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Sample records for abnormal sexual development

  1. The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

  2. Cytogenetic studies of 1232 patients with different sexual development abnormalities from the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Alawi, Intisar; Goud, Tadakal Mallana; Al-Harasi, Salma; Rajab, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytogenetic findings in Omani patients who had been referred for suspicion of sex chromosome abnormalities that resulted in different clinical disorders. Furthermore, it sought to examine the frequency of chromosomal anomalies in these patients and to compare the obtained results with those reported elsewhere. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 1232 cases with variant characteristics of sexual development disorders who had been referred to the cytogenetic department, National Genetic Centre, Ministry of Health, from different hospitals in the Sultanate of Oman between 1999 and 2014. The karyotype results demonstrated chromosomal anomalies in 24.2% of the cases, where 67.5% of abnormalities were identified in referral females, whereas only 32.6% were in referral males. Of all sex chromosome anomalies detected, Turner syndrome was the most frequent (38.2%) followed by Klinefelter syndrome (24.9%) and XY phenotypic females (16%). XXX syndrome and XX phenotypic males represented 6.8% and 3.8% of all sex chromosome anomalies, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of patients referred with various clinical suspicions of chromosomal abnormalities revealed a high rate of chromosomal anomalies. This is the first broad cytogenetic study reporting combined frequencies of sex chromosome anomalies in sex development disorders in Oman. PMID:26706459

  3. Disorders of sexual development and abnormal early development in domestic food-producing mammals: the role of chromosome abnormalities, environment and stress factors.

    PubMed

    Favetta, L A; Villagómez, D A F; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G; Webb, A; Crain, S; King, W A

    2012-01-01

    The management of disorders of sexual development (DSD) in humans and domestic animals has been the subject of intense interest for decades. The association between abnormal chromosome constitutions and DSDs in domestic animals has been recorded since the beginnings of conventional cytogenetic analysis. Deviated karyotypes consisting of abnormal sex chromosome sets and/or the coexistence of cells with different sex chromosome constitutions in an individual seem to be the main causes of anomalies of sex determination and sex differentiation. In recent years, a growing interest has developed around the environmental insults, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) and heat stressors, which affect fertility, early embryonic development and, in some instances, directly the sex ratio and/or the development of 1 specific sex versus the other. A variety of chemical compounds present in the environment at low doses has been shown to have major effects on the reproductive functions in human and domestic animals following prolonged exposure. In this review, we present an overview of congenital/chromosomal factors that are responsible for the DSDs and link them and the lack of proper embryonic development to environmental factors that are becoming a major global concern.

  4. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  5. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  6. Abnormal Sexual Behavior During Sleep in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  7. CHRONIC PERCHLORATE EXPOSURE CAUSES MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN DEVELOPING STICKLEBACK

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Richard R.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of chronic perchlorate exposure during growth and development, and fewer still have analyzed the effects of perchlorate over multiple generations. We describe morphological and developmental characteristics for threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that were spawned and raised to sexual maturity in perchlorate-treated water (G1,2003) and for their offspring (G2,2004) that were not directly treated with perchlorate. The G1,2003 displayed a variety of abnormalities, including impaired formation of calcified traits, slower growth rates, aberrant sexual development, poor survivorship, and reduced pigmentation that allowed internal organs to be visible. Yet these conditions were absent when the offspring of contaminated fish (G2,2004) were raised in untreated water, suggesting a lack of transgenerational effects and that surviving populations may be able to recover following remediation of perchlorate-contaminated sites PMID:21465539

  8. Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

  9. [Psychosexual development and sexual education].

    PubMed

    Souza y Machorro, Mario

    2004-09-01

    The bio-environmental influence on the sexual development and ripeness includes to the morality as the essential element of the behavioral expression. There are few studies directed to the interface between the healthy sexual development and the early intervention destined for the child-youth sexual risky behaviors. A suitable development sociomoral waits that every individual genuine participant and healthily in his sexuality to share it with another human being, without moving away from his expression. Some behavioral differences between the genders are described; goals of development; importance of assigning sexual education to the child-youth population, its vectors and preventive recommendations in domestic and/or school ambiences, directed to the personnel of health, as the avoidance of not wished pregnancy, the prevention of STD and other behaviors of risk. It is invited to the revaluation of the welfare services; supervision of programs, familiar participation; increase of the education in means of information, with personal and social responsibility. Such a consolidation requires from the health personnel the fulfillment of the educational-preventive recommendations of the professional performance to the advantage of a responsible practice.

  10. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior. PMID:21206800

  11. The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M

    2014-05-01

    Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse.

  12. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  13. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  14. Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couchenour, Donna; Chrisman, Kent

    1996-01-01

    Discusses sexuality as encompassing all areas of children's development. Suggests ways to use contextual situations to discuss body functions, body parts, and reproduction to foster healthy understandings of sexuality as children develop. Includes descriptions of best practices in early childhood education matched with developmental expectations…

  15. Sexually antagonistic epigenetic marks that canalize sexually dimorphic development.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The sexes share the same autosomal genomes, yet sexual dimorphism is common due to sex-specific gene expression. When present, XX and XY karyotypes trigger alternate regulatory cascades that determine sex-specific gene expression profiles. In mammals, secretion of testosterone (T) by the testes during foetal development is the master switch influencing the gene expression pathways (male vs. female) that will be followed, but many genes have sex-specific expression prior to T secretion. Environmental factors, like endocrine disruptors and mimics, can interfere with sexual development. However, sex-specific ontogeny can be canalized by the production of epigenetic marks (epimarks) generated during early ontogeny that increase sensitivity of XY embryos to T and decrease sensitivity of XX embryos. Here, we integrate and synthesize the evidence indicating that canalizing epimarks are produced during early ontogeny. We will also describe the evidence that such epimarks sometimes carry over across generations and produce mosaicism in which some traits are discordant with the gonad. Such carryover epimarks are sexually antagonistic because they benefit the individual in which they were formed (via canalization) but harm opposite-sex offspring when they fail to erase across generations and produce gonad-trait discordances. SA-epimarks have the potential to: i) magnify phenotypic variation for many sexually selected traits, ii) generate overlap along many dimensions of the masculinity/femininity spectrum, and iii) influence medically important gonad-trait discordances like cryptorchidism, hypospadias and idiopathic hirsutism. PMID:26600375

  16. The nature of control of oral development by the micronucleus in sexual reproduction of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Chau, M F; Ng, S F

    1988-07-01

    Twelve laser-irradiated cell lines and eight cis. platin-treated cultures possessing defective micronuclei exhibited micronuclear and oral abnormalities during autogamy. Micronuclear abnormalities were characterized by the failure of some of the cells to complete the micronuclear cycle resulting in the absence of either micronuclei or macronuclear anlagen, or both. Oral abnormalities included reduction in the length of the buccal cavity and oral membranelles, abnormal oral membranellar patterns and arrest of oral development at early and late stages. The present study demonstrated a close relationship between micronuclear and stomatogenic abnormalities during sexual reproduction. It is concluded that the micronucleus plays an important role in the specification of a normal oral pattern during sexual reproduction. The participation of postzygotic micronuclear activities in the control of sexual stomatogenesis is discussed. In contrast to the situation in sexual reproduction, the development of the oral apparatus was normal during asexual propagation of the cell lines possessing defective micronuclei. This paradoxical situation forms the basis of speculations on the nature of micronuclear control of oral development in sexual reproduction. It is probable that micronuclear genes are involved. PMID:23195213

  17. Sexual Development Genes of Neurospora Crassa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, M. A.; Metzenberg, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa undergoes a complex program of sexual development to form a fruiting body composed of several kinds of specialized tissue. Subtractive hybridization was used to isolate genes that are expressed preferentially during this sexual phase. Many such sexual development (sdv) genes were identified in a cosmid library of Neurospora genomic DNA. Fourteen of the sdv genes were subcloned, and their expression in mutant strains and under crossing and vegetative growth conditions was examined. All of the regulated transcripts were less abundant (and in many cases not detectable) in strains grown under vegetative (high nitrogen) conditions, suggesting that nitrogen starvation is required for their synthesis. The expression of most of the sdv genes also required a functional A mating type product, even under crossing growth conditions, suggesting that this product functions as a master control in sexual development. To determine if the products of the sdv genes play essential roles in the sexual cycle, a reverse-genetic approach (based on RIP (repeat-induced point mutation)-mediated gene disruptions) was used to create mutations in the genes. A mutant strain (asd-1) with a recessive crossing defect (apparently caused by the RIP process) was isolated; in this strain, early development is normal and many asci are formed, but ascospores are never delineated. A second recessive mutant strain (asd-2) was apparently created by ectopic integration of the transforming DNA into a gene required for the sexual process; in this strain the sexual process was blocked at an early stage, and the ascogenous tissue underwent little development. PMID:1356883

  18. Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages. PMID:24046747

  19. The anatomy and development of normal and abnormal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Diane E; Henderson, Deborah J; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is significant interest in the morphology of the coronary arteries, not least due to the increasingly well-recognised association between anomalous origin of the arteries and sudden cardiac death. Much has also been learnt over the last decade regarding the embryology of the arteries. In this review, therefore, we provide a brief introduction into the recent findings regarding their development. In particular, we emphasise that new evidence, derived using the developing murine heart, points to the arterial stems growing out from the adjacent sinuses of the aortic root, rather than the arteries growing in, as is currently assumed. As we show, the concept of outgrowth provides an excellent explanation for several of the abnormal arrangements encountered in the clinical setting. Before summarising these abnormal features, we draw attention to the need to describe the heart in an attitudinally appropriate manner, following the basic rule of human anatomy, rather than describing the cardiac components with the heart in the "Valentine" orientation. We then show how the major abnormalities involving the coronary arteries in humans can be summarised in terms of abnormal origin from the pulmonary circulation, abnormal aortic origin, or fistulous communications between the coronary arteries and the cardiac cavities. In the case of abnormal aortic origin, we highlight those malformations known to be associated with sudden cardiac death.

  20. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  1. Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

    This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

  2. Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

  3. Sexual development and behavior in black preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Westney, O E; Jenkins, R R; Butts, J D; Williams, I

    1984-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of the sociosexual development of black preadolescents, sexual maturation and sociosexual behaviors were assessed and the relationships between these variables determined in a sample of 101 nine- to eleven-year-old middle- and low-income boys and girls. Sexual maturation was measured by Tanner's staging criteria of specific secondary sex characteristics. Involvement in heterosexual behaviors was elicited via self reports and was classified on a five-point heterosexual physical activity scale (HPA). The data corroborate other studies in demonstrating that girls were more advanced than boys in the process of sexual maturation. Considerable variation in stages of maturation for chronological age existed in both boys and girls, but was more pronounced for girls. In girls, there was no significant association between HPA and degree of biologic maturation. However, genital development in boys was significantly related to their sexual behavior. Income level was not significantly associated with the HPA score. A baseline from which to chart the progress of sociosexual behaviors in these developing preadolescents was established. PMID:6507146

  4. Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

  5. Pulmonary vascular development goes awry in congenital lung abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kool, Heleen; Mous, Daphne; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Rottier, Robbert J

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary vascular diseases of the newborn comprise a wide range of pathological conditions with developmental abnormalities in the pulmonary vasculature. Clinically, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is characterized by persistent increased resistance of the vasculature and abnormal vascular response. The classification of PH is primarily based on clinical parameters instead of morphology and distinguishes five groups of PH. Congenital lung anomalies, such as alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD) and PH associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but also bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), are classified in group three. Clearly, tight and correct regulation of pulmonary vascular development is crucial for normal lung development. Human and animal model systems have increased our knowledge and make it possible to identify and characterize affected pathways and study pivotal genes. Understanding of the normal development of the pulmonary vasculature will give new insights in the origin of the spectrum of rare diseases, such as CDH, ACD, and BPD, which render a significant clinical problem in neonatal intensive care units around the world. In this review, we describe normal pulmonary vascular development, and focus on four diseases of the newborn in which abnormal pulmonary vascular development play a critical role in morbidity and mortality. In the future perspective, we indicate the lines of research that seem to be very promising for elucidating the molecular pathways involved in the origin of congenital pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:25424472

  6. Faith and Sexual Orientation Identity Development in Gay College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…

  7. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  8. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  9. Gender development and sexuality in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, S A; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F L

    2015-05-01

    Understanding psychological development in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) is important for optimizing their clinical care and for identifying paths to competence and health in all individuals. In this paper, we focus on psychological outcomes likely to be influenced by processes of physical sexual differentiation that may be atypical in DSD, particularly characteristics related to being male or female (those that show sex differences in the general population, gender identity, and sexuality). We review evidence suggesting that (a) early androgens facilitate several aspects of male-typed behavior, with large effects on activity interests, and moderate effects on some social and personal behaviors (including sexual orientation) and spatial ability; (b) gender dysphoria and gender change occur more frequently in individuals with DSD than in the general population, with rates varying in relation to syndrome, initial gender assignment, and medical treatment; and (c) sexual behavior may be affected by DSD through several paths related to the condition and treatment, including reduced fertility, physical problems associated with genital ambiguity, social stigmatization, and hormonal variations. We also consider limitations to current work and challenges to studying gender and sexuality in DSD. We conclude with suggestions for a research agenda and a proposed research framework.

  10. Inborn errors of metabolism: a cause of abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    Nissenkorn, A; Michelson, M; Ben-Zeev, B; Lerman-Sagie, T

    2001-05-22

    Brain malformations are caused by a disruption in the sequence of normal development by various environmental or genetic factors. By modifying the intrauterine milieu, inborn errors of metabolism may cause brain dysgenesis. However, this association is typically described in single case reports. The authors review the relationship between brain dysgenesis and specific inborn errors of metabolism. Peroxisomal disorders and fatty acid oxidation defects can produce migration defects. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, and maternal phenylketonuria preferentially cause a dysgenetic corpus callosum. Abnormal metabolism of folic acid causes neural tube defects, whereas defects in cholesterol metabolism may produce holoprosencephaly. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain abnormal brain development in inborn errors of metabolism: production of a toxic or energy-deficient intrauterine milieu, modification of the content and function of membranes, or disturbance of the normal expression of intrauterine genes responsible for morphogenesis. The recognition of a metabolic disorder as the cause of the brain malformation has implications for both the care of the patient and for genetic counseling to prevent recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:11383558

  11. Development and Validation of the Sexual Agreement Investment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Neilands, Torsten B.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sexual agreements are ubiquitous among gay men. Lower levels of investment in these agreements may be associated with breaking them or engaging in risky sexual behavior. We developed a scale to measure agreement investment levels among gay men. Methods We analyzed qualitative data from 78 gay men in committed relationships to inform item development, followed by quantitative analyses of two larger samples (n=380; n=1001) to assess construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. Results The Sexual Agreement Investment Scale (SAIS) is a psychometrically sound measure of level of the investment in sexual agreements among gay men in relationships. Men with higher agreement investment were less likely to break agreements and to engage in unprotected intercourse with outside partners. Discussion The SAIS can be used to measure investment in sexual agreements and its impact on sexual behavior in a wide variety of settings, including research on relationships, sexuality, couples therapy, and HIV-prevention. PMID:19396645

  12. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence, derived from the Latin word "adolescere" meaning "to grow up" is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications.

  13. Normal and Abnormal Development in the Arabidopsis Vegetative Shoot Apex.

    PubMed Central

    Medford, JI; Behringer, FJ; Callos, JD; Feldmann, KA

    1992-01-01

    Vegetative development in the Arabidopsis shoot apex follows both sequential and repetitive steps. Early in development, the young vegetative meristem is flat and has a rectangular shape with bilateral symmetry. The first pair of leaf primordia is radially symmetrical and is initiated on opposite sides of the meristem. As development proceeds, the meristem changes first to a bilaterally symmetrical trapezoid and then to a radially symmetrical dome. Vegetative development from the domed meristem continues as leaves are initiated in a repetitive manner. Abnormal development of the vegetative shoot apex is described for a number of mutants. The mutants we describe fall into at least three classes: (1) lesions in the shoot apex that do not show an apparent alteration in the shoot apical meristem, (2) lesions in the apical meristem that also (directly or indirectly) alter leaf primordia, and (3) lesions in the apical meristem that alter meristem size and leaf number but not leaf morphology. These mutations provide tools both to genetically analyze vegetative development of the shoot apex and to learn how vegetative development influences floral development. PMID:12297656

  14. New developments in education and training in sexual medicine.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Yacov; Eardley, Ian; Porst, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The past 12 months have been historic ones for the field of Sexual Medicine in that we have seen the creation of the European Board examination in Sexual Medicine with the title of "Fellow of the European Committee on Sexual Medicine" (FECSM) offered to successful candidates. AIM.: The study aims to promote a high standard of care in Sexual Medicine. METHODS.: An important way of promoting high standards of care is by the development of training, regulation, and assessment framework. The background to these developments and the recent educational activities of the European Society for Sexual Medicine (ESSM) are described in this article. RESULTS.: The creation of the Multidisciplinary Joint Committee on Sexual Medicine (MJCSM) under the auspices of the European Union of Medical Specialists, with the primary purpose to develop the highest possible standards of training in Sexual Medicine in Europe, made it possible to create a process for qualification in Sexual Medicine. The ESSM educational activities created opportunities to support trainees in Sexual Medicine and the first MJCSM exam was held in Amsterdam with a high overall success rate. CONCLUSION.: These activities are intended to improve quality. The FECSM examination is the first of its type and provides a real opportunity for Sexual Medicine physicians to demonstrate and document their knowledge.

  15. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  16. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  17. Sexual development in beef bulls following zeranol implants.

    PubMed

    Staigmiller, R B; Brownson, R M; Kartchner, R J; Williams, J H

    1985-02-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effect of zeranol implants on growth and sexual development of bull calves. Trial 1 compared the effects of implanting with 72 mg of zeranol at 48 d of age (branding), at 215 d of age, or at both times with nonimplanted control bulls. Implanting at branding resulted in decreased scrotal circumference, testicle weight and proportion of bulls that could produce an ejaculate at 14 mo of age (P less than .01). Implanting at 215 d of age had no effect on any of these traits. Growth rate was not increased by implanting at either time but was decreased (P less than .02) in animals implanted at both times when compared with control bulls. In trial 2, both bulls and steers were implanted with zeranol and compared with nonimplanted control bulls and steers. Thirty-six-milligram implants were given at 21, 103, 260 and 343 d of age. Scrotal circumference, testicle weight and serum testosterone concentrations decreased (P less than .01) and the occurrence of penis abnormalities increased (P less than .01) in implanted bulls compared with control bulls. By the time of slaughter, however, testosterone concentrations were equal in control and implanted bulls; and the difference in scrotal circumference was diminishing. This is interpreted as evidence that as the bulls get older, they can overcome the effect of the implants. Carcass weights were heavier in implanted steers than in control steers but were lighter in implanted bulls than in control bulls (P less than .02). Carcasses of implanted bulls had higher quality scores and more marbling than control bulls, but carcasses of implanted steers had lower quality scores and less marbling than control steers (both interactions, P less than .01). Implanting bulls with zeranol at an early age resulted in restricted sexual development but not in total sterility. Repeated zeranol implants throughout the growing and finishing phase enhanced carcass quality in bulls slaughtered at 14 to 16 mo of age.

  18. Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

  19. Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

  20. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Sexual Intent Scale.

    PubMed

    Harnish, Richard J; Bridges, K Robert; Rottschaefer, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Men have been found to attribute more sexual meaning to cross-gender interactions than women do--a finding that has come to be known as the oversexualization effect. Despite the large body of research supporting the notion that men are more biased in their perceptions than women, researchers are moving beyond gender differences and examining personality variables to identify factors that can explain and predict the oversexualization effect. However, results have been mixed. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop a measurement tool, the Sexual Intent Scale, which assesses individual differences in attributing sexual intent. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Sexual Intent Scale revealed the scale has three components we termed Sexual Facility, Friendship Facility, and Sexual Empathy. Temporal reliability and convergent and construct validity as well as norms and subscale correlations are presented. Results are discussed in terms of the scale's utility and directions for future research are explored.

  1. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  2. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  3. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years Female Reproductive System Male Reproductive System When Can I "Go Out" With Someone? All About Puberty Female Reproductive System Help! Is This My Body? Sexual Attraction and ...

  4. Sexual development and cryptic sexuality in fungi: insights from Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Paul S; O'Gorman, Céline M

    2012-01-01

    Major insights into sexual development and cryptic sexuality within filamentous fungi have been gained from investigations using Aspergillus species. Here, an overview is first given into sexual morphogenesis in the aspergilli, describing the different types of sexual structures formed and how their production is influenced by a variety of environmental and nutritional factors. It is argued that the formation of cleistothecia and accessory tissues, such as Hülle cells and sclerotia, should be viewed as two independent but co-ordinated developmental pathways. Next, a comprehensive survey of over 75 genes associated with sexual reproduction in the aspergilli is presented, including genes relating to mating and the development of cleistothecia, sclerotia and ascospores. Most of these genes have been identified from studies involving the homothallic Aspergillus nidulans, but an increasing number of studies have now in addition characterized 'sex-related' genes from the heterothallic species Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. A schematic developmental genetic network is proposed showing the inter-relatedness between these genes. Finally, the discovery of sexual reproduction in certain Aspergillus species that were formerly considered to be strictly asexual is reviewed, and the importance of these findings for cryptic sexuality in the aspergilli as a whole is discussed.

