with cerebral palsy of different types and severity were stimulated using small vibration motors integrated in the fingers of a hand glove. The vibration motors were connected through a microcontroller to a computer and to a response 5-button keyboard. By pressing an appropriate keyboard button, the proband must indicate in which finger the vibration was felt. The number of incorrect responses and the reaction time were measured for every finger. The perception and coordination of fingers were estimated before and after two-week training using both clinical tests and the measurements. Results. Proper functioning of the developed system in persons with cerebral palsy was confirmed. The tactile sensation of fingers was improved in five of seven subjects after two weeks of training. There was no clear tendency towards improvement of selective use of fingers. Conclusion. The designed feedback system could be used to train tactile perception of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. An extensive study is required to confirm these findings.

  17. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved

    PubMed Central

    He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing. PMID:28542426

  18. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing.

  19. For things needing your attention: the role of neocortical gamma in sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Dominique L; Siegle, Joshua H; Deister, Christopher A; Moore, Christopher I

    2015-04-01

    Two general classes of hypotheses for the role for gamma oscillations in sensation are those that predict gamma facilitates signal amplification through local synchronization of a distinct ensemble, and those that predict gamma modulates fine temporal relationships between neurons to represent information. Correlative evidence has been offered for and against these hypotheses. A recent study in which gamma was optogenetically entrained by driving fast-spiking interneurons showed enhanced sensory detection of harder-to-perceive stimuli, those that benefit most from attention, in agreement with the amplification hypotheses. These findings are supported by similar studies employing less specific optogenetic patterns or single neuron stimulation, but contrast with findings based on direct optogenetic stimulation of pyramidal neurons. Key next steps for this topic are described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulate sensory perception and pain? A meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2014-09-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy individuals and pain levels (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for a-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was examined using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) increases both STh (P<0.005, with the effect size of 22.19%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 19.28%). In addition, STh was increased by a-tDCS of the primary sensory cortex (S1) (P<0.05 with an effect size of 4.34). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of a-tDCS to both the M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The average decrease in visual analogue score was 14.9% and 19.3% after applying a-tDCS on the M1 and DLPFC. Moreover, meta-analysis showed that in all subgroups (except a-tDCS of S1) active a-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences. This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of a-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy group and decreasing PL in patients. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted cautiously. Given the level of blinding did not considered in inclusion criteria, the result of current study should be interpreted with caution. Site of stimulation should have a differential effect over pain relief. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relating rheology and tribology of commercial dairy colloids to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Laura; Farrell, Grace; Bryant, Michael; Morina, Ardian; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2017-02-22

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 (○)C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire. Consumers significantly discriminated the fat-free/low fat from the full fat versions (p < 0.01) in all product classes, with most common verbatim used being "creamy", "sweet" for the full fat versus "watery", "sour" for the fat-free samples. Flow behaviour of both versions of milk showed overlapping trends with no significant differences identified both in absence and presence of saliva (p > 0.05). Full fat and fat free yoghurts had similar yielding behaviour and elastic modulus (G'), even in simulated oral conditions. However, in case of soft cream cheese, the full fat version had a moderately higher G' than the low fat counterpart. Even in presence of artificial saliva, there was slight but significant difference in viscoelasticity between the cream cheese variants depending on fat content (p < 0.05). Stribeck curve analyses showed that at lower entrainment velocities (1-100 mm s(-1)), both full fat yoghurt and soft cream cheese exhibited a significantly lower traction coefficient when compared to fat-free/low fat versions (p < 0.05), which might be attributed to the lubricating effect of the coalesced fat droplets. Surprisingly, whole and skim milks showed no significant difference in traction coefficients irrespective of the entrainment speeds (p > 0.05). Results suggest that sensory distinction between fat-free and full fat versions, particularly in semi-solid systems could be better

  2. Study of the tactile perception of bathroom tissues: Comparison between the sensory evaluation by a handfeel panel and a tribo-acoustic artificial finger.

    PubMed

    Thieulin, C; Pailler-Mattei, C; Vargiolu, R; Lancelot, S; Zahouani, H

    2017-02-01

    Tactile perception is one of the sensorial modes most stimulated by our daily environment. In particular, perceived softness is an important parameter for judging the sensory quality of surfaces and fabrics. Unfortunately, its assessment greatly depends on the tactile sense of each person, which in turn depends on many factors. Currently, the predominant method for evaluating the tactile perception of fabrics is the human handfeel panel. This qualitative approach does not permit the quantitative measure of touch feel perception. In this study, we present a new artificial finger device to investigate the tactile sensing of ten bathroom tissues. It enables simultaneously measuring the friction and vibrations caused when sliding an artificial finger on the surface of the tissue. The comparison between the results obtained with the artificial finger and the tactile perception evaluated using a handfeel panel showed that the artificial finger is able to separate the two parts of the tactile perception of bathroom tissues: softness and surface texture (velvetiness). The statistical analysis suggests that there is a good correlation between the vibrations measured with the artificial finger and the softness evaluated by the panel. It then shows that the friction measured by the artificial finger is related to the surface texture of a bathroom tissue. The ability of the artificial finger to mimic human touch is demonstrated. Finally, a Principal Component Analysis orders the signatures of the tactile perception of the bathroom tissues in four different groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evaluation of nurses’ changing perceptions when trained to implement a self-management programme for dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Roets-Merken, Lieve M; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Zuidema, Sytse U; Dees, Marianne K; Hermsen, Pieter G J M; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Graff, Maud J L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To gain insights into the process of nurses’ changing perceptions when trained to implement a self-management programme for dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care, and into the factors that contributed to these changes in their perceptions. Design Qualitative study alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 17 long-term care homes spread across the Netherlands. Participants 34 licensed practical nurses supporting 54 dual sensory impaired older adults. Intervention A 5-month training programme designed to enable nurses to support the self-management of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Primary outcomes Nurses’ perceptions on relevance and feasibility of the self-management programme collected from nurses’ semistructured coaching diaries over the 5-month training and intervention period, as well as from trainers’ reports. Results Nurses’ initial negative perceptions on relevance and feasibility of the intervention changed to positive as nurses better understood the concept of autonomy. Through interactions with older adults and by self-evaluations of the effect of their behaviour, nurses discovered that their usual care conflicted with client autonomy. From that moment, nurses felt encouraged to adapt their behaviour to the older adults’ autonomy needs. However, nurses’ initial unfamiliarity with conversation techniques required a longer exploration period than planned. Once client autonomy was understood, nurses recommended expanding the intervention as a generic approach to all their clients, whether dual sensory impaired or not. Conclusions Longitudinal data collection enabled exploration of nurses’ changes in perceptions when moving towards self-management support. The training programme stimulated nurses to go beyond ‘protocol thinking’, discovering client autonomy and exploring the need for their own behavioural adaptations. Educational programmes for practical nurses should offer

  4. Sensory effect of acetaldehyde on the perception of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine: Role of acetaldehyde in sensory interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Coetzee, C.; Brand, J.; Jacobson, Daniel A.; ...

    2016-01-28

    Background and Aims-Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensory interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, with acetaldehyde that typically forms during the oxidation of wine. Methods and Results-Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained sensory panel. Additionally, the concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold values to high values as reported for wine. Depending on the concentration, acetaldehyde enhanced fruity attributes at a lower concentration, whereas suppression occurred at a higher concentration. Acetaldehyde effectively suppressed the green pepper aroma attributemore » at certain concentration values, whereas 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol suppressed oxidised green apple associated with acetaldehyde. Changes in attributes used for aroma description also occurred because of change in concentration. Conclusions-Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and one of the main oxidation-derived compounds, acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde can enhance or suppress pleasant fruity characters depending on the concentration. Significance of the Study-This study showed the potential positive effect of acetaldehyde on white wine aroma when present at a low concentration. Formation of this compound during winemaking and ageing should, however, be controlled because of negative sensory interactions occurring at a higher concentration. In conclusion, this study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of Sauvignon Blanc wine undergoing oxidation.« less

  5. Sensory effect of acetaldehyde on the perception of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine: Role of acetaldehyde in sensory interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Coetzee, C.; Brand, J.; Jacobson, Daniel A.; Du Toit, W. J.

    2016-01-28

    Background and Aims-Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensory interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, with acetaldehyde that typically forms during the oxidation of wine. Methods and Results-Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained sensory panel. Additionally, the concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold values to high values as reported for wine. Depending on the concentration, acetaldehyde enhanced fruity attributes at a lower concentration, whereas suppression occurred at a higher concentration. Acetaldehyde effectively suppressed the green pepper aroma attribute at certain concentration values, whereas 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol suppressed oxidised green apple associated with acetaldehyde. Changes in attributes used for aroma description also occurred because of change in concentration. Conclusions-Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and one of the main oxidation-derived compounds, acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde can enhance or suppress pleasant fruity characters depending on the concentration. Significance of the Study-This study showed the potential positive effect of acetaldehyde on white wine aroma when present at a low concentration. Formation of this compound during winemaking and ageing should, however, be controlled because of negative sensory interactions occurring at a higher concentration. In conclusion, this study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of Sauvignon Blanc wine undergoing oxidation.

  6. Quantitative sensory test for primary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease using the current perception threshold test.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Won; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Keun Tae; Do, So Young; Lim, Jung-Geun; Lee, So Young; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2017-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder, and it is especially aggravated at night. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal sensory dysfunction in primary RLS/WED using the current perception threshold (CPT) test, compared to healthy controls. Thirty primary RLS/WED subjects and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The severity of RLS/WED and sleep problems were evaluated in all subjects. Peripheral polyneuropathy was excluded through neurological examination and nerve conduction study. We used the Neurometer(®) system for the CPT test and applied three different parameters (2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz), to stimulate both big toes. The CPT test was performed twice, once during the asymptomatic daytime period and again in the evening, when the patients were symptomatic. The mean ages of the RLS/WED group and controls were 50.5 ± 11.7 (22; 73.3% female), and 46.3 ± 11.4 (24; 80.0% female), respectively. The mean international RLS/WED study group severity scale score was 28.6 ± 4.25. There was no significant difference in the current perception thresholds between the RLS/WED patients and controls in daytime. However, the RLS/WED patients had lower mean CPT measurements for all three stimulation protocols in the evening (2000 Hz: 393.2 ± 93.7 vs 430.8 ± 79.6, 250 Hz: 172.0 ± 48.4 vs 198.5 ± 38.2, and 5 Hz: 98.0 ± 34.1 vs 124.6 ± 31.3), while the healthy controls showed no difference. RLS patients showed a lower CPT in the evening. The diurnal variation of hyperalgesia in RLS/WED patients indicates a central (circadian) sensory processing disturbance rather than a peripheral disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensory and analytical characterization of the "cool-melting" perception of commercial spreads.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Cuspinera, Verónica; Valenҁa de Sousa, Joana; Knoop, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    Butters, margarines and table spreads are water-in-oil emulsions. Melting characteristics of these products are important for flavor release and consumer acceptance. One characteristic that is believed to discriminate butters from margarines is a cooling sensation perceived in-mouth while consuming these products. Here, we investigated different methods to characterize sensorically and analytically the "cool-melting" properties of commercial butter and margarines. Our results show that butter indeed can be distinguished from margarines based on their "cool-melting" properties. Furthermore, changes in enthalpy as measured through DSC and solid fat content are good predictors of the "cool-melting" effect of spreads. By understanding the mechanisms of the "cool-melting" perception of spreads, and linking them to analytical measurements, we can create an in-vitro quantification method of "cool-melting." This method can eventually help directing product development to achieve the desire product profile and increase consumer acceptance and liking of margarines and low-fat spread products. In this study we did not assess the impact of "cool-melting" on consumer perception, which would be the next step in understanding the drivers of liking of spread products. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Texture Studies published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Empathy hurts: compassion for another increases both sensory and affective components of pain perception.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that some brain structures activated by pain are also engaged when an individual observes someone else in pain, and that these empathy-related responses are modulated as a function of the affective link between the empath and the individual in pain. In this study we test the hypothesis that empathy-evoked activation in the pain network leads to heightened pain perception. After inducing in half of our subjects a state of high empathy for an actor and in the other half a state of low empathy towards him, we measured the sensitivity to heat stimuli of various intensities in healthy participants while they watched the actor being exposed to similar stimuli. Participants in the "high-empathy" group rated painful (but not non-painful) stimuli applied to themselves as more intense and unpleasant than did those in the "low-empathy" group. Positive correlations between state empathy scores and pain ratings further suggest that this perceptual phenomenon depends on the magnitude of empathic response induced in the participants. The effects were observed when subjects watched the model receiving either neutral or painful stimuli, suggesting that it is empathy itself that alters pain perception, and not necessarily the observation of pain behaviors.

  9. Administering the "AHSP Questionnaire" (appetite, hunger, sensory perception) in a geriatric rehabilitation care.

    PubMed

    Savina, C; Donini, L M; Anzivino, R; De Felice, M R; De Bernardini, L; Cannella, C

    2003-01-01

    Frail elderly people, living in nursing homes, usually show a malnutrition state caused by an increased need of energy or an inadequate food intake. Among the causes leading to reduction of food intake in elderly people and consequently to malnutrition, is the loss of appetite, often marker of depression and alterations of taste and smell perception. The aim of this research is to verify the application of the AHSP Questionnaire and relate its score to nutritional state of a frail elderly population hospitalized in a geriatric rehabilitation care. All patients of the "3rd Rehabilitation Department" of the Istituto Geriatrico "Villa delle Querce" Nemi (Rome-Italy). Informations, number and type of medical conditions, prescribed drugs, other parameters that can affect taste, smell, hunger and nutritional status, mood, cognitive and nutritional status have been collected from the clinical folders. To assess appetite, hunger smell and taste perception had been submitted the AHSP Questionnaire. The AHSP Questionnaire had been administered only to 44 of the 103 patients present at the survey because of the high prevalence of cognitive impairment. AHSP score is lower in presence of malnutrition assessed with MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment). MNA, expressed as proportional score, seems to present a clear correlation with AHSP's (r=0.59; p=0.000). The results achieved show the scarce adaptability of the AHSP Questionnaire to frail elderly people living in geriatric rehabilitation care. MNA is at the moment the most reliable tool to single out dietary deficiency on geriatrics population.

  10. Abnormalities of emotional awareness and perception in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Yoo, Sang Woo; Jhung, Kyungun; Kim, Se Joo

    2012-12-10

    Emotional awareness deficit may play a critical role in the production and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social dysfunction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of emotional awareness such as empathy and alexithymia in OCD patients. In addition, we examined whether impaired emotional awareness measured by self-assessment questionnaires was associated with emotional facial recognition ability in OCD patients. Study participants included 107 patients with OCD and 130 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 were applied as measures of empathy and alexithymia. A subset of 56 patients with OCD additionally performed the emotional perception task of face expression. Patients with OCD scored significantly lower for perspective taking, and significantly higher for personal distress of IRI, and significantly higher for alexithymia compared to normal controls. Impaired emotional awareness such as lower perspective taking and fantasy seeking had a perception bias towards disgust in response to ambiguous facial expressions in OCD patients. The OCD group consisted of patients in different stages of the illness and with different degrees of severity. OCD involves the impairment of emotional awareness and perception and it may relate to social dysfunction and to impairments in the ability to shift naturally from obsessive thoughts to other thoughts in response to social situations in patients with OCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception drives production across sensory modalities: A network for sensorimotor integration of visual speech

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, Jonathan H.; Fillmore, Paul; Matchin, William; Isenberg, A. Lisette; Hickok, Gregory; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information is critical for movement control, both for defining the targets of actions and providing feedback during planning or ongoing movements. This holds for speech motor control as well, where both auditory and somatosensory information have been shown to play a key role. Recent clinical research demonstrates that individuals with severe speech production deficits can show a dramatic improvement in fluency during online mimicking of an audiovisual speech signal suggesting the existence of a visuomotor pathway for speech motor control. Here we used fMRI in healthy individuals to identify this new visuomotor circuit for speech production. Participants were asked to perceive and covertly rehearse nonsense syllable sequences presented auditorily, visually, or audiovisually. The motor act of rehearsal, which is prima facie the same whether or not it is cued with a visible talker, produced different patterns of sensorimotor activation when cued by visual or audiovisual speech (relative to auditory speech). In particular, a network of brain regions including the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and several frontoparietal sensorimotor areas activated more strongly during rehearsal cued by a visible talker versus rehearsal cued by auditory speech alone. Some of these brain regions responded exclusively to rehearsal cued by visual or audiovisual speech. This result has significant implications for models of speech motor control, for the treatment of speech output disorders, and for models of the role of speech gesture imitation in development. PMID:26608242

  12. Hidden surface microstructures on Carboniferous insect Brodioptera sinensis (Megasecoptera) enlighten functional morphology and sensorial perception

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Jakub; Pecharová, Martina; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Megasecoptera are insects with haustellate mouthparts and petiolate wings closely related to Palaeodictyoptera and one of the few insect groups that didn’t survive the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Recent discovery of Brodioptera sinensis in early Pennsylvanian deposits at Xiaheyan in northern China has increased our knowledge of its external morphology using conventional optical stereomicroscopy. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of structures, such as antennae, mouthparts, wing surfaces, external copulatory organs and cerci have shed light on their micromorphology and supposed function. A comparative study has shown an unexpected dense pattern of setae on the wing membrane of B. sinensis. In addition, unlike the results obtained by stereomicroscopy it revealed that the male and female external genitalia clearly differ in their fine structure and setation. Therefore, the present study resulted in a closer examination of the microstructure and function of previously poorly studied parts of the body of Paleozoic insects and a comparison with homologous structures occurring in other Palaeodictyopteroida, Odonatoptera and Ephemerida. This indicates, that the role and presumptive function of these integumental protuberances is likely to have been a sensory one in the coordination of mouthparts and manipulation of stylets, escape from predators, enhancement of aerodynamic properties and copulatory behaviour. PMID:27321551

  13. Sensory perception of food and insulin-like signals influence seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Gruninger, Todd R; Gualberto, Daisy G; Garcia, L Rene

    2008-07-04

    Food deprivation is known to affect physiology and behavior. Changes that occur could be the result of the organism's monitoring of internal and external nutrient availability. In C. elegans, male mating is dependent on food availability; food-deprived males mate with lower efficiency compared to their well-fed counterparts, suggesting that the mating circuit is repressed in low-food environments. This behavioral response could be mediated by sensory neurons exposed to the environment or by internal metabolic cues. We demonstrated that food-deprivation negatively regulates sex-muscle excitability through the activity of chemosensory neurons and insulin-like signaling. Specifically, we found that the repressive effects of food deprivation on the mating circuit can be partially blocked by placing males on inedible food, E. coli that can be sensed but not eaten. We determined that the olfactory AWC neurons actively suppress sex-muscle excitability in response to food deprivation. In addition, we demonstrated that loss of insulin-like receptor (DAF-2) signaling in the sex muscles blocks the ability of food deprivation to suppress the mating circuit. During low-food conditions, we propose that increased activity by specific olfactory neurons (AWCs) leads to the release of neuroendocrine signals, including insulin-like ligands. Insulin-like receptor signaling in the sex muscles then reduces cell excitability via activation of downstream molecules, including PLC-gamma and CaMKII.