  5. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…

  6. Maternal immune activation and abnormal brain development across CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Knuesel, Irene; Chicha, Laurie; Britschgi, Markus; Schobel, Scott A; Bodmer, Michael; Hellings, Jessica A; Toovey, Stephen; Prinssen, Eric P

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between maternal infection and schizophrenia or autism in the progeny. Animal models have revealed maternal immune activation (mIA) to be a profound risk factor for neurochemical and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. Microglial priming has been proposed as a major consequence of mIA, and represents a critical link in a causal chain that leads to the wide spectrum of neuronal dysfunctions and behavioural phenotypes observed in the juvenile, adult or aged offspring. Such diversity of phenotypic outcomes in the mIA model are mirrored by recent clinical evidence suggesting that infectious exposure during pregnancy is also associated with epilepsy and, to a lesser extent, cerebral palsy in children. Preclinical research also suggests that mIA might precipitate the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Here, we summarize and critically review the emerging evidence that mIA is a shared environmental risk factor across CNS disorders that varies as a function of interactions between genetic and additional environmental factors. We also review ongoing clinical trials targeting immune pathways affected by mIA that may play a part in disease manifestation. In addition, future directions and outstanding questions are discussed, including potential symptomatic, disease-modifying and preventive treatment strategies.

  7. X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

  8. Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

  9. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  10. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  11. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence, derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning “to grow up” is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications. PMID:26157296

  12. Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

  13. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  14. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  15. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM.

  16. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  17. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed Central

    Papoulias, Diana M; Villalobos, Sergio A; Meadows, John; Noltie, Douglas B; Giesy, John P; Tillitt, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development. PMID:12515675

  18. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  19. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  20. Normal and abnormal neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Zhi; Takahashi, Sentaro; Cui, Chun; Zhang, Rui; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2002-08-01

    Neuronal migration is the critical cellular process which initiates histogenesis of cerebral cortex. Migration involves a series of complex cell interactions and transformation. After completing their final mitosis, neurons migrate from the ventricular zone into the cortical plate, and then establish neuronal lamina and settle onto the outermost layer, forming an "inside-out" gradient of maturation. This process is guided by radial glial fibers, requires proper receptors, ligands, other unknown extracellular factors, and local signaling to stop neuronal migration. This process is also highly sensitive to various physical, chemical and biological agents as well as to genetic mutations. Any disturbance of the normal process may result in neuronal migration disorder. Such neuronal migration disorder is believed as major cause of both gross brain malformation and more special cerebral structural and functional abnormalities in experimental animals and in humans. An increasing number of instructive studies on experimental models and several genetic model systems of neuronal migration disorder have established the foundation of cortex formation and provided deeper insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal neuronal migration.

  1. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Vinicius S.; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

  2. A Putative Rhamnogalacturonase Required for Sexual Development of Neurospora Crassa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, M. A.; Merino, S. T.; Metzenberg, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    In previous work, the asd-1 (ascus development) gene of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa was identified as a gene expressed preferentially during the sexual cycle and shown to be essential for normal sexual development. The asd-1 gene has been sequenced and further characterized. It contains two introns, the first of which is in-frame and inefficiently or differentially spliced. The predicted ASD-1 protein has extensive homology with rhamnogalacturonase B of Aspergillus aculeatus, which cleaves the backbone within the ramified hairy regions of pectin. In homozygous asd-1 crosses, sexual development is initiated and large numbers of normal-sized asci are formed. Ascospore delineation does not occur, however, and no sexual progeny are produced. As most asd-1 asci contain eight nuclei, the two meiotic divisions and subsequent mitotic division typical of normal crosses seem to occur, but the haploid nuclei are not partitioned into ascospores. In wild-type crosses, the ASD-1 protein is present in large amounts in croziers and young asci, but it is only faintly detectable in more mature asci containing developing ascospores. Models to explain the possible role of a rhamnogalacturonase in sexual development are presented. PMID:9178004

  3. Partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a kitten with disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brice S; Pain, Amélie; Meynaud-Collard, Patricia; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Switonski, Marek; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    A 2-month-old kitten exhibited simultaneously an imperforate anus, hypospadias, rectourethral fistula and genital dysgenesis (penis restricted to the glans, absence of prepuce and bifid scrotum). Surgical correction consisted of separation of the urinary and digestive tracts, perineal urethrostomy and connection of the rectum to the newly made anal opening. Pathological examination of the testes, conventionally removed at 9 months of age, showed no mature spermatozoa and underdevelopment of germ and Leydig cells. In humans, the absence of an anal opening in association with abnormal sexual development defines the urorectal septum malformation sequence. Here, we describe the first case of this syndrome in a kitten with a normal male karyotype (38,XY) and a normal coding sequence for the SRY gene. Both the rectourethral fistula and observed genital abnormalities might have been induced by a disturbance in the hedgehog signalling pathway. However, although four polymorphic sites were identified by DHH gene sequencing, none cosegregated with the malformation. PMID:24718294

  4. Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Bonnie R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult…

  5. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  6. Dmrt genes in the development and evolution of sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Artyom

    2012-01-01

    Most animals are sexually dimorphic, yet different taxa have different sex-specific traits. Despite major differences in the genetic control of sexual development among animal lineages, the Dmrt family of transcription factors has been shown to be involved in sex-specific differentiation in all animals studied so far. In recent years, the functions of Dmrt genes have been characterized in many animal groups, opening the way for a broad comparative perspective. In this review, I focus on the similarities and differences in the functions of Dmrt genes across the animal kingdom. I highlight a number of common themes in the sexual development of different taxa, discuss how Dmrt genes have acquired new roles during animal evolution, and show how they contributed to the origin of novel sex-specific traits. PMID:22425532

  7. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex.

  8. The association between sexually transmitted pathogens and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in a developing community.

    PubMed Central

    Kharsany, A B; Hoosen, A A; Moodley, J; Bagaratee, J; Gouws, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). SETTING--An urban tertiary referral hospital serving a large indigent developing community. PARTICIPANTS--48 women attending a colposcopy clinic and 49 women attending a family planning clinic. METHODS--Vaginal, endocervical, rectal swab specimens and sera were collected for the detection of sexually transmitted pathogens. Cervical cytology was performed on all patients. Women attending the colposcopy clinic had confirmation of abnormal cervical cytology by colposcopic directed biopsy. RESULTS--The mean age of women with CIN (33 years) was significantly greater than that of the women without CIN (28 years) and that of the family planning group (26 years). There was a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in all women. A significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found in women with CIN compared to those without (50% vs 20%; p = 0.034). The human papilloma virus (HPV) was detected in 46% of women with CIN and 65% of those without CIN. Chlamydia trachomatis (21%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (39%) were detected frequently in women with CIN. C. trachomatis (14%-21%) was detected more frequently than Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3-5%) in all asymptomatic women studied. CONCLUSION--This study demonstrates a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with and without CIN as well as family planning clinic attenders. Bacterial vaginosis was a significant finding in women with CIN. C. trachomatis was detected in a high proportion of all women studied and found more commonly than N. gonorrhoeae. We therefore recommend that all women attending gynaecological services in a developing community be investigated and treated for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:8244352

  9. Constitutive Notch Signaling Causes Abnormal Development of the Oviducts, Abnormal Angiogenesis, and Cyst Formation in Mouse Female Reproductive Tract.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lydia; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Manresa, Carmen; Barbara, Agustin M; Poppiti, Robert J; Tan, Yingchun; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2016-03-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is critical for the differentiation of many tissues and organs in the embryo. To study the consequences of Notch1 gain-of-function signaling on female reproductive tract development, we used a cre-loxP strategy and Amhr2-cre transgene to generate mice with conditionally activated Notch1 (Rosa(Notch1)). The Amhr2-cre transgene is expressed in the mesenchyme of developing female reproductive tract and in granulosa cells in the ovary. Double transgenic Amhr2-cre, Rosa(Notch1) females were infertile, whereas control Rosa(Notch1) mice had normal fertility. All female reproductive organs in mutants showed hemorrhaging of blood vessels progressing with age. The mutant oviducts did not develop coiling, and were instead looped around the ovary. There were multiple blockages in the lumen along the oviduct length, creating a barrier for sperm or oocyte passage. Mutant females demonstrated inflamed uteri with increased vascularization and an influx of inflammatory cells. Additionally, older females developed ovarian, oviductal, and uterine cysts. The significant change in gene expression was detected in the mutant oviduct expression of Wnt4, essential for female reproductive tract development. Similar oviductal phenotypes have been detected previously in mice with activated Smo and in beta-catenin, Wnt4, Wnt7a, and Dicer conditional knockouts, indicating a common regulatory pathway disrupted by these genetic abnormalities. PMID:26843448

  10. [The development of sexuality in children in a risk situation].

    PubMed

    Yano, Karen Murakami; Ribeiro, Moneda Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to depict and analyze the development of sexuality in children in a risk situation. Forty-two children, of ages between 6 and 12 years, were interviewed in pairs, using techniques to facilitate communication. The qualitative, descriptive-exploratory method was used, according to Thematic Content Analysis. The lack of guidance and information, the inadequate references and sources of knowledge and the violation of their rights characterize the course of sexuality in these children. Away from fairy tales, they discovered the dichotomy between love and sex, which was associated to violent events.

  11. The roles and rules of law in sexual development.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Roger R J

    2002-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the diverse sources of law that regulate sexual development and its resulting behaviors, dispositions, and outcomes. After exploring how the law influences sexuality by regulating families, schools, media, and social service delivery, the article examines the role of criminal and civil law in regulating partners influences on sexual relationships. The article then briefly analyses how the law influences the manner individuals themselves influence their intimate relationships and social environments. The article emphasizes that the necessary brevity of the overview masks many complexities but that existing laws and trends highlight how the law plays a dominant role in our lives, how the law seeks to promote certain dispositions, that the law must be harnessed to foster healthy relationships, and that contending with the law s dictates provides social scientists with important opportunities to foster social reform and structure healthy, supportive social environments conducive to responsible behaviors, attitudes, and dispositions.

  12. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  13. Contemporary issues in the management of abnormal placentation during pregnancy in developing nations: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Singh, Anita; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2013-07-01

    The gap between the developed and developing nations with regards to maternal mortality and morbidity may have narrowed but still a lot of dedicated work is required to bridge these differences. Obstetrical haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal deaths in these developing nations especially in India. The most common causes of this fatal haemorrhage are the placental abnormalities which rarely get detected before delivery. Numerous factors have been incremental in the causation of this abnormal placental implantation with resultant complications. The present article is an attempt to review possible predictors of abnormal placental implantation. Also, a genuine attempt has been made to enumerate possible measures to identify the predictors of abnormal placentation during early pregnancy and their suitable prevention and management.

  14. Control of development of the oral apparatus of Paramecium during sexual reproduction: an embryological perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, S F; Fujishima, M

    1989-08-01

    This study shows that development of the new soma during sexual reproduction in ciliates can be conceptualized on the same basis as embryogenesis in multicellular organisms. In conjugating Paramecium, development of a new oral apparatus takes place during fertilization and the first three divisions of the zygotic nucleus and completes well before the postsexual cell undergoes the first cell fission. The control of oral development is analyzed by microsurgical removal of the zygotic nucleus or the postzygotic nuclei from conjugants. The enucleated exconjugants can pass through an early hurdle in oral development (the initiation of oral membranelle assembly) and subsequently develop an oral apparatus. Such oral apparatuses nevertheless exhibit structural and functional abnormalities including fragmentation and misalignment of oral membranelles, absence of the postoral microtubular bundle, reduction in the length of buccal cavity, and impaired phagocytosis. Other stomatogenic aspects, such as the arrangement of basal bodies in the oral membranelles, remain unaffected. The two groups of exconjugants, one derived from cells enucleated at the zygotic stage, and the other at the postzygotic stage, exhibit the same types of oral abnormality. We conclude that (i) the zygotic nucleus is not essential for the initiation of oral membranelle assembly. The existence of zygotic signals for subsequent oral development is not ruled out, but these are insufficient. (ii) Postzygotic nuclei, as well as maternal nuclei (the old somatic nucleus and meiotic derivatives of the germ nucleus), control oral development. This reveals a parallelism between postsexual development in ciliates and the early embryology of multicellular organisms, in their reliance on information provided by maternal, as well as early postzygotic nuclei. (iii) The activity of the old somatic nucleus alone is not sufficient for the later stages of oral development. Probably, some stomatogenic functions of the old

  15. The development of female sexual behavior requires prepubertal estradiol.

    PubMed

    Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2011-04-13

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally [between postnatal day 15 (P15) and P25] significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood, whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5-P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15 and P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild-type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females, whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior.

  16. Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a

  17. Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a

  18. Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    Eyles, D W; Feron, F; Cui, X; Kesby, J P; Harms, L H; Ko, P; McGrath, J J; Burne, T H J

    2009-12-01

    There is now clear evidence that vitamin D is involved in brain development. Our group is interested in environmental factors that shape brain development and how this may be relevant to neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The origins of schizophrenia are considered developmental. We hypothesised that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency may be the plausible neurobiological explanation for several important epidemiological correlates of schizophrenia namely: (1) the excess winter/spring birth rate, (2) increased incidence of the disease in 2nd generation Afro-Caribbean migrants and (3) increased urban birth rate. Moreover we have published two pieces of direct epidemiological support for this hypothesis in patients. In order to establish the "Biological Plausibility" of this hypothesis we have developed an animal model to study the effect of DVD deficiency on brain development. We do this by removing vitamin D from the diet of female rats prior to breeding. At birth we return all dams to a vitamin D containing diet. Using this procedure we impose a transient, gestational vitamin D deficiency, while maintaining normal calcium levels throughout. The brains of offspring from DVD-deficient dams are characterised by (1) a mild distortion in brain shape, (2) increased lateral ventricle volumes, (3) reduced differentiation and (4) diminished expression of neurotrophic factors. As adults, the alterations in ventricular volume persist and alterations in brain gene and protein expression emerge. Adult DVD-deficient rats also display behavioural sensitivity to agents that induce psychosis (the NMDA antagonist MK-801) and have impairments in attentional processing. In this review we summarise the literature addressing the function of vitamin D on neuronal and non-neuronal cells as well as in vivo results from DVD-deficient animals. Our conclusions from these data are that vitamin D is a plausible biological risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders and that

  19. Adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-10-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26376287

  20. Adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-10-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Environmental Enteropathy: Elusive but Significant Subclinical Abnormalities in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koji; Petri, William A

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED) is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals. However, there is a growing concern of EE/EED because of its impact on longitudinal public health issues, such as growth faltering, oral vaccine low efficacy and poor neurocognitive development. Recent works have provided important clues to unravel its complex pathogenesis, and suggest possible strategies for controlling EE/EED. However, effective diagnostic methods and interventions remain unsettled. Here, we review the existing literature, especially about its pathogenesis, and discuss a solution for children living in the developing world.

  2. Environmental Enteropathy: Elusive but Significant Subclinical Abnormalities in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koji; Petri, William A

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED) is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals. However, there is a growing concern of EE/EED because of its impact on longitudinal public health issues, such as growth faltering, oral vaccine low efficacy and poor neurocognitive development. Recent works have provided important clues to unravel its complex pathogenesis, and suggest possible strategies for controlling EE/EED. However, effective diagnostic methods and interventions remain unsettled. Here, we review the existing literature, especially about its pathogenesis, and discuss a solution for children living in the developing world. PMID:27495791

  3. Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2003-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…

  4. Context-dependent sexual advertisement: plasticity in development of sexual ornamentation throughout the lifetime of a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Badyaev, A V; Duckworth, R A

    2003-11-01

    Male investment into sexual ornamentation is a reproductive decision that depends on the context of breeding and life history state. In turn, selection for state- and context-specific expression of sexual ornamentation should favour the evolution of developmental pathways that enable the flexible allocation of resources into sexual ornamentation. We studied lifelong variation in the expression and condition-dependence of a sexual ornament in relation to age and the context of breeding in male house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus)--a species that develops a new sexual ornament once a year after breeding. Throughout males' lifetime, the elaboration of ornamentation and the allocation of resources to the development of sexual ornamentation depended strongly on pairing status in the preceding breeding season--males that were single invested more resources into sexual ornamentation and changed ornamentation more than males that were paired. During the initial (post-juvenile) moult, the expression of ornamentation was closely dependent on individual condition, however the condition-dependence of ornamentation sharply decreased throughout a male's lifetime and in older males expression of sexual ornamentation was largely independent of condition during moult. Selection for early breeding favoured greater ornamentation in males that were single in the preceding seasons and the strength of this selection increased with age. On the contrary, the strength of selection on sexual ornamentation decreased with age in males that were paired in the preceding breeding season. Our results reveal strong context-dependency in investment into sexual ornamentation as well as a high flexibility in the development of sexual ornamentation throughout a male's life. PMID:14640398

  5. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  6. Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  7. Transgenic mice overexpressing reticulon 3 develop neuritic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiangyou; Shi, Qi; Zhou, Xiangdong; He, Wanxia; Yi, Hong; Yin, Xinghua; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan; Yan, Riqiang

    2007-01-01

    Dystrophic neurites are swollen dendrites or axons recognizable near amyloid plaques as a part of important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report herein that reticulon 3 (RTN3) is accumulated in a distinct population of dystrophic neurites named as RTN3 immunoreactive dystrophic neurites (RIDNs). The occurrence of RIDNs is concomitant with the formation of high-molecular-weight RTN3 aggregates in brains of AD cases and mice expressing mutant APP. Ultrastructural analysis confirms accumulation of RTN3-containing aggregates in RIDNs. It appears that the protein level of RTN3 governs the formation of RIDNs because transgenic mice expressing RTN3 will develop RIDNs, initially in the hippocampal CA1 region, and later in other hippocampal and cortical regions. Importantly, we show that the presence of dystrophic neurites in Tg-RTN3 mice causes impairments in spatial learning and memory, as well as synaptic plasticity, implying that RIDNs potentially contribute to AD cognitive dysfunction. Together, we demonstrate that aggregation of RTN3 contributes to AD pathogenesis by inducing neuritic dystrophy. Inhibition of RTN3 aggregation is likely a therapeutic approach for reducing neuritic dystrophy. PMID:17476306

  8. The marsupial male: a role model for sexual development.

    PubMed

    Renfree, M B; Harry, J L; Shaw, G

    1995-11-29

    Sexual differentiation in male marsupials has many similarities with that of eutherians. Marsupials have an XX-XY sex determining mechanism, and have a homologue of the testis-determining SRY gene on their Y-chromosome. However, the development pattern of SRY gene expression is different from the mouse in that it is expressed for a much longer period. SRY is expressed in a range of non-gonadal tissues in male pouch young and adults which is similar to the human pattern, and raises questions as to its particular role(s) in sexual differentiation. Similarly Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is produced in the developing testis over a longer period than in the mouse. Since ovaries cultured with MIS or transplanted into male recipient pouch young develop tubular structures, MIS may induce Sertoli cell formation. Testosterone is produced by the neonatal testis, and this stimulates Wolffian duct development to form the vas deferens and epididymis. Virilization of urogenital sinus is also androgen-dependent. However, virilization of the prostate and phallus occurs more than three weeks after the onset of testosterone production, suggesting that the timing of this may be regulated by delayed activation of the androgen receptor pathway. Unlike in eutherians, differentiation of the scrotum and mammary glands is not dependent on testicular hormones, but is independently regulated by an X-linked genetic mechanism. Clearly marsupials provide a unique perspective to help us clarify the mechanisms underlying sexual development in all mammals.

  9. New Insights into Placozoan Sexual Reproduction and Development

    PubMed Central

    Eitel, Michael; Guidi, Loretta; Hadrys, Heike; Balsamo, Maria; Schierwater, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa are a unique model system for which the nuclear genome was published before the basic biology (i.e. life cycle and development) has been unraveled. Four organismal studies have reported the development of oocytes and one genetic study has nourished the hypothesis of sexual reproduction in natural populations at least in the past. Here we report new observations on sexual reproduction and embryonic development in the Placozoa and support the hypothesis of current sexual reproduction. The regular observation of oocytes and expressed sperm markers provide support that placozoans reproduce sexually in the field. Using whole genome and EST sequences and additional cDNA cloning we identified five conserved sperm markers, characteristic for different stages in spermatogenesis. We also report details on the embryonic development up to a 128-cell stage and new ultrastructural features occurring during early development. These results suggest that sperm and oocyte generation and maturation occur in different placozoans and that clonal lineages reproduce bisexually in addition to the standard mode of vegetative reproduction. The sum of observations is best congruent with the hypothesis of a simple life cycle with an alternation of reproductive modes between bisexual and vegetative reproduction. PMID:21625556

  10. Women's dreaming: women, sexuality and development.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens by invoking the dreams of women that arise from their life experiences and lead women, despite their powerlessness, to desire to create a different kind of society. The essay continues by exploring the relationship between analysis and practice and the contention that analysis of a problem shapes development practice, social policy, research priorities, and activism. Poverty provides an example of a complex, chaotic phenomenon that is often reduced to simplistic, measurable variables such as income or consumption deprivation. Attention is then paid to the population debate where linkages between the analytical framework and program development are clear. These simplified linkages led to macro analysis of events played out on the micro level and to the choice of women rather than men as the most effective change agents. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, however, gave rise to a new analytical framework emphasizing women's empowerment, women's health, women's rights, and men's participation and responsibility. This approach embraces the complexity of the situation and, thus, provides a road map for effective programs and policies. The next section of the essay considers gender analysis and how this concept leads to a demand on the part of women for access to men's privileges and a climate of confrontation arising from this demand. The inadequacies of using a woman-centered gender analysis as a framework for understanding male behavior are also discussed. Alternative concepts from the feminist movement are explored for their usefulness in generating social change, and the efforts of the Bangladesh Rural Achievement Committee to improve female literacy are used as an example of the value of cooperative, consciousness-raising groups. It is concluded that radical changes will be required to realize women's dreams of social changes.

  11. Attitudes, opinions, and sexual development of 205 homosexual women.

    PubMed

    Hogan, R A; Fox, A N; Kirchner, J H

    1977-01-01

    Two hundred and five homosexual women, aged 15 to 50, were surveyed as to their attitudes and experiences in the areas of education, religion, family experiences, marriage, friendship, personal happiness, sexual development and satisfaction, psychological adjustment, and occupational status. The investigation discovered a high rate of only-child status among lesbian women, a tendency toward ambivalence of opinion on many issues, and a general lack of insight into self and others. Comparisons with other research on female homosexuality were made.

  12. Disorder of Sexual Development and Congenital Heart Defect in 47XYY: Clinical Disorder or Coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Latrech, Hanane; Skikar, Imane; Gharbi, Mohammed El Hassan; Chraïbi, Abdelmjid; Gaouzi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background. 47XYY syndrome is a rare sex chromosome variation characterized by an additional Y chromosome. Most patients with 47XYY karyotype have normal phenotype. This disorder seems associated with a higher risk of developing behavioral and cognitive problems, tall stature, and infertility in adulthood. Sexual development disorder is a rare finding. We report a first case with an abnormal left coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery in a 47XYY patient. Case. A one-month-old child was referred for ectopic testis and micropenis. Physical examination revealed facial dysmorphia, micropenis, and curvature of the penis with nonpalpable testis. Laboratory tests showed decreased total testosterone and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels. Blood karyotyping revealed a 47XYY chromosomal formula. At the age of 3 months, the patient developed dyspnea and tachycardia. Echocardiography revealed an anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with left ventricular dysfunction requiring surgical revascularization by direct reimplantation of the left coronary artery system. Our second case was a 3-year-old child referred for hypospadias with nonpalpable left testicle. Physical examination showed hypertelorism. Blood karyotyping revealed a 47XYY chromosomal formula. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of 47XYY syndrome associated with this congenital heart malformation and a sexual development disorder. PMID:26175918

  13. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  14. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  15. Investigating the impact of chronic atrazine exposure on sexual development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Corvi, Margaret M; Stanley, Kerri A; Peterson, Peterson; Kent, Michael L; Feist, Stephen W; La Du, Jane K; Volz, David C; Hosmer, Hosmer; Tanguay, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is a selective triazine herbicide used primarily for pre-emergent weed control in corn, sorghum and sugar cane production. It is one of the most widely used herbicides in North America. Some research published over the last decade suggests that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant ATZ concentrations can adversely impact gonadal development and/or sexual differentiation in amphibians and fish, while other studies report no effect, or moderate effects. As a result, contrasting conclusions have been published regarding the potential effects of the herbicide ATZ on aquatic species. Two near-identical four-month studies in 2009 (Study I) and 2010 (Study II), were performed investigating the potential for chronic ATZ exposure to affect zebrafish (Danio rerio) sexual development and differentiation. Zebrafish, were chronically exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 µM ATZ or 1 nM 17α-estradiol (E2). Fish were histologically examined to assign gender and to evaluate potential impacts of E2 or ATZ on gonadal development. Exposure to E2 consistently resulted in a significantly higher proportion of female fish to normal male fish when compared to unexposed fish (both studies). In both studies, ATZ exposure did not significantly influence the percentage of female or male fish when compared to unexposed fish. A greater percentage of abnormally developed male fish and fish lacking differentiated gonadal tissue was observed in Study II E2 exposures but not in ATZ exposures. Together, these studies indicate that long-term exposure to ATZ at or above environmentally relevant concentrations does not significantly impact zebrafish gonadal development or sexual differentiation. PMID:22581590

  16. Investigating the impact of chronic atrazine exposure on sexual development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Corvi, Margaret M; Stanley, Kerri A; Peterson, Tracy S; Kent, Michael L; Feist, Stephen W; La Du, Jane K; Volz, David C; Hosmer, Alan J; Tanguay, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is a selective triazine herbicide used primarily for preemergent weed control in corn, sorghum, and sugar cane production. It is one of the most widely used herbicides in North America. Some research published over the last decade suggests that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant ATZ concentrations can adversely impact gonadal development and/or sexual differentiation in amphibians and fish, while other studies report no effect, or moderate effects. As a result, contrasting conclusions have been published regarding the potential effects of the herbicide ATZ on aquatic species. Two near-identical 4-month studies in 2009 (Study I) and 2010 (Study II) were performed investigating the potential for chronic ATZ exposure to affect zebrafish (Danio rerio) sexual development and differentiation. Zebrafish were chronically exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 μM ATZ or 1 nM 17β-estradiol (E2). Fish were histologically examined to assign gender and to evaluate potential impacts of E2 or ATZ on gonadal development. Exposure to E2 consistently resulted in a significantly higher proportion of female fish to normal male fish when compared to unexposed fish (both studies). In both studies, ATZ exposure did not significantly influence the percentage of female or male fish when compared to unexposed fish. A greater percentage of abnormally developed male fish and fish lacking differentiated gonadal tissue was observed in Study II E2 exposures but not in ATZ exposures. Together, these studies indicate that long-term exposure to ATZ at or above environmentally relevant concentrations does not significantly impact zebrafish gonadal development or sexual differentiation.

  17. Abnormal Development of Thalamic Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Lisa B.; Votava-Smith, Jodie K.; Ceschin, Rafael; Nagasunder, Arabhi C.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Blüml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Preterm birth is associated with alteration in cortico-thalamic development, which underlies poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate abnormal thalamic microstructure when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between thalamic microstructural abnormalities and peri-operative clinical variables. Material and Methods We compared thalamic DTI measurements in 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison was made with three other selected white matter regions using ROI manual based measurements. Correlation was made with post-conceptional age and peri-operative clinical variables. Results In preterm neonates with CHD, there were age-related differences in thalamic diffusivity (axial and radial) compared to the preterm and term non-CHD group, in contrast to no differences in anisotropy. Contrary to our hypothesis, abnormal thalamic and optic radiation microstructure was most strongly associated with an elevated first arterial blood gas pO2 and elevated pre-operative arterial blood gas pH (p<0.05). Conclusion Age-related thalamic microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD. Perinatal hyperoxemia and increased peri-operative serum pH was associated with abnormal thalamic microstructure in preterm neonates with CHD. This study emphasizes the vulnerability of thalamo-cortical development in the preterm neonate with CHD. PMID:25608695

  18. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors With Development of Major and Minor Electrocardiographic Abnormalities: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Healy, Caroline F; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are prevalent in middle aged and are associated with risk of adverse cardiovascular events. It is unclear whether and to what extent traditional risk factors are associated with the development of ECG abnormalities. To determine whether traditional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the presence or development of ECG abnormalities, we performed a systematic review of the English-language literature for cross-sectional and prospective studies examining associations between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and ECG abnormalities, including major and minor ECG abnormalities, isolated nonspecific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, other ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, QT interval, Q waves, and QRS duration. Of the 202 papers initially identified, 19 were eligible for inclusion. We examined data analyzing risk factor associations with ECG abnormalities in individuals free of cardiovascular disease. For composite major or minor ECG abnormalities, black race, older age, higher blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medications, higher body mass index, diabetes, smoking, and evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or higher left ventricular mass are the factors most commonly associated with prevalence and incidence. Risk factor associations differ somewhat according to types of specific ECG abnormalities. Because major and minor ECG abnormalities have important and independent prognostic significance, understanding the groups at risk for their development may inform prevention strategies focused on modifiable risk factors to reduce the burden of ECG abnormalities, which may in turn promote CVD prevention. PMID:27054606

  19. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease recapitulates phosphorylation during development.

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, M; Jakes, R; Crowther, R A; Six, J; Lübke, U; Vandermeeren, M; Cras, P; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1993-01-01

    Tau is a neuronal phosphoprotein whose expression is developmentally regulated. A single tau isoform is expressed in fetal human brain but six isoforms are expressed in adult brain, with the fetal isoform corresponding to the shortest of the adult isoforms. Phosphorylation of tau is also developmentally regulated, as fetal tau is phosphorylated at more sites than adult tau. In Alzheimer disease, the six adult tau isoforms become abnormally phosphorylated and form the paired helical filament, the major fibrous component of the characteristic neurofibrillary lesions. We show here that Ser-202 (in the numbering of the longest human brain tau isoform) is a phosphorylation site that distinguishes fetal from adult tau and we identify it as one of the abnormal phosphorylation sites in Alzheimer disease. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease thus recapitulates normal phosphorylation during development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8506352

  20. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  1. Developing a Practical Parenting Workshop: A Case Study in Family Sexual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croatt, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the development and assessment of a parent intervention and training program. Out of concern for the sexual health of adolescents in the United States, both parents and researchers have called for programs assisting parents in the sexual education of their children. Encouraging sexual communication and increasing the…

  2. Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

    2011-01-01

    This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

  3. Transcriptional control of sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Mead, Matthew E; Hull, Christina M

    2016-05-01

    Developmental processes are essential for the normal life cycles of many pathogenic fungi, and they can facilitate survival in challenging environments, including the human host. Sexual development of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans not only produces infectious particles (spores) but has also enabled the evolution of new disease-related traits such as drug resistance. Transcription factor networks are essential to the development and pathogenesis of C. neoformans, and a variety of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins control both key developmental transitions and virulence by regulating the expression of their target genes. In this review we discuss the roles of known transcription factors that harbor important connections to both development and virulence. Recent studies of these transcription factors have identified a common theme in which metabolic, stress, and other responses that are required for sexual development appear to have been co-opted for survival in the human host, thus facilitating pathogenesis. Future work elucidating the connection between development and pathogenesis will provide vital insights into the evolution of complex traits in eukaryotes as well as mechanisms that may be used to combat fungal pathogens. PMID:27095452

  4. Understanding normal and abnormal development of the Wolffian/epididymal duct by using transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Murashima, Aki; Xu, Bingfang; Hinton, Barry T

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Wolffian/epididymal duct is crucial for proper function and, therefore, male fertility. The development of the epididymis is complex; the initial stages form as a transient embryonic kidney; then the mesonephros is formed, which in turn undergoes extensive morphogenesis under the influence of androgens and growth factors. Thus, understanding of its full development requires a wide and multidisciplinary view. This review focuses on mouse models that display abnormalities of the Wolffian duct and mesonephric development, the importance of these mouse models toward understanding male reproductive tract development, and how these models contribute to our understanding of clinical abnormalities in humans such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). PMID:26112482

  5. Understanding normal and abnormal development of the Wolffian/epididymal duct by using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Murashima, Aki; Xu, Bingfang; Hinton, Barry T

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Wolffian/epididymal duct is crucial for proper function and, therefore, male fertility. The development of the epididymis is complex; the initial stages form as a transient embryonic kidney; then the mesonephros is formed, which in turn undergoes extensive morphogenesis under the influence of androgens and growth factors. Thus, understanding of its full development requires a wide and multidisciplinary view. This review focuses on mouse models that display abnormalities of the Wolffian duct and mesonephric development, the importance of these mouse models toward understanding male reproductive tract development, and how these models contribute to our understanding of clinical abnormalities in humans such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). PMID:26112482

  6. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  7. Commit and Transmit: Molecular Players in Plasmodium Sexual Development and Zygote Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guttery, David S; Roques, Magali; Holder, Anthony A; Tewari, Rita

    2015-12-01

    During each cycle of asexual endomitotic division in erythrocytes, the malaria parasite makes a fundamental and crucial decision: to continue to invade and proliferate or to differentiate into gametocytes ready for continuation of sexual development. The proteins and regulatory pathways involved in Plasmodium sexual development have been of great interest in recent years as targets for blocking malaria transmission. However, the 'Holy Grail', the master switch orchestrating asexual-to-sexual commitment and further differentiation, has remained elusive - until now. Here we highlight the recent studies identifying the epigenetic and transcriptional master regulators of sexual commitment and discuss the key players in reversible phosphorylation pathways involved in sexual and zygote differentiation. PMID:26440790

  8. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  9. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  10. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

  11. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development. PMID:24795562

  12. Abnormal visual experience during development alters the early stages of visual-tactile integration.

    PubMed

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Chin, Jessica; Wolfe, Paul J; Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2016-05-01

    Visual experience during the critical periods in early postnatal life is necessary for the normal development of the visual system. Disruption of visual input during this period results in amblyopia, which is associated with reduced activation of the striate and extrastriate cortices. It is well known that visual input converges with other sensory signals and exerts a significant influence on cortical processing in multiple association areas. Recent work in healthy adults has also shown that task-relevant visual input can modulate neural excitability at very early stages of information processing in the primary somatosensory cortex. Here we used electroencephalography to investigate visual-tactile interactions in adults with abnormal binocular vision due to amblyopia and strabismus. Results showed three main findings. First, in comparison to a visually normal control group, participants with abnormal vision had a significantly lower amplitude of the P50 somatosensory event related potential (ERP) when visual and tactile stimuli were presented concurrently. Second, the amplitude of the P100 somatosensory ERP was significantly greater in participants with abnormal vision. These results indicate that task relevant visual input does not significantly influence the excitability of the primary somatosensory cortex, instead, the excitability of the secondary somatosensory cortex is increased. Third, participants with abnormal vision had a higher amplitude of the P1 visual ERP when a tactile stimulus was presented concurrently. Importantly, these results were not modulated by viewing condition, which indicates that the impact of amblyopia on crossmodal interactions is not simply related to the reduced visual acuity as it was evident when viewing with the unaffected eye and binocularly. These results indicate that the consequences of abnormal visual experience on neurophysiological processing extend beyond the primary and secondary visual areas to other modality

  13. Both cell-autonomous mechanisms and hormones contribute to sexual development in vertebrates and insects.

    PubMed

    Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia

    2013-08-01

    The differentiation of male and female characteristics in vertebrates and insects has long been thought to proceed via different mechanisms. Traditionally, vertebrate sexual development was thought to occur in two phases: a primary and a secondary phase, the primary phase involving the differentiation of the gonads, and the secondary phase involving the differentiation of other sexual traits via the influence of sex hormones secreted by the gonads. In contrast, insect sexual development was thought to depend exclusively on cell-autonomous expression of sex-specific genes. Recently, however, new evidence indicates that both vertebrates and insects rely on sex hormones as well as cell-autonomous mechanisms to develop sexual traits. Collectively, these new data challenge the traditional vertebrate definitions of primary and secondary sexual development, call for a redefinition of these terms, and indicate the need for research aimed at explaining the relative dependence on cell-autonomous versus hormonally guided sexual development in animals.

  14. Sexual life and sexual frigidity among women developing acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Abramov, L A

    1976-01-01

    The various aspects of the sexual life of 100 female patients aged 40-60 with acute myocardial infarction were compared with those of a control group of 100 female patients of the same age, hospitalized for other diseases. Sexual frigidity and dissatisfaction were found among 65% of the coronary patients as compared with 24% of the controls. The commonest cause for sexual dissatisfaction was premature ejaculation or impotence in the husband. The incidence of premarital sexual relations was greater among the frigid patients when compared with those who achieved orgasm. The coronary patients had an earlier menopausal age than the controls. The number of coronary patients who underwent artificial abortions in the past was lower than in the control group. All these findings were statistically significant at a level of P less than 0.05. No connection was found between extramarital relations and sexual frigidity. There was no relation found between sexual frigidity and diabetes, essential hypertension, marital status, pathological gynecological findings, or localization of the infarction. Until now, sexual frigidity and dissatisfaction appear to have been a neglected aspect in the female coronary patient.

  15. Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

    1997-01-01

    The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model. PMID:9409146

  16. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  17. Individual and combined roles of malonichrome, ferricrocin, and TAFC siderophores in Fusarium graminearum pathogenic and sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Oide, Shinichi; Berthiller, Franz; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Intra- and extracellular iron-chelating siderophores produced by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases have been shown to be involved in reproductive and pathogenic developmental processes and in iron and oxidative stress management. Here we report individual and combined contributions of three of these metabolites to developmental success of the destructive cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. In previous work, we determined that deletion of the NPS2 gene, responsible for intracellular siderophore biosynthesis, results in inability to produce sexual spores when mutants of this homothallic ascomycete are selfed. Deletion of the NPS6 gene, required for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, does not affect sexual reproduction but results in sensitivity to iron starvation and oxidative stress and leads to reduced virulence to the host. Building on this, we report that double mutants lacking both NPS2 and NPS6 are augmented in all collective phenotypes of single deletion strains (i.e., abnormal sexual and pathogenic development, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress), which suggests overlap of function. Using comparative biochemical analysis of wild-type and mutant strains, we show that NPS1, a third gene associated with siderophore biosynthesis, is responsible for biosynthesis of a second extracellular siderophore, malonichrome. nps1 mutants fail to produce this metabolite. Phenotypic characterization reveals that, although single nps1 mutants are like wild-type with respect to sexual development, hypersensitivity to ROS and iron-depletion stress, and virulence to the host, triple nps1nps2nps6 deletion strains, lacking all three siderophores, are even more impaired in these attributes than double nps2nps6 strains. Thus, combinatorial mutants lacking key iron-associated genes uncovered malonichrome function. The intimate connection between presence/absence of siderophores and resistance/sensitivity to ROS is central to sexual and pathogenic

  18. Sexual Development and Ascospore Discharge in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Cavinder, Brad; Sikhakolli, Usha; Fellows, Kayla M.; Trail, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum has become a model system for studies in development and pathogenicity of filamentous fungi. F. graminearum most easily produces fruiting bodies, called perithecia, on carrot agar. Perithecia contain numerous tissue types, produced at specific stages of perithecium development. These include (in order of appearance) formation of the perithecium initials (which give rise to the ascogenous hyphae), the outer wall, paraphyses (sterile mycelia which occupy the center of the perithecium until the asci develop), the asci, and the ascospores within the asci14. The development of each of these tissues is separated by approximately 24 hours and has been the basis of transcriptomic studies during sexual development12,8. Refer to Hallen et al. (2007) for a more thorough description of development, including photographs of each stage. Here, we present the methods for generating and harvesting synchronously developing lawns of perithecia for temporal studies of gene regulation, development, and physiological processes. Although these methods are written specifically to be used with F. graminearum, the techniques can be used for a variety of other fungi, provided that fruiting can be induced in culture and there is some synchrony to development. We have recently adapted this protocol to study the sexual development of F. verticillioides. Although individual perithecia must be hand picked in this species, because a lawn of developing perithecia could not be induced, the process worked well for studying development (Sikhakolli and Trail, unpublished). The most important function of fungal fruiting bodies is the dispersal of spores. In many of the species of Ascomycota (ascus producing fungi), spores are shot from the ascus, due to the generation of turgor pressure within the ascus, driving ejection of spores (and epiplasmic fluid) through the pore in the ascus tip2,7. Our studies of forcible ascospore discharge have resulted in development of a "spore

  19. Practical applications of insects' sexual development for pest control.

    PubMed

    Koukidou, M; Alphey, L

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the sex differentiation pathway in insects offers an opportunity to understand key aspects of evolutionary developmental biology. In addition, it provides the understanding necessary to manipulate insects in order to develop new synthetic genetics-based tools for the control of pest insects. Considerable progress has been made in this, especially in improvements to the sterile insect technique (SIT). Large scale sex separation is considered highly desirable or essential for most SIT targets. This separation can be provided by genetic methods based on sex-specific gene expression. Investigation of sex determination by many groups has provided molecular components and methods for this. Though the primary sex determination signal varies considerably, key regulatory genes and mechanisms remain surprisingly similar. In most cases studied so far, a primary signal is transmitted to a basal gene at the bottom of the hierarchy (dsx) through an alternative splicing cascade; dsx is itself differentially spliced in males and females. A sex-specific alternative splicing system therefore offers an attractive route to achieve female-specific expression. Experience has shown that alternative splicing modules can be developed with cross-species function; modularity and standardisation and re-use of parts are key principles of synthetic biology. Both female-killing and sex reversal (XX females to phenotypic males) can in principle also be used as efficient alternatives to sterilisation in SIT-like methods. Sexual maturity is yet another area where understanding of sexual development may be applied to insect control programmes. Further detailed understanding of this crucial aspect of insect biology will undoubtedly continue to underpin innovative practical applications.