  14. Hidden surface microstructures on Carboniferous insect Brodioptera sinensis (Megasecoptera) enlighten functional morphology and sensorial perception.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Jakub; Pecharová, Martina; Ren, Dong

    2016-06-20

    Megasecoptera are insects with haustellate mouthparts and petiolate wings closely related to Palaeodictyoptera and one of the few insect groups that didn't survive the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Recent discovery of Brodioptera sinensis in early Pennsylvanian deposits at Xiaheyan in northern China has increased our knowledge of its external morphology using conventional optical stereomicroscopy. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of structures, such as antennae, mouthparts, wing surfaces, external copulatory organs and cerci have shed light on their micromorphology and supposed function. A comparative study has shown an unexpected dense pattern of setae on the wing membrane of B. sinensis. In addition, unlike the results obtained by stereomicroscopy it revealed that the male and female external genitalia clearly differ in their fine structure and setation. Therefore, the present study resulted in a closer examination of the microstructure and function of previously poorly studied parts of the body of Paleozoic insects and a comparison with homologous structures occurring in other Palaeodictyopteroida, Odonatoptera and Ephemerida. This indicates, that the role and presumptive function of these integumental protuberances is likely to have been a sensory one in the coordination of mouthparts and manipulation of stylets, escape from predators, enhancement of aerodynamic properties and copulatory behaviour.

  15. Perception drives production across sensory modalities: A network for sensorimotor integration of visual speech.

    PubMed

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Fillmore, Paul; Matchin, William; Isenberg, A Lisette; Hickok, Gregory; Fridriksson, Julius

    2016-02-01

    Sensory information is critical for movement control, both for defining the targets of actions and providing feedback during planning or ongoing movements. This holds for speech motor control as well, where both auditory and somatosensory information have been shown to play a key role. Recent clinical research demonstrates that individuals with severe speech production deficits can show a dramatic improvement in fluency during online mimicking of an audiovisual speech signal suggesting the existence of a visuomotor pathway for speech motor control. Here we used fMRI in healthy individuals to identify this new visuomotor circuit for speech production. Participants were asked to perceive and covertly rehearse nonsense syllable sequences presented auditorily, visually, or audiovisually. The motor act of rehearsal, which is prima facie the same whether or not it is cued with a visible talker, produced different patterns of sensorimotor activation when cued by visual or audiovisual speech (relative to auditory speech). In particular, a network of brain regions including the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and several frontoparietal sensorimotor areas activated more strongly during rehearsal cued by a visible talker versus rehearsal cued by auditory speech alone. Some of these brain regions responded exclusively to rehearsal cued by visual or audiovisual speech. This result has significant implications for models of speech motor control, for the treatment of speech output disorders, and for models of the role of speech gesture imitation in development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure-from-motion: dissociating perception, neural persistence, and sensory memory of illusory depth and illusory rotation.

    PubMed

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Braun, Jochen

    2013-02-01

    In the structure-from-motion paradigm, physical motion on a screen produces the vivid illusion of an object rotating in depth. Here, we show how to dissociate illusory depth and illusory rotation in a structure-from-motion stimulus using a rotationally asymmetric shape and reversals of physical motion. Reversals of physical motion create a conflict between the original illusory states and the new physical motion: Either illusory depth remains constant and illusory rotation reverses, or illusory rotation stays the same and illusory depth reverses. When physical motion reverses after the interruption in presentation, we find that illusory rotation tends to remain constant for long blank durations (T (blank) ≥ 0.5 s), but illusory depth is stabilized if interruptions are short (T (blank) ≤ 0.1 s). The stability of illusory depth over brief interruptions is consistent with the effect of neural persistence. When this is curtailed using a mask, stability of ambiguous vision (for either illusory depth or illusory rotation) is disrupted. We also examined the selectivity of the neural persistence of illusory depth. We found that it relies on a static representation of an interpolated illusory object, since changes to low-level display properties had little detrimental effect. We discuss our findings with respect to other types of history dependence in multistable displays (sensory stabilization memory, neural fatigue, etc.). Our results suggest that when brief interruptions are used during the presentation of multistable displays, switches in perception are likely to rely on the same neural mechanisms as spontaneous switches, rather than switches due to the initial percept choice at the stimulus onset.

  17. The 5% Difference: Early sensory processing predicts sarcasm perception in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.; Hoptman, Matthew J; Leitman, David I; Silipo, Gail; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intact sarcasm perception is a critical component of social cognition and mentalizing (ability to understand the mental state of oneself and others). In sarcasm, tone of voice is used to negate the literal meaning of an utterance. In particular, changes in pitch are used to distinguish between sincere and sarcastic utterances. Schizophrenia patients show well-replicated deficits in auditory function and functional connectivity within and between auditory cortical regions. The present study investigates contributions of auditory deficits to sarcasm perception in schizophrenia. Methods Auditory measures including pitch-processing, auditory emotion recognition (AER) and sarcasm detection were obtained from 76 patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 72 controls. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) was obtained from a subsample, and was analyzed using seeds placed in both auditory cortex and meta-analysis-defined core-mentalizing regions relative to auditory performance. Results Patients showed large effect-size deficits across auditory measures. Sarcasm deficits correlated significantly with general functioning and impaired pitch-processing both across-groups and within the patient group alone. Patients also showed reduced sensitivity to alterations in mean pitch and variability. For patients, sarcasm discrimination correlated exclusively with level of rsFC within primary auditory regions, whereas for controls, correlations were observed exclusively within core-mentalizing regions (right posterior superior temporal gyrus, anterior superior temporal sulcus and insula, and left posterior medial temporal gyrus). Conclusions These findings confirm the contribution of auditory deficits to theory of mind impairments in schizophrenia, and demonstrate that functional connectivity within auditory-, but not core-mentalizing-, regions is rate limiting with respect to sarcasm detection in schizophrenia. PMID:23611263

  18. Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

  19. Familiarity Perception Call Elicited under Restricted Sensory Cues in Peer-Social Interactions of the Domestic Chick

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Shirakawa, Yuka; Mimura, Koki; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Nakamura, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus) studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant) calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition. PMID:23520539

  20. Sensory versus motor loci for integration of multiple motion signals in smooth pursuit eye movements and human motion perception.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yu-Qiong; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2011-08-01

    We have investigated how visual motion signals are integrated for smooth pursuit eye movements by measuring the initiation of pursuit in monkeys for pairs of moving stimuli of the same or differing luminance. The initiation of pursuit for pairs of stimuli of the same luminance could be accounted for as a vector average of the responses to the two stimuli singly. When stimuli comprised two superimposed patches of moving dot textures, the brighter stimulus suppressed the inputs from the dimmer stimulus, so that the initiation of pursuit became winner-take-all when the luminance ratio of the two stimuli was 8 or greater. The dominance of the brighter stimulus could be not attributed to either the latency difference or the ratio of the eye accelerations for the bright and dim stimuli presented singly. When stimuli comprised either spot targets or two patches of dots moving across separate locations in the visual field, the brighter stimulus had a much weaker suppressive influence; the initiation of pursuit could be accounted for by nearly equal vector averaging of the responses to the two stimuli singly. The suppressive effects of the brighter stimulus also appeared in human perceptual judgments, but again only for superimposed stimuli. We conclude that one locus of the interaction of two moving visual stimuli is shared by perception and action and resides in local inhibitory connections in the visual cortex. A second locus resides deeper in sensory-motor processing and may be more closely related to action selection than to stimulus selection.

  1. Sensory versus motor loci for integration of multiple motion signals in smooth pursuit eye movements and human motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yu-Qiong

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated how visual motion signals are integrated for smooth pursuit eye movements by measuring the initiation of pursuit in monkeys for pairs of moving stimuli of the same or differing luminance. The initiation of pursuit for pairs of stimuli of the same luminance could be accounted for as a vector average of the responses to the two stimuli singly. When stimuli comprised two superimposed patches of moving dot textures, the brighter stimulus suppressed the inputs from the dimmer stimulus, so that the initiation of pursuit became winner-take-all when the luminance ratio of the two stimuli was 8 or greater. The dominance of the brighter stimulus could be not attributed to either the latency difference or the ratio of the eye accelerations for the bright and dim stimuli presented singly. When stimuli comprised either spot targets or two patches of dots moving across separate locations in the visual field, the brighter stimulus had a much weaker suppressive influence; the initiation of pursuit could be accounted for by nearly equal vector averaging of the responses to the two stimuli singly. The suppressive effects of the brighter stimulus also appeared in human perceptual judgments, but again only for superimposed stimuli. We conclude that one locus of the interaction of two moving visual stimuli is shared by perception and action and resides in local inhibitory connections in the visual cortex. A second locus resides deeper in sensory-motor processing and may be more closely related to action selection than to stimulus selection. PMID:21593392

  2. Planktonic encounter rates in homogeneous isotropic turbulence: the case of predators with limited fields of sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D M

    2003-05-07

    It is a well-established fact that encounter rates between different species of planktonic microorganism, either swimming, or passively advected by the flow, are enhanced in the presence of turbulence. However, due to the complexity of the various calculations involved, current encounter rate theories are based on a number of simplifying approximations, which do not reflect reality. In particular, a typical planktonic predator is usually assumed to have perfect 'all round vision', i.e. it can perceive a prey particle at any relative orientation, provided it lies within some given contact radius R. Unfortunately, there is a wide body of experimental evidence that this is not the case. In this study the encounter problem for a predator with a limited field of sensory perception, swimming in a turbulent flow, is examined from first principles and a number of new modelling ideas proposed. A wide range of kinematic simulations are also undertaken to test these predictions. Particular attention is paid to the swimming strategy such a predator might undertake to enhance its encounter rate. It turns out that the predicted optimum swimming strategies differ radically from the results of previous work. Empirical evidence is also presented which appears to support these new findings.

  3. Effects of ageing on orofacial fine force control and its relationship with parallel change in sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Etter, Nicole M; Mckeon, Patrick O; Dressler, Emily V; Andreatta, Richard D

    2017-05-03

    Current theoretical models suggest the importance of a bidirectional relationship between sensation and production in the vocal tract to maintain lifelong speech skills. The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in orofacial skilled force production and to begin defining the orofacial perception-action relationship in healthy adults. Low-level orofacial force control measures (reaction time, rise time, peak force, mean hold force (N) and force hold SD) were collected from 60 adults (19-84 years). Non-parametric Kruskal Wallis tests were performed to identify statistical differences between force and group demographics. Non-parametric Spearman's rank correlations were completed to compare force measures against previously published sensory data from the same cohort of participants. Significant group differences in force control were found for age, sex, speech usage and smoking status. Significant correlational relationships were identified between labial vibrotactile thresholds and several low-level force control measures collected during step and ramp-and-hold conditions. These findings demonstrate age-related alterations in orofacial force production. Furthermore, correlational analysis suggests as vibrotactile detection thresholds increase, the ability to maintain low-level force control accuracy decreases. Possible clinical applications and treatment consequences of these findings for speech disorders in the ageing population are provided.

  4. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meaning-making matters in product design: Users’ sensory perceptions and experience evaluations of long-acting vaginal gels and intravaginal rings

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Rochelle K.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Vargas, Sara E.; Senocak, Natali; Shaw, Julia G.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Smith, Kelley Alison; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-01-01

    Objective Users’ sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) of intravaginal products can inform acceptability and adherence. Focusing on the meanings women derive from formulation/device characteristics facilitates developers’ design iterations toward optimizing user experience. We investigated how users of long acting gels and intravaginal rings (IVRs) impute meaning to characteristics that may affect future product use. Study Design Focus groups were conducted with contraceptive IVR and vaginal lubricant users. Current perceptibility science and historical theory on the cultural acceptability of fertility regulating methods informed the analysis. Results 21 IVR users and 29 lubricant users attended focus groups in which they manipulated products in their hands and discussed reactions to product characteristics. Participants used prior product experiences, and sensory perceptions of prototype manipulations, to inform meanings about product properties and performance for pregnancy, disease prevention, comfort, and perceived efficacy. The meanings derived from product characteristics depended on why the product would be used; a characteristic deemed problematic in one risk context may be considered preferable in another. Conclusions Intravaginal product users create narratives that ascribe influence or causality to product characteristics. These meanings, whether correct or incorrect biologically, will shape vaginal product acceptability, use, and effectiveness. Implications Long-acting, and sustained-release, drug delivery systems will be part of the multipurpose prevention continuum. Developers must consider how sensory experiences and culturally salient assumptions shape the meanings users make of product design characteristics. Those meanings will ultimately impact use and effectiveness. PMID:26276246

  6. Meaning-making matters in product design: users' sensory perceptions and experience evaluations of long-acting vaginal gels and intravaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Rochelle K; van den Berg, Jacob J; Vargas, Sara E; Senocak, Natali; Shaw, Julia G; Buckheit, Robert W; Smith, Kelley Alison; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-12-01

    Users' sensory perceptions and experiences of intravaginal products can inform acceptability and adherence. Focusing on the meanings women derive from formulation/device characteristics facilitates developers' design iterations toward optimizing user experience. We investigated how users of long-acting gels and intravaginal rings (IVRs) impute meaning to characteristics that may affect future product use. Focus groups were conducted with contraceptive IVR and vaginal lubricant users. Current perceptibility science and historical theory on the cultural acceptability of fertility regulating methods informed the analysis. A total of 21 IVR users and 29 lubricant users attended focus groups in which they manipulated products in their hands and discussed reactions to product characteristics. Participants used prior product experiences and sensory perceptions of prototype manipulations to inform meanings about product properties and performance for pregnancy, disease prevention, comfort, and perceived efficacy. The meanings derived from product characteristics depended on why the product would be used; a characteristic deemed problematic in one risk context may be considered preferable in another. Intravaginal product users create narratives that ascribe influence or causality to product characteristics. These meanings, whether correct or incorrect biologically, will shape vaginal product acceptability, use, and effectiveness. Long-acting and sustained-release drug delivery systems will be part of the multipurpose prevention continuum. Developers must consider how sensory experiences and culturally salient assumptions shape the meanings users make of product design characteristics. Those meanings will ultimately impact use and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Noxious sensory perceptions in patients with mild to moderate rosacea treated with azelaic acid 15% gel.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2004-10-01

    Patients with rosacea form a unique subset of the sensitive skin population because of the barrier defects inherent in this condition and the increased propensity for burning/stinging from topical products. This propensity for burning/ stinging when medications, skin care products, or cosmetics are applied to the facial skin has been frequently documented but never quantified. The objective of this 2-week study was to determine the prevalence of heightened neurosensory perceptions of burning/stinging in a random population of 40 women with mild to moderate rosacea defined as 15 or fewer inflammatory papules or pustules. Also evaluated was the effect of azelaic acid 15% gel on barrier function and facial stinging utilizing transepidermal water loss (TEWL), corneometry, and lactic acid facial sting tests as noninvasive measurement criteria. At baseline, the incidence of lactic acid stinging among these rosacea subjects was 62.5%, which is substantially higher than observed in the general population. Two weeks after application of azelaic acid 15% gel, no evidence of barrier damage was noted on TEWL or corneometry tests. Moreover, there was no statistical relationship between lactic acid stinging and a stinging response that is occasionally reported with exposure to azelaic acid 15% gel.

  8. Absence of stimulus-driven synchronization effects on sensory perception in autism: Evidence for local underconnectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Tommerdahl, Mark; Tannan, Vinay; Holden, Jameson K; Baranek, Grace T

    2008-01-01

    above that of controls. Conclusion It is speculated that the differences in sensory perceptual capacities in the presence of synchronized conditioning stimuli in autism are due to local under-connectivity in cortex at the minicolumnar organizational level, and that the above-average TOJ thresholds in autism could be attributed to structural differences that have been observed in the frontostrial system of this population. PMID:18435849

  9. Factors associated with parental perception of child vulnerability 12 months after abnormal newborn screening results.

    PubMed

    Tluczek, Audrey; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L

    2011-10-01

    We identified factors associated with elevated parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) 12 months after newborn screening (NBS) of 136 children: healthy, normal results (H, n = 37), cystic fibrosis carriers (CF-C, n = 40), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n = 36), and cystic fibrosis (CF, n = 23). Controlling for infant and parent characteristics, mixed logit structural equation modeling showed direct paths to elevated PPCV included parent female sex, CF diagnosis, and high documented illness frequency. PPCV was positively associated with maternal parenting stress. Infants with CF and CF carriers had significantly more documented illness frequency than H group infants. The CH group did not differ significantly from the H group and had no paths to PPCV. Unexpectedly high documented illness frequency among infants who are CF carriers warrants further investigation.