  20. In utero and Lactational Exposure to Acetamiprid Induces Abnormalities in Socio-Sexual and Anxiety-Related Behaviors of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yang, Jiaxin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Nakayama, Shoji F.; Kawashima, Takaharu; Suzuki, Go; Hashimoto, Shunji; Nohara, Keiko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, a widely used group of pesticides designed to selectively bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, were considered relatively safe for mammalian species. However, they have been found to activate vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and could be toxic to the mammalian brain. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of acetamiprid (ACE), one of the most widely used neonicotinoids, in C57BL/6J mice whose mothers were administered ACE via gavage at doses of either 0 mg/kg (control group), 1.0 mg/kg (low-dose group), or 10.0 mg/kg (high-dose group) from gestational day 6 to lactation day 21. The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and testosterone levels were used as endpoints. In addition, behavioral flexibility in mice was assessed in a group-housed environment using the IntelliCage, a fully automated mouse behavioral analysis system. In adult male mice exposed to ACE at both low and high doses, a significant reduction of anxiety level was found in the light-dark transition test. Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the anxiety levels nor the sexual behaviors of females were altered. No reductions in the testosterone level, the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells, or behavioral flexibility were detected in either sex. These results suggest the possibility that in utero and lactational ACE exposure interferes with the development of the neural circuits required for executing socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors in male mice specifically. PMID:27375407

  1. In utero and Lactational Exposure to Acetamiprid Induces Abnormalities in Socio-Sexual and Anxiety-Related Behaviors of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yang, Jiaxin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Nakayama, Shoji F; Kawashima, Takaharu; Suzuki, Go; Hashimoto, Shunji; Nohara, Keiko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, a widely used group of pesticides designed to selectively bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, were considered relatively safe for mammalian species. However, they have been found to activate vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and could be toxic to the mammalian brain. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of acetamiprid (ACE), one of the most widely used neonicotinoids, in C57BL/6J mice whose mothers were administered ACE via gavage at doses of either 0 mg/kg (control group), 1.0 mg/kg (low-dose group), or 10.0 mg/kg (high-dose group) from gestational day 6 to lactation day 21. The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and testosterone levels were used as endpoints. In addition, behavioral flexibility in mice was assessed in a group-housed environment using the IntelliCage, a fully automated mouse behavioral analysis system. In adult male mice exposed to ACE at both low and high doses, a significant reduction of anxiety level was found in the light-dark transition test. Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the anxiety levels nor the sexual behaviors of females were altered. No reductions in the testosterone level, the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells, or behavioral flexibility were detected in either sex. These results suggest the possibility that in utero and lactational ACE exposure interferes with the development of the neural circuits required for executing socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors in male mice specifically. PMID:27375407

  2. Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kerrick, R.; Grube, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents’ exposure to four socializing agents—mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content—and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: Social Benefit, Pleasure, Social Risk, and Health Risk. Data are from Waves 2–3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were non-sexually active (N=914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and Social Benefit, Pleasure and Social Risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and Social Benefit expectancies and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and Health Risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted Pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted Social Risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision-making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  3. Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: contributions by parents, peers and the media.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  4. Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: contributions by parents, peers and the media.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication.

  5. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  6. Identification of de novo copy number variants associated with human disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Corbett, Sean T; Louet, Jean-Francois; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Meyers, Lindsay; Shaw, Chad A; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lamb, Dolores J

    2010-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD using a clinically validated array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. 8951 controls without urogenital defects were used to compare with our cohort of affected patients. Clinically relevant imbalances were found in 21.5% of the analyzed patients. Most anomalies (74.2%) evaded detection by the routinely ordered karyotype and were scattered across the genome in gene-enriched subtelomeric loci. Among these defects, confirmed de novo duplication and deletion events were noted on 1p36.33, 9p24.3 and 19q12-q13.11 for ambiguous genitalia, 10p14 and Xq28 for cryptorchidism and 12p13 and 16p11.2 for hypospadias. These variants were significantly associated with genitourinary defects (P = 6.08×10(-12)). The causality of defects observed in 5p15.3, 9p24.3, 22q12.1 and Xq28 was supported by the presence of overlapping chromosomal rearrangements in several unrelated patients. In addition to known gonad determining genes including SRY and DMRT1, novel candidate genes such as FGFR2, KANK1, ADCY2 and ZEB2 were encompassed. The identification of risk germline rearrangements for urogenital birth defects may impact diagnosis and genetic counseling and contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human sexual development. PMID:21048976

  7. [Abnormal psychosocial development and legal responsibility--results of psychopathometric studies].

    PubMed

    Littmann, E; Friemert, K; Szewczyk, H

    1989-05-01

    The introduction (1968) of the legal concept of Grave Abnormal Development of the Personality Amounting to a Disorder into the penal code, made possible criminal deculpation on the basis of psychosocial maldevelopment. On the basis of an intelligence- and personality-diagnostic test-battery (Psychopathometry), the findings obtained in the examination of a sample of culprits on probation under this legal provision, has been compared with a control group homogeneous in respect of the significant parameters. Psychopathometric methods can and should reasonably supplement expertises of this culprits with defective psychosocial development.

  8. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  9. The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

  10. An Organizational Development Approach to Preventing Sexual Harassment: Developing Shared Commitment through Awareness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomann, Daniel A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Saint Louis University's efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive sexual harassment training program as the foundation for a cultural influence process is described. The use of the training program as the foundation of a normative-reeducative process of change is described. (MLW)

  11. Sexual Harassment: Development of a University's Policy and Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreth, Catherine; And Others

    In late 1988 the University of Florida began the process of revising and updating its policy and educational programs on sexual harassment. At that time a task force was formed which reviewed the current policy and procedures and drafted a revised brochure on sexual harassment. This brochure was reviewed and redrafted and distributed to every…

  12. Healthy Sexuality Development: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisman, Kent; Couchenour, Donna

    Although families are children's primary teachers about sexuality development, early childhood teachers and administrators also support children's healthy sexuality development as they interact with children, work with families, and plan programs. This book provides key information to educators and families about what is typical in young children…

  13. Variations in internet-related problems and psychosocial functioning in online sexual activities: implications for social and sexual development of young adults.

    PubMed

    Boies, Sylvain C; Cooper, Al; Osborne, Cynthia S

    2004-04-01

    This survey of 760 university students examined differences in Internet-related problems and psychosocial functioning between four patterns of participation in online sexual information and entertainment activities. Students who did not participate in either online sexual activity were more satisfied with their offline life and more connected to friends and family. Those who engaged in both online sexual activities were more dependent on the Internet and reported lower offline functioning. Students who only sought sexual information maintained strong offline affiliations. Those who only sought entertainment did not report lower offline functioning. Respondents most deficient in offline social support did not report compensatory online support. Despite students' common participation in online sexual activities (OSA) as a venue for social and sexual development, those relying on the Internet and the affiliations it provides appear at risk of decreased social integration. The authors discussed the finding's implications for social and sexual development. PMID:15140364

  14. Environmental pollutants and diseases of sexual development in humans and wildlife in South Africa: harbingers of impact on overall health?

    PubMed

    Riana Bornman, M S; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2012-08-01

    This study deals with disorders of sexual development in humans, wildlife and animals in an urban nature reserve (RNR) and a currently DDT-sprayed malarial area. High levels of oestrogenic chemical residues in water, sediment and tissue; skewed sex ratios; reduced biodiversity; gonadal malformations in sharptooth catfish and freshwater snails; intersex in catfish; and impaired spermatogenesis in catfish and striped mouse are of serious concern in the RNR. Persistent eggshell thinning in African darter eggs, intersex in male Mozambican tilapia, follicular atresia in females and impaired spermatogenesis in males following laboratory exposure of parent fish to environmentally relevant DDT and DDE concentrations, and abnormalities in freshwater snails were found in the DDT-sprayed area. Human studies related to DDT exposure indicated impaired semen quality, a weak association with sperm chromatin defects and higher risks for external urogenital birth defects in those who were born to mothers whose houses were sprayed and those who were homemakers (stay at home mother) instead of being employed. These findings indicate that diseases of sexual development occurred in both human and wildlife populations exposed to environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals in South Africa. The chemical mixtures, possibly related to disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), were very different between the two. However, DSD occurred concurrently in the malarial area, possibly indicating that humans and wildlife shared exposures. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of suspecting disease in the other when disease is found in either human or wildlife populations.

  15. Environmental pollutants and diseases of sexual development in humans and wildlife in South Africa: harbingers of impact on overall health?

    PubMed

    Riana Bornman, M S; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2012-08-01

    This study deals with disorders of sexual development in humans, wildlife and animals in an urban nature reserve (RNR) and a currently DDT-sprayed malarial area. High levels of oestrogenic chemical residues in water, sediment and tissue; skewed sex ratios; reduced biodiversity; gonadal malformations in sharptooth catfish and freshwater snails; intersex in catfish; and impaired spermatogenesis in catfish and striped mouse are of serious concern in the RNR. Persistent eggshell thinning in African darter eggs, intersex in male Mozambican tilapia, follicular atresia in females and impaired spermatogenesis in males following laboratory exposure of parent fish to environmentally relevant DDT and DDE concentrations, and abnormalities in freshwater snails were found in the DDT-sprayed area. Human studies related to DDT exposure indicated impaired semen quality, a weak association with sperm chromatin defects and higher risks for external urogenital birth defects in those who were born to mothers whose houses were sprayed and those who were homemakers (stay at home mother) instead of being employed. These findings indicate that diseases of sexual development occurred in both human and wildlife populations exposed to environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals in South Africa. The chemical mixtures, possibly related to disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), were very different between the two. However, DSD occurred concurrently in the malarial area, possibly indicating that humans and wildlife shared exposures. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of suspecting disease in the other when disease is found in either human or wildlife populations. PMID:22827388

  16. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  17. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. PMID:25008163

  18. A brief history of behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches to sexual offenders: Part 1. Early developments.

    PubMed

    Laws, D R; Marshall, W L

    2003-04-01

    This is the first of two papers which briefly outline the development of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatment of sexual offenders from the mid-1800s to 1969. We first consider the historic role of Sigmund Freud and note that a broad scientific interest in deviant sexual behaviour was well established by 1900. In the early to mid-20th century, two psychologies were prominent in the development of behaviorial approaches, those of John B. Watson and Alfred Kinsey. Behavior therapy for a variety of problems emerged in the 1950s and soon found application to deviant sexuality. The development of penile plethysmography helped to focus interest on deviant sexual preference and behavior. While nonbehavioral approaches to sexual offenders paralleled these developments, a combination of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatments began to emerge in the late 1960s which ultimately developed into the approaches more commonly seen today. PMID:12731145

  19. Development and Validation of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Douglas L; Ralston, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II). Potential predictor variables were extracted from case file information for an exhaustive sample of 636 juveniles in Utah who sexually offended between 1990 and 1992. Simultaneous and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to identify the group of variables that was most predictive of subsequent juvenile sexual recidivism. A simple categorical scoring system was applied to these variables without meaningful loss of accuracy in the development sample for any sexual (area under the curve [AUC] = .89) and sexually violent (AUC = .89) juvenile recidivism. The JSORRAT-II was cross-validated on an exhaustive sample of 566 juveniles who had sexually offended in Utah in 1996 and 1997. Reliability of scoring the tool across five coders was quite high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .96). Relative to the development sample, however, there was considerable shrinkage in the indices of predictive accuracy for any sexual (AUC = .65) and sexually violent (AUC = .65) juvenile recidivism. The reduced level of accuracy was not explained by severity of the index sexual offense, time at risk, or missing data. Capitalization on chance and other explanations for the possible reduction in predictive accuracy are explored, and potential uses and limitations of the tool are discussed. PMID:24492618

  20. Development and Validation of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Douglas L; Ralston, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II). Potential predictor variables were extracted from case file information for an exhaustive sample of 636 juveniles in Utah who sexually offended between 1990 and 1992. Simultaneous and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to identify the group of variables that was most predictive of subsequent juvenile sexual recidivism. A simple categorical scoring system was applied to these variables without meaningful loss of accuracy in the development sample for any sexual (area under the curve [AUC] = .89) and sexually violent (AUC = .89) juvenile recidivism. The JSORRAT-II was cross-validated on an exhaustive sample of 566 juveniles who had sexually offended in Utah in 1996 and 1997. Reliability of scoring the tool across five coders was quite high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .96). Relative to the development sample, however, there was considerable shrinkage in the indices of predictive accuracy for any sexual (AUC = .65) and sexually violent (AUC = .65) juvenile recidivism. The reduced level of accuracy was not explained by severity of the index sexual offense, time at risk, or missing data. Capitalization on chance and other explanations for the possible reduction in predictive accuracy are explored, and potential uses and limitations of the tool are discussed.

  1. A Systemic Approach to the Development of a Sexual Abuse Protocol in a Rural Community: An Examination of Social Work Leadership Theory and Practice. Issues in Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Stephen

    The paper presents the multi-factorial problem of sexual abuse of children within their families, provides definitions of relevant terms (incest, sexual abuse, sexual misuse, molestation, sexual assault, rape), reviews the epidemiology of sexual abuse and its effects, and traces development of a Sexual Abuse Resource Team in a rural/resort New…

  2. Transcriptome Analysis for Abnormal Spike Development of the Wheat Mutant dms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xin-Xin; Li, Qiao-Yun; Shen, Chun-Cai; Duan, Zong-Biao; Yu, Dong-Yan; Niu, Ji-Shan; Ni, Yong-Jing; Jiang, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) spike development is the foundation for grain yield. We obtained a novel wheat mutant, dms, characterized as dwarf, multi-pistil and sterility. Although the genetic changes are not clear, the heredity of traits suggests that a recessive gene locus controls the two traits of multi-pistil and sterility in self-pollinating populations of the medium plants (M), such that the dwarf genotype (D) and tall genotype (T) in the progeny of the mutant are ideal lines for studies regarding wheat spike development. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular basis for spike abnormalities of dwarf genotype. Results Four unigene libraries were assembled by sequencing the mRNAs of the super-bulked differentiating spikes and stem tips of the D and T plants. Using integrative analysis, we identified 419 genes highly expressed in spikes, including nine typical homeotic genes of the MADS-box family and the genes TaAP2, TaFL and TaDL. We also identified 143 genes that were significantly different between young spikes of T and D, and 26 genes that were putatively involved in spike differentiation. The result showed that the expression levels of TaAP1-2, TaAP2, and other genes involved in the majority of biological processes such as transcription, translation, cell division, photosynthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion were significantly lower in D than in T. Conclusions We identified a set of genes related to wheat floral organ differentiation, including typical homeotic genes. Our results showed that the major causal factors resulting in the spike abnormalities of dms were the lower expression homeotic genes, hormonal imbalance, repressed biological processes, and deficiency of construction materials and energy. We performed a series of studies on the homeotic genes, however the other three causal factors for spike abnormal phenotype of dms need further study. PMID:26982202

  3. Overexpression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon causes abnormal pollen development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Luan, F

    2015-09-08

    Sexual diversity expressed by the Curcurbitaceae family is a primary example of developmental plasticity in plants. Most melon genotypes are andromonoecious, where an initial phase of male flowers is followed by a mixture of bisexual and male flowers. Over-expression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon plants showed an increased number of flower buds, and increased femaleness as demonstrated by a larger number bisexual buds. Transformation of CmACS-3 in melons showed earlier development of and an increased number of bisexual buds that matured to anthesis but also increased the rate of development of the bisexual buds to maturity. Field studies showed that CmACS-3-overexpressing melons had earlier mature bisexual flowers, earlier fruit set, and an increased number of fruits set on closely spaced nodes on the main stem.

  4. Overexpression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon causes abnormal pollen development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Luan, F

    2015-01-01

    Sexual diversity expressed by the Curcurbitaceae family is a primary example of developmental plasticity in plants. Most melon genotypes are andromonoecious, where an initial phase of male flowers is followed by a mixture of bisexual and male flowers. Over-expression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon plants showed an increased number of flower buds, and increased femaleness as demonstrated by a larger number bisexual buds. Transformation of CmACS-3 in melons showed earlier development of and an increased number of bisexual buds that matured to anthesis but also increased the rate of development of the bisexual buds to maturity. Field studies showed that CmACS-3-overexpressing melons had earlier mature bisexual flowers, earlier fruit set, and an increased number of fruits set on closely spaced nodes on the main stem. PMID:26400274

  5. "Queering" development: exploring the links between same-sex sexualities, gender, and development.

    PubMed

    Jolly, S

    2000-03-01

    This article argues that enhancement of gender and development policy and practice requires embracing of the challenges to conventional definitions of sex and gender. Information presented here was based on the insights from cultural studies and experiences of lesbian and gay activists from China. Focusing on same-sex sexuality in relation to gender and development requires the analysis of the link between the sexual behavior and economic and political freedom. Likewise, stereotyping of those opposing the gender norms exists as well as the degradation of human rights among these individuals due to the increasing threat of HIV/AIDS infection. Furthermore, reluctance to address questions of sexuality could be attributed to the following: the right to intervene in the local culture; the notion that homosexuality originated in the West; and the reluctance to bring a ¿developmental machine¿ into their intimate lives. A new approach to sexuality, ¿queer theory,¿ was found beneficial in changing the attitude of the society. Carrying out this approach would require targeting homosexual groups for support; adapting perceptions of the community, household, and family; integrating homosexuality into health, education, and youth work; and institutionalizing homosexuality. The author emphasizes that the adaptation of the ¿queer theory¿ could provide a solution for activists to engage in a process of mutual support and learning and taking on the common obstacles posed by the oppressive gender norms.

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  7. Concepts and Updates in the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Common Disorders of Sexual Development.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Amar Y; Austin, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) has evolved from aberrations of human genital development to a broad group of complex disorders of etiological and functional significance. The unique challenge of DSD conditions is that they create a cause for significant angst and concern for both parents and physician, as they frequently lead to questions with regards to gender assignment, surgically corrective options, long-term outlook regarding gender identity, and reproductive potential. To further add to the burden, many patients who present with genital abnormalities do not have a clear explanation as to the underlying basis of their disorder. This review looks at DSD from a pediatric urology point of view with emphasis on evaluation, diagnosis, and algorithm for work-up. We also discuss novel genetic analysis techniques and their value in diagnosis. Overall, this is an all-encompassing review on a diagnostic approach to DSD, with inclusion of recent developments and controversies, which will benefit urologists and other physicians alike. PMID:26547422

  8. What happened to Eric? The derailment of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Waisbrod, Nirit; Reicher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A variety of theoretical approaches, from the individual to ecological levels, was applied to the following clinical case in order to understand why a five-year-old boy demonstrated sexual behavior. Inappropriate sexual behavior in children is presented as symptomatic of problems in intrapersonal and interpersonal boundaries, relationship capabilities, and superego consolidation. The case material emphasizes that only when the child is helped to stop his sexual acting out can he access the sources of his emotional distress. The theoretical underpinnings that are relevant to this case will be shown as instrumental in the therapy of this child and his family. By integrating theory with practice, we hope to highlight this sensitive and prevalent issue as well as aid in the early identification and treatment of sexually problematic behavior. PMID:24393092

  9. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  10. Developing and Establishing School-Based Sexual Health Services: Issues for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayter, Mark; Owen, Jenny; Cooke, Jo

    2012-01-01

    School-based sexual health clinics are emerging as one of the key ways to promote sexual health among young people, and school nurses play an important role in developing and delivering these services. This study used a qualitative design to explore the experiences of health professionals and policy makers involved in setting up such services in…

  11. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  12. Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Navarro, Rachel L.; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

    2008-01-01

    Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory…

  13. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual…

  14. Sociosexual Identity Development and Sexual Risk Taking of Acculturating Collegiate Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…

  15. Sexual dimorphic abnormalities in white matter geometry common to schizophrenia and non-psychotic high-risk subjects: Evidence for a neurodevelopmental risk marker?

    PubMed

    Savadjiev, Peter; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi; Keshavan, Matcheri; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Crow, Tim J; Kubicki, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of neurodevelopmental aspects of brain alterations require neuroimaging methods that reflect correlates of neurodevelopment, while being robust to other progressive pathological processes. Newly developed neuroimaging methods for measuring geometrical features of the white matter fall exactly into this category. Our recent work shows that such features, measured in the anterior corpus callosum in diffusion MRI data, correlate with psychosis symptoms in patients with adolescent onset schizophrenia and subside a reversal of normal sexual dimorphism. Here, we test the hypothesis that similar developmental deviations will also be present in nonpsychotic subjects at familial high risk (FHR) for schizophrenia, due to genetic predispositions. Demonstrating such changes would provide a strong indication of neurodevelopmental deviation extant before, and independent of pathological changes occurring after disease onset. We examined the macrostructural geometry of corpus callosum white matter in diffusion MRI data of 35 non-psychotic subjects with genetic (familial) risk for schizophrenia, and 26 control subjects, both male and female. We report a reversal of normal sexual dimorphism in callosal white matter geometry consistent with recent results in adolescent onset schizophrenia. This pattern may be indicative of an error in neurogenesis and a possible trait marker of schizophrenia.

  16. Sexual reproduction development in apomictic Eulaliopsis binata (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, J J; Liu, L; Ouyang, Y D; Yao, J L

    2011-10-05

    Apomixis is a particular mode of reproduction that allows progeny formation without meiosis and fertilization. Eulaliopsis binata, a tetraploid apomictic species, is widely used for making paper, rope and mats. There is great potential for fixation of heterosis in E. binata due to autonomous endosperm formation in this species. Although most of its embryo sac originates from nucellus cells, termed apospory, we observed sexual reproduction initiation in 86.8 to 96.8% of the ovules, evidenced by callose deposition on the walls of cells undergoing megasporogenesis. However, only 2-3% mature polygonum-type sexual embryo sacs were confirmed by embryological investigation. Callose was not detected on aposporous initial cell walls. The aposporous initial cells differentiated during pre- and post-meiosis of the megaspore mother cell, while the sexual embryo sac degenerated at the megaspore stage. DNA content ratio of embryo and endosperm in some individuals was 2C:3C, based on flow cytometry screening of seed, similar to that of normal sexual seed. These results confirm that apomictic E. binata has conserved sexual reproduction to a certain degree, which may contribute to maintaining genetic diversity. The finding of sexual reproduction in apomictic E. binata could be useful for research on genetic mechanism of apomixis in E. binata.

  17. Effect of zeranol on sexual development of crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R W; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    1989-07-01

    Three groups of 1/2 Simmental X 1/4 Brahman X 1/4 Hereford bull calves were used during two different years to study effects of zeranol on sexual development. At 154 d of age, half the calves were implanted with 36 mg zeranol and half, not implanted, served as controls. Implanted calves were reimplanted at 90-d intervals throughout the trial (9 mo) each year. Trial 1 was conducted with 24 calves and Trial 2 was conducted the following year with 10 bulls. Twenty-four days after weaning (200 d of age) and at 28-d intervals thereafter, bulls in drylot in Trial 1 were weighted, scrotal circumference (SC) was measured and an ejaculate of semen was collected by electroejaculation to determine puberty. At these times, bulls were given 200 micrograms of GnRH i.m. and blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH and testosterone (TEST) were determined. At slaughter, testis weight, length and circumference and pubertal status were recorded. Bulls implanted with zeranol had smaller SC than control bulls during the entire 9-mo period (P less than .0001). More control bulls reached puberty than did implanted bulls (82.4 vs 23.5%, respectively; P less than .001). Control bulls had larger testis measurements at slaughter (P less than .0001). Implants did not alter total weight gain or ADG (P greater than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2768123

  18. Effect of zeranol on sexual development of crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R W; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    1989-07-01

    Three groups of 1/2 Simmental X 1/4 Brahman X 1/4 Hereford bull calves were used during two different years to study effects of zeranol on sexual development. At 154 d of age, half the calves were implanted with 36 mg zeranol and half, not implanted, served as controls. Implanted calves were reimplanted at 90-d intervals throughout the trial (9 mo) each year. Trial 1 was conducted with 24 calves and Trial 2 was conducted the following year with 10 bulls. Twenty-four days after weaning (200 d of age) and at 28-d intervals thereafter, bulls in drylot in Trial 1 were weighted, scrotal circumference (SC) was measured and an ejaculate of semen was collected by electroejaculation to determine puberty. At these times, bulls were given 200 micrograms of GnRH i.m. and blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH and testosterone (TEST) were determined. At slaughter, testis weight, length and circumference and pubertal status were recorded. Bulls implanted with zeranol had smaller SC than control bulls during the entire 9-mo period (P less than .0001). More control bulls reached puberty than did implanted bulls (82.4 vs 23.5%, respectively; P less than .001). Control bulls had larger testis measurements at slaughter (P less than .0001). Implants did not alter total weight gain or ADG (P greater than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland

    PubMed Central

    MacMaster, Frank P.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R.; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S. Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91 ± 5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75 ± 5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F = 3.55, df = 2, 143, p = 0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p = 0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated. PMID:17174342

  20. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    MacMaster, Frank P; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J; Rosenberg, David R

    2007-02-13

    The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91+/-5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75+/-5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F=3.55, df=2, 143, p=0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p=0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated. PMID:17174342

  1. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model.

    PubMed

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self-or personal identity-is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice.

  2. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model.

    PubMed

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self-or personal identity-is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

  3. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model

    PubMed Central

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud – founding father of psychoanalysis – believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

  4. Preadolescent and adolescent endocrinology: physiology and physiopathology. II. Hormonal changes during abnormal pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, P C

    1978-08-01

    Based on the knowledge of the physiology of regulation of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, basal levels of these hormones might be indicative of the etiologic factors of abnormal pubertal development. In addition, stimulatory tests may help in the diagnosis of such conditions. It is interesting that the pubertal maturation of the adrenal cortex is independent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The role of the adrenal cortex for the pubertal development remains questionable: adrenal androgens are low in isosexual precocious puberty, low in delayed adolescence, and normal in hyper- or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The importance of this role is doubled in congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia. When the disease is untreated, although adrenal androgens in excess advance bone age and hypothalamic maturation, girls remain prepubertal. When the therapeutic control is good, normal puberty occurs. The action of the adrenal androgens on growth and puberty remains to be determined.

  5. The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

    The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and

  6. The abnormal distribution of development: policies for southern women and children.

    PubMed

    Burman, E

    1995-03-01

    This paper offers a feminist critique of the relationships between gender and development by exploring the intersections between three sets of debates: firstly, the relations between interventions for women and for children through the anomalous position accorded to 'the girl child' in aid and development policies; secondly, the relations between psychological and economic models of development; and thirdly, the gendered and geographical allocation of attributes and opportunities. Drawing on analyses of the 'psychological complex' the author suggests that the cultural resources that inform developmental psychological models are highly cultural and class-specific (white, middle class, of the northern hemisphere), giving rise to a globalization of development that is reinscribed within international aid and development policies. In homogenizing difference to its norms, this globalization paradoxically reproduces the north-south opposition as an expression of cultural and political imperialism. While northern children 'develop', dominant discourses of children of the South are preoccupied with 'survival'. By such means the cultural hegemony of a unitary psychology remains intact. This paper discusses the 'abnormal distribution' of development to draw attention to the ways cultural and gender inequalities flow from the norms and generalized descriptions central to the current practice of developmental psychology and to urge that this is an important site of intervention for feminists addressing gender and development issues.

  7. The abnormal distribution of development: policies for southern women and children.

    PubMed

    Burman, E

    1995-03-01

    This paper offers a feminist critique of the relationships between gender and development by exploring the intersections between three sets of debates: firstly, the relations between interventions for women and for children through the anomalous position accorded to 'the girl child' in aid and development policies; secondly, the relations between psychological and economic models of development; and thirdly, the gendered and geographical allocation of attributes and opportunities. Drawing on analyses of the 'psychological complex' the author suggests that the cultural resources that inform developmental psychological models are highly cultural and class-specific (white, middle class, of the northern hemisphere), giving rise to a globalization of development that is reinscribed within international aid and development policies. In homogenizing difference to its norms, this globalization paradoxically reproduces the north-south opposition as an expression of cultural and political imperialism. While northern children 'develop', dominant discourses of children of the South are preoccupied with 'survival'. By such means the cultural hegemony of a unitary psychology remains intact. This paper discusses the 'abnormal distribution' of development to draw attention to the ways cultural and gender inequalities flow from the norms and generalized descriptions central to the current practice of developmental psychology and to urge that this is an important site of intervention for feminists addressing gender and development issues. PMID:12319980

  8. Alterations in eliminative and sexual reflexes after spinal cord injury: defecatory function and development of spasticity in pelvic floor musculature.

    PubMed

    Nout, Yvette S; Leedy, Gail M; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C

    2006-01-01

    Spinal cord injury often results in loss of normal eliminative and sexual functions. This chapter is focused on defecatory function, although aspects of micturition and erectile function will be covered as well due to the overlap in anatomical organization and response to injury. These systems have both autonomic and somatic components, and are organized in the thoracolumbar (sympathetic), lumbosacral (somatic), and sacral (parasympathetic) spinal cord. Loss of supraspinal descending control and plasticity-mediated alterations at the level of the spinal cord, result in loss of voluntary control and in abnormal functioning of these systems including the development of dyssynergies and spasticity. There are several useful models of spinal cord injury in rodents that exhibit many of the autonomic dysfunctions observed after spinal cord injury in humans. Numerous studies involving these animal models have demonstrated development of abnormalities in bladder, external anal sphincter, and erectile function, such as detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia and external anal sphincter hyperreflexia. Here we review many of these studies and show some of the anatomical alterations that develop within the spinal cord during the development of these hyperreflexias. Furthermore, we show that spasticity develops in other pelvic floor musculature as well, such as the bulbospongiosus muscle, which results in increased duration and magnitude of pressures developed during erectile events and increased duration of micturition. Advances and continued improvement in the use of current animal models of spinal cord injury should encourage and increase the laboratory work devoted to this relatively neglected area of experimental spinal cord injury.

  9. Disorder of sexual development in a Yorkshire terrier (78, XY; SRY-positive).

    PubMed

    Dianovský, Ján; Holečková, Beáta; Hajurka, Jaroslav; Šiviková, Katarina; Cigánková, Viera

    2013-05-01

    A 9-month-old Yorkshire terrier was admitted to the clinic because of abnormal sexual behaviour and clitoral hypertrophy. External examination confirmed standard development of caudal genital organs: vagina, vulva and cervix uteri. Serum profile of gonadotropin hormones 17 β-estradiol (<10.0 pg.ml(-1)) and testosterone (9.1 ng.ml(-1)) revealed the presence of testicular tissue. A midline laparotomy was performed to detect the cranial parts of the genital system. Gonads resembling testicles, structures indicating epididymis and rudimentary deferent ducts were resected, along with adherent part of the uterus. Cytogenetic analysis showed a male chromosomal complement 78, XY in all metaphases of the studied Yorkshire terrier dog. The chromosomal constitution was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes specific for chromosomes X and Y, as well as by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 271-bp Y-linked fragment of SRY (the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) gene. Sequencing of the dog's SRY gene coding region did not reveal any mutation. To search for potential mutation in the SOX9 gene (Sry-box containing gene 9), which is considered to be one of the key genes involved in the sex determination process, the PCR fragments of exons 1, 2 and 3 originating from the canine patient were sequenced in order to compare with both male and female healthy control dogs. In the analysed regions of the SOX9 gene, no mutation was found.

  10. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jane Q; Mori, Hidetoshi; Cardiff, Robert D; Trott, Josephine F; Hovey, Russell C; Hubbard, Neil E; Engelberg, Jesse A; Tepper, Clifford G; Willis, Brandon J; Khan, Imran H; Ravindran, Resmi K; Chan, Szeman R; Schreiber, Robert D; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1(tm1Rds) homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG) of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP) fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment.

  11. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  12. Apert and Crouzon syndromes-Cognitive development, brain abnormalities, and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marilyse B L; Maximino, Luciana P; Perosa, Gimol B; Abramides, Dagma V M; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Yacubian-Fernandes, Adriano

    2016-06-01

    Apert and Crouzon are the most common craniosynostosis syndromes associated with mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. We conducted a study to examine the molecular biology, brain abnormalities, and cognitive development of individuals with these syndromes. A retrospective longitudinal review of 14 patients with Apert and Crouzon syndromes seen at the outpatient Craniofacial Surgery Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies in Brazil from January 1999 through August 2010 was performed. Patients between 11 and 36 years of age (mean 18.29 ± 5.80), received cognitive evaluations, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular DNA analyses. Eight patients with Apert syndrome (AS) had full scale intelligence quotients (FSIQs) that ranged from 47 to 108 (mean 76.9 ± 20.2), and structural brain abnormalities were identified in five of eight patients. Six patients presented with a gain-of-function mutation (p.Ser252Trp) in FGFR2 and FSIQs in those patients ranged from 47 to78 (mean 67.2 ± 10.7). One patient with a gain-of-function mutation (p.Pro253Arg) had a FSIQ of 108 and another patient with an atypical splice mutation (940-2A →G) had a FSIQ of 104. Six patients with Crouzon syndrome had with mutations in exons IIIa and IIIc of FGFR2 and their FSIQs ranged from 82 to 102 (mean 93.5 ± 6.7). These reveal that molecular aspects are another factor that can be considered in studies of global and cognitive development of patients with Apert and Crouzon syndrome (CS). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028366

  13. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity.

  14. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

  15. Surgical and ethical challenges in disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E; Hertweck, Paige; Ralston, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    A resolution to the difficulties faced by parents, physicians, and pediatric patients in treating DSDs will only come with better communication and improved research methodologies. Advocacy groups and the Internet have allowed the intersex community to have a larger role in guiding the research and the ethical frameworks that are used in treating these disorders. These disorders are unusual and collaboration across medical centers should be the rule rather than the exception. When possible, treatments that are innovative or experimental should be subjected to rigorous research oversight [29,30]. Defined periods of family crisis in which counseling and education become important are at the time of diagnosis [30,31], at the time of any surgical procedure, and at the beginning of major developmental stages. Historically, children were often left uninformed until someone judged them old and mature enough to comprehend how they were different. These attempts to protect individual children from their condition may have left them vulnerable to a personal crisis at an age when sexual identity and identity with a peer group are important. Both the needs of the child and the adult the child will become should be considered in making treatment decisions for children and adolescents with DSDs. It is best to counsel parents and educate developing children in a way that parallels chronologic and conceptual growth. When possible, the child should be involved in an age-appropriate fashion in the decision-making process and accurate information about the child's history and body should be made available. In addition, parents and families need as much information as possible and support systems that will help them navigate these challenging situations. PMID:22789583

  16. Surgical and ethical challenges in disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E; Hertweck, Paige; Ralston, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    A resolution to the difficulties faced by parents, physicians, and pediatric patients in treating DSDs will only come with better communication and improved research methodologies. Advocacy groups and the Internet have allowed the intersex community to have a larger role in guiding the research and the ethical frameworks that are used in treating these disorders. These disorders are unusual and collaboration across medical centers should be the rule rather than the exception. When possible, treatments that are innovative or experimental should be subjected to rigorous research oversight [29,30]. Defined periods of family crisis in which counseling and education become important are at the time of diagnosis [30,31], at the time of any surgical procedure, and at the beginning of major developmental stages. Historically, children were often left uninformed until someone judged them old and mature enough to comprehend how they were different. These attempts to protect individual children from their condition may have left them vulnerable to a personal crisis at an age when sexual identity and identity with a peer group are important. Both the needs of the child and the adult the child will become should be considered in making treatment decisions for children and adolescents with DSDs. It is best to counsel parents and educate developing children in a way that parallels chronologic and conceptual growth. When possible, the child should be involved in an age-appropriate fashion in the decision-making process and accurate information about the child's history and body should be made available. In addition, parents and families need as much information as possible and support systems that will help them navigate these challenging situations.

  17. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  18. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. PMID:26184496

  19. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups.

  20. Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction.

  1. Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  2. Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  3. Congenital Hydrocephalus and Abnormal Subcommissural Organ Development in Sox3 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kristie; Tan, Jacqueline; Morris, Michael B.; Rizzoti, Karine; Hughes, James; Cheah, Pike See; Felquer, Fernando; Liu, Xuan; Piltz, Sandra; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul Q.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage) of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles) is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO) a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF), a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22291885

  4. Professional Development through Inquiry: Addressing Sexual Identity in TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadell, Elizabeth; Frei, Kathryn; Martin, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    Sexual identity is a topic that is relevant to adult ESL instruction, not only because some learners identify as LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender), but also because LGBT identities are a visible part of American culture and ESL learners must learn how to discuss them in culturally and pragmatically appropriate ways. This article shares…

  5. Sexual development in the industrial workhorse Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Verena; Seibel, Christian; Kubicek, Christian P; Schmoll, Monika

    2009-08-18

    Filamentous fungi are indispensable biotechnological tools for the production of organic chemicals, enzymes, and antibiotics. Most of the strains used for industrial applications have been--and still are--screened and improved by classical mutagenesis. Sexual crossing approaches would yield considerable advantages for research and industrial strain improvement, but interestingly, industrially applied filamentous fungal species have so far been considered to be largely asexual. This is also true for the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), which is used for production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we report that T. reesei QM6a has a MAT1-2 mating type locus, and the identification of its respective mating type counterpart, MAT1-1, in natural isolates of H. jecorina, thus proving that this is a heterothallic species. After being considered asexual since its discovery more than 50 years ago, we were now able to induce sexual reproduction of T. reesei QM6a and obtained fertilized stromata and mature ascospores. This sexual crossing approach therefore opens up perspectives for biotechnologically important fungi. Our findings provide a tool for fast and efficient industrial strain improvement in T. reesei, thus boosting research toward economically feasible biofuel production. In addition, knowledge of MAT-loci and sexual crossing techniques will facilitate research with other Trichoderma spp. relevant for agriculture and human health.

  6. Sexual development in the industrial workhorse Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Verena; Seibel, Christian; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are indispensable biotechnological tools for the production of organic chemicals, enzymes, and antibiotics. Most of the strains used for industrial applications have been—and still are—screened and improved by classical mutagenesis. Sexual crossing approaches would yield considerable advantages for research and industrial strain improvement, but interestingly, industrially applied filamentous fungal species have so far been considered to be largely asexual. This is also true for the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), which is used for production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we report that T. reesei QM6a has a MAT1-2 mating type locus, and the identification of its respective mating type counterpart, MAT1-1, in natural isolates of H. jecorina, thus proving that this is a heterothallic species. After being considered asexual since its discovery more than 50 years ago, we were now able to induce sexual reproduction of T. reesei QM6a and obtained fertilized stromata and mature ascospores. This sexual crossing approach therefore opens up perspectives for biotechnologically important fungi. Our findings provide a tool for fast and efficient industrial strain improvement in T. reesei, thus boosting research toward economically feasible biofuel production. In addition, knowledge of MAT-loci and sexual crossing techniques will facilitate research with other Trichoderma spp. relevant for agriculture and human health. PMID:19667182

  7. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  8. [Possibilities of surgical treatment of lesions of the organs of the reproductive system and disorders of sexual development].

    PubMed

    Okulov, A B; Negmadzhanov, B B; Bogdanova, E A; Iusim, E M; Glybina, T M; Godlevskiĭ, D N; Urinov, M Ia; Matveev, Iu K

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the data on clinico-laboratory and instrumental examinations and surgical treatment of about 5,000 children with different reproductive organ injuries including complex patterns of abnormal sexual differentiation. The designed diagnostic programs made it possible to distribute patients into groups and according to the disease entities in conformity with the classification suggested. It is emphasized that in the developing science concerned with sex, it is necessary to distinguish an area pertaining to childhood, namely pediatric andrology, and to delineate its subject matter and tasks. Skilled assistance can be rendered by a specialized center. A broad spectrum of improved masculinizing (including the design of an artificial phallus) and feminizing (including the design of an artificial vagina from the rectosigmoid segment of the colon) is provided. The catamnestic data are evaluated.

  9. Abnormal Development of Tapetum and Microspores Induced by Chemical Hybridization Agent SQ-1 in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility. PMID:25803723

  10. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  11. Serotonin transporter variant drives preventable gastrointestinal abnormalities in development and function

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Li, Zhishan; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Anderson, George M.; Snyder, Isaac; Blakely, Randy D.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT. These defects included enteric nervous system hypoplasia, slow GI transit, diminished peristaltic reflex activity, and proliferation of crypt epithelial cells. An opposite phenotype was seen in SERT-deficient mice and in progeny of WT dams given the SERT antagonist fluoxetine. The reciprocal phenotypes that resulted from increased or decreased SERT activity support the idea that 5-HT signaling regulates enteric neuronal development and can, when disturbed, cause long-lasting abnormalities of GI function. Administration of a 5-HT4 agonist to Ala56 mice during development prevented Ala56-associated GI perturbations, suggesting that excessive SERT activity leads to inadequate 5-HT4–mediated neurogenesis. We propose that deficient 5-HT signaling during development may contribute to GI and behavioral features of ASD. The consequences of therapies targeting SERT during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:27111230

  12. Serotonin transporter variant drives preventable gastrointestinal abnormalities in development and function.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Li, Zhishan; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Israelyan, Narek; Anderson, George M; Snyder, Isaac; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Blakely, Randy D; Gershon, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT. These defects included enteric nervous system hypoplasia, slow GI transit, diminished peristaltic reflex activity, and proliferation of crypt epithelial cells. An opposite phenotype was seen in SERT-deficient mice and in progeny of WT dams given the SERT antagonist fluoxetine. The reciprocal phenotypes that resulted from increased or decreased SERT activity support the idea that 5-HT signaling regulates enteric neuronal development and can, when disturbed, cause long-lasting abnormalities of GI function. Administration of a 5-HT4 agonist to Ala56 mice during development prevented Ala56-associated GI perturbations, suggesting that excessive SERT activity leads to inadequate 5-HT4-mediated neurogenesis. We propose that deficient 5-HT signaling during development may contribute to GI and behavioral features of ASD. The consequences of therapies targeting SERT during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:27111230

  13. Taking ICPD beyond 2015: negotiating sexual and reproductive rights in the next development agenda.

    PubMed

    Girard, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    On the twentieth anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), activists, governments and diplomats engaged in the fight for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are anxious to ensure that these issues are fully reflected in the development agenda to succeed the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. In inter-governmental negotiations since 1994 and particularly in the period 2012-2014, governments have shown that they have significantly expanded their understanding of a number of so-called 'controversial' issues in the ICPD agenda, whether safe abortion, adolescent sexual and reproductive health services, comprehensive sexuality education or sexual rights. As in the past and in spite of an increasingly complex and difficult multilateral environment, countering the highly organised conservative opposition to SRHR has required a well-planned and determined mobilisation by progressive forces from North and South.

  14. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662

  15. Retrospective recall of sexual orientation identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Antonucci, Toni C; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

    2011-11-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years, identified 3 trajectories of development: early (n = 951; milestones spanning ages 12-20), middle (n = 239; milestones spanning ages 18-31), and late (n = 70; milestones spanning ages 32-43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, we identified 2 subgroups in post hoc analyses of the early profile group: child onset (n = 284; milestones spanning ages 8-18) and teen onset (n = 667; milestones spanning ages 14-22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the early profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research.

  16. Effects of prepartal stress on postpartal nursing behavior, litter development and adult sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, L R; Whitney, J B

    1976-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the stress of restraint, heat and bright lights three times daily from Days 14 to 22 of gestation. Because prepartal stress did not markedly disturb the mother's retrieving and crouching behavior, disturbances in postpartal nursing behavior do not seem to account for the abnormal sexual behavior of male offspring as adults. The most significant finding was that litter weights were reduced, not only at birth, but for 3 weeks thereafter, suggesting that prepartal stress not only altered the pups in utero but also affected postpartal milk synthesis. The possibility emerges that prepartal stress may alter adult sexual behavior in males by modifications in fetal and/or maternal pituitary glands.