  10. Acceptably aware during general anaesthesia: 'dysanaesthesia'--the uncoupling of perception from sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Jaideep J

    2014-07-01

    This review makes the case for 'dysanaesthesia', a term encompassing states of mind that can arise in the course of anaesthesia during surgery, characterised by an uncoupling of sensation and perceptual experience. This is reflected in a macroscopic, functional model of anaesthetically-relevant consciousness. Patients in this state can be aware of events but in a neutral way, not in pain, sometimes personally dissociated from the experiences. This makes events associated with surgery peripheral to their whole experience, such that recall is less likely and if it exists, makes any spontaneous report of awareness unlikely. This state of perception-sensation uncoupling is therefore broadly acceptable (a minimum requirement for acceptable anaesthesia) but since it is likely a dose-related phenomenon, may also represent a precursor for awareness with adverse recall. This hypothesis uniquely explains the often inconsistent responses seen during the experimental paradigm of the 'isolated forearm technique', wherein apparently anaesthetised patients exhibit a positive motor response to verbal command, but no spontaneous movement to surgery. The hypothesis can also explain the relatively high incidence of positive response to relatively direct questions for recall (e.g., using the Brice questionnaire; ∼1:500; the vast majority of these being neutral reports) versus the very low incidence of spontaneous reports of awareness (∼1:15,000; a higher proportion of these being adverse recollections). The hypothesis is consistent with relevant notions from philosophical discussions of consciousness, and neuroscientific evidence. Dysanaesthesia has important implications for research and also for the development of appropriate monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  12. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  13. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: a healthy-aging perspective.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2015-02-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals--over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds--renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own 'privileged' temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: A healthy-aging perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2014-01-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals - over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds - renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own ‚privileged‘ temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. PMID:24956028

  15. Lateralized abnormalities in auditory M50 sensory gating and cortical thickness of the superior temporal gyrus in post-traumatic stress disorder: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Michael; Villarreal, Gerardo; McHaffie, Greg R; Jimenez, Billy; Smith, Ashley K; Calais, Lawrence A; Hanlon, Faith; Thoma, Robert J; Cañive, José M

    2011-02-28

    Auditory sensory gating deficits have been reported in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the hemispheric and neuronal origins of this deficit are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate auditory sensory gating of the 50-ms response (M50) in patients diagnosed with PTSD by utilizing magnetoencephalography (MEG); (2) explore the relationship between M50 sensory gating and cortical thickness of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) measured with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); and (3) examine the association between PTSD symptomatology and bilateral sensory gating. Seven participants with combat-related PTSD and eleven controls underwent the paired-click sensory gating paradigm. MEG localized M50 neuronal generators to the STG in both groups. The PTSD group displayed impaired M50 gating in the right hemisphere. Thinner right STG cortical thickness was associated with worse right sensory gating in the PTSD group. The right S1 M50 source strength and gating ratio were correlated with PTSD symptomatology. These findings suggest that the structural integrity of right hemisphere STG cortices play an important role in auditory sensory gating deficits in PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Gray colored glasses: is major depression partially a sensory perceptual disorder?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Major depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that can involve profound dysregulation of mood. While depression is associated with additional abnormalities besides reduced mood, such as cognitive dysfunction, it is not well established that sensory perception is also altered in this disorder (aside from in psychotic depression). Recent studies have shown that visual processing, in as early a stage as the retina, is impaired in depression. This paper examines the hypothesis that major depression can involve alterations in sensory perception. A Pubmed literature search investigated several lines of evidence: innervation of sensory cortex by serotonin and norepinephrine; antidepressant drugs and depression itself affecting processing of facial expressions of emotion; electroencephalography (EEG) studies of depressed persons and antidepressant drugs; involvement of the serotonergic 5HT2A receptor in both depression and hallucinogenic drug action; psychotic depression involving sensory distortions; dopamine possibly playing a role in depression; and the antidepressant effect of blocking the NMDA receptor with ketamine. Data from each of these lines of evidence support the hypothesis that major depression can involve sensory perceptual alterations. Loss of interest in one's daily activities and inability to experience pleasure, also known as anhedonia, in major depression may in part be mediated by sensory abnormalities, whereby normal sensory perceptions are no longer present to activate reward circuitry. The data supporting the hypothesis tend to be associative, so further confirmation of the hypothesis awaits additional controlled experiments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients.

  18. Indigenous and traditional plants: South African parents’ knowledge, perceptions and uses and their children’s sensory acceptance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dietary shift from indigenous and traditional plants (ITPs) to cash crops and exotic plant food sources increases the risk of malnutrition and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, especially in poor rural communities. Farm communities in South Africa have been associated with poor nutritional status and extreme poverty. ITPs have been found to be affordable sources of several micronutrients. However, knowledge of and the use of these plants are declining, and little is known about the child’s acceptance of dishes prepared with ITPs. This knowledge can be used to improve the general acceptance of ITPs. This study aimed to gain insight into parents’ knowledge and perceptions and their use of ITPs in a farming community in the North West Province and to assess children’s acceptance of and preference for dishes made with African leafy vegetables (ALVs) and Swiss chard. Methods Parents (n = 29) responsible for food preparation for children in grade 2 to 4 in two schools were purposively selected for four focus group discussions. A sensory evaluation assessed the children’s (n = 98) acceptance of, preference for and intended consumption of dishes made with leafy vegetables. The dishes were made of Amaranthus spp., Cleome gynandra, Cucurbita maxima, Vigna unguiculata and Beta vulgaris. Results Parents mentioned 30 edible ITPs during the focus group discussions. Parents had knowledge of available ITPs and their use as food. Location, seasonal variation and rainfall affected the availability of and access to ITPs. Sun-dried ITPs were stored in sacks for later use. ITPs were perceived as healthy, affordable and delicious, hence acceptable to the parents. The children also evaluated the dishes made with ALVs as acceptable in terms of colour, smell and taste. Swiss chard was preferred, most likely because of the children’s exposure to this vegetable. Children indicated that they would like to eat these leafy vegetables twice a

  19. Vibrating perception threshold and body mass index are associated with abnormal foot plantar pressure in type 2 diabetes outpatients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Liu, Fang; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Jue; Zhao, Jun-Gong; Zhao, Jun; Lu, Feng-Di; Jia, Wei-Ping

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the influencing factors of foot plantar pressure and attempted to find practical indicators to predict abnormal foot pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vibration perception threshold (VPT) and foot plantar pressure in 1,126 T2DM outpatients were examined. Patients were assigned to Group A (n=599), Group B (n=312), and Group C (n=215) according to VPT values and to Group I (n=555), Group II (n=436), and Group III (n=135) based on body mass index (BMI). The clinical characteristics and pressure-time integral (PTI) were compared among the three groups, and the associated factors of the total PTI in the entire foot (T-PTI) were analyzed. PTI of Group C in heel medial and heel lateral was significantly higher than that of Group A (all P<0.01). PTI of Group B in the right fifth metatarsal and heel medial was significantly higher than that of Group A (all P<0.05). T-PTI of Group C was significantly higher than those of Groups A and B, and that of Group B was higher than that of Group A (all P<0.01). PTI of Groups II and III in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal, midfoot, heel medial, and heel lateral was significantly higher than that of Group I (all P<0.05). T-PTI of Groups II and III was significantly higher than that of Group I (all P<0.01). Pearson correlation analysis showed that T-PTI was positively associated with age, VPT, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI (P<0.05). In multiple stepwise regression analysis, VPT (P=0.004) and BMI (P=0.000) were independent risk factors of T-PTI, and each 1 unit increase in BMI increased the T-PTI by 5.962 kPa•s. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis further revealed that the optimal cutpoint of VPT and BMI to predict the abnormal PTI was 21 V (odds ratio=2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.67-3.25) and 24.9 kg/m(2) (odds ratio=2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.55-2.90), respectively. Having a VPT higher than 21 V and a BMI above 24.9 kg/m(2) increases

  20. Influence of the matrix composition on the volatility and sensory perception of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in model wine solutions.

    PubMed

    Petrozziello, Maurizio; Asproudi, Andriani; Guaita, Massimo; Borsa, Daniela; Motta, Silvia; Panero, Loretta; Bosso, Antonella

    2014-04-15

    This study was aimed at investigating the influence of ethanol, wine polyphenols and yeast extract on the volatility of 4-ethylphenols in red wines. The use of solid-phase microextraction with short extraction times for the study of the headspace composition, revealed a strong influence of ethanol and polyphenols on reducing the volatility of 4-ethylphenols in a model wine. At the same time, the influence of ethanol and polyphenols on the perception of the "Brett character" (stable, manure, horse sweat and phenolic notes) due to 4-ethylphenols was evaluated by sensory analysis. Polyphenols and ethanol were found to have a significant influence on the olfactory perception of the tainted wines. On the contrary, a direct influence of yeast extract on the volatility of 4-ethylphenols was not observed, although some results suggested that the effectiveness of polyphenols in reducing the volatility of 4-ethylphenols could be limited by the presence of yeast proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    PubMed

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  2. Effects of Pulsed Ultrasound Therapy on Sensory Nerve Conduction Parameters and the Pain Threshold Perceptions in Humans.

    PubMed

    Schuhfried, Othmar; Vukanovic, Damir; Kollmann, Christian; Pieber, Karin; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is an often-used clinical modality in the nonsurgical treatment of entrapment neuropathies. To date, the possible mechanism of action of pulsed ultrasound therapy on the peripheral nerve in the treatment of entrapment neuropathies is unclear. To examine the effects of pulsed ultrasound therapy on peripheral nerve conduction parameters. A prospective, randomized, single blind, crossover study. Outpatient clinic of a university department of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Twelve healthy volunteers between 22 and 38 years of age (8 male, 4 female). Each patient (blinded) received ultrasound therapy (1W/cm(2), pulsed: 1:5; over the course of the superficial branch of the radial nerve of the nondominant arm) and placebo (intensity: zero). The interval between the individual interventions was 1 week. The sensory nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve action potential, supramaximal stimulation intensity of the sensory fibers of the radial nerve, and the pressure pain threshold in the sensory area of the radial nerve before and after an ultrasound-therapy and placebo intervention. To compare the results of the intervention with placebo, a paired-samples t test was applied. Compared with placebo, a significant increase after pulsed ultrasound therapy was found for the supramaximal stimulation intensity (P = .02). For the other primary outcome parameters, a significant difference was not found. The immediate effect of pulsed ultrasound therapy on a sensory nerve is minimal. Therefore, the previously reported benefit of pulsed ultrasound therapy in entrapment neuropathies might be not due to its effect on the sensory nerve. I. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  4. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  5. Comparison of skin barrier function and sensory nerve electric current perception threshold between IgE-high extrinsic and IgE-normal intrinsic types of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Ishida, K; Mukumoto, S; Yamada, Y; Imokawa, G; Kabashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Bito, T; Nakamura, M; Ogasawara, K; Tokura, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background Two types of atopic dermatitis (AD) have been proposed, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this seemingly heterogeneous disorder. The extrinsic type shows high IgE levels presumably as a consequence of skin barrier damage and feasible allergen permeation, whereas the intrinsic type exhibits normal IgE levels and is not mediated by allergen-specific IgE. Objectives To investigate the relationship between pruritus perception threshold and skin barrier function of patients with AD in a comparison between the extrinsic and intrinsic types. Methods Enrolled in this study were 32 patients with extrinsic AD, 17 with intrinsic AD and 24 healthy individuals. The barrier function of the stratum corneum was assessed by skin surface hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and pruritus perception was evaluated by the electric current perception threshold (CPT) of sensory nerves upon neuroselective transcutaneous electric stimulation. Results Skin surface hydration was significantly lower and TEWL was significantly higher in extrinsic AD than intrinsic AD or normal controls. Although there was no statistically significant difference in CPT among extrinsic AD, intrinsic AD and normal controls, CPT was significantly correlated with skin surface hydration and inversely with TEWL in intrinsic AD and normal controls, but not extrinsic AD. Finally, CPT was correlated with the visual analogue scale of itch in the nonlesional skin of patients with extrinsic but not intrinsic AD. Conclusions Patients with extrinsic AD have an impaired barrier, which increases the pre-existing pruritus but rather decreases sensitivity to external stimuli. In contrast, patients with intrinsic AD retain a normal barrier function and sensory reactivity to external pruritic stimuli.

  6. Orthodontic treatment need and self-perception of 11-16-year-old Saudi Arabian children with a sensory impairment attending special schools.

    PubMed

    Al-Sarheed, M; Bedi, R; Hunt, N P

    2003-03-01

    To determine the self-perception and need for orthodontic treatment in young sensory [visual (VI) and hearing (HI)] impaired children attending special schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Also, to determine if gender and social class background influence the rating and self-perception of malocclusion among the children. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A prospective study on orthodontic treatment need in sensory impaired children. Seventy-seven VI, 210 HI, and 494 control (C) children aged 11-16 years. The aesthetic component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was determined using the standard 10 pictures for the C group and HI with a modified version (tactile graphic) for VI. The dental health component (DHC) and AC of IOTN were used to allocate each child to no need, borderline need and definite need for treatment subgroups. Sixty-five per cent of VI, 21.8 per cent HI, and 18.7 per cent of the C were perceived to be in need of orthodontic treatment. However, 55.8 VI, 43 per cent HI and 34 per cent C were rated for treatment need based upon the AC. The difference between the examiner and the child's rating of treatment need was found to be statistically significant among the HI and control children (P < 0.001). The VI children who were scored for treatment by the examiner as having need for treatment had similar perceptions of their treatment need irrespective of their social background. Male VI children had a higher DHC score, but both VI and HI males had a higher normative and self-perceived need based on AC.

  7. Sensory deprivation due to otitis media episodes in early childhood and its effect at later age: A psychoacoustic and speech perception measure.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Hemanth Narayan; Koonoor, Vishal

    2016-11-01

    Past research has reported that children with repeated occurrences of otitis media at an early age have a negative impact on speech perception at a later age. The present study necessitates documenting the temporal and spectral processing on speech perception in noise from normal and atypical groups. The present study evaluated the relation between speech perception in noise and temporal; and spectral processing abilities in children with normal and atypical groups. The study included two experiments. In the first experiment, temporal resolution and frequency discrimination of listeners with normal group and three subgroups of atypical groups (had a history of OM) a) less than four episodes b) four to nine episodes and c) More than nine episodes during their chronological age of 6 months to 2 years) were evaluated using measures of temporal modulation transfer function and frequency discrimination test. In the second experiment, SNR 50 was evaluated on each group of study participants. All participants had normal hearing and middle ear status during the course of testing. Demonstrated that children with atypical group had significantly poorer modulation detection threshold, peak sensitivity and bandwidth; and frequency discrimination to each F0 than normal hearing listeners. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation seen between measures of temporal resolution; frequency discrimination and speech perception in noise. It infers atypical groups have significant impairment in extracting envelope as well as fine structure cues from the signal. The results supported the idea that episodes of OM before 2 years of agecan produce periods of sensory deprivation that alters the temporal and spectral skills which in turn has negative consequences on speech perception in noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perception of musical tension in short chord sequences: the influence of harmonic function, sensory dissonance, horizontal motion, and musical training.

    PubMed

    Bigand, E; Parncutt, R; Lerdahl, F

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of four variables (tonal hierarchies, sensory chordal consonance, horizontal motion, and musical training) on perceived musical tension. Participants were asked to evaluate the tension created by a chord X in sequences of three chords [C major-->X-->C major] in a C major context key. The X chords could be major or minor triads major-minor seventh, or minor seventh chords built on the 12 notes of the chromatic scale. The data were compared with Krumhansl's (1990) harmonic hierarchy and with predictions of Lerdahl's (1988) cognitive theory, Hutchinson and Knopoff's (1978) and Parncutt's (1989) sensory-psychoacoustical theories, and the model of horizontal motion defined in the paper. As a main outcome, it appears that judgments of tension arose from a convergence of several cognitive and psychoacoustics influences, whose relative importance varies, depending on musical training.

  9. Cigarettes with different nicotine levels affect sensory perception and levels of biomarkers of exposure in adult smokers.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Diana L; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Oldham, Michael J; Fisher, Michael T; Wang, Jingzhu; Gogova, Maria; Kobal, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Few clinical studies involving cigarettes have provided a comprehensive picture of smoke exposure, test article characterization, and insights into sensory properties combined. The purpose of these pilot studies was to determine whether cigarettes with different levels of nicotine but similar tar levels would affect sensory experience or smoking behavior so as to significantly alter levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOE). In 2 confined, double-blind studies, 120 adult smokers switched from Marlboro Gold cigarettes at baseline to either 1 of 2 lower nicotine cigarettes or 1 of 2 higher nicotine cigarettes and then to the other cigarette after 5 days. Urinary excretion of exposure biomarkers (nicotine equivalents [NE], total and free 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL], 1-hydroxypyrene, and 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid) as well as carboxyhemoglobin and plasma cotinine were measured at baseline, Day 5, and Day 10. Daily cigarette consumption was monitored and sensory characteristics were rated for each cigarette. With higher nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine increased while nonnicotine BOE decreased without changes in cigarette consumption. In contrast, with lower nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine dropped while nonnicotine BOE and cigarettes per day increased. Higher nicotine cigarettes were rated harsher and stronger than at baseline while lower nicotine cigarettes were less strong. All 4 test cigarettes were highly disliked. These studies demonstrate that abrupt increases or decreases in nicotine and the resulting sensory changes impact BOE through changes in intensity or frequency of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Unintended Embodiment of Concepts into Percepts: Sensory Activation Boosts Attention for Same-Modality Concepts in the Attentional Blink Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial; Godefroid, Jimmy; Corneille, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that sensory priming facilitates reports of same-modality concepts in an attentional blink paradigm. Participants had to detect and report two target words (T1 and T2) presented for 53 ms each among a series of nonwords distractors at a frequency of up to 19 items per second. SOA between target words was set to 53 ms or 213 ms,…

  11. TrueNorth: A High-Performance, Low-Power Neurosynaptic Processor for Multi-Sensory Perception, Action, and Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    traditional processors on neural network algorithms [2]. Our efforts are now focused on both embedded and large-scale TrueNorth based systems , as...in Fig. 3. The IBM Neurosynaptic System 414 Evaluation Platform (NS1e) is targeted at embedded applications (dimensions: 125mm x 69mm, and weight...from embedded and embodied intelligence to large-scale perceptual analysis of streaming multi-sensory data, this massively parallel processor consumes

  12. Reliability of cutaneous electrical perceptual threshold in the assessment of sensory perception in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    King, Nicolas K K; Savic, Gordana; Frankel, Hans; Jamous, Ali; Ellaway, Peter H

    2009-07-01

    The electrical perceptual threshold (EPT) test complements the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) assessment of cutaneous sensory function by providing a quantitative assessment for each dermatome. The aim here was to establish the reliability of the EPT by examining inter- and intra-rater repeatability of test results in spinal cord injury (SCI). Twelve persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI; two stable at >20 months and 10 sub-acute at <9 months post-injury) and 12 control subjects took part. EPT was established at the ASIA sensory key points. A pulse of 0.5 ms in duration was applied three times per second. Threshold was determined by the method of limits. The strength of stimulation was augmented (0.1 mA.s(-1)) until the recipient reported sensation, then reduced until sensation was lost. EPT was taken as the lowest strength at which the subject reported sensation. Threshold was determined by two raters to establish intra- and inter-rater reliability. There were no significant differences in mean intra- or inter-rater EPT values at, above, or below the level of lesion (ASIA sensory level) for iSCI subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.56-0.80 for intra-rater and 0.52-0.91 for inter-rater classes, depending on the level tested. There was a significant correlation (Pearson's r = 0.93) between EPTs for four different dermatomes of control subjects assessed using two different types of stimulator. EPT provides an objective and quantitative measure of threshold for cutaneous sensory function. The method has good inter- and intra-rater reliability, and can be assessed using different stimulators.