  17. Ultrastructural and cellular basis for the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics during the transition from hypertension to heart failure.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sanjiv J; Aistrup, Gary L; Gupta, Deepak K; O'Toole, Matthew J; Nahhas, Amanda F; Schuster, Daniel; Chirayil, Nimi; Bassi, Nikhil; Ramakrishna, Satvik; Beussink, Lauren; Misener, Sol; Kane, Bonnie; Wang, David; Randolph, Blake; Ito, Aiko; Wu, Megan; Akintilo, Lisa; Mongkolrattanothai, Thitipong; Reddy, Mahendra; Kumar, Manvinder; Arora, Rishi; Ng, Jason; Wasserstrom, J Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Although the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics represents a key step during the transition from hypertension to overt heart failure (HF), the underlying ultrastructural and cellular basis of abnormal myocardial mechanics remains unclear. We therefore investigated how changes in transverse (T)-tubule organization and the resulting altered intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in large cell populations underlie the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics in a model of chronic hypertension. Hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; n = 72) were studied at different ages and stages of hypertensive heart disease and early HF and were compared with age-matched control (Wistar-Kyoto) rats (n = 34). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler and speckle-tracking analysis, was performed just before euthanization, after which T-tubule organization and Ca(2+) transients were studied using confocal microscopy. In SHRs, abnormalities in myocardial mechanics occurred early in response to hypertension, before the development of overt systolic dysfunction and HF. Reduced longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain as well as reduced tissue Doppler early diastolic tissue velocities occurred in concert with T-tubule disorganization and impaired Ca(2+) cycling, all of which preceded the development of cardiac fibrosis. The time to peak of intracellular Ca(2+) transients was slowed due to T-tubule disruption, providing a link between declining cell ultrastructure and abnormal myocardial mechanics. In conclusion, subclinical abnormalities in myocardial mechanics occur early in response to hypertension and coincide with the development of T-tubule disorganization and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) cycling. These changes occur before the development of significant cardiac fibrosis and precede the development of overt cardiac dysfunction and HF.

  18. Prenatal ketamine exposure causes abnormal development of prefrontal cortex in rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tianyun; Li, Chuanxiang; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Haixing; Ma, Daqing; Song, Xingrong; Zhou, Libing

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine is commonly used for anesthesia and as a recreational drug. In pregnant users, a potential neurotoxicity in offspring has been noted. Our previous work demonstrated that ketamine exposure of pregnant rats induces affective disorders and cognitive impairments in offspring. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critically involved in emotional and cognitive processes, here we studied whether maternal ketamine exposure influences the development of the PFC in offspring. Pregnant rats on gestational day 14 were treated with ketamine at a sedative dose for 2 hrs, and pups were studied at postnatal day 0 (P0) or P30. We found that maternal ketamine exposure resulted in cell apoptosis and neuronal loss in fetal brain. Upon ketamine exposure in utero, PFC neurons at P30 showed more dendritic branching, while cultured neurons from P0 PFC extended shorter neurites than controls. In addition, maternal ketamine exposure postponed the switch of NR2B/2A expression, and perturbed pre- and postsynaptic protein expression in the PFC. These data suggest that prenatal ketamine exposure impairs neuronal development of the PFC, which may be associated with abnormal behavior in offsprings. PMID:27226073

  19. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  20. Neural tube defects and abnormal brain development in F52-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M; Chen, D F; Sasaoka, T; Tonegawa, S

    1996-01-01

    F52 is a myristoylated, alanine-rich substrate for protein kinase C. We have generated F52-deficient mice by the gene targeting technique. These mutant mice manifest severe neural tube defects that are not associated with other complex malformations, a phenotype reminiscent of common human neural tube defects. The neural tube defects observed include both exencephaly and spina bifida, and the phenotype exhibits partial penetrance with about 60% of homozygous embryos developing neural tube defects. Exencephaly is the prominent type of defect and leads to high prenatal lethality. Neural tube defects are observed in a smaller percentage of heterozygous embryos (about 10%). Abnormal brain development and tail formation occur in homozygous mutants and are likely to be secondary to the neural tube defects. Disruption of F52 in mice therefore identifies a gene whose mutation results in isolated neural tube defects and may provide an animal model for common human neural tube defects. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8700893

  1. Facial Metrics in Children with Corticotrophin-Producing Pituitary Adenomas Suggest Abnormalities in Midface Development

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit have been linked to genetic syndromes that are associated with midfacial abnormalities. Aim We hypothesized that mutations of genes that affect the development of the face (and consequently of the anterior pituitary) may be present in children with ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas, and if this is true then facial measurements would be different from those predicted by parental features. Methods We studied 20 children with cortico-tropinomas and a control group and their parents. All facial measurements were expressed according to standard deviation scores. Results Significant differences were seen between the children with pituitary adenomas and their parents for vertical facial height measures: nasal length (p <0.001), lower facial height (p <0.03) and overall facial height (p <0.01). Conclusion We conclude that some of the indices of midline craniofacial development, in particular those affecting the vertical axis, are different in children with corticotroph adenomas producing ACTH. PMID:19344074

  2. Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

    2014-06-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers.

  3. Promoting the Successful Development of Sexual and Gender Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

  4. [Delay in sexual development secondary to juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma].

    PubMed

    Altamar-Ríos, J

    1990-01-01

    The angiofibroma of the nasopharynx is a benign tumor, sitting in the epipharynx of adolescents, but considered malignant owing to its local spreading power. Aside from the characteristics symptoms -nose bleeding and nasal obstruction- the A. of the paper has signaled a certain delay in the secondary sexual maturity of 2 of the 6 youth in all studied. In these 2 the tumor was detected at 9 and 12 years-of-age, respectively. Furthermore, these 2, showed destruction of inner structures of the nose when surgery was undertaken; adversely the other 4 showed normal inner nasal structures. The whole group was followed up for ten years, and only those 2 needed a treatment with chorionic gonadotrophin for the completeness of secondary sexual aspects.

  5. Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

    2014-06-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

  6. Development of the NIH PROMIS® Sexual Function and Satisfaction Measures in Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Jeffery, Diana D.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Porter, Laura S.; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Keefe, Francis J.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We describe the development and validation of the PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction (PROMIS SexFS) measures version 1.0 for cancer populations. Aim To develop a customizable self-report measure of sexual function and satisfaction as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health PROMIS® Network. Methods Our multidisciplinary working group followed a comprehensive protocol for developing psychometrically robust patient reported outcome (PRO) measures including qualitative (scale development) and quantitative (psychometric evaluation) development. We performed an extensive literature review, conducted 16 focus groups with cancer patients and multiple discussions with clinicians, and evaluated candidate items in cognitive testing with patients. We administered items to 819 cancer patients. Items were calibrated using item response theory and evaluated for reliability and validity. Main Outcome Measures The PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction (PROMIS SexFS) measures version 1.0 include 79 items in 11 domains: interest in sexual activity, lubrication, vaginal discomfort, erectile function, global satisfaction with sex life, orgasm, anal discomfort, therapeutic aids, sexual activities, interfering factors, and screener questions. Results In addition to content validity (patients indicate that items cover important aspects of their experiences) and face validity (patients indicate that items measure sexual function and satisfaction), the measure shows evidence for discriminant validity (domains discriminate between groups expected to be different), convergent validity (strong correlations between scores on PROMIS and scores on conceptually-similar older measures of sexual function), as well as favorable test-retest reliability among people not expected to change (inter-class correlations from 2 administrations of the instrument, 1 month apart). Conclusions The PROMIS SexFS offers researchers a reliable and valid set of tools to measure self

  7. Development and Validation of a Five-Factor Sexual Satisfaction and Distress Scale for Women: The Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W)

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy; Trapnell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This article presents data based on the responses of over 800 women who contributed to the development of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W). Aim The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, multifaceted, valid, and reliable self-report measure of women’s sexual satisfaction and distress. Methods Phase I involved the initial selection of items based on past literature and on interviews of women diagnosed with sexual dysfunction and an exploratory factor analysis. Phase II involved an additional administration of the questionnaire, factor analyses, and refinement of the questionnaire items. Phase III involved administration of the final questionnaire to a sample of women with clinically diagnosed sexual dysfunction and controls. Results Psychometric evaluation of the SSS-W conducted in a sample of women meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for female sexual dysfunction and in a control sample provided preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. The ability of the SSS-W to discriminate between sexually functional and dysfunctional women was demonstrated for each of the SSS-W domain scores and total score. Conclusion The SSS-W is a brief, 30-item measure of sexual satisfaction and sexual distress, composed of five domains supported by factor analyses: contentment, communication, compatibility, relational concern, and personal concern. It exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical samples. PMID:16422909

  8. Sexuality and Autistic-Like Symptoms in Juvenile Sex Offenders: A Follow-Up after 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baarsma, M. Ewoud; Boonmann, Cyril; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; de Graaf, Hanneke; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Juveniles who have committed a sexual offense (JSOs) are thought to have abnormal sexual development, as well as increased ASD symptoms. In the current study, sexual development and behavior, as well as stability of ASD-like symptoms were assessed in a sample of 44 male JSOs (mean age 24.7 ± 1.5 years) 8 years after their sexual offence. JSOs…

  9. Development and Validation of Turkish Version of The Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Serdar; Onaran, Öykü Izel; Topalan, Kıvanç; Aydın, Çağrı Arıoğlu; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The sexually related personal distress becomes an obligation for the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R) was developed, extensively validated, and is among the most widely used tools to measure distress associated with impaired sexual function. Aim This study aims to develop a Turkish version of the FSDS-R, to evaluate its psychometric reliability and validity, and to estimate the optimal cutoff score that corresponds best to the clinical diagnosis of sexual dysfunction. Methods Ninety-five participants were diagnosed with female sexual interest and arousal disorder (FSIAD), 25 participants were diagnosed with another FSD, and 128 participants were healthy. Alpha coefficients (α) were used as an indicator of internal consistency. Test–retest reliability over a 2-week period was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Correlation analysis conducted between the FSDS-R total score, the Female Sexual Function Index subscale, and total score was examined for convergent validity. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing mean scores of the FSD and control groups in a between-groups analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine optimal cutoff values of the Turkish version of Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (Tr-FSDS-R). Main Outcomes Measures Sexuality-related distress measured by the Turkish version of the FSDS-R. Results Internal consistencies of the FSDS-R across the two assessments point for the three groups of women ranged from α = 0.87 to α = 0.99. ICCs ranged from 0.92 to 0.94 for baseline and day 15 for FSIAD, other FSD, and no FSD groups. One-factor unidimensional model explained 85.7% of the total variance of the Tr-FSDS-R items. The optimal cutoff score was found to be >11.5 to provide optimal sensitivity (97.9%) and specificity (83.2%). Significant differences in the FSDS-R scores were found between healthy

  10. Backdoor pathway for dihydrotestosterone biosynthesis: implications for normal and abnormal human sex development.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Maki; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-04-01

    We review the current knowledge about the "backdoor" pathway for the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). While DHT is produced from cholesterol through the conventional "frontdoor" pathway via testosterone, recent studies have provided compelling evidence for the presence of an alternative "backdoor" pathway to DHT without testosterone intermediacy. This backdoor pathway is known to exist in the tammar wallaby pouch young testis and the immature mouse testis, and has been suggested to be present in the human as well. Indeed, molecular analysis has identified pathologic mutations of genes involved in the backdoor pathway in genetic male patients with undermasculinized external genitalia, and urine steroid profile analysis has argued for the relevance of the activated backdoor pathway to abnormal virilization in genetic females with cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and 21-hydroxylase deficiency. It is likely that the backdoor pathway is primarily operating in the fetal testis in a physiological condition to produce a sufficient amount of DHT for male sex development, and that the backdoor pathway is driven with a possible interaction between fetal and permanent adrenals in pathologic conditions with increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. These findings provide novel insights into androgen biosynthesis in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23073980

  11. Abnormalities in synaptic dynamics during development in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Yusuke; Watase, Kei; Wada, Keiji; Nagai, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Late-onset neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by neurological symptoms and progressive neuronal death. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal dysfunction, rather than neuronal death, causes the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction that occurs prior to cell death remain unclear. To investigate the synaptic basis of this dysfunction, we employed in vivo two-photon imaging to analyse excitatory postsynaptic dendritic protrusions. We used Sca1154Q/2Q mice, an established knock-in mouse model of the polyglutamine disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), which replicates human SCA1 features including ataxia, cognitive impairment, and neuronal death. We found that Sca1154Q/2Q mice exhibited greater synaptic instability than controls, without synaptic loss, in the cerebral cortex, where obvious neuronal death is not observed, even before the onset of distinct symptoms. Interestingly, this abnormal synaptic instability was evident in Sca1154Q/2Q mice from the synaptic developmental stage, and persisted into adulthood. Expression of synaptic scaffolding proteins was also lower in Sca1154Q/2Q mice than controls before synaptic maturation. As symptoms progressed, synaptic loss became evident. These results indicate that aberrant synaptic instability, accompanied by decreased expression of scaffolding proteins during synaptic development, is a very early pathology that precedes distinct neurological symptoms and neuronal cell death in SCA1. PMID:26531852

  12. Abnormal germling development by brown rust and powdery mildew on cer barley mutants.

    PubMed

    Rubiales, D; Ramirez, M C; Carver, T L; Niks, R E

    2001-01-01

    The barley leaf rust fungus forms appressoria over host leaf stomata and penetrates via the stomatal pore. High levels of avoidance to leaf rust fungi have been described in some wild accessions of Hordeum species where a prominent wax layer on the stomata inhibits triggering of fungal appressorium differentiation. Leaf rust avoidance has not yet been found in H. vulgare. Since cuticular leaf waxes are implicated in the avoidance trait, we screened 27 eceriferum (cer) mutant lines of H. vulgare for avoidance to barley leaf rust. These mutations affect leaf waxes. Reduction in numbers of germ tubes forming appressoria over stomata was found in some lines, but the greatest reduction (ca 30%) was less than previously found in wild barley spp. or in an accession of H. chilense used here as a check. In one line (cer-zh654), avoidance was due to a combination of factors. Firstly, fewer germ tubes oriented towards stomata and so failed to contact them. Secondly, some germ tubes that encountered stomata did not form appressoria but over-grew them. In this line, therefore, the fungus tended to fail both to locate and to respond to stomata. The appressoria of barley powdery mildew form on leaf epidermal cells that they penetrate directly. On certain cer lines, a proportion of germlings of the barley powdery mildew fungus developed abnormally, suggesting that germlings failed to recognise and/or respond to the leaf surface waxes on these mutants.

  13. Abnormalities in synaptic dynamics during development in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yusuke; Watase, Kei; Wada, Keiji; Nagai, Yoshitaka

    2015-11-04

    Late-onset neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by neurological symptoms and progressive neuronal death. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal dysfunction, rather than neuronal death, causes the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction that occurs prior to cell death remain unclear. To investigate the synaptic basis of this dysfunction, we employed in vivo two-photon imaging to analyse excitatory postsynaptic dendritic protrusions. We used Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice, an established knock-in mouse model of the polyglutamine disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), which replicates human SCA1 features including ataxia, cognitive impairment, and neuronal death. We found that Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice exhibited greater synaptic instability than controls, without synaptic loss, in the cerebral cortex, where obvious neuronal death is not observed, even before the onset of distinct symptoms. Interestingly, this abnormal synaptic instability was evident in Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice from the synaptic developmental stage, and persisted into adulthood. Expression of synaptic scaffolding proteins was also lower in Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice than controls before synaptic maturation. As symptoms progressed, synaptic loss became evident. These results indicate that aberrant synaptic instability, accompanied by decreased expression of scaffolding proteins during synaptic development, is a very early pathology that precedes distinct neurological symptoms and neuronal cell death in SCA1.

  14. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested.

  15. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested. PMID:1390784

  16. Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.

  17. The development of a sexual abuse severity score: characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.

  18. Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, Adam; Gaensslen, R E

    2003-08-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators. PMID:12682705

  19. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  20. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  1. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. Methods An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16–24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Results Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, p<.05) and major depressive symptoms (β=1.076, OR=2.933, p<.001), and internalized homophobia partially mediated experience’s effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, p<.001). Concealment stress was associated with positive identity development (β=.155, p<.05) and internalized homophobia (β=.418, p<.001), and positive identity development partially mediated concealment stress’s effects on internalized homophobia (β=−.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. Conclusions With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth. PMID:26478901

  2. New paradigms for research on heterosexual and sexual-minority development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2003-12-01

    As psychological research on sexual-minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) adolescents has increased over the past 20 years, it has become increasingly segregated from research on mainstream heterosexual youths, as if the knowledge gleaned from each population had nothing to offer our understanding of the other. To the contrary, understanding of both populations would be greatly improved by integrating investigations of sexual-minority issues into mainstream psychological research on adolescents. I outline 4 weaknesses in contemporary research on sexual-minority youth that stem from--and perpetuate--its historical isolation from mainstream developmental research: misspecification of the populations under study, lack of attention to within-group diversity, failure to test alternative explanations for--and moderators of--"sexual-minority effects," and insufficient attention to the underlying processes and mechanisms through which sexual-minority effects operate. Correcting these weaknesses has important implications for future research on how same-sex and other-sex sexuality shape adolescent psychosocial development and clinical child and adolescent problems. PMID:14710457

  3. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  4. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune. PMID:27296855

  5. Infantile sexuality: Its place in the conceptual developments of Anna Freud and Donald W. Winnicott.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This essay explores the place of infantile sexuality in the theories of Anna Freud and Donald W Winnicott. Both Anna Freud and D.W. Winnicott incorporated and at the same time changed the classical psychoanalytic account of infantile sexuality and the instinctual drives. Whilst Anna Freud remained closer to her father's original conceptualization, she developed a multidimensional model of development which gave the drives a foundational status whist also maintaining their significance in giving meaning and texture to children's subjective experience. Winnicott also retained much of S. Freud's original theorizing except that in a fundamental way he turned it on its head when considering earliest development. For him the establishment of the self was paramount, and the drives and infantile sexuality merely served to give substance to that self. PMID:27437634

  6. Infantile sexuality: Its place in the conceptual developments of Anna Freud and Donald W. Winnicott.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This essay explores the place of infantile sexuality in the theories of Anna Freud and Donald W Winnicott. Both Anna Freud and D.W. Winnicott incorporated and at the same time changed the classical psychoanalytic account of infantile sexuality and the instinctual drives. Whilst Anna Freud remained closer to her father's original conceptualization, she developed a multidimensional model of development which gave the drives a foundational status whist also maintaining their significance in giving meaning and texture to children's subjective experience. Winnicott also retained much of S. Freud's original theorizing except that in a fundamental way he turned it on its head when considering earliest development. For him the establishment of the self was paramount, and the drives and infantile sexuality merely served to give substance to that self.

  7. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune.

  8. The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. PMID:24560236

  9. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Condom Promotion Program Targeting Sexually Active Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstead, Mark; Campsmith, Michael; Halley, Carolyn Swope; Hartfield, Karen; Goldblum, Gary; Wood, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents. It mobilized target communities to guide program development and implementation; created a mass media campaign to promote correct condom use; and recruited public agencies and organizations to distribute…

  10. Development of sexual behavior in free-ranging female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2014-09-01

    We studied the development of sexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our cross-sectional data on juvenile, adolescent, and adult females supported most of our predictions related to the learning hypothesis, which holds that adolescence serves to provide females with a period in which to practice adult female-like sexual behavioral patterns, including sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. We found evidence for a gradual acquisition of adult-like behavioral patterns (e.g., more frequent solicitations with body contact, more frequent complete mounts, more diverse solicitation patterns and complete mounting postures, and longer consortships involving prolonged inter-mount grasping behavior between partners), and a gradual disappearance of less effective immature behavioral patterns (e.g., less frequent non-contact solicitations, ambiguous mounting initiations, and incomplete mounts). We distinguished between three major categories of sexual behavioral patterns based on their speed of development, ranging from fast (e.g., diversity in mounting postures and genital stimulation during mounting) to slow (e.g., contact solicitations and grasping behavior between consortship partners), with some being intermediate (e.g., range of solicitation patterns and expression of complete mounts). This study showed that the emergence of both conceptive and non-conceptive adult sexual behaviors can be traced back to immature behavioral patterns in adolescent female Japanese macaques, with a major threshold occurring at the age of 4 years.