  13. Plankton predation rates in turbulence: a study of the limitations imposed on a predator with a non-spherical field of sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D M; Bala, S I

    2006-09-07

    This paper presents an extension to previously published work which studied encounter rates of planktonic predators with restricted perception fields, to examine the related problems of prey capture and predation rates. Small-scale turbulence influences planktonic predation in two ways: the extra energy of the flow enhances the number of encounter events between individual predator and prey meso/micro-zooplankton, but it lowers the capture probability (because the time spent by the predator and prey in close proximity is reduced). Typically, an 'encounter' has usually been defined as an event when a potential prey swims (or is advected) to within a distance R of the predator in any direction. However, there is a considerable body of experimental evidence showing that predators perception fields are far from spherical; often they are wedge shaped (e.g. fish larvae), or strongly aligned with the directions of sensory antennae (e.g. copepods); and this is certain to influence optimal predation strategies. This paper presents a theoretical model which for the first time examines the combined problems of both encounter and capture for a predator with a restricted perception field swimming in a turbulent flow. If such a predator adopts a cruising strategy (continuous swimming, possibly with direction changes) the model predictions suggest that predation rates actually vary little with swimming speed, in contrast to predictions made for spherical perception fields. Consequently, cruising predators are predicted to swim at relatively low speeds whilst foraging. However, application of the model to examine the net energy gain of a typical pause-travel predator (the Atlantic cod larva), does predict the existence of an optimal ratio of the length of pauses to time spent swimming (specifically one pause phase to every two travel phases), in line with experimental observations. Kinematic simulations are presented which support these findings.

  14. Intraepidermal nerve fibre density, quantitative sensory testing and nerve conduction studies in a patient material with symptoms and signs of sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Løseth, S; Lindal, S; Stålberg, E; Mellgren, S I

    2006-02-01

    Small diameter nerve fibre (SDNF) neuropathy is an axonal sensory neuropathy affecting unmyelinated (C) and thin myelinated (A-delta) fibres. We have evaluated 75 patients with symptoms and signs suggesting SDNF dysfunction with or without symptoms and signs of co-existing large diameter nerve fibre involvement. The patients were examined clinically and underwent skin biopsy, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between the different methods and in particular measurements of thermal thresholds and intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) density in the same site of the distal leg. The main subdivision of the patient material was made according to the overall NCS pattern. Patients with normal NCS (38) had 6.4 +/- 3.8 and patients with abnormal NCS (37) had 4.4 +/- 3.4 IENF per mm (P = 0.02). Limen (difference between warm and cold perception thresholds) was significantly higher (more abnormal) in those with abnormal than in those with normal NCS (22.1 +/- 9.1 vs. 13.4 +/- 5.6, P < 0.0001). Cold perception threshold was more abnormal (P < 0.0001) than warm perception threshold (P = 0.002). Correlation between IENF and QST was statistically significant only when NCS was abnormal, and thus dependent of a more severe neuropathic process in SDNFs.

  15. Effect of intramuscular fat content and serving temperature on temporal sensory perception of sliced and vacuum packaged dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Jesús; Morcuende, David; Ventanas, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of three serving temperatures (7 °C, 16 °C and 20 °C) and two different ham sections varying in the intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured hams using the time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, appearance and odour of dry-cured hams were evaluated using a descriptive profile. Fluidity and brightness of the external fat, brightness of lean and all odour attributes increased as serving temperature increased whereas the hardness of external fat decreased with temperature. Oral temperature would have disguised the effect of serving temperature over time as a consequence of a possible balance between both temperatures during samples' consumption. TI revealed that the effect of serving temperature on flavour and texture perception was more noticeable along the first seconds of chewing. Odour intensities increased with the IMF content and temporal perception of hardness, saltiness and rancid flavour were also significantly influenced by the IMF content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    PubMed

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  17. Developmental and sex differences in somatosensory perception--a systematic comparison of 7- versus 14-year-olds using quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, M; Meyer, D; Hirschfeld, G; Kraemer, N; Hechler, T; Aksu, F; Krumova, E K; Magerl, W; Maier, C; Zernikow, B

    2011-11-01

    There are controversial discussions regarding developmental- and sex-related differences in somatosensory perception, which were found, eg, when comparing younger children (6-8 years), older children (9-12 years), and adolescents (13-16 years) using quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aim of our current study was to systematically assess the impact of age and sex using the QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). QST, including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, was assessed in 86 healthy 7-year-old children (42 girls and 44 boys) and 87 healthy 14-year-old adolescents (43 girls and 44 boys). The sample size was calculated a priori to detect medium-sized effects as found in the previous studies with adequate power. Developmental and sex differences were tested using univariate analysis of variance. Children were more sensitive to most pain stimuli, except cold pain stimuli, compared with adolescents, but did not differ in mechanical and thermal detection thresholds except in regard to cold stimuli. Sex had an impact only on warm detection, with girls being more sensitive. There were no interactions between age and sex. In conclusion, developmental changes during the puberty appear to influence pain perception, whereas sex effects in childhood are negligible. At present, it is not clear what brings about the differences between adult men and women that are apparent in epidemiological studies. Our results contradict the hypothesis that differences in peripheral nerve-fiber functioning underlie sex effects.

  18. Sensory and Perceptual Deprivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-04-22

    stimulation even in inane forms, and -- were more effectively persuaded by lectures advocating the existence of ghosts, poltergeists and extrasensory ... perception pbenomena. These provocative experiments at McGill were completed just about 10 years ago. What has happened in the decade since? Research...shown a greater change among isolated Ss in interest and belief in extra sensory perception topics (29, 56). Recent experiments have tended to confirm

  19. Relative Effects of Sensory Modalities and Importance of Fatty Acid Sensitivity on Fat Perception in a Real Food Model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xirui; Shen, Yuchi; Parker, Jane K; Kennedy, Orla B; Methven, Lisa

    Fat can be perceived through mouthfeel, odour and taste, but the influence of these modalities on fat perception remains undefined. Fatty acids are stimuli and individual sensitivity to fatty acids varies. Studies show association between fatty acid sensitivity, dietary intake and BMI, but results are conflicting. Therefore, this study examined this association, and the effect of modalities on fat perception. Two sub-studies were conducted. In study 1 (n = 46), fat intensity was assessed by milk/cream mixtures varying by five fat levels. Fat intensity was rated under four conditions: mouthfeel odour-masked, mouthfeel-masked, odour masked and with no masking. Mouthfeel masking was achieved using thickener and paraffin, odour masking using nose-clips. Fatty acid sensitivity was measured by 3-AFC staircase method using milk containing oleic acid (0.31-31.4 mM). In study 2 (n = 51), more fat levels were added into the intensity rating. A 2-AFC discrimination test was used to confirm whether fat levels could be distinguished. In the sensitivity test, a wider range of oleic acid was included. Fat intensity was rated higher without nose clips (p < 0.0001), implying that odour increased fat perception. Mouthfeel-masked samples were rated higher, showing that increased viscosity and lubricity enhanced fat perception (p < 0.0001). Participants could distinguish fat levels based on "taste" in rating tests and 2-AFC tests. Participants were divided into high-/medium-/low-sensitivity groups. No significant difference was found in fat intensity between groups; however, the high-sensitivity group discriminated more fat levels. No association between sensitivity groups, nutrient intake or BMI was found. Mouthfeel and odour can enhance fat perception. Fat level can be discriminated based on taste.

  20. The effect of combined sensory and semantic components on audio-visual speech perception in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over unisensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio-visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio-visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio-visual 'blur' compared to audio-visual 'no blur' condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable.

  1. Properties of oil/water emulsions affecting the deposition, clearance, and after-feel sensory perception of oral coatings.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Sara; den Hollander, Elyn; van de Velde, Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2015-03-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of (i) protein type, (ii) protein content, and (iii) viscosity of o/w emulsions on the deposition and clearance of oral oil coatings and after-feel perception. Oil fraction (m(oil)/cm(2)(tongue)) and after-feel perception differed considerably between emulsions which do not flocculate under in mouth conditions (Na-caseinate) and emulsions which flocculate under in mouth conditions (lysozyme). The irreversible flocculation of lysozyme stabilized emulsions caused slower oil clearance from the tongue surface compared to emulsions stabilized with Na-caseinate. Protein content had a negative relation with oil fraction for lysozyme stabilized emulsions and no relation for Na-caseinate stabilized emulsions immediately after expectoration. Viscosity differences did not affect oil fraction, although the presence of thickener decreased deposition of oil on tongue. We conclude that after-feel perception of o/w emulsions is complex and depends on the deposited oil fraction, the behavior of proteins in mouth, and thickeners.

  2. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  3. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  4. Consumer perception and sensory effect of oxidation in savory-flavored yogurt enriched with n-3 lipids.

    PubMed

    Rognlien, M; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Eigel, W N

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different oils (butter, fish, and oxidized fish) on sensory characteristics of a savory [chile-lime (CL)] low-fat yogurt using descriptive (unstructured line scales, 5 attributes) and affective (hedonic) sensory testing methods. Yogurts were each manufactured at low [1.1-1.2% total fat; 0.43% added oil (wt/wt)] or high [1.6% total fat; 1% added oil (wt/wt)] levels of fish oil, with high levels of fish oil targeted to deliver 145 mg of docosahexaenoic acid+eicosapentaenoic acid/170 g of yogurt. In a preliminary study, untrained panelists (n=31), using triangle tests, did not discriminate between low levels of fish and butter oils in unflavored yogurts but could discern yogurt with oxidized fish oil, even at the low level. Trained panelists (n=12) described lower lime and acid flavor characteristics in CL-flavored yogurts containing 1% oxidized fish oil compared with yogurts containing low levels of oxidized fish oil and low or high levels of butter and fish oils. Oxidized flavor was higher in CL-flavored yogurts with oxidized fish oil (low and high) and with the high level of fish oil. Consumer ratings (n=100; 9-point hedonic scale; 9="like extremely) of overall acceptability and flavor acceptability were bimodally distributed, with overall means between 4 and 5 ("neither like nor dislike") for CL-flavored yogurt with butter or fish oils (high level). The upper 50% of responses for yogurt with butter or fish oil were 6.51 and 6.31, respectively, for overall acceptability ("like slightly"), and 7.02 and 6.56, respectively, for flavor acceptability. A large segment of consumers may be interested in incorporating heart-healthy n-3 lipids in their diets through frequent consumption of a savory yogurt enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  5. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  6. Do all threats work the same way? Divergent effects of fear and disgust on sensory perception and attention.

    PubMed

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Li, Wen

    2011-03-02

    The extant literature indicates that threat enhances cognitive processing and physiological arousal. However, being largely based on fear-relevant processes, this model overlooks other adaptive but inhibitory mechanisms in alternative threat emotions such as disgust. Combining visual event-related potential (VERP) indices (P1 and P250/s) with a simple visual search task, we contrasted behavioral and neural responses to carefully controlled images of fear, disgust, or neutral emotion (as a baseline condition). Consistent with previous findings, fear augmented VERP amplitude and electrical current density in associate visual cortices, paralleled by facilitated object search. Conversely, disgust generated an opposite pattern of effects, reflected by reduced VERP potentials and diminished visual cortical current density along with slowed search time. These results demonstrated suppressed sensory perceptual and attentional processing of disgust information, akin to the central ecological function of disgust to minimize contact with contagious objects to avoid contamination and disease. Notably, the rapid emergence of discrimination between fear and disgust as early as 96 ms after stimulus emphasizes the efficiency of emotional classification not only between threat and nonthreat, but also within the threat domain itself. Finally, a positive correlation between anxiety and behavioral and neural divergence of fear and disgust further indicates that despite their convergence on the core affect of threat, disgust and fear instigate distinct response profiles, providing novel insights into the manifold and sometimes paradoxical symptomology in anxiety disorders.

  7. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer's attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes.

    PubMed

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  8. Salvinorin-A Induces Intense Dissociative Effects, Blocking External Sensory Perception and Modulating Interoception and Sense of Body Ownership in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H.; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salvinorin-A is a terpene with agonist properties at the kappa-opioid receptor, the binding site of endogenous dynorphins. Salvinorin-A is found in Salvia divinorum, a psychoactive plant traditionally used by the Mazatec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, for medicinal and spiritual purposes. Previous studies with the plant and salvinorin-A have reported psychedelic-like changes in perception, but also unusual changes in body awareness and detachment from external reality. Here we comprehensively studied the profiles of subjective effects of increasing doses of salvinorin-A in healthy volunteers, with a special emphasis on interoception. Methods: A placebo and three increasing doses of vaporized salvinorin-A (0.25, 0.50, and 1mg) were administered to eight healthy volunteers with previous experience in the use of psychedelics. Drug effects were assessed using a battery of questionnaires that included, among others, the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the Altered States of Consciousness, and a new instrument that evaluates different aspects of body awareness: the Multidimensional Assessment for Interoceptive Awareness. Results: Salvinorin-A led to a disconnection from external reality, induced elaborate visions and auditory phenomena, and modified interoception. The lower doses increased somatic sensations, but the highest dose led to a sense of a complete loss of contact with the body. Conclusions: Salvinorin-A induced intense psychotropic effects characterized by a dose-dependent gating of external audio-visual information and an inverted-U dose-response effect on body awareness. These results suggest a prominent role for the kappa opioid receptor in the regulation of sensory perception, interoception, and the sense of body ownership in humans. PMID:26047623

  9. Salvinorin-A Induces Intense Dissociative Effects, Blocking External Sensory Perception and Modulating Interoception and Sense of Body Ownership in Humans.

    PubMed

    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R; Riba, Jordi

    2015-06-05

    Salvinorin-A is a terpene with agonist properties at the kappa-opioid receptor, the binding site of endogenous dynorphins. Salvinorin-A is found in Salvia divinorum, a psychoactive plant traditionally used by the Mazatec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, for medicinal and spiritual purposes. Previous studies with the plant and salvinorin-A have reported psychedelic-like changes in perception, but also unusual changes in body awareness and detachment from external reality. Here we comprehensively studied the profiles of subjective effects of increasing doses of salvinorin-A in healthy volunteers, with a special emphasis on interoception. A placebo and three increasing doses of vaporized salvinorin-A (0.25, 0.50, and 1mg) were administered to eight healthy volunteers with previous experience in the use of psychedelics. Drug effects were assessed using a battery of questionnaires that included, among others, the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the Altered States of Consciousness, and a new instrument that evaluates different aspects of body awareness: the Multidimensional Assessment for Interoceptive Awareness. Salvinorin-A led to a disconnection from external reality, induced elaborate visions and auditory phenomena, and modified interoception. The lower doses increased somatic sensations, but the highest dose led to a sense of a complete loss of contact with the body. Salvinorin-A induced intense psychotropic effects characterized by a dose-dependent gating of external audio-visual information and an inverted-U dose-response effect on body awareness. These results suggest a prominent role for the kappa opioid receptor in the regulation of sensory perception, interoception, and the sense of body ownership in humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. Cortical oscillations and sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Luc H; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2012-07-01

    Many theories of perception are anchored in the central notion that the brain continuously updates an internal model of the world to infer the probable causes of sensory events. In this framework, the brain needs not only to predict the causes of sensory input, but also when they are most likely to happen. In this article, we review the neurophysiological bases of sensory predictions of "what' (predictive coding) and 'when' (predictive timing), with an emphasis on low-level oscillatory mechanisms. We argue that neural rhythms offer distinct and adapted computational solutions to predicting 'what' is going to happen in the sensory environment and 'when'.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Site-Specific Effects of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Sensory Perception and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) on sensory and pain thresholds (STh and PTh) in healthy individuals and pain level (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for c-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was evaluated using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. C-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (S1) increases both STh (P<0.001, effect size of 26.84%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 11.62%). In addition, c-tDCS over M1 led to STh increase (P<0.005, effect size of 30.44%). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of c-tDCS. The small number of studies precluded subgroup analysis. Nevertheless, meta-analysis showed that in all groups (except c-tDCS of S1) active c-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences in STh/PTh in healthy and PL in patient group. This review provides evidence for the site-specific effectiveness of c-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy individuals and decreasing PL in patients with chronic pain. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted with caution. Given that the level of blinding was not considered in the inclusion criteria, the results of the current study should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25978673

  12. The effect of nonfunctional tooth contact on sensory and pain perception in patients with myofascial pain of the jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Okayasu, Ichiro; Oi, Kumiko; De Laat, Antoon

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nonfunctional tooth contact on sensory threshold (tactile detection threshold: TDT) and pain thresholds (filament-prick pain detection threshold: FPT; pressure pain threshold: PPT) in the orofacial region of patients with myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. The study was performed on 36 subjects: 20 normal subjects and 16 patients. Using a stair-case method, TDT and FPT were measured by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, on the cheek skin (CS) overlying the masseter muscles (MM) and on the skin overlying the palm side of the thenar skin (TS). PPT was measured at the central part of the MM using a pressure algometer. Each parameter was measured before and after keeping light tooth contact for 5 min (session 1) and keeping the jaw relaxed for 5 min (session 2) as a control. There were significant effects of experimental condition (before-after 5 min) on the TDT and FPT at several sites: after 5 min, TDT was higher in all measurement sites except the left CS of the patients in session 2. As for the FPT, the reactions between CS and TS were quite opposite in both sessions: after 5 min, the FPT at the CS decreased and/or remained, but the FPT at the TS increased and/or remained. Significant session effects (session 1-session 2) were only found on the FPT at the CS in patients. Sensitivity to FPT was more susceptible to tooth contact condition, especially in the patients. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Active force perception depends on cerebellar function.

    PubMed

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Okamura, Allison M; Bastian, Amy J

    2012-03-01

    Damage to the cerebellum causes characteristic movement abnormalities but is thought to have minimal impact on somatosensory perception. Traditional clinical assessments of patients with cerebellar lesions reveal no perceptual deficits despite the fact that the cerebellum receives substantial somatosensory information. Given that abnormalities have been reported in predicting the visual consequences of movement, we suspect that the cerebellum broadly participates in perception when motor output is required (i.e., active perception). Thus we hypothesize that cerebellar integrity is essential for somatosensory perception that requires motor activity, but not passive somatosensory perception. We compared the perceptual acuity of human cerebellar patients to that of healthy control subjects in several different somatosensory perception tasks with minimal visual information. We found that patients were worse at active force and stiffness discrimination but similar to control subjects with regard to passive cutaneous force detection, passive proprioceptive detection, and passive proprioceptive discrimination. Furthermore, the severity of movement symptoms as assessed by a clinical exam was positively correlated with impairment of active force perception. Notably, within the context of these perceptual tasks, control subjects and cerebellar patients displayed similar movement characteristics, and hence differing movement strategies are unlikely to underlie the differences in perception. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the cerebellum is vital to sensory prediction of self-generated movement and suggest a general role for the cerebellum in multiple forms of active perception.

  14. Involvement of distal sensory nerves in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Isak, Baris; Tankisi, Hatice; Johnsen, Birger; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Torvin MØLler, Anette; Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Christensen, Peter BrØGger; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2016-12-01

    The diagnostic criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) require normal sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS) or abnormal NCS only in the presence of neuropathy of identified etiology. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of involvement of Aß sensory fibers in ALS. Distal sensory NCS [antidromic dorsal sural (DS) and orthodromic medial plantar (MP)] and conventional sensory NCS (unilateral median sensory and bilateral sural nerves) were performed in 16 definite and 2 probable ALS patients (based on Awaji criteria) and 31 controls. Abnormal conventional sensory NCS were found in 8 (44.4%) ALS patients and 1 (3.2%) control subject (P = 0.002), whereas abnormal distal sensory NCS were found in 12 (66.7%) ALS patients and 3 (9.6%) controls (P < 0.0001). Distal sensory NCS were more often abnormal than conventional sensory NCS in ALS. Muscle Nerve 54: 1086-1092, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Stroke prevention strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart valve abnormalities: perceptions of 'valvular' atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Lip, Gregory Y H; Larsen, Torben B; Madrid, Antonio; Dobreanu, Dan; Jędrzejczyk-Patej, Ewa; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) Survey was to assess the perceptions of 'valvular' atrial fibrillation (AF) and management of AF patients with various heart valve abnormalities in daily clinical practice in European electrophysiology (EP) centres. Questionnaire survey was sent via the Internet to the EHRA-EP Research Network Centres. Of the 52 responding centres, 42 (80.8%) were university hospitals. Choosing the most comprehensive definition of valvular AF, a total of 49 centres (94.2%) encountered a mechanical prosthetic heart valve and significant rheumatic mitral stenosis, 35 centres (67.3%) also considered bioprosthetic valves, and 25 centres (48.1%) included any significant valvular heart disease, requiring surgical repair in the definition of valvular AF. Only three centres (5.8%) would define valvular AF as the presence of any (even mild) valvular abnormality. None of the centres would use non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in AF patients with mechanical prosthetic valves, only 5 centres (9.8%) would use NOACs in patients with significant mitral stenosis, 17 centres (32.7%) would consider the use of NOACs in patients with bioprosthetic valves, and 21 centres (41.2%) would use NOACs in patients with a non-recent transcatheter valve replacement/implantation, while 13 centres (25.5%) would never consider the use of NOACs in AF patients with even mild native heart valve abnormality. Our survey showed marked heterogeneity in the definition of valvular AF and thromboprophylactic treatments, with the use of variable NOACs in patients with valvular heart disease other than prosthetic heart valves or significant mitral stenosis, indicating that this term may be misleading and should not be used.

  16. Subclinical sensory involvement in monomelic amyotrophy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jenny P; Waclawik, Andrew J; Lotz, Barend P

    2005-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman presented with weakness and atrophy in her hand without associated sensory symptoms, preceding events, or structural abnormalities on neuroimaging. No sensory deficits were detected on neurologic examination. Electrophysiological studies showed not only the expected motor findings for monomelic amyotrophy (MA) in the affected limb, but also markedly reduced sensory nerve action potentials when compared with the unaffected side. These findings suggest that subclinical sensory involvement can exist in patients with otherwise classic presentations of MA.

  17. Sensory Neuronopathies.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Allison; Gwathmey, Kelly G

    2017-08-23

    The sensory neuronopathies are sensory-predominant polyneuropathies that result from damage to the dorsal root and trigeminal sensory ganglia. This review explores the various causes of acquired sensory neuronopathies, the approach to diagnosis, and treatment. Diagnostic criteria have recently been published and validated to allow differentiation of sensory neuronopathies from other polyneuropathies. On the basis of serial electrodiagnostic studies, the treatment window for the acquired sensory neuronopathies has been identified as approximately 8 months. If treatment is initiated within 2 months of symptom onset, there is a better opportunity for improvement of the patient's condition. Even though sensory neuronopathies are rare, significant progress has been made regarding characterization of their clinical, electrophysiologic, and imaging features. This does not hold true, however, for treatment. There have been no randomized controlled clinical trials to guide management of these diseases, and a standard treatment approach remains undetermined.

  18. Quantitative Sensory Testing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fründt, Odette; Grashorn, Wiebke; Schöttle, Daniel; Peiker, Ina; David, Nicole; Engel, Andreas K.; Forkmann, Katarina; Wrobel, Nathalie; Münchau, Alexander; Bingel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Altered sensory perception has been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be related to aberrant sensory perception thresholds. We used the well-established, standardized Quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain to investigate 13 somatosensory parameters including…

  19. Percept

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-26

    The Percept software package is a collection of libraries and executables that provide tools for verifying computer simulations of engineering components and systems. Percept is useful for simulations using the finite element or finite volume methods on unstructured meshes. Percept includes API's for adaptive mesh refinement, geometry representation, the method of manufactured solutions, analysis of convergence including the convergence of vibrational eigenmodes, and metrics for analyzing the difference between fields represented on two different overlapping unstructured grids.

  20. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  1. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  2. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  3. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy.

  4. Sensory Constraints on Birdsong Syntax: Neural Responses to Swamp Sparrow Songs with Accelerated Trill Rates.

    PubMed

    Prather, Jf; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S

    2012-06-01

    Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This "broken syntax" has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow's brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This "flickering" auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax.

  5. Sensory Constraints on Birdsong Syntax: Neural Responses to Swamp Sparrow Songs with Accelerated Trill Rates

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S

    2013-01-01

    Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This “broken syntax” has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow’s brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This “flickering” auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax. PMID:23976787

  6. Massively parallel resequencing of the isogenic Drosophila melanogaster strain w1118; iso-2; iso-3 identifies hotspots for mutations in sensory perception genes

    PubMed Central

    Platts, Adrian E.; Land, Susan J.; Chen, Lang; Page, Grier P.; Rasouli, Parsa; Wang, Luan; Lu, Xiangyi; Ruden, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    We used the Illumina reversible-short sequencing technology to obtain 17-fold average depth (s.d. ~8) of ~94% of the euchromatic genome and ~1–5% of the heterochromatin sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster isogenic strain w1118; iso-2; iso-3. We show that this strain has a ~9 kb deletion that uncovers the first exon of the white (w) gene, ~4 kb of downstream promoter sequences, and most of the first intron, thus demonstrating that whole-genome sequencing can be used for mutation characterization. We chose this strain because there are thousands of transposon insertion lines and hundreds of isogenic deficiency lines available with this genetic background, such as the Exelixis, Inc., and the DrosDEL collections. We compared our sequence to Release 5 of the finished reference genome sequence which was made from the isogenic strain y1; cn1 bw1 sp1 and identified 356,614 candidate SNPs in the ~117 Mb unique sequence genome, which represents a substitution rate of ~1/305 nucleotides (~0.30%). The distribution of SNPs is not uniform, but rather there is a ~2-fold increase in SNPs on the autosome arms compared with the X chromosome and a ~7-fold increase when compared to the small 4th chromosome. This is consistent with previous analyses that demonstrated a correlation between recombination frequency and SNP frequency. An unexpected finding was a SNP hotpot in a ~20 Mb central region of the 4th chromosome, which might indicate higher than expected recombination frequency in this region of this chromosome. Interestingly, genes involved in sensory perception are enriched in SNP hotspots and genes encoding developmental genes are enriched in SNP coldspots, which suggests that recombination frequencies might be proportional to the evolutionary selection coefficient. There are currently 12 Drosophila species sequenced, and this represents one of many isogenic Drosophila melanogaster genome sequences that are in progress. Because of the dramatic increase in power in using

  7. Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent–child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. Methods/Design The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0) and when the child is one year old (T1). At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child–parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. Discussion The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life) and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal). In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their effects will be analysed, so

  8. Impaired perception of surface tilt in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Marian L.; Horak, Fay B.; Wright, W. Geoffrey; Schoneburg, Bernadette M.; Nutt, John G.; Mancini, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by early postural instability and backward falls. The mechanisms underlying backward postural instability in PSP are not understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that postural instability in PSP is a result of dysfunction in the perception of postural verticality. Methods We gathered posturography data on 12 subjects with PSP to compare with 12 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and 12 healthy subjects. Objective tests of postural impairment included: dynamic sensory perception tests of gravity and of surface oscillations, postural responses to surface perturbations, the sensory organization test of postural sway under altered sensory conditions and limits of stability in stance. Results Perception of toes up (but not toes down) surface tilt was reduced in subjects with PSP compared to both control subjects (p≤0.001 standing, p≤0.007 seated) and subjects with PD (p≤0.03 standing, p≤0.04 seated). Subjects with PSP, PD and normal controls accurately perceived the direction of gravity when standing on a tilting surface. Unlike PD and control subjects, subjects with PSP exerted less postural corrective torque in response to toes up surface tilts. Discussion Difficulty perceiving backward tilt of the surface or body may account for backward falls and postural impairments in patients with PSP. These observations suggest that abnormal central integration of sensory inputs for perception of body and surface orientation contributes to the pathophysiology of postural instability in PSP. PMID:28267762

  9. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  10. Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world.

  11. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission. I - Sensory adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation to one-g: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Human sensory/motor adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity are assessed. Preflight and postflight vestibular and visual responses for the crew on the Spacelab-1 mission are studied; the effect of the abnormal pattern of otolith afferent signals caused by weightlessness on the pitch and roll perception and postural adjustments of the subjects are examined. It is observed that body position and postural reactions change due to weightlessness in order to utilize the varied sensory inputs in a manner suited to microgravity conditions. The aspects of reinterpretation include: (1) tilt acceleration reinterpretation, (2) reduced postural response to z-axis linear acceleration, and (3) increased attention to visual cues.

  12. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission. I - Sensory adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation to one-g: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Human sensory/motor adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity are assessed. Preflight and postflight vestibular and visual responses for the crew on the Spacelab-1 mission are studied; the effect of the abnormal pattern of otolith afferent signals caused by weightlessness on the pitch and roll perception and postural adjustments of the subjects are examined. It is observed that body position and postural reactions change due to weightlessness in order to utilize the varied sensory inputs in a manner suited to microgravity conditions. The aspects of reinterpretation include: (1) tilt acceleration reinterpretation, (2) reduced postural response to z-axis linear acceleration, and (3) increased attention to visual cues.

  13. Sensory perineuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, W B; Squier, M V

    1988-01-01

    A case of sensory perineuritis is described, affecting individual cutaneous nerves in the extremities and with a chronic inflammatory exudate confined to the perineurium in a sural nerve biopsy. No cause was found. The condition slowly resolved on steroid treatment. Images PMID:3379419

  14. Sensory Processing in Low-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Distinct Sensory Profiles and Their Relationships with Behavioral Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonthier, Corentin; Longuépée, Lucie; Bouvard, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are relatively universal in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, and can be very disabling. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated these abnormalities in low-functioning adults with autism. The goals of the present study were (a) to characterize distinct profiles of sensory dysfunction, and (b) to…

  15. Sensory Processing in Low-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Distinct Sensory Profiles and Their Relationships with Behavioral Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonthier, Corentin; Longuépée, Lucie; Bouvard, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are relatively universal in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, and can be very disabling. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated these abnormalities in low-functioning adults with autism. The goals of the present study were (a) to characterize distinct profiles of sensory dysfunction, and (b) to…

  16. Sensory symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Eric P; Stornelli, Jennifer L; O'Rourke, Julia A; Koesterer, Karmen; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature regarding abnormalities in sensory functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including evidence regarding the neurobiological basis of these symptoms, their clinical correlates, and their treatment. Abnormalities in responses to sensory stimuli are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. The underlying neurobiology of these symptoms is unclear, but several theories have been proposed linking possible etiologies of sensory dysfunction with known abnormalities in brain structure and function that are associated with ASD. In addition to the distress that sensory symptoms can cause patients and caregivers, these phenomena have been correlated with several other problematic symptoms and behaviors associated with ASD, including restrictive and repetitive behavior, self-injurious behavior, anxiety, inattention, and gastrointestinal complaints. It is unclear whether these correlations are causative in nature or whether they are due to shared underlying pathophysiology. The best-known treatments for sensory symptoms in ASD involve a program of occupational therapy that is specifically tailored to the needs of the individual and that may include sensory integration therapy, a sensory diet, and environmental modifications. While some empirical evidence supports these treatments, more research is needed to evaluate their efficacy, and other means of alleviating these symptoms, including possible psychopharmacological interventions, need to be explored. Additional research into the sensory symptoms associated with ASD has the potential to shed more light on the nature and pathophysiology of these disorders and to open new avenues of effective treatments.

  17. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation produces variable changes in somatosensory evoked potentials, sensory perception and pain threshold: clinical implications for pain relief.

    PubMed Central

    Golding, J F; Ashton, H; Marsh, R; Thompson, J W

    1986-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation decreased early and late somatosensory evoked potential amplitudes and stimulus intensity ratings, and elevated sensory detection threshold, in normal subjects. Effects on pain threshold depended on pre-treatment threshold. These findings are relevant to treatment of clinical pain by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. PMID:3492591

  18. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative and fiber-selective evaluation of pain and sensory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Li, Si-Jiao; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Li, Ling; Guo, Sha-Sha; Yang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Pain and sensory disturbances affect many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to evaluate the pain and sensory sensitivity of each class of afferent fibers in PD patients and determine the effects of dopaminergic therapy on pain and sensory sensitivity. Current perception threshold (CPT) and pain tolerance thresholds (PTT) at three frequencies, 2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz, to stimulate Aβ fibers, Aδ fibers, and small C-polymodal fibers, respectively, were measured in 72 PD patients and 35 healthy controls. CPT was higher at all three frequencies and PTT was lower at 2000 Hz and 250 Hz in PD patients with pain versus healthy controls (P < 0.05). CPT was higher at 2000 Hz and 250 Hz and PTT was lower at 2000 Hz and 250 Hz in PD patients without pain versus healthy controls (P < 0.05). PD patients with pain exhibited higher CPT at 5 Hz and 250 Hz than PD patients without pain (P < 0.05). Dopaminergic therapy did not affect CPT or PPT in PD patients (P > 0.05). Abnormal Aδ fiber- and Aβ fiber-dependent sensory inputs may exist in PD. Abnormal sensory inputs via C fibers and Aδ fibers might be associated with the presence of pain in PD. Because dopaminergic therapy failed to mitigate these sensory and pain dysfunctions, mechanisms not involving the dopaminergic pathway are likely to be implicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomy of the antennal dorsal organ in female of Neodryinus typhlocybae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae): A peculiar sensory structure possibly involved in perception of host vibration.

    PubMed

    Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Ruschioni, Sara; Minuz, Roxana L; Bin, Ferdinando; Romani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Neodryinus typhlocybae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) is a natural enemy of the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa, which was introduced from North America into Europe and has become established in various regions as a pest species. Vibrational signals play a crucial role in the communication of M. pruinosa, which appears to be exploited by N. typhlocybae. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy have shown that the antennae of N. typhlocybae females have peculiar and complex sensory structures: deep longitudinal grooves that house long sensilla trichodea, termed here "Antennal Dorsal Organs." Such structures were not present on male antennae. These sensilla extend for the length of the grooves, without contact with the groove cuticle. Their hair shaft is empty and aporous, and inserted into a specialized socket, underneath which there is a cuticular ampulla-like chamber. Each sensillum is associated with two sensory neurons: one terminates at the proximal end of the dendritic sheath; the other continues into the sensillum sinus and is enclosed in the dendritic sheath. This second sensory neuron then enters the ampulla-like chamber through the circular opening, and then terminates with a conspicuous tubular body at the shaft base. The possible involvement of this peculiar structure in the context of host recognition mechanism is discussed.

  2. Primary processes in sensory cells: current advances.

    PubMed

    Frings, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of evolution, the strong and unremitting selective pressure on sensory performance has driven the acuity of sensory organs to its physical limits. As a consequence, the study of primary sensory processes illustrates impressively how far a physiological function can be improved if the survival of a species depends on it. Sensory cells that detect single-photons, single molecules, mechanical motions on a nanometer scale, or incredibly small fluctuations of electromagnetic fields have fascinated physiologists for a long time. It is a great challenge to understand the primary sensory processes on a molecular level. This review points out some important recent developments in the search for primary processes in sensory cells that mediate touch perception, hearing, vision, taste, olfaction, as well as the analysis of light polarization and the orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. The data are screened for common transduction strategies and common transduction molecules, an aspect that may be helpful for researchers in the field.

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... while you are pregnant. Combination of Genetic and Environmental Problems Some congenital abnormalities may occur if there is a genetic tendency for the condition combined with exposure to certain environmental influences within the womb during critical stages of ...

  4. Perception, illusions and Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Descriptive psychopathology makes a distinction between veridical perception and illusory perception. In both cases a perception is tied to a sensory stimulus, but in illusions the perception is of a false object. This article re-examines this distinction in light of new work in theoretical and computational neurobiology, which views all perception as a form of Bayesian statistical inference that combines sensory signals with prior expectations. Bayesian perceptual inference can solve the 'inverse optics' problem of veridical perception and provides a biologically plausible account of a number of illusory phenomena, suggesting that veridical and illusory perceptions are generated by precisely the same inferential mechanisms.