  11. Evaluating and Refining the Construct of Sexual Quality With Item Response Theory: Development of the Quality of Sex Inventory.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Amanda M; Rogge, Ronald D

    2016-02-01

    This study took a critical look at the construct of sexual quality. The 65 items of four well-validated self-report measures of sexual satisfaction (the Index of Sexual Satisfaction [ISS], Hudson, Harrison, & Crosscup, 1981; the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction [GMSEX], Lawrance & Byers, 1995; the Pinney Sexual Satisfaction Inventory [PSSI], Pinney, Gerrard, & Denney, 1987; the Young Sexual Satisfaction Scale [YSSS], Young, Denny, Luquis, & Young, 1998) and an additional 74 potential sexual quality items were given to 3060 online participants. Using Item Response Theory (IRT), we demonstrated that the ISS, YSSS, and PSSI scales provided suboptimal levels of precision in assessing sexual quality, particularly given the length of those scales. Exploratory factor analyses, IRT, differential item functioning analyses, and longitudinal responsiveness analyses were used to develop and evaluate the Quality of Sex Inventory. Results suggested that, in comparison to existing scales, the QSI (1) offers investigators and clinicians more theoretically focused scales, (2) distinguishes sexual satisfaction from sexual dissatisfaction, and (3) offers greater precision and power for detecting differences with (4) comparably high levels of responsiveness for detecting change over time despite being notably shorter than most of the existing scales. The QSI-satisfaction subscales demonstrated strong convergent validity with other measures of sexual satisfaction and excellent construct validity with anchor scales from the nomological net surrounding that construct, suggesting that they continue to assess the same theoretical construct as prior scales. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26728053

  12. Evaluating and Refining the Construct of Sexual Quality With Item Response Theory: Development of the Quality of Sex Inventory.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Amanda M; Rogge, Ronald D

    2016-02-01

    This study took a critical look at the construct of sexual quality. The 65 items of four well-validated self-report measures of sexual satisfaction (the Index of Sexual Satisfaction [ISS], Hudson, Harrison, & Crosscup, 1981; the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction [GMSEX], Lawrance & Byers, 1995; the Pinney Sexual Satisfaction Inventory [PSSI], Pinney, Gerrard, & Denney, 1987; the Young Sexual Satisfaction Scale [YSSS], Young, Denny, Luquis, & Young, 1998) and an additional 74 potential sexual quality items were given to 3060 online participants. Using Item Response Theory (IRT), we demonstrated that the ISS, YSSS, and PSSI scales provided suboptimal levels of precision in assessing sexual quality, particularly given the length of those scales. Exploratory factor analyses, IRT, differential item functioning analyses, and longitudinal responsiveness analyses were used to develop and evaluate the Quality of Sex Inventory. Results suggested that, in comparison to existing scales, the QSI (1) offers investigators and clinicians more theoretically focused scales, (2) distinguishes sexual satisfaction from sexual dissatisfaction, and (3) offers greater precision and power for detecting differences with (4) comparably high levels of responsiveness for detecting change over time despite being notably shorter than most of the existing scales. The QSI-satisfaction subscales demonstrated strong convergent validity with other measures of sexual satisfaction and excellent construct validity with anchor scales from the nomological net surrounding that construct, suggesting that they continue to assess the same theoretical construct as prior scales. Implications for research are discussed.

  13. Natural born killers?: the development of the sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R; Becker, J V

    1997-01-01

    Today's society seems enthralled with serial killers in the news and the media. Forensic psychiatrists often interview serial killers after they have been caught. There are retrospective studies and case reports of individuals who have committed sexually sadistic serial murders. However, there exists a dearth of case reports on adolescents who have expressed serious fantasies about becoming serial killer prior to actualizing their fantasy. This article presents nine clinical cases of 14- to 18-year-olds who have clinically significant fantasies of becoming a serial killer. Similarities exist in these adolescent cases when compared with retrospective studies and case reports of serial killers on the role of sexually sadistic fantasies and actual killings. Since it has been established that sexual paraphilias may develop at a young age, one can surmise that sadistic paraphilias may also develop in some adolescents. The question is posed, can we predict which of these adolescents may go on to actually become serial killers? This article focuses on how the sexually sadistic fantasy can eventually be acted out and possible motives for the act to be repeated multiple times. Finally, recommendations are made about assessing and treating a youngster who expresses violent sexually sadistic killing fantasies so that attempts can be made to interrupt the progression to actual killing.

  14. Natural born killers?: the development of the sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R; Becker, J V

    1997-01-01

    Today's society seems enthralled with serial killers in the news and the media. Forensic psychiatrists often interview serial killers after they have been caught. There are retrospective studies and case reports of individuals who have committed sexually sadistic serial murders. However, there exists a dearth of case reports on adolescents who have expressed serious fantasies about becoming serial killer prior to actualizing their fantasy. This article presents nine clinical cases of 14- to 18-year-olds who have clinically significant fantasies of becoming a serial killer. Similarities exist in these adolescent cases when compared with retrospective studies and case reports of serial killers on the role of sexually sadistic fantasies and actual killings. Since it has been established that sexual paraphilias may develop at a young age, one can surmise that sadistic paraphilias may also develop in some adolescents. The question is posed, can we predict which of these adolescents may go on to actually become serial killers? This article focuses on how the sexually sadistic fantasy can eventually be acted out and possible motives for the act to be repeated multiple times. Finally, recommendations are made about assessing and treating a youngster who expresses violent sexually sadistic killing fantasies so that attempts can be made to interrupt the progression to actual killing. PMID:9323659

  15. Sexual development in Plasmodium parasites: knowing when it's time to commit.

    PubMed

    Josling, Gabrielle A; Llinás, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is a devastating infectious disease that is caused by blood-borne apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. These pathogens have a complex lifecycle, which includes development in the anopheline mosquito vector and in the liver and red blood cells of mammalian hosts, a process which takes days to weeks, depending on the Plasmodium species. Productive transmission between the mammalian host and the mosquito requires transitioning between asexual and sexual forms of the parasite. Blood- stage parasites replicate cyclically and are mostly asexual, although a small fraction of these convert into male and female sexual forms (gametocytes) in each reproductive cycle. Despite many years of investigation, the molecular processes that elicit sexual differentiation have remained largely unknown. In this Review, we highlight several important recent discoveries that have identified epigenetic factors and specific transcriptional regulators of gametocyte commitment and development, providing crucial insights into this obligate cellular differentiation process. PMID:26272409

  16. Abnormal cerebellar development and axonal decussation due to mutations in AHI1 in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Russell J; Eyaid, Wafaa; Collura, Randall V; Tully, Laura D; Hill, R Sean; Al-Nouri, Doha; Al-Rumayyan, Ahmed; Topcu, Meral; Gascon, Generoso; Bodell, Adria; Shugart, Yin Yao; Ruvolo, Maryellen; Walsh, Christopher A

    2004-09-01

    Joubert syndrome is a congenital brain malformation of the cerebellar vermis and brainstem with abnormalities of axonal decussation (crossing in the brain) affecting the corticospinal tract and superior cerebellar peduncles. Individuals with Joubert syndrome have motor and behavioral abnormalities, including an inability to walk due to severe clumsiness and 'mirror' movements, and cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Here we identified a locus associated with Joubert syndrome, JBTS3, on chromosome 6q23.2-q23.3 and found three deleterious mutations in AHI1, the first gene to be associated with Joubert syndrome. AHI1 is most highly expressed in brain, particularly in neurons that give rise to the crossing axons of the corticospinal tract and superior cerebellar peduncles. Comparative genetic analysis of AHI1 indicates that it has undergone positive evolutionary selection along the human lineage. Therefore, changes in AHI1 may have been important in the evolution of human-specific motor behaviors.

  17. Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2015-08-30

    Associations between white matter pathway abnormalities and antisocial personality disorder in adults are well replicated, and there is some evidence for an association of white matter abnormalities with conduct disorder (CD) in adolescents. In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0 ± 0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. There was not a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and FA, but CD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with greater axial and radial diffusivity in a broad range of white matter tracts, particularly in girls. In complementary analyses, there were similar significant differences in axial and radial diffusivity between children who met diagnostic criteria for CD and healthy children with no symptoms of CD, particularly in girls. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of CD in childhood, perhaps playing a greater role in girls.

  18. Development of Muscularity and Weight Concerns in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (β =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (β=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PMID:23316852

  19. On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders. PMID:23450884

  20. Ensuring transmission through dynamic host environments: host-pathogen interactions in Plasmodium sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Ravel, Deepali B.; Brancucci, Nicolas M. B.; Marti, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A renewed global commitment to malaria elimination lends urgency to understanding the biology of Plasmodium transmission stages. Recent progress towards uncovering the mechanisms underlying P. falciparum sexual differentiation and maturation reveals potential targets for transmission-blocking drugs and vaccines. The identification of parasite factors that alter sexual differentiation, including extracellular vesicles and a master transcriptional regulator, suggest that parasites make epigenetically controlled developmental decisions based on environmental cues. New insights into sexual development, especially host cell remodeling and sequestration in the bone marrow, highlight open questions regarding parasite homing to the tissue, transmigration across the vascular endothelium, and maturation in the parenchyma. Novel molecular and translational tools will provide further opportunities to define host-parasite interactions and design effective transmission-blocking therapeutics. PMID:25867628

  1. Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciaraffa, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

  2. Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

  3. State Legislative Developments on Campus Sexual Violence: Issues in the Context of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Andrew; Sponsler, Brian A.; Fulton, Mary

    2015-01-01

    NASPA--Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education and Education Commission of the States (ECS) have partnered to address legislative developments and offer considerations for leaders in higher education and policy on two top-level safety issues facing the higher education community: campus sexual violence and guns on campus. The first in a…

  4. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents because they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the…

  5. A Transformative Learning Perspective of Continuing Sexual Identity Development in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.; Biro, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter provides a framework to facilitate self-awareness, self-knowledge, diversity training, and cultural awareness and appreciation for all adults, based on understanding the development of sexual identity and workplace issues for LGBTQ adults. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  6. Late-stage clinical development in lower urogenital targets: sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Usman

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, late-stage clinical drug development that primarily focuses on urogenital targets has centered around four areas of medical need (both unmet need and aiming to improve on existing therapies). These include male sexual dysfunction (MSD), female sexual dysfunction (FSD), prostatic pathology (neoplastic, pre-neoplasitic, and non-neoplastic), and improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite the regulatory approval of compounds to treat erectile dysfunction (ED), benign prostatic hyperplasia, a number of treatments for overactive bladder, and stress urinary incontinence, there remains a deficiency in addressing a number of conditions that arise out of pathophysiological dysfunction resulting in lower urogenital tract sexual conditions. In terms of late-stage clinical development, significant progress has most recently been made in MSD development, especially in understanding further a common and complex sexual dysfunction – that of premature ejaculation. The search also continues for compounds that improve ED in terms of better efficacy and superior safety profile compared to the currently marketed phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Whilst there are no approved medications to treat the subtypes of FSD, there has been significant progress in attempting to better understand how to appropriately assess treatment benefit in clinical trial settings for this difficult to diagnose and treat condition. This review will focus on late-stage human clinical development pertaining to MSD and FSD. PMID:16465180

  7. MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

  8. The Development and Psychometric Assessment of the Adolescent Sexual Coercion Risk Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Elklit, Ask; Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a psychometric measure of risk for sexual victimization from adolescent peers. Items were generated on the basis of the literature and on consultations with a multidisciplinary group of key informants. The items were administered to a sample of 327 female Grade-9 students and examined using exploratory…

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PERIOD OF SENSITIVITY OF FETAL MALE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TO VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of the period of sensitivity of fetal male sexual development to vinclozolin.

    Wolf CJ, LeBlanc GA, Ostby JS, Gray LE Jr.

    Endocrinology Branch, MD 72, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U....

  10. Let's Talk about Sex: Development of a Sexual Health Program for Nepali Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Michelle R.; Harman, Jennifer J.; Shrestha, Deepti Khati

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of conducting a sexual health intervention for women in Nepal, a country with high political and economic instability and strong patriarchal systems. Of the 88 women enrolled, 100% retention was obtained over three sessions, and 85% completed a 1-month follow-up. Recruitment was so…

  11. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

  12. "InFection Four": Development of a Youth-Informed Sexual Health Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Heathcock, Stephen; Sutherland, Ainsley

    2014-01-01

    Games may be useful tools for learning and communicating about sexual and reproductive health. This article discusses the collaborative design and subsequent evaluation of a narrative-based card game. This game was created in a workshop based on positive youth development, which allowed youth to be involved as game designers and game players.…

  13. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority.

  14. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on College Student Development: A Seven-Vectors Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of theory in this article expanded on Chickering and Reisser's ([Chickering, A. W., 1993]) 7-vectors framework by considering the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the normal experience of student development in higher education. The article includes an overview of the prevalence and effects of CSA and a case study of a…

  15. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  16. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  17. Pilot study in the development of an interactive multimedia learning environment for sexual health interventions: a focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Goold, P C; Bustard, S; Ferguson, E; Carlin, E M; Neal, K; Bowman, C A

    2006-02-01

    In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with young people that was undertaken to inform the design of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment that incorporates message framing, intended for use in sexual health promotion. The focus group work addressed sexual attitudes, behaviour, risk perception, and knowledge of sexual health and sexual health services in Nottingham. The results provided new insights into young peoples' sexual behaviour, and their diversity of knowledge and beliefs. Common themes expressed regarding sexual health services included concerns about confidentiality, lack of confidence to access services and fear of the unknown. The results showed that while the adolescents are reasonably knowledgeable about infection, they do not know as much about the relevant services to treat it. This work emphasizes the need for user involvement throughout the design and development of a sexual health intervention, and will form the basis of the next part of the project. PMID:15972303

  18. Utilization of a Conidia-Deficient Mutant to Study Sexual Development in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Lim, Jae Yun; Lee, Yoonji; Lee, Yin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis is a widely used approach to study the molecular mechanisms underlying development and the responses of fungi to environmental cues. However, it is difficult to obtain cells with a homogeneous status from the sexually-induced culture of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. In this study, we provided phenotypic and genetic evidence to show that the current conditions applied for perithecia induction inevitably highly induced asexual sporulation in this fungus. We also found that hundreds of genes under the control of the conidiation-specific gene ABAA were unnecessarily upregulated after perithecia induction. Deletion of ABAA specifically blocked conidia production in both the wild-type strain and sexually-defective mutants during sexual development. Taken together, our results suggest that the abaA strain could be used as a background strain for studies of the initial stages of perithecia production in F. graminearum. Further comparative transcriptome analysis between the abaA mutant and the sexually-defective transcription factor mutant carrying the ABAA deletion would contribute to the construction of the genetic networks involved in perithecia development in F. graminearum. PMID:27175901

  19. Role of sexual abuse in development of conversion disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Sobot, V; Ivanovic-Kovacevic, S; Markovic, J; Misic-Pavkov, G; Novovic, Z

    2012-02-01

    Described case report speaks in favour of the relation between childhood sexual abuse with the development of conversion disorder. Following Salmonella poisoning, adolescent, at the age of 16, develops series of severe somatic symptoms. Results of diagnostic procedures excluded organic foundation of the symptoms; diagnosis of conversion disorder is established. Soon, patient's problems stop abruptly and spontaneously, and the aetiology of the mental disorder remains unexplained. Six years later, adolescent reveals for the first time data about the childhood sexual abuse during the forensic evaluation (within the court process related to the request for compensation for the complications which occurred following the Salmonella infection). During the forensic evaluation, we had insight into the previous medical history, while an interview, psychological and psychiatric exploration was conducted with the examinee. Data about the sexual abuse retrospectively explain the dynamics of the development of conversion disorder. The described case indicates that sexual abuse of children and adolescents frequently remains unrecognized, which has sequels for treatment and prevention of subsequent consequences for mental health. It is important to emphasize the significance of examining history of abuse during the diagnostic of certain mental disorders. Forensic implications of the case have not been discussed in details for the needs of this report.

  20. Effect of temperature on pupa development and sexual maturity of laboratory Anastrepha obliqua adults.

    PubMed

    Telles-Romero, R; Toledo, J; Hernández, E; Quintero-Fong, J L; Cruz-López, L

    2011-10-01

    The effect of four temperatures (18, 20, 25 and 30°C) on pupa development and sexual maturity of Anastrepha obliqua adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the duration of the pupal stage decreased with an increase in temperature (29, 25, 13 and 12 days, respectively), and maintaining the pupae at 18°C and 20°C results in a low percentage of pupation, pupa weight loss and lesser flying ability. However, it significantly favored sexual behavior, a higher proportion of sexual calls and matings. While enhanced pupa development was observed at a temperature of 30°C, adults had low sexual efficiency, as well as a lower proportion of calls and matings. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of male volatiles showed that the amount of (Z,E)-α-farnesene did not vary among males from pupae reared at different temperatures; however, less (E,E)-α-farnesene was emitted by males obtain from pupa reared at 30°C. Male flies kept at 30°C during their larval stage had more (Z)-3-nonenol and, also, an unknown compound was detected. The fecundity of the females was higher at low temperatures. Regarding fertility, no significant differences were found between temperatures. The optimal temperature on pupa development was 25°C when males displayed ideal attributes for rearing purposes.

  1. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Altered structure of cortical sulci in gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Further support for abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    Muellner, Julia; Delmaire, Christine; Valabrégue, Romain; Schüpbach, Michael; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2015-04-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that patients with this syndrome would present an aberrant pattern of cortical formation, which could potentially reflect global alterations of brain development. Using 3 Tesla structural neuroimaging, we compared sulcal depth, opening, and length and thickness of sulcal gray matter in 52 adult patients and 52 matched controls. Cortical sulci were automatically reconstructed and identified over the whole brain, using BrainVisa software. We focused on frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions, in which abnormal structure and functional activity were identified in previous neuroimaging studies. Partial correlation analysis with age, sex, and treatment as covariables of noninterest was performed amongst relevant clinical and neuroimaging variables in patients. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome showed lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter in the pre- and post-central as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. In patients with associated obsessive-compulsive disorder, additional structural changes were found in temporal, insular, and olfactory sulci. Crucially, severity of tics and of obsessive-compulsive disorder measured by Yale Global Tic severity scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, respectively, correlated with structural sulcal changes in sensorimotor, temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and middle cingulate cortical areas. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome displayed an abnormal structural pattern of cortical sulci, which correlated with severity of clinical symptoms. Our results provide further evidence of abnormal brain development in GTS.

  3. The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Deyong; Rao, Yuchun; Wu, Liwen; Xu, Qiankun; Li, Zizhuang; Yu, Haiping; Zhang, Yu; Leng, Yujia; Hu, Jiang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Zhenyu; Dong, Guojun; Zhang, Guangheng; Guo, Longbiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Moderate plant height and successful establishment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull‐like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was expressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1‐green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes. PMID:26486996

  4. Development of a sintering methodology through abnormal glow discharge for manufacturing metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, S.; Pineda, Y.; Sarmiento, A.; López, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a sintering methodology is presented by using abnormal glow discharge to metal matrix composites (MMC), consisting of 316 steel, reinforced with titanium carbide (TiC). The wear behaviour of these compounds was evaluated according to the standard ASTM G 99 in a tribometer pin-on-disk. The effect of the percentage of reinforcement (3, 6, and 9%), with 40 minutes of mixing in the planetary mill is analysed, using compaction pressure of 700MPa and sintering temperature of 1,100°C±5°C, gaseous atmosphere of H2 - N2, and sintering time of 30 minutes. As a result of the research, it shows that the best behaviour against wear is obtained when the MMC contains 6% TiC. Under this parameter the lowest percentage of pores and the lowest coefficient of friction are achieved, ensuring that the incorporation of ceramic particles (TiC) in 316 austenitic steel matrix significantly improves the wear resistance. Also, it is shown that it is possible to sinter such materials using the abnormal glow discharge, being a novel and effective method in which the working temperature is reached in a short time.

  5. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  6. Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.

    PubMed

    Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

    2009-01-01

    Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency.

  7. Predicting different patterns of sexual identity development over time among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce

    2008-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may not follow a single pattern, but may follow a variety of pathways. Although some research documenting variability in identity development exists, unclear are the potential individual and social contexts that predict these different patterns, as well as the contexts that predict changes in identity integration over time. This report longitudinally examined these issues in an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14-21) in New York City. Cluster analytic techniques identified two patterns of sexual identity formation (i.e., early and more recent), and three patterns of sexual identity integration (i.e., high, middling, and low). Gender and sexual abuse were found to predict identity formation; and, gay-related stress, social support, negative social relationships, sexual orientation, sexual identity, and gender were found to predict patterns of sexual identity integration and changes in integration over 1 year. These findings document different patterns of sexual identity development and identify potential contextual barriers and facilitating factors that may be used to develop interventions to promote healthy LGB identity development.

  8. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-09-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model.

  9. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

  10. Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation.

  11. Premature sexual development in children following the use of estrogen- or placenta-containing hair products.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, C M

    1998-12-01

    Four African-American girls aged 14 months to 93 months developed breast or pubic hair 2 to 24 months after starting the use of estrogen or placenta-containing hair products. Discontinuing the use of the hair products resulted in regression of the breast or pubic hair. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol levels were variable. No other cause for early sexual development was noted in these girls.

  12. Implications of Our Developing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors in the Treatment of Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes our developing knowledge of factors that contribute added risk of sexual recidivism (risk factors) and factors that are associated with a reduced risk of sexual recidivism (protective factors). Specific implications for the design of future treatment programs are drawn. This information is contrasted with the common foci of…

  13. "You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

  14. Sexual disinhibition and dementia.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Ulivi, Martina; Danti, Sabrina; Lucetti, Claudio; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    To describe inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) observed in patients with dementia, we conducted searches using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science to find relevant articles, chapters, and books published from 1950 to 2014. Search terms used included 'hypersexuality', 'inappropriate sexual behaviors', and 'dementia'. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Sexuality is a human's need to express intimacy, but persons with dementia may not know how to appropriately meet their needs for closeness and intimacy due to their decline in cognition. Generally, the interaction among brain, physical, psychological, and environmental factors can create what we call ISB. The most likely change in the sexual behaviour of a person with dementia is indifference. However, ISB in dementia appear to be of two types--intimacy-seeking and disinhibited--that differ in their association with dementia type, dementia severity and, possibly, other concurrent behavioural disorder. Tensions develop from uncertainties regarding which, or when, behaviours are to be considered 'inappropriate' (i.e. improper) or abnormal. While most ISB occur in the moderate to severe stages of Alzheimer's dementia, they may also be seen in early stages of frontotemporal dementia because of the lack of insight and disinhibition. ISB are often better managed by non-pharmacological means, as patients may be less responsive to psychoactive therapies, but non-pharmacological interventions do not always stop the behaviour.