  5. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of conscious perception and its modulation by volition: implications of human auditory neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silbersweig, D A; Stern, E

    1998-01-01

    Conscious sensory perception and its modulation by volition are integral to human mental life. Functional neuroimaging techniques provide a direct means of identifying and characterizing in vivo the systems-level patterns of brain activity associated with such mental functions. In a series of positron emission tomography activation experiments, we and our colleagues have examined a range of normal and abnormal auditory states that, when contrasted, provide dissociations relevant to the question of the neural substrates of sensory awareness. These dissociations include sensory awareness in the presence and absence of external sensory stimuli, the transition from sensory unawareness to awareness (or vice versa) in the presence of sensory stimuli, and sensory awareness with and without volition. The auditory states studied include hallucinations, mental imagery, cortical deafness modulated by attention, and hearing modulated by sedation. The results of these studies highlight the distributed nature of the functional neuroanatomy that is sufficient, if not necessary, for sensory awareness. The probable roles of unimodal association (as compared with primary) cortices, heteromodal cortices, limbic/paralimbic regions and subcortical structures (such as the thalamus) are discussed. In addition, interactions between pre- and post-rolandic regions are examined in the context of top-down, volitional modulation of sensory awareness. PMID:9854260

  6. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  7. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-06

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  8. Sensory change following motor learning.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Nasir, Sazzad M; Darainy, Mohammad; Ostry, David J

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe two studies linking perceptual change with motor learning. In the first, we document persistent changes in somatosensory perception that occur following force field learning. Subjects learned to control a robotic device that applied forces to the hand during arm movements. This led to a change in the sensed position of the limb that lasted at least 24 h. Control experiments revealed that the sensory change depended on motor learning. In the second study, we describe changes in the perception of speech sounds that occur following speech motor learning. Subjects adapted control of speech movements to compensate for loads applied to the jaw by a robot. Perception of speech sounds was measured before and after motor learning. Adapted subjects showed a consistent shift in perception. In contrast, no consistent shift was seen in control subjects and subjects that did not adapt to the load. These studies suggest that motor learning changes both sensory and motor function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Noradrenergic and cholinergic modulation of olfactory bulb sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Sasha; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Neuromodulation in sensory perception serves important functions such as regulation of signal to noise ratio, attention, and modulation of learning and memory. Neuromodulators in specific sensory areas often have highly similar cellular, but distinct behavioral effects. To address this issue, we here review the function and role of two neuromodulators, acetylcholine (Ach) and noradrenaline (NE) for olfactory sensory processing in the adult main olfactory bulb. We first describe specific bulbar sensory computations, review cellular effects of each modulator and then address their specific roles in bulbar sensory processing. We finally put these data in a behavioral and computational perspective. PMID:22905025

  10. Sensory perception of and salivary protein response to astringency as a function of the 6-n-propylthioural (PROP) bitter-taste phenotype.

    PubMed

    Melis, Melania; Yousaf, Neeta Y; Mattes, Mitchell Z; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Tepper, Beverly J

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in astringency perception are poorly understood. Astringency from tannins stimulates the release of specific classes of salivary proteins. These proteins form complexes with tannins, altering their perceived astringency and reducing their bioavailability. We studied the bitter compound, 6-n-propylthioural (PROP), as a phenotypic marker for variation in astringency perception and salivary protein responses. Seventy-nine subjects classified by PROP taster status rated cranberry juice cocktail (CJC; with added sugar) supplemented with 0, 1.5 or 2.0g/L tannic acid (TA). Saliva for protein analyses was collected at rest, or after stimulation with TA or cranberry juice (CJ; without added sugar). CJC with 1.5g/L tannic acid was found to be less astringent, and was liked more by PROP non-taster males than PROP taster males, consistent with the expectation that non-tasters are less sensitive to astringency. Levels of acidic Proline Rich Proteins (aPRPs) and basic Proline Rich Proteins (bPRPs) decreased after TA, while levels of aPRPs, bPRPs and Cystatins unexpectedly rose after CJ. Increases in bPRPs and Cystatins were only observed in PROP tasters. The PROP phenotype plays a gender-specific, but somewhat limited role in the perceived astringency of tannic-acid supplemented, cranberry juice cocktail. The PROP phenotype (regardless of gender) may also be involved in the release of salivary proteins previously implicated in oral health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. National survey of sensory features in children with ASD: factor structure of the sensory experience questionnaire (3.0).

    PubMed

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T

    2014-04-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e., hyporesponsiveness; hyperresponsiveness; sensory interests, repetitions and seeking behaviors; enhanced perception), five method factors of sensory modalities (i.e., auditory, visual, tactile, gustatory/olfactory, vestibular/proprioceptive), and one of social context were tested with good model fit. Child and family characteristics associated with the sensory response patterns were explored. The effect of sensory response patterns on autism severity was tested, controlling for key child and family characteristics. The SEQ-3.0 demonstrates an empirically valid factor structure specific to ASD that considers sensory response patterns, modalities, and social context.

  12. Parenting behaviors of African American and Caucasian families: parent and child perceptions, associations with child weight, and ability to identify abnormal weight status.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the agreement between parent and child perceptions of parenting behaviors, the relationship of the behaviors with the child's weight status, and the ability of the parent to correctly identify weight status in 176 parent-child dyads (89 Caucasian and 87 African American). Correlational and regression analyses were used. Findings included moderate to weak correlations in child and parent assessments of parenting behaviors. Caucasian dyads had higher correlations than African American dyads. Most parents correctly identified their own and their child's weight status. Parents of overweight children used increased controlling behaviors, but the number of controlling behaviors decreased when the parent expressed concern with their child's weight.

  13. Comparing sensory experience in bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide within and between human twins and singletons: intrapair differences in thresholds and genetic variance estimates.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative genetic studies revealed that not all of the phenotypic variance in PTC taste perception is heritable. To study quantitative variations in PTC tasting ability in twins and to estimate heritability of PTC taste perception on the taste of twin data on males and females sexes separately. The data for PTC taste sensitivity following the classic method of Harris & Kalmus (1949) were collected on a sample of 141 twin pairs (66 MZ and 75 DZ) and 275 singletons (128 males and 147 females) from Chandigarh, India. Genetic analyses were performed following Christian (1979), Donner (1986) and Sham (1998). Frequency of non-tasters was similar in twins (33 %) and singletons (32 %), but significant sex differences were observed. No differences were found between zygosities for mean thresholds. Similarly, no evidence of variance heterogeneity and environmental covariance was seen between zygosities. Since no basic assumption of the twin method was found violated, within-pair estimates of genetic variance would be unbiased. These estimates were highly significant in both males and females. However, dominance and additive components of genetic variance were found to differ between sexes. PTC thresholds do not seem to be significantly affected by environmental factors as no variance inequality was observed between twin zygosities. Intensity of bitterness (scalar dimensions) of PTC is a separate trait having no commonality with the genetic basis of recognition threshold for PTC tasting ability. The receptors recognizing bitter taste are different from the receptors determining intensity of taste. The absolute difference between co-twins in PTC thresholds can be used as a simple tool in the twin zygosity diagnosis. The results show that none of the MZ co-twins had manifested difference of more than 3 in their PTC threshold.

  14. Exploring women's sensory experiences of undergoing colposcopy and related procedures: implications for preparatory sensory information provision.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mairead; Waller, Jo; Gallagher, Pamela; Martin, Cara M; JO'Leary, John; D'Arcy, Tom; Prendiville, Walter; Flannelly, Grainne; Sharp, Linda

    2016-12-01

    Some women experience distress during colposcopy examinations which is partly related to women's fear, or experience, of pain during the procedure. However, little is known about women's sensory experiences of colposcopy (other than pain) or what might impact on these experiences. The aim of this study was to explore women's sensory experiences of colposcopy and related procedures and identify factors which influenced negative sensory experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 women who had undergone, for the first time, a colposcopy (some with related procedures, including punch biopsies and loop excision) as part of follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology. Interviews were analysed thematically using the Framework Approach to organise the data and identify emerging higher-order themes. Women described a range of sensory experiences including pain or discomfort, cramping, stinging and cold sensations (due to the application of acetic acid to the cervix). Four key themes emerged as important aspects of the overall sensory experience: levels of pain, treatment-specific sensations, anaesthetic-specific sensations and solution-specific sensations. Factors that may influence women having a negative sensory experience were sensory expectations of the procedure(s) and lack of preparatory sensory information. Our study provides unique in-depth insight into women's sensory experiences of colposcopy and related procedures and suggests women require more preparatory sensory information. The issues identified as contributing to women having a negative sensory experience may help inform the development of pre-colposcopy information which may better prepare women with abnormal cervical cytology for follow-up examinations.

  15. Physiology of the sensory sphere under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuganov, Y. M.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the influence on sensory perception of certain space flight factors, including weightlessness, acceleration, and vibration, is presented. Several illusions which occur under these conditions are described. The results of ground based experiments are also discussed.

  16. Sensory Development: Brief Visual Deprivation Alters Audiovisual Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lomber, Stephen G; Butler, Blake E

    2016-11-21

    Two recent studies have independently demonstrated that short periods of visual deprivation early in human development can have long-term functional consequences on sensory perception and on the balance between auditory and visual attention.

  17. Physiology of the sensory sphere under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuganov, Y. M.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the influence on sensory perception of certain space flight factors, including weightlessness, acceleration, and vibration, is presented. Several illusions which occur under these conditions are described. The results of ground based experiments are also discussed.

  18. Perception and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Beverly

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a summary of perception research and to suggest practical applications which will improve students' and teachers' communication ability. The "theory" section of this work is devoted to the definition of perception as a selective process, dependent on such factors as acuity of sensory equipment, physical…

  19. Health-related quality of life and perception of anxiety in women with abnormal cervical cytology referred for colposcopy: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Annu; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Leminen, Arto; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) in patients with abnormal cervical cytology referred for colposcopy. An observational study with prospective and retrospective cohorts. In the prospective arm 240 women referred for colposcopy filled in the 15D HRQoL and the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires and were followed up for 12 months. In the retrospective arm 208 patients who had been treated for cervical dysplasia eight years earlier filled in the 15D HRQoL questionnaire. Results were compared with the age- and sex-standardized general population. In the prospective part of the study, the mean 15D score of the patients did not differ from that of the general population. On the dimensions of sleeping, distress and sexual activity, however, the patients scored lower than the general population (p<0.001). Patients with higher levels of anxiety at baseline, according to the STAI questionnaire, had lower HRQoL during the whole 12-month observation period (p<0.001). The overall HRQoL score of the patients treated for cervical dysplasia eight years earlier did not differ from that of the general population. Abnormal cytology and referral for colposcopy were associated with anxiety and slightly impaired psychosocial components of HRQoL but did not reduce the overall HRQoL. High anxiety levels at baseline were associated with impaired HRQoL. Previous treatment for cervical dysplasia was not associated with impaired overall HRQoL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating Human Sensory Perceptions and the Compartment Bag Test Assays as Proxies for the Presence and Concentration of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Yolanda M; Collins, Shalean M; Mbullo, Patrick; Boateng, Godfred O; Young, Sera L; Richardson, Ruth E

    2017-07-24

    We compared the concentrations of Escherichia coli quantified with Colilert(™) and the compartment bag test (CBT) in source water and household stored drinking water (SDW) in 35 households in western Kenya. We also investigated the associations of the perceptions of organoleptic properties and overall quality with ≥ 1 MPN/100 mL E. coli in SDW. Participants who rated the taste or smell of their SDW "< 5" on a 1 = "poor" to 5 = "excellent" Likert scale were 8.71 or 7.04 times more likely, respectively, to have ≥ 1 MPN/100 mL E. coli. Organoleptic properties are innate, albeit imperfect, indicators of fecal pollution in water. Within their shared quantification range, concentrations of E. coli enumerated with Colilert and CBT were similar and had a significant correlation coefficient, 0.896 (95% confidence interval = 0.691-1.101). The methods had moderate agreement within the World Health Organization's health risk levels (Cohen's Kappa coefficient = 0.640). In low-resource settings, CBT provides comparable assessments of E. coli concentrations to Colilert.

  1. Perception and the Mind-Body Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslep, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses sensory perception. The author reorganizes a previous conception of the interaction between sense organ and physical object and suggests how educational researchers study the perception of physical objects. (DF)

  2. Teaching through Sensory-Motor Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arena, John I., Ed.

    Included in the collection are articles on sensory-motor sequencing experiences in learning by R.G. Heckelman, integrating form perception by Floria Coon-Teters, building patterns of retention by Harold Helms, hand-eye coordination by Shirley Linn, laterality and directionality by Sheila Benyon, body image and body awareness by Grace Petitclerc,…

  3. Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well-synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses "knowledge" that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of…

  4. Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well-synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses "knowledge" that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of…

  5. Improvement of sensory function after sequestrectomy for lumbar disc herniation: a prospective clinical study using quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Tschugg, Anja; Lener, Sara; Hartmann, Sebastian; Neururer, Sabrina; Wildauer, Matthias; Thomé, Claudius; Löscher, Wolfgang N

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have investigated sensory recovery in patients with lumbar disc herniation using rather subjective methods. There have been no reports on changes of sensory function in patients suffering from a preoperative sensory deficit using quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of this prospective study were (1) to assess the recovery of preoperative sensory dysfunction after lumbar sequestrectomy and (2) to quantify the strength of relationship between a sensory deficit and the patient's quality of life. We applied the QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) in fifty-two patients with a single lumbar disc herniation confirmed on MRI treated by lumbar sequestrectomy. Further evaluation included a detailed medical history, a physical examination, numeric rating scale for leg, EQ-5D questionnaire, and thermometer. Disc surgery resulted in a significant reduction of leg pain and a significant gain of quality of life. Thermal, mechanical, and vibration perception thresholds showed an obvious side-to-side difference preoperatively (p < 0.005). An early recovery of mechanical and vibration perception thresholds was detected, whereas cold perception needed more than 6 months to recover (p < 0.05). Quality of life was independent from perception thresholds, but correlated significantly with pain reduction. Our data clearly show that there is a subjective and quantifiable improvement in sensory dysfunction postoperatively. The current data suggest that a sensory dysfunction does not influence a patient's quality of life.

  6. [Sensory illusions in hang-gliding].

    PubMed

    Bousquet, F; Bizeau, A; Resche-Rigon, P; Taillemite, J P; De Rotalier

    1997-01-01

    Sensory illusions in hang-gliding and para-gliding. Hang-gliding and para-gliding are at the moment booming sports. Sensory illusions are physiological phenomena sharing the wrong perception of the pilote's real position in space. These phenomena are very familiar to aeroplane pilotes, they can also be noticed on certain conditions with hang-gliding pilotes. There are many and various sensory illusions, but only illusions of vestibular origin will be dealt with in this article. Vestibular physiology is reminded with the working principle of a semicircular canal. Physiology and laws of physics explain several sensory illusions, especially when the pilote loses his visual landmarks: flying through a cloud, coriolis effect. Also some specific stages of hang-gliding foster those phenomena: spiraling downwards, self-rotation, following an asymetric closing of the parachute, spin on oneself. Therefore a previous briefing for the pilotes seems necessary.

  7. Pelvic floor dysfunction and sensory impairment: Current evidence.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Charlotte; Smith, Anthony; Marshall, Andy; Reid, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    To explore the role of sensory nerve impairment in women with pelvic organ prolapse, painful bladder syndrome, urinary and fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. Medline and Embase were searched for articles in which sensory testing, either quantitative sensory testing or current perception thresholds, had been used to evaluate women with pelvic organ prolapse, stress and urge urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence and female sexual dysfunction. All search terms were expanded within each database prior to searching. Research to date has included small numbers of participants, used poorly matched controls, lacked a systemic sensory examination and applied non-standardized sensory testing techniques. However, the evidence suggests women with pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate sensory dysfunction. The role of sensory impairment in stress urinary incontinence is inconclusive. In women with urge urinary incontinence there is some evidence to suggest it may be urethrally mediated. Women with painful bladder syndrome may have more sensitive nerve endings which are unable to ignore repeated stimuli. Sensory impairment is common in women with sexual dysfunction, typically involving larger nerve fibres. There were no studies evaluating sensory function in women with fecal incontinence. Current evidence suggests women with pelvic floor dysfunction demonstrate sensory impairment though the causes remain unclear. Further studies are needed to investigate the different conditions of pelvic floor dysfunction using standardized sensory testing techniques, as well as evaluate the timing and mechanism by which any sensory impairment develops. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:550-556, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Language-Universal Sensory Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Wang, H.-L. Sharon; Cruz, Alicia; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Studies in sensory neuroscience reveal the critical importance of accurate sensory perception for cognitive development. There is considerable debate concerning the possible sensory correlates of "phonological processing", the primary cognitive risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Across languages, children with dyslexia have a specific…

  9. Language-Universal Sensory Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Wang, H.-L. Sharon; Cruz, Alicia; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Studies in sensory neuroscience reveal the critical importance of accurate sensory perception for cognitive development. There is considerable debate concerning the possible sensory correlates of "phonological processing", the primary cognitive risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Across languages, children with dyslexia have a specific…

  10. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Middleton, Natalie A.; Theriot, Jeremy J.; Parker, Patrick D.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations

  11. Effect of Facial Sensory Re-training on Sensory Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Essick, G.K.; Phillips, C.; Zuniga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 100% of patients experience trauma to the trigeminal nerve during orthognathic surgery, impairing sensation and sensory function on the face. In a recent randomized clinical trial, people who performed sensory re-training exercises reported less difficulty related to residual numbness and decreased lip sensitivity than those who performed standard opening exercises only. We hypothesized that re-training reduces the impaired performance on neurosensory tests of tactile function that is commonly observed post-surgically. We analyzed thresholds for contact detection, two-point discrimination, and two-point perception, obtained during the clinical trial before and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, to assess tactile detection and discriminative sensitivities, and subjective interpretation of tactile stimulation, respectively. Post-surgery, the retrained persons exhibited less impairment, on average, than non-retrained persons only in two-point perception (P < 0.025), suggesting that retrained persons experienced or interpreted the tactile stimuli differently than did non-retrained persons. PMID:17525360

  12. Sensory Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Pamela J.

    This manual is intended to provide information leading to reliable assessment of vision and hearing capabilities of children considered to have dual sensory impairments. Ongoing sensory assessment is necessary to determine the extent of residual sensory abilities that should be considered in educational programming decisions and to determine any…

  13. Is there a connection between postprandial hyperglycemia and IGT related sensory nerve dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Németh, N; Putz, Z; Istenes, I; Körei, A E; Vági, O E; Kempler, M; Gandhi, R; Jermendy, G; Tesfaye, S; Tabák, Á G; Kempler, P

    2017-07-01

    To assess the risk factors for sensory nerve dysfunction in subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Seventy-two people with isolated IGT (WHO 1999 criteria) and 39 gender and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent detailed clinical and neurological assessment including quantitative sensory testing using the Neurometer device (current perception threshold measurement on four limbs at three different frequencies). Sensory nerve dysfunction was defined as at least two abnormalities on any frequencies on the upper or lower limbs. Sensory nerve dysfunction was more prevalent among subjects with IGT compared to controls (58.3 vs. 10.3%, OR: 11.23, 95%CI: 3.57-35.35). This association was not influenced by BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic neuropathy (multiple adjusted OR: 13.87, 95%CI: 3.18-60.58), but further adjustment for glycaemic measures abolished the association (OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 0.07-35.68). Assessing the components of glycaemic measures separately, the association between sensory nerve dysfunction and IGT was not affected by HbA1c (OR: 13.94, 95%CI: 1.84-105.5). It was, however, substantially attenuated by fasting plasma glucose (OR: 6.75, 95%CI: 1.33-34.27) while the significance was lost after adjustment for 120 min postload glucose level (OR: 3.76, 95%CI: 0.26-54.10). In the pooled population assessed, independent determinants of sensory nerve dysfunction were older age, 120 min glucose, higher height and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at near significance. Sensory nerve dysfunction amongst subjects with IGT was not explained by cardiovascular covariates, only by glycaemic measures. In addition to 120 min glucose, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at borderline significance, age, and height were the independent determinants of sensory nerve dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human

  14. Age differences in suprathreshold sensory function.

    PubMed

    Heft, Marc W; Robinson, Michael E

    2014-02-01

    While there is general agreement that vision and audition decline with aging, observations for the somatosensory senses and taste are less clear. The purpose of this study was to assess age differences in multimodal sensory perception in healthy, community-dwelling participants. Participants (100 females and 78 males aged 20-89 years) judged the magnitudes of sensations associated with graded levels of thermal, tactile, and taste stimuli in separate testing sessions using a cross-modality matching (CMM) procedure. During each testing session, participants also rated words that describe magnitudes of percepts associated with differing-level sensory stimuli. The words provided contextual anchors for the sensory ratings, and the word-rating task served as a control for the CMM. The mean sensory ratings were used as dependent variables in a MANOVA for each sensory domain, with age and sex as between-subject variables. These analyses were repeated with the grand means for the word ratings as a covariate to control for the rating task. The results of this study suggest that there are modest age differences for somatosensory and taste domains. While the magnitudes of these differences are mediated somewhat by age differences in the rating task, differences in warm temperature, tactile, and salty taste persist.

  15. Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, Ellen A; Caterina, Michael J

    2007-02-22

    Sensory neurons innervating the skin encode the familiar sensations of temperature, touch and pain. An explosion of progress has revealed unanticipated cellular and molecular complexity in these senses. It is now clear that perception of a single stimulus, such as heat, requires several transduction mechanisms. Conversely, a given protein may contribute to multiple senses, such as heat and touch. Recent studies have also led to the surprising insight that skin cells might transduce temperature and touch. To break the code underlying somatosensation, we must therefore understand how the skin's sensory functions are divided among signalling molecules and cell types.

  16. [Spotlight on sensory irritation and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2005-10-01

    Sensory irritation is directly bound to the concept of sensitive skin. A large proportion of the population, in particular young women, is affected. The reported symptoms are those of skin discomfort without any visible alteration of the skin. According to the subjects, the timing and the cutaneous sites, various perceptions occur, including pruritus, burning and stinging sensations. Sensory irritation is difficult to quantify because it remains subjective by essence. The condition is sometimes aggravated by some cosmetics, cleaning and cleansing products, wool contact and exposure to cold and dry climate. The responsible ingredients are often agents affecting functions of stratum corneum without being obvious chemical irritants.

  17. "A little information excites us." Consumer sensory experience of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B

    2014-07-01

    This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese.

  18. Epilepsy and the Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relations of epilepsy and the sensory systems are bidirectional. Epilepsy may act on sensory systems by producing sensory seizure symptoms, by altering sensory performance, and by epilepsy treatment causing sensory side effects. Sensory system activity may have an important role in both generation and inhibition of seizures. PMID:27857611

  19. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet

    2016-10-17

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  20. A model for communication of sensory quality in the seafood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    Sensory quality has a key influence of consumer perception of a product. It is therefore of great importance for the processing industry that the sensory quality fulfils the expectations of the consumer. Sensory evaluations are the ultimate tool to measure and communicate sensory quality, but it is generally not fully implemented in the chain from catch to consumer. The importance of communicating sensory demands and results from evaluations in the seafood processing chain is described and a Seafood Sensory Quality Model (SSQM) is suggested as a communication tool.

  1. Perception and Hierarchical Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kiebel, Stefan J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest that perception could be modeled by assuming that sensory input is generated by a hierarchy of attractors in a dynamic system. We describe a mathematical model which exploits the temporal structure of rapid sensory dynamics to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the trajectories of faster sensory signals. We link this hierarchical account to recent developments in the perception of human action; in particular artificial speech recognition. We argue that these hierarchical models of dynamical systems are a plausible starting point to develop robust recognition schemes, because they capture critical temporal dependencies induced by deep hierarchical structure. We conclude by suggesting that a fruitful computational neuroscience approach may emerge from modeling perception as non-autonomous recognition dynamics enslaved by autonomous hierarchical dynamics in the sensorium. PMID:19649171

  2. Auditory sensory gating deficit and cortical thickness in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thoma, R J; Hanlon, F M; Sanchez, N; Weisend, M P; Huang, M; Jones, A; Miller, G A; Canive, J M

    2004-11-30

    Both an EEG P50 sensory gating deficit and abnormalities of the temporal lobe structure are considered characteristic of schizophrenia. The standard P50 sensory gating measure does not foster differential assessment of left- and right-hemisphere contributions, but its analogous MEG M50 component may be used to measure gating of distinct auditory source dipoles localizing to left- and right-hemisphere primary auditory cortex. The present study sought to determine how sensory gating ratio may relate to cortical thickness at the site of the auditory dipole localization. A standard auditory paired-click paradigm was used during MEG for patients (n=22) and normal controls (n=11). Sensory gating ratios were determined by measuring the strength of the 50 ms response to the second click divided by that of the first click (S2/S1). Cortical thickness was assessed by two reliable raters using 3D sMRI. Results showed that: (1) patients had a P50 and left M50 sensory gating deficit relative to controls; (2) cortex in both hemispheres was thicker in the control group; (3) in schizophrenia, poorer left-hemisphere M50 sensory gating correlated with thinner left-hemisphere auditory cortical thickness; and (4) poorer right-hemisphere M50 auditory sensory gating ratio correlated with thinner right-hemisphere auditory cortical thickness in patients. The MEG-assessed hemisphere-specific auditory sensory gating ratio may be driven by this structural abnormality in auditory cortex.

  3. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  4. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  5. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  6. Brain structural correlates of sensory phenomena in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Subirà, Marta; Sato, João R.; Alonso, Pino; do Rosário, Maria C.; Segalàs, Cinto; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Real, Eva; Lopes, Antonio C.; Cerrillo, Ester; Diniz, Juliana B.; Pujol, Jesús; Assis, Rachel O.; Menchón, José M.; Shavitt, Roseli G.; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Cardoner, Narcís; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensory phenomena (SP) are uncomfortable feelings, including bodily sensations, sense of inner tension, “just-right” perceptions, feelings of incompleteness, or “urge-only” phenomena, which have been described to precede, trigger or accompany repetitive behaviours in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Sensory phenomena are also observed in individuals with tic disorders, and previous research suggests that sensorimotor cortex abnormalities underpin the presence of SP in such patients. However, to our knowledge, no studies have assessed the neural correlates of SP in patients with OCD. Methods We assessed the presence of SP using the University of São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale in patients with OCD and healthy controls from specialized units in São Paulo, Brazil, and Barcelona, Spain. All participants underwent a structural magnetic resonance examination, and brain images were examined using DARTEL voxel-based morphometry. We evaluated grey matter volume differences between patients with and without SP and healthy controls within the sensorimotor and premotor cortices. Results We included 106 patients with OCD and 87 controls in our study. Patients with SP (67% of the sample) showed grey matter volume increases in the left sensorimotor cortex in comparison to patients without SP and bilateral sensorimotor cortex grey matter volume increases in comparison to controls. No differences were observed between patients without SP and controls. Limitations Most patients were medicated. Participant recruitment and image acquisition were performed in 2 different centres. Conclusion We have identified a structural correlate of SP in patients with OCD involving grey matter volume increases within the sensorimotor cortex; this finding is in agreement with those of tic disorder studies showing that abnormal activity and volume increases within this region are associated with the urges preceding tic onset. PMID:25652753

  7. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  8. Genetic influences on oral fat perception and preference: Presented at the symposium "The Taste for Fat: New Discoveries on the Role of Fat in Sensory Perception, Metabolism, Sensory Pleasure and Beyond" held at the Institute of Food Technologists 2011 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, June 12, 2011.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-03-01

    Research suggests that dietary fat is perceived not only by texture, but also by taste. However, the receptors for chemosensory response to fat have not been identified. We report on 2 genes,TAS2R38 and CD36, that may play a role in fat perception and preference in humans. TAS2R38 is a taste receptor for bitter thiourea compounds, including 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Nontasters of these compounds tend to be poor at discriminating fat in foods, even though they prefer higher fat versions of these foods. CD36, a fatty acid translocase expressed on multiple cell types including taste cells, plays a critical role in fat preferences in animals. In studies conducted in our laboratory with African-American adults, we identified a variant in the CD36 gene, rs1761667, that predicts oral responses to fat. Individuals who have the A/A genotype at this site tend to find Italian salad dressings creamier than those who have other genotypes at this site. In addition, A/A individuals report higher preferences for added fats, oils, and spreads (for example margarine). Assuming these data are confirmed in other populations, screening for CD36 genotype may provide helpful information to food companies for developing fat-modified products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Autism: Tactile Perception and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernon, E.; Pry, R.; Baghdadli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method: Several experiments were carried out using…

  10. Autism: Tactile Perception and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernon, E.; Pry, R.; Baghdadli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method: Several experiments were carried out using…

  11. Sensory nerves and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingfu; Peng, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis.

  12. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  13. Associations between visual perception accuracy and confidence in a dopaminergic manipulation study

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Christina; Bozikas, Vasilis P.; Luedtke, Thies; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Delusions are defined as fixed erroneous beliefs that are based on misinterpretation of events or perception, and cannot be corrected by argumentation to the opposite. Cognitive theories of delusions regard this symptom as resulting from specific distorted thinking styles that lead to biased integration and interpretation of perceived stimuli (i.e., reasoning biases). In previous studies, we were able to show that one of these reasoning biases, overconfidence in errors, can be modulated by drugs that act on the dopamine system, a major neurotransmitter system implicated in the pathogenesis of delusions and other psychotic symptoms. Another processing domain suggested to involve the dopamine system and to be abnormal in psychotic disorders is sensory perception. The present study aimed to investigate whether (lower-order) sensory perception and (higher-order) overconfidence in errors are similarly affected by dopaminergic modulation in healthy subjects. Thirty-four healthy individuals were assessed upon administration of l-dopa, placebo, or haloperidol within a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Variables of interest were hits and false alarms in an illusory perception paradigm requiring speeded detection of pictures over a noisy background, and subjective confidence ratings for correct and incorrect responses. There was a significant linear increase of false alarm rates from haloperidol to placebo to l-dopa, whereas hit rates were not affected by dopaminergic manipulation. As hypothesized, confidence in error responses was significantly higher with l-dopa compared to placebo. Moreover, confidence in erroneous responses significantly correlated with false alarm rates. These findings suggest that overconfidence in errors and aberrant sensory processing might be both interdependent and related to dopaminergic transmission abnormalities in patients with psychosis. PMID:25932015

  14. Associations between visual perception accuracy and confidence in a dopaminergic manipulation study.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Christina; Bozikas, Vasilis P; Luedtke, Thies; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Delusions are defined as fixed erroneous beliefs that are based on misinterpretation of events or perception, and cannot be corrected by argumentation to the opposite. Cognitive theories of delusions regard this symptom as resulting from specific distorted thinking styles that lead to biased integration and interpretation of perceived stimuli (i.e., reasoning biases). In previous studies, we were able to show that one of these reasoning biases, overconfidence in errors, can be modulated by drugs that act on the dopamine system, a major neurotransmitter system implicated in the pathogenesis of delusions and other psychotic symptoms. Another processing domain suggested to involve the dopamine system and to be abnormal in psychotic disorders is sensory perception. The present study aimed to investigate whether (lower-order) sensory perception and (higher-order) overconfidence in errors are similarly affected by dopaminergic modulation in healthy subjects. Thirty-four healthy individuals were assessed upon administration of l-dopa, placebo, or haloperidol within a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Variables of interest were hits and false alarms in an illusory perception paradigm requiring speeded detection of pictures over a noisy background, and subjective confidence ratings for correct and incorrect responses. There was a significant linear increase of false alarm rates from haloperidol to placebo to l-dopa, whereas hit rates were not affected by dopaminergic manipulation. As hypothesized, confidence in error responses was significantly higher with l-dopa compared to placebo. Moreover, confidence in erroneous responses significantly correlated with false alarm rates. These findings suggest that overconfidence in errors and aberrant sensory processing might be both interdependent and related to dopaminergic transmission abnormalities in patients with psychosis.

  15. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  16. Sensory symptoms in restless legs syndrome: the enigma of pain.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, John W; Gagnon, Alison; Clair, Andrew G

    2013-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, worsening of symptoms at rest and during the evening/night, and improvement of symptoms with movement. Our review explores the role and impact of sensory symptoms in RLS. The phenomenology of RLS is discussed, highlighting the difficulty patients have in describing their sensations and in differentiating between sensory and motor symptoms. Sensory symptoms have a significant impact on quality of life but remain much less well understood than motor symptoms and sleep disturbances in RLS. Although RLS symptoms usually are not described as painful, sensory manifestations in RLS do share some similarities with chronic pain sensations, and RLS frequently occurs in chronic pain and neuropathic conditions. Peripheral neuropathies may account for some of the sensory disturbances in secondary RLS, while alterations in central somatosensory processing may be a more viable explanation for the sensory disturbances in primary RLS. The effectiveness of analgesics in treating RLS supports the concept of abnormal sensory modulation in RLS and suggests an overlap between pain modulatory pathways and sensory disturbances. Future studies are needed to better understand the experiential and biologic aspects of altered sensory experiences in RLS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  18. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  19. Cortical sensory plasticity in a model of migraine with aura.

    PubMed

    Theriot, Jeremy J; Toga, Arthur W; Prakash, Neal; Ju, Y Sungtaek; Brennan, K C

    2012-10-31

    The migraine attack is characterized by alterations in sensory perception, such as photophobia or allodynia, which have in common an uncomfortable amplification of the percept. It is not known how these changes arise. We evaluated the ability of cortical spreading depression (CSD), the proposed mechanism of the migraine aura, to shape the cortical activity that underlies sensory perception. We measured forepaw- and hindpaw-evoked sensory responses in rat, before and after CSD, using multielectrode array recordings and two-dimensional optical spectroscopy. CSD significantly altered cortical sensory processing on a timescale compatible with the duration of the migraine attack. Both electrophysiological and hemodynamic maps had a reduced surface area (were sharpened) after CSD. Electrophysiological responses were potentiated at the receptive field center but suppressed in surround regions. Finally, the normal adaptation of sensory-evoked responses was attenuated at the receptive field center. In summary, we show that CSD induces changes in the evoked cortical response that are consistent with known mechanisms of cortical plasticity. These mechanisms provide a novel neurobiological substrate to explain the sensory alterations of the migraine attack.

  20. Cortical sensory plasticity in a model of migraine with aura

    PubMed Central

    Theriot, Jeremy J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Prakash, Neal; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Brennan, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    The migraine attack is characterized by alterations in sensory perception, such as photophobia or allodynia, which have in common an uncomfortable amplification of the percept. It is not known how these changes arise. We evaluated the ability of cortical spreading depression (CSD), the proposed mechanism of the migraine aura, to shape the cortical activity that underlies sensory perception. We measured forepaw- and hindpaw-evoked sensory responses in rat, before and after CSD, using multi-electrode array recordings and 2-dimensional optical spectroscopy. CSD significantly altered cortical sensory processing on a timescale compatible with the duration of the migraine attack. Both electrophysiological and hemodynamic maps had a reduced surface area (were sharpened) after CSD. Electrophysiological responses were potentiated at the receptive field center, but suppressed in surround regions. Finally, the normal adaptation of sensory evoked responses was attenuated at the receptive field center. In summary, we show that CSD induces changes in the evoked cortical response that are consistent with known mechanisms of cortical plasticity. These mechanisms provide a novel neurobiological substrate to explain the sensory alterations of the migraine attack. PMID:23115163

  1. Adaptive reliance on the most stable sensory predictions enhances perceptual feature extraction of moving stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Mutha, Pratik K

    2016-03-01

    The prediction of the sensory outcomes of action is thought to be useful for distinguishing self- vs. externally generated sensations, correcting movements when sensory feedback is delayed, and learning predictive models for motor behavior. Here, we show that aspects of another fundamental function-perception-are enhanced when they entail the contribution of predicted sensory outcomes and that this enhancement relies on the adaptive use of the most stable predictions available. We combined a motor-learning paradigm that imposes new sensory predictions with a dynamic visual search task to first show that perceptual feature extraction of a moving stimulus is poorer when it is based on sensory feedback that is misaligned with those predictions. This was possible because our novel experimental design allowed us to override the "natural" sensory predictions present when any action is performed and separately examine the influence of these two sources on perceptual feature extraction. We then show that if the new predictions induced via motor learning are unreliable, rather than just relying on sensory information for perceptual judgments, as is conventionally thought, then subjects adaptively transition to using other stable sensory predictions to maintain greater accuracy in their perceptual judgments. Finally, we show that when sensory predictions are not modified at all, these judgments are sharper when subjects combine their natural predictions with sensory feedback. Collectively, our results highlight the crucial contribution of sensory predictions to perception and also suggest that the brain intelligently integrates the most stable predictions available with sensory information to maintain high fidelity in perceptual decisions.

  2. Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with sensory gating deficit in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Faugere, Mélanie; Boyer, Laurent; Fond, Guillaume; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Faget, Catherine; Cermolacce, Michel; Philip, Pierre; Vion-Dury, Jean; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Sensory and cognitive impairments and inflammatory processes are contributing factors to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. A previous study found that an elevated CRP level (≥5mg/L) was associated with higher cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate the association between an elevated CRP level and sensory impairments defined by a sensory gating deficit (abnormal P50 suppression) in 55 outpatients. Fifteen patients (27.3%) had an elevated CRP level that was associated with higher rate of sensory gating deficit (60% vs. 12.5%, p<0.001). This is the first study suggesting a relationship between sensory gating deficit and inflammatory processes in schizophrenia.

  3. Sensory information processing in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Braus, Dieter F; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Tost, Heike; Ruf, Matthias; Henn, Fritz A

    2002-08-01

    Schizophrenic disorders are thought to involve widespread abnormalities in information processing. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a simple and robust paradigm that involved auditory and visual activation to examine basic sensory input circuits. Our aim was to determine which stages of the input processing network are disturbed in first-episode schizophrenic patients. Twelve neuroleptic-naive inpatients (paranoid subtype) were compared with 11 healthy subjects by means of echo-planar functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a block design, the paradigm included the simultaneous presentation of a moving 6-Hz checkerboard and auditory stimuli in the form of drumbeats. The subjects were asked to simply look and listen. In comparison with control subjects, patients showed reduced activation in the right thalamus, the right prefrontal cortex, and the parietal lobe (restricted to the dorsal visual pathway) bilaterally. There were no notable differences in the primary visual cortex or the object-specific occipitotemporal pathway. In addition, patients presented with a reduced signal change to auditory stimulation in the left acoustic cortex. The present study supports the concept of widespread cortical and subcortical deficits in schizophrenia. Our findings suggest abnormal functioning early in the information processing and in high-order association cortices already at illness onset, before the administration of medication or the most confounding effects of illness duration. The main regions have been implicated in visual motion perception and discrimination as well as in attention to sensorial events and perceptual synthesis.

  4. Rethinking the senses and their interactions: the case for sensory pluralism

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    I argue for sensory pluralism. This is the view that there are many forms of sensory interaction and unity, and no single category that classifies them all. In other words, sensory interactions do not form a single natural kind. This view suggests that how we classify sensory systems (and the experiences they generate) partly depends on our explanatory purposes. I begin with a detailed discussion of the issue as it arises for our understanding of thermal perception, followed by a general account and defense of sensory pluralism. PMID:25540630

  5. Set and setting: how behavioral state regulates sensory function and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Aton, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques are allowing us to answer fundamental questions about how behavioral states regulate our perception of the external environment. Studies using these techniques have yielded surprising insights into how sensory processing is affected at the earliest stages by attention and motivation, and how new sensory information received during wakefulness (e.g., during learning) continues to affect sensory brain circuits (leading to plastic changes) during subsequent sleep. This review aims to describe how brain states affect sensory response properties among neurons in primary and secondary sensory cortices, and how this relates to psychophysical detection thresholds and performance on sensory discrimination tasks. This is not intended to serve as a comprehensive overview of all brain states, or all sensory systems, but instead as an illustrative description of how three specific state variables (attention, motivation, and vigilance [i.e., sleep vs. wakefulness]) affect sensory systems in which they have been best studied. PMID:23792020

  6. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ocular cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal ... cause permanent tightening of neck muscles that can lead to chronic neck ache or headache. An abnormal ...

  7. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  8. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  9. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  10. Aggregation of sensory data using fuzzy logic for sensory quality evaluation of food.

    PubMed

    Debjani, Chakraborty; Das, Shrilekha; Das, H

    2013-12-01

    A method of sensory evaluation using fuzzy logic has been proposed in this paper. The method was applied for evaluation of sensory quality of tea liquor made out of dried CTC tea. Linguistic data (e.g., excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, fair, not-satisfactory, etc.) on individual tea liquor's quality attributes and the perception of the evaluators (e.g., extremely important, highly important, important, somewhat important, not-at-all important, etc.) for relative importance of these quality attributes were obtained. Sensory score between 0 and 100 for (i) Judges' preference for different quality attributes of tea liquor in general, (ii) Quality attributes ranking of tea liquor and the (ii) Overall quality of tea liquor were estimated. The last one can be utilized for the ranking of the different tea liquors.

  11. Elevated Vibration Perception Thresholds in CIDP Patients Indicate More Severe Neuropathy and Lower Treatment Response Rates.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Alon; Albulaihe, Hana; Alabdali, Majed; Qrimli, Mohammad; Breiner, Ari; Barnett, Carolina; Katzberg, Hans D; Lovblom, Leif E; Perkins, Bruce A; Bril, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Vibration perception threshold (VPT) examination using a neurothesiometer provides objective, sensitive and specific information, and has been utilized mainly in patients with diabetic polyneropathy. Explore the utility of VPT examination in CIDP patients. CIDP subjects attending the Neuromuscular clinic between 01/2013 and 12/2014 were evaluated. Demographic data, clinical history, physical examination, VPT values, and electrophysiologic data from their charts were extracted. 70 charts were reviewed. 55 CIDP patients had elevated VPT, associated with higher frequency of abnormal sensory testing for various modalities (92.7% vs. 46.7%, p<0.0001), lower sensory and motor amplitudes and reduced conduction velocities on nerve conduction studies, and lower treatment response rates (54% vs. 93%, p = 0.01). VPT examination is a simple tool, which is a reliable and sensitive measure not only for diabetic neuropathy, but also for CIDP. Moreover, in CIDP, elevated VPT values are also associated with lower treatment response rates.

  12. Quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in primary Restless legs syndrome - A prospective study on 57 Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Garima; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2012-10-01

    Patients with restless leg syndrome present with sensory symptoms similar to peripheral neuropathy. While there is evidence of abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways, the peripheral nervous system has been studied infrequently. We studied conventional nerve conduction studies, quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in 57 patients with primary restless leg syndrome. Almost two third patients demonstrated abnormalities in the detailed testing of the peripheral nervous system. Sbtle abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system may be more common than previously believed.

  13. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  15. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-28

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) and two civilians, all with partial visual impairment , evaluated the vision sensory substitution systems. The servicemember...Mobility Augmentation; Wounded Service Members; Human-Centered Computing; Vision Augmentation, Vision , Balance and Hearing; Sensory Substitution-enabled...mitigation of vision sensory and mobility losses. 2) Improved the usefulness of available sensory substitution technologies for injured military

  16. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  17. Prior expectations induce prestimulus sensory templates.

    PubMed

    Kok, Peter; Mostert, Pim; de Lange, Floris P

    2017-09-26

    Perception can be described as a process of inference, integrating bottom-up sensory inputs and top-down expectations. However, it is unclear how this process is neurally implemented. It has been proposed that expectations lead to prestimulus baseline increases in sensory neurons tuned to the expected stimulus, which in turn, affect the processing of subsequent stimuli. Recent fMRI studies have revealed stimulus-specific patterns of activation in sensory cortex as a result of expectation, but this method lacks the temporal resolution necessary to distinguish pre- from poststimulus processes. Here, we combined human magnetoencephalography (MEG) with multivariate decoding techniques to probe the representational content of neural signals in a time-resolved manner. We observed a representation of expected stimuli in the neural signal shortly before they were presented, showing that expectations indeed induce a preactivation of stimulus templates. The strength of these prestimulus expectation templates correlated with participants' behavioral improvement when the expected feature was task-relevant. These results suggest a mechanism for how predictive perception can be neurally implemented.

  18. Medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory studies in the evaluation of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M J; Macintosh, K; Heistand, M; Logigian, E L

    1998-05-01

    Over 3 years, we studied 8 patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) and tested the medial antebrachial sensory response (MASR) to determine its diagnostic value. The MASR and ulnar sensory response (USR) were abnormal in all 8 patients. Seven had a low median motor response (MMR) with a low USR. In 1, the MASR and USR were abnormal but the MMR was normal. We conclude that the MASR is of diagnostic value in patients with neurogenic TOS.

  19. No Proprioceptive Deficits in Autism despite Movement-Related Sensory and Execution Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often involves sensory and motor problems, yet the proprioceptive sense of limb position has not been directly assessed. We used three tasks to assess proprioception in adolescents with ASD who had motor and sensory perceptual abnormalities, and compared them to age- and IQ-matched controls. Results showed no group…

  20. No Proprioceptive Deficits in Autism despite Movement-Related Sensory and Execution Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often involves sensory and motor problems, yet the proprioceptive sense of limb position has not been directly assessed. We used three tasks to assess proprioception in adolescents with ASD who had motor and sensory perceptual abnormalities, and compared them to age- and IQ-matched controls. Results showed no group…

  1. Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The…

  2. Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The…

  3. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  4. Sensory control of dauer larva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Albert, P S; Brown, S J; Riddle, D L

    1981-05-20

    As a sensory response to starvation or overcrowding, Caenorhabditis elegans second-stage larvae may molt into a developmentally arrested state called the dauer larva. When environmental conditions become favorable for growth, dauer larvae mold and resume development. Some mutants unable to form dauer larvae are simultaneously affected in a number of sensory functions, including chemotaxis and mating. The behavior and sensory neuroanatomy of three such mutants, representing three distinct genetic loci, have been determined and compared with wild-type strain. Morphological abnormalities in afferent nerve endings were detected in each mutant. Both amphid and outer labial sensilla are affected in the mutant CB1377 (daf-6)X, while another mutant, CB1387 (daf-10)IV, is abnormal in amphidial cells and in the tips of the cephalic neurons. The most pleitropic mutant, CB1379 (che-3)I, exhibits gross abnormalities in the tips of virtually all anterior and posterior sensory neurons. The primary structural defect in CB1377 appears to be in the nonneuronal amphidial sheath cells. The disruption of neural organization in CB1377 is much greater in the adult than in the L2 stage. Of all the anterior sense organs examined, only the amphids are morphologically affected in all three mutants. Thus, one or more of the amphidial neurons may mediate the sensory signals for entry into the dauer larva stage in normal animals. Using temperature-sensitive mutants we determined that the same defects which block entry into the dauer stage also prevent recovery of dauer larvae.

  5. Abnormal Pressure Pain, Touch Sensitivity, Proprioception, and Manual Dexterity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Hatem, Samar M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often display an abnormal reactivity to tactile stimuli, altered pain perception, and lower motor skills than healthy children. Nevertheless, these motor and sensory deficits have been mostly assessed by using clinical observation and self-report questionnaires. The present study aims to explore somatosensory and motor function in children with ASD by using standardized and objective testing procedures. Methods. Tactile and pressure pain thresholds in hands and lips, stereognosis, proprioception, and fine motor performance of the upper limbs were assessed in high-functioning children with ASD (n = 27) and compared with typically developing peers (n = 30).  Results. Children with ASD showed increased pain sensitivity, increased touch sensitivity in C-tactile afferents innervated areas, and diminished fine motor performance and proprioception compared to healthy children. No group differences were observed for stereognosis. Conclusion. Increased pain sensitivity and increased touch sensitivity in areas classically related to affective touch (C-tactile afferents innervated areas) may explain typical avoiding behaviors associated with hypersensitivity. Both sensory and motor impairments should be assessed and treated in children with ASD. PMID:26881091

  6. Convergence of multimodal sensory pathways to the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Ryosuke; Mabuchi, Yuta; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals. PMID:27404960

  7. The sensory ecology of nonconsumptive predator effects.

    PubMed

    Weissburg, Marc; Smee, Delbert L; Ferner, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) have been shown to occur in numerous systems and are regarded as important mechanisms by which predation structures natural communities. Sensory ecology-that is, the processes governing the production, propagation, and masking of cues by ambient noise-provides insights into the strength of NCEs as functions of the environment and modes of information transfer. We discuss how properties of predators are used by prey to encode threat, how the environment affects cue propagation, and the role of single sensory processes versus multimodal sensory processes. We discuss why the present body of literature documents the potential for strong NCEs but does not allow us to easily determine how this potential is expressed in nature or what factors or environments produce strong versus weak NCEs. Many of these difficulties stem from a body of literature in which certain sensory environments and modalities may be disproportionately represented and in which experimental methodologies are designed to show the existence of NCEs. We present a general framework for examining NCEs to identify the factors controlling the number of prey that respond to predator cues and discuss how the properties of predators, prey, and the environment may determine prey perceptive range and the duration and frequency of cue production. We suggest how understanding these relationships provides a schema for determining where, when, why, and how NCEs are important in producing direct and cascading effects in natural communities.

  8. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or emotional?

    PubMed Central

    Ohla, Kathrin; Lundström, Johan N.

    2013-01-01

    Although the first sex-dependent differences in chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG), psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and odorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety, and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety, or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate more attention to potentially noxious stimuli than men do, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception. PMID:24133429

  9. Additional causes for distal sensory polyneuropathy in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Gorson, K C; Ropper, A H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of additional causes of distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Retrospective review of patients with DM and DSP during a 5 year period. A quantitative sensory score (QSS) was determined at the initial evaluation and extensive laboratory and EMG studies were performed. Patients with one or more potential causes for DSP were compared to those with DM alone. Results Fifty five patients (53%) had potential additional causes for DSP. These included: neurotoxic medications (seven), alcohol abuse (six), and B12 deficiency and renal disease (four each). The most common laboratory abnormalities were: abnormally low levels of vitamin B6 (11) or B1 (10), monoclonal gammopathy (eight), and hypertriglyceridaemia (eight). Twenty six (25%) subjects had more than one additional cause. Nine (9%) had three or more demyelinating features on EMG. There was a trend toward a lower QSS score (p = 0.05) and reduced mean amplitude of the sensory potentials in those with additional causes. Those with additional causes more often had upper limb sensory symptoms (p = 0.001) and sensory findings (p = 0.003). Conclusion There was a high frequency of additional sources of DSP in patients with DM. These patients more often had sensory symptoms and findings in the hands. Tests that may be useful in the evaluation of DSP in diabetic patients include measures of vitamins B1, B6, B12, serum triglycerides, and immunofixation. PMID:16484643

  10. Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

  11. Sensory distribution indicates severity of median nerve damage in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, E P; Ng, E S; Chan, Y H; Therimadasamy, A K

    2008-07-01

    Sensory symptoms within the median nerve distribution are a primary clinical diagnostic criterion for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, the distribution of the sensory symptoms in CTS varies from patient to patient. This study identifies the clinical and electrophysiological findings that correlate with the distribution of sensory symptoms in an Asian population with CTS. In a prospective study of 105 patients with electrophysiologically confirmed CTS, clinical and educational data were correlated with sensory symptom distribution. Median nerve distribution was strongly associated with more severe nerve conduction abnormality, male gender, and relief by movement. Patients with a complete median sensory distribution had more electrophysiological abnormality than those with an incomplete median distribution. Extra-median distribution was associated with the least nerve conduction abnormality. Educational qualification, age, symptom duration and body mass index were not associated with the pattern of sensory symptoms. In carpal tunnel syndrome, sensory symptom distribution is strongly dependant on the degree of electrophysiological median nerve damage. Median nerve sensory distribution is associated with severe nerve damage. This study provides clinicians with a simple clinical rule for assigning the degree of median nerve damage in patients with CTS based on sensory distribution patterns.

  12. Activity Participation and Sensory Features among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Lauren M.; Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory features are highly prevalent among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have been shown to cluster into four patterns of response, including hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, enhanced perception, and sensory interests, repetitions and seeking behaviors. Given the lack of large-scale research on the differential effects…

  13. Activity Participation and Sensory Features among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Lauren M.; Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory features are highly prevalent among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have been shown to cluster into four patterns of response, including hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, enhanced perception, and sensory interests, repetitions and seeking behaviors. Given the lack of large-scale research on the differential effects…

  14. TUTORIAL: Beyond sensory substitution—learning the sixth sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Saskia K.; Carl, Christine; Kringe, Tobias; Märtin, Robert; König, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Rapid advances in neuroscience have sparked numerous efforts to study the neural correlate of consciousness. Prominent subjects include higher sensory area, distributed assemblies bound by synchronization of neuronal activity and neurons in specific cortical laminae. In contrast, it has been suggested that the quality of sensory awareness is determined by systematic change of afferent signals resulting from behaviour and knowledge thereof. Support for such skill-based theories of perception is provided by experiments on sensory substitution. Here, we pursue this line of thought and create new sensorimotor contingencies and, hence, a new quality of perception. Adult subjects received orientation information, obtained by a magnetic compass, via vibrotactile stimulation around the waist. After six weeks of training we evaluated integration of the new input by a battery of tests. The results indicate that the sensory information provided by the belt (1) is processed and boosts performance, (2) if inconsistent with other sensory signals leads to variable performance, (3) does interact with the vestibular nystagmus and (4) in half of the experimental subjects leads to qualitative changes of sensory experience. These data support the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be learned and integrated into behaviour and affect perceptual experience.

  15. Beyond sensory substitution--learning the sixth sense.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Saskia K; Carl, Christine; Kringe, Tobias; Märtin, Robert; König, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Rapid advances in neuroscience have sparked numerous efforts to study the neural correlate of consciousness. Prominent subjects include higher sensory area, distributed assemblies bound by synchronization of neuronal activity and neurons in specific cortical laminae. In contrast, it has been suggested that the quality of sensory awareness is determined by systematic change of afferent signals resulting from behaviour and knowledge thereof. Support for such skill-based theories of perception is provided by experiments on sensory substitution. Here, we pursue this line of thought and create new sensorimotor contingencies and, hence, a new quality of perception. Adult subjects received orientation information, obtained by a magnetic compass, via vibrotactile stimulation around the waist. After six weeks of training we evaluated integration of the new input by a battery of tests. The results indicate that the sensory information provided by the belt (1) is processed and boosts performance, (2) if inconsistent with other sensory signals leads to variable performance, (3) does interact with the vestibular nystagmus and (4) in half of the experimental subjects leads to qualitative changes of sensory experience. These data support the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be learned and integrated into behaviour and affect perceptual experience.

  16. Impact of flavour solvent (propylene glycol or triacetin) on vanillin, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, structural parameters and sensory perception of shortcake biscuits over accelerated shelf life testing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ni; Hort, Joanne; Linforth, Robert; Brown, Keith; Walsh, Stuart; Fisk, Ian D

    2013-11-15

    The influence of choice of flavour solvent, propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA), was investigated during accelerated shelf life (ASL) testing of shortcake biscuits. Specifically, the differential effect on the stability of added vanillin, the natural baked marker compound 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), specific markers of oxidative rancidity (2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal), and the structural parameters of hardness and fracturability. Significantly more HMF was formed during baking of biscuits prepared with TA; these biscuits were also more stable to oxidative degradation and loss of vanillin during ageing than biscuits prepared with PG. Fresh TA biscuits were significantly more brittle than fresh PG biscuits. There was no impact of solvent choice on hardness. Sensory evaluation of hardness, vanilla flavour and oily off-note was tested during ASL testing. There was no significant impact of storage on sensory ratings for either the PG or TA biscuits.

  17. [Pathophysiology of sensory ataxic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Sobue, G

    1996-12-01

    The main lesions of sensory ataxic neuropathy such as chronic idiopathic sensory ataxic neuropathy, (ISAN), carcinomatous neuropathy, Sjögren syndrome-associated neuropathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy (AASN) are the large-diameter sensory neurons and dosal column of the spinal cord and the large myelinated fibers in the peripheral nerve trunks. In addition, afferent fibers to the Clarke's nuclei are also severely involved, suggesting Ia fibers being involved in these neuropathies. In NT-3 knockout mouse, an animal model of sensory ataxia, large-sized la neurons as well as muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs are depleted, and are causative for sensory ataxia. Thus, the proprioceptive Ia neurons would play a role in pathogenesis of sensory ataxia in human sensory ataxic neuropathies, but the significance of dorsal column involvement in human sensory ataxia is still needed to evaluate.

  18. Multimodal Sensory Distortions in Postpartum Exacerbation of Schizophrenia.