  15. [Hebephrenic symptoms as an expression of an XYY chromosome abnormality? Case report of a patient with suspected sexual abuse of his own 2 minor children].

    PubMed

    Dirksen, T; Mönikes, E

    1995-06-01

    A 48 year old patient was hospitalised because of parasuicidal behaviour and suicidal ideation. He was under suspicion of having sexually abused his 4-year old daughter and his 4-year old son. At the age of 17, he was hospitalised in a psychiatric ward under the diagnosis of hebephrenic schizophrenia. He successfully received an insulin coma therapy. Because of his increased height (1.89 m), mental retardation and other psychical disorders in his youth, we now suspected him of having an extra Y chromosome which was confirmed by chromosome analysis. The non-uniform symptomatology of XYY-individuals includes a hebephrenic aspect. Concerning the different therapeutical and juridical consequences, we considered a critical investigation of the former diagnosis "Hebephrenic Schizophrenia".

  16. Skeletal development and abnormalities of the vertebral column and of the fins in hatchery-reared turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tong, X H; Liu, Q H; Xu, S H; Ma, D Y; Xiao, Z Z; Xiao, Y S; Li, J

    2012-03-01

    To describe the skeletal development and abnormalities in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, samples were collected every day from hatching to 60 days after hatching (DAH). A whole-mount cartilage and bone-staining technique was used. Vertebral ontogeny started with the formation of anterior haemal arches at 5·1 mm standard length (L(S) ) c. 11 DAH, and was completed by the full attainment of parapophyses at 16·9 mm L(S) c. 31 DAH. Vertebral centra started to develop at 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH and ossification in all centra was visible at 11·0 mm L(S) c. 25 DAH. The caudal fin appeared at 5·1 mm L(S) c. 11 DAH and ossification was visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The onset of dorsal and anal fin elements appeared at 5·8 mm L(S) c. 15 DAH and 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH, respectively. Ossifications of both dorsal fin and anal fin were visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The pectorals were the only fins present before first feeding, their ossifications were completed at 23·5 mm L(S) c. 48 DAH. Pelvic fins began forming at 7·2 mm L(S) c. 19 DAH and calcification of the whole structure was visible at 19·8 mm L(S) c. 36 DAH. In the present study, 24 types of skeletal abnormalities were observed. About 51% of individuals presented skeletal abnormalities, and the highest occurrence was found in the haemal region of the vertebral column. As for each developmental stage, the most common abnormalities were in the dorsal fin during early metamorphic period (stage 2), vertebral fusion during climax metamorphosis (stage 3) and caudal fin abnormality during both late-metamorphic period (stage 4) and post-metamorphic period (stage 5). Such research will be useful for early detection of skeletal malformations during different growth periods of reared S. maximus.

  17. Does atrazine affect larval development and sexual differentiation of South African clawed frogs?

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka; Urbatzka, Ralph; Springer, Tim; Krueger, Hank; Wolf, Jeffrey; Holden, Larry; Hosmer, Alan

    2009-04-01

    The potential impact of atrazine (ATZ) on gonadal malformations in larval Xenopus laevis has been controversially discussed, and a hypothesis has been generated that ATZ might induce the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme aromatase, leading to feminization or demasculinization. Recently, extensive long-term studies clearly indicate that no adverse effect of ATZ on larval development and sexual differentiation could be found. Therefore, to determine potential transient impacts of ATZ on sexual differentiation processes, short-term exposures were conducted using tadpoles treated for 4 days with ATZ at 25 microg/L. The expression levels of the key players for sexual differentiation in amphibians were determined in the brain, assessing aromatase, 5alpha-reductase type 1 (S1) and type 2 (S2), and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, and in the gonads, measuring aromatase, S1, and S2, by means of quantitative RT-PCR. No significant changes in any of these parameters have been found, implicating, in accordance with recent long-term exposures, that no aromatase induction by ATZ could be observed, and it seems likely that no further endocrine mechanism of ATZ affecting sexual differentiation in X. laevis exists.

  18. Apilarnil reduces fear and advances sexual development in male broilers but has no effect on growth.

    PubMed

    Altan, O; Yücel, B; Açikgöz, Z; Seremet, C; Kösoğlu, M; Turgan, N; Ozgönül, A M

    2013-06-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females.

  19. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  20. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  1. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  2. Beyond Cairo: sexual and reproductive rights of young people in the new development agenda.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    At the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), women's rights advocates fundamentally shifted the way the global development community views poverty, gender equality and reproductive rights. While the ICPD's call to action led to a marked improvement in reproductive health, more remains to be done to secure the sexual and reproductive rights and health of all, particularly for young people. As we approach the 20-year anniversary of Cairo, several global processes are happening concurrently that have implications for the future of the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda, including the 20-year review of progress towards achieving the Cairo Programme of Action, the review of the Millennium Development Goals, and the open group discussions about the sustainable development goals and the new development agenda post-2015. There are five key areas of action where significant investment is needed moving forward to ensure young people's access and safeguard their rights: repeal outdated laws and create new policies that safeguard young people's health and rights; provide youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services; guarantee young people's access to information and education; end gender discrimination and ensure government accountability.

  3. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.

  4. A case of leucocyte chimerism (78,XX/78,XY) in a dog with a disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Nizanski, W; Salamon, S; Ochota, M; Dzimira, S; Atamaniuk, W; Switonski, M

    2014-06-01

    A 1-year-old Shih Tzu dog was presented for examination because of abnormal external genitalia. A residual penis with a prepuce was located in a position typical of a male. The dog had no palpable testicles or scrotum. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of the prostate, but the gonads remained undetectable. Cytogenetic analysis performed on chromosome preparations obtained from lymphocyte culture showed two cell lines - 78,XX and 78,XY. Molecular analysis of 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers allowed us to distinguish leucocyte chimerism from whole body chimerism. The presence of 3 or 4 alleles was confirmed in DNA isolated from blood, while in DNA isolated from hair follicles only 1 or 2 alleles were detected. The case was classified as leucocyte 78,XX/78,XY chimerism. Our study showed that XX/XY leucocyte chimerism might be associated with disorder of sexual development in dogs. Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of cytogenetic study, in combination with analysis of polymorphic markers in DNA isolated from different somatic cells, facilitates distinguishing between leucocyte and whole body chimerism.

  5. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  6. Abnormal gene expression in cerebellum of Npc1-/- mice during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guanghong; Wen, Zhining; Irizarry, Kristopher; Huang, Ying; Mitsouras, Katherine; Darmani, Mariam; Leon, Terry; Shi, Leming; Bi, Xiaoning

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal lipid storage as the major cellular pathologic hallmark. Genetic analyses have identified mutations in NPC1 gene in the great majority of cases, while mutations in NPC2 account for the remainders. Yet, little is known regarding the cellular mechanisms responsible for NPC pathogenesis, especially for neurodegeneration, which is the usual cause of death. To identify critical steps that could account for the pathological manifestations of the disease in one of the most affected brain structures, we performed global gene expression analysis in the cerebellum from three-week old Npc1+/+ and Npc1-/- mice with two different microarray platforms (Agilent and Illumina). Differentially-expressed genes identified by both microarray platforms were then subjected to KEGG pathway analysis. Expression of genes in six pathways was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice; functionally, these signaling pathways belong to the following three categories: 1) steroid and terpenoid biosynthesis, 2) immune response, and 3) cell adhesion/motility. In addition, the expression of several proteins involved in lipid transport was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice. Our results provide novel molecular insight regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis in NPC disease and reveal potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:20153740

  7. Microbial community structure and function during abnormal curve development of substrate-induced respiration measurements.

    PubMed

    Bartling, Johanna; Kotzerke, Anja; Mai, Maike; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Schloter, Michael; Wilke, Berndt-Michael

    2009-12-01

    Soil respiration measurements are an established method to test the abundance, activity and vitality of the soil microorganisms. However, abnormal progressions of soil respiration curves impede a clear interpretation of the data. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the microbial structure during the formation of phenomena like double peaks and terraces by analysis of the PLFA composition (phospholipid fatty acid composition). Moreover, 13C labeled glucose was used as substrate; therefore it was possible to measure delta13C values both within the PLFA fraction as well as within the carbon dioxide evolved during respiration. As contaminants trinitrotoluene, cycloheximide, and hexadecane were used. The results showed that the appearance of double peaks was mainly related to the growth of fungi with the marker 18:2delta9,12 due to a toxic effect of trinitrotoluene and cycloheximide. In contrast, the phenomenon of terrace formation was related to the utilization of hexadecane as a carbon source mainly by bacteria.

  8. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort: A publicly available resource for the study of normal and abnormal brain development in youth.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Connolly, John J; Ruparel, Kosha; Calkins, Monica E; Jackson, Chad; Elliott, Mark A; Roalf, David R; Ryan Hopsona, Karthik Prabhakaran; Behr, Meckenzie; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank D; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Gur, Ruben C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E

    2016-01-01

    The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) is a large-scale study of child development that combines neuroimaging, diverse clinical and cognitive phenotypes, and genomics. Data from this rich resource is now publicly available through the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Here we focus on the data from the PNC that is available through dbGaP and describe how users can access this data, which is evolving to be a significant resource for the broader neuroscience community for studies of normal and abnormal neurodevelopment.

  9. Abnormal P-selectin localization during megakaryocyte development determines thrombosis in the gata1low model of myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Eva; Verrucci, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; D'Amore, Emanuela; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary myelofibrosis have increased risk for bleeding and thrombosis. It is debated whether propensity to thrombosis is due to increased numbers of platelet microparticles and/or to pathological platelet-neutrophil interactions. Platelet neutrophil interactions are mediated by P-selectin and even though the megakaryocytes of myelofibrosis patients express normal levels of P-selectin, it remains abnormally localized to the demarcation membrane system rather than being assembled into the α-granules in platelets. Mice carrying the hypomorphic Gata1(low) mutation express the same megakaryocyte abnormalities presented by primary myelofibrosis patients, including abnormal P-selectin localization to the DMS and develop with age myelofibrosis, a disease that closely resembles human primary myelofibrosis. Whether these mice would also develop thrombosis has not been investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether Gata1(low) mice would develop thrombosis with age and, in this case, the role played by P-selectin in the development of the trait. To this aim, Gata1(low) mice were crossed with P-sel(null) mice according to standard genetic protocols and Gata1(low)P-sel(wt), Gata1(low)P-sel(null) and Gata1(WT)P-sel(null) or Gata1(wt)P-sel(wt) (as controls) littermates obtained. It was shown that platelet counts, but not hematocrit, are reduced in Gata1(low) mice. Moreover, platelet microparticles are reduced in Gata1(low) mice and P-selectin positive platelet microparticles were not found. To determine the phenotypic implications of the different mutations, bleeding time was estimated by a tail cut procedure. Mutant mice were sacrificed and presence of thrombosis was determined by immunohistological staining of organs. Gata1(low) mice with or without the P-selectin null trait had a prolonged bleeding time compared to wild type mice. However, in Gata1(low) mice significantly higher frequency of thrombotic events was seen in adult and old Gata1

  10. Sexual dysfunction in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tamás, Várkonyi; Kempler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to summarize the etiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and possible treatment options of sexual dysfunction in diabetic patients of both sexes. Details of dysfunction in diabetic women are less conclusive than in men due to the lack of standardized evaluation of sexual function in women. Male sexual dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes, including abnormalities of orgasmic/ejaculatory function and desire/libido in addition to penile erection. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among diabetic men varies from 35% to 75%. Diabetes-induced ED has a multifactorial etiology including metabolic, neurologic, vascular, hormonal, and psychological components. ED should be regarded as the first sign of cardiovascular disease because it can be present before development of symptomatic coronary artery disease, as larger coronary vessels better tolerate the same amount of plaque compared to smaller penile arteries. The diagnosis of ED is based on validated questionnaires and determination of functional and organic abnormalities. First-, second- and third-line therapy may be applied. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor treatment from the first-line options leads to smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and enhancement in blood flow, resulting in erection during sexual stimulus. The use of PDE-5 inhibitors in the presence of oral nitrates is strictly contraindicated in diabetic men, as in nondiabetic subjects. All PDE-5 inhibitors have been evaluated for ED in diabetic patients with convincing efficacy data. Second-line therapy includes intracavernosal, trans- or intraurethral administration of vasoactive drugs or application of a vacuum device. Third-line therapies are the implantation of penile prosthesis and penile revascularization. PMID:25410225

  11. Impact of nutritional programming on the growth, health, and sexual development of bull calves.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, H; Janett, F; Kaske, M

    2016-07-01

    The growth, health, and reproductive performance of bull calves are important prerequisites for a successful cattle breeding program. Therefore, several attempts have been made to improve these parameters via nutritional programming. Although an increase in energy uptake during the postweaning period (7-8 mo of age) of the calves leads to a faster growing rate, it has no positive effects on sexual development. In contrast, a high-nutrition diet during the prepubertal period (8-20 wk of age) reduced the age at puberty of the bulls and increased the size and/or weight of the testis and the epididymal sperm reserves. This faster sexual development is associated with an increased transient LH peak, which seems to be mediated by an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the interaction between nutrition and the subsequent development of the calves are not clear. The sexual development of bull calves depends not only on the nutrition of the calves after birth but also on the feed intake of their mothers during pregnancy. In contrast to the effects of the feed intake of the bull calves, a high-nutrition diet fed to the mother during the first trimester has negative effects on the reproductive performance of their offspring. In conclusion, it has been clearly demonstrated that growth, health, and reproductive performance can be improved by nutritional programming, but further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding about the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.

  12. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued. PMID:26281448

  13. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued.

  14. Southwestern Internal Medical Conference: New developments in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual precocity.

    PubMed

    Stein, D T

    1992-01-01

    This article covers considerations in the etiology of various forms of precocious puberty and premature sexual development. The normal pubertal process with maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis is reviewed. The differential diagnosis of precocious puberty is discussed with particular emphasis on the difference between gonadotropin-dependent and gonadotropin-independent processes. Established therapies and newer medical treatments with their pathophysiologic rationale are considered in detail.

  15. Effects of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorobutanesulfonate on the growth and sexual development of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qin-Qin; Zhang, Yin-Feng; Zhou, Zhen; Shi, Ya-Li; Ge, Ya-Nan; Ren, Dong-Kai; Xu, Hai-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Xian; Wei, Wu-Ji; Qin, Zhan-Fen

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), as a substitute for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), is widespread in the environment and biotic samples as well as PFOS. To investigate effects of PFOS and PFBS on the growth and sexual development of amphibians, we exposed Xenopus laevis tadpoles at a series of concentrations of PFOS and PFBS (0.1; 1; 100; 1,000 μg/l) as well as 17-beta-estradiol (E2, 100 ng/l) and 5 alpha-androstan-17-beta-ol-3-one (DHT, 100 ng/l) from stage 46/47 to 2 months postmetamorphosis. We found that neither PFOS nor PFBS had a significant effect on the survival and growth. However, they caused hepatohistological impairment at higher concentrations (100; 1,000 μg/l). Unlike E2, PFOS at all concentrations did not alter the sex ratio and induce intersex, but caused degeneration of spermatogonia in testes except for the lowest concentration. PFBS had no effect on the sex ratio and gonadal histology. PFOS and PFBS promoted expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR), but not affected aromatase expression in the brain. The increase in expression of ER and AR suggests an increase in the responsiveness to the corresponding sex hormone and potential effects on sexual development. Our results show that PFBS as well as PFOS have adverse effects on hepato-histology and sexual development on X. laevis. Also, PFOS- and PFBS-induced increase in ER and AR expression highlights the need to further study effects of PFOS and PFBS on subsequently gonadal development, sexual dimorphism, and secondary sex characteristics in X. laevis. It is debatable that PFBS is widely used as a substitute of PFOS.

  16. DLX4 is associated with orofacial clefting and abnormal jaw development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Mandal, Shyamali; Choi, Alex; Anderson, August; Prochazkova, Michaela; Perry, Hazel; Gil-Da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L.; Lao, Richard; Wan, Eunice; Tang, Paul Ling-Fung; Kwok, Pui-yan; Klein, Ophir; Zhuan, Bian; Slavotinek, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are common structural birth defects in humans. We used exome sequencing to study a patient with bilateral CL/P and identified a single nucleotide deletion in the patient and her similarly affected son—c.546_546delG, predicting p.Gln183Argfs*57 in the Distal-less 4 (DLX4) gene. The sequence variant was absent from databases, predicted to be deleterious and was verified by Sanger sequencing. In mammals, there are three Dlx homeobox clusters with closely located gene pairs (Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx3/Dlx4, Dlx5/Dlx6). In situ hybridization showed that Dlx4 was expressed in the mesenchyme of the murine palatal shelves at E12.5, prior to palate closure. Wild-type human DLX4, but not mutant DLX4_c.546delG, could activate two murine Dlx conserved regulatory elements, implying that the mutation caused haploinsufficiency. We showed that reduced DLX4 expression after short interfering RNA treatment in a human cell line resulted in significant up-regulation of DLX3, DLX5 and DLX6, with reduced expression of DLX2 and significant up-regulation of BMP4, although the increased BMP4 expression was demonstrated only in HeLa cells. We used antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to target the orthologous Danio rerio gene, dlx4b, and found reduced cranial size and abnormal cartilaginous elements. We sequenced DLX4 in 155 patients with non-syndromic CL/P and CP, but observed no sequence variants. From the published literature, Dlx1/Dlx2 double homozygous null mice and Dlx5 homozygous null mice both have clefts of the secondary palate. This first finding of a DLX4 mutation in a family with CL/P establishes DLX4 as a potential cause of human clefts. PMID:25954033

  17. A cascade of DNA-binding proteins for sexual commitment and development in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Abhinav; Hughes, Katie R; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K; Otto, Thomas D; Pfander, Claudia; Dickens, Nicholas J; Religa, Agnieszka A; Bushell, Ellen; Graham, Anne L; Cameron, Rachael; Kafsack, Bjorn F C; Williams, April E; Llinás, Manuel; Berriman, Matthew; Billker, Oliver; Waters, Andrew P

    2014-03-13

    Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PbAP2-G, a conserved member of the apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family of DNA-binding proteins, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in Plasmodium berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PbAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PbAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, here termed PbAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis, indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PbAP2-G that could be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite.

  18. Development of an attachment-informed measure of sexual behavior in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Szielasko, Alicia L; Symons, Douglas K; Lisa Price, E

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new measure uniquely predicted sexual approach styles and invasive sexual experiences. 190 18- and 19-year-old university students in late adolescence completed sexual behavior items that were provided ambivalent (anxious) and avoidant dimensions. These were systematically related to the romantic attachment dimensions of the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised. However, even after romantic relationship style, gender, and social desirability were controlled, avoidance in sexual relationships predicted lifetime sexual partner number and negatively predicted positive sexual strategies, and ambivalence in sexual relationships predicted invasive and coercive sexual behaviors. A measure specific to sexual relationships informs the attachment and romantic context of sex in late adolescence.

  19. Expression of 6-Cys Gene Superfamily Defines Babesia bovis Sexual Stage Development within Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Alzan, Heba F.; Herndon, David R.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Scoles, Glen A.; Kappmeyer, Lowell S.; Suarez, Carlos E.

    2016-01-01

    Babesia bovis, an intra-erythrocytic tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, is one of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis. Its life cycle includes sexual reproduction within cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp. Six B. bovis 6-Cys gene superfamily members were previously identified (A, B, C, D, E, F) where their orthologues in Plasmodium parasite have been shown to encode for proteins required for the development of sexual stages. The current study identified four additional 6-Cys genes (G, H, I, J) in the B. bovis genome. These four genes are described in the context of the complete ten 6-Cys gene superfamily. The proteins expressed by this gene family are predicted to be secreted or surface membrane directed. Genetic analysis comparing the 6-Cys superfamily among five distinct B. bovis strains shows limited sequence variation. Additionally, A, B, E, H, I and J genes were transcribed in B. bovis infected tick midgut while genes A, B and E were also transcribed in the subsequent B. bovis kinete stage. Transcription of gene C was found exclusively in the kinete. In contrast, transcription of genes D, F and G in either B. bovis infected midguts or kinetes was not detected. None of the 6-Cys transcripts were detected in B. bovis blood stages. Subsequent protein analysis of 6-Cys A and B is concordant with their transcript profile. The collective data indicate as in Plasmodium parasite, certain B. bovis 6-Cys family members are uniquely expressed during sexual stages and therefore, they are likely required for parasite reproduction. Within B. bovis specifically, proteins encoded by 6-Cys genes A and B are markers for sexual stages and candidate antigens for developing novel vaccines able to interfere with the development of B. bovis within the tick vector. PMID:27668751

  20. A panel of free fatty acid ratios to predict the development of metabolic abnormalities in healthy obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linjing; Ni, Yan; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Aihua; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Jiajian; Chen, Tianlu; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Su, Mingming; Yu, Herbert; Wang, Congrong; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences support that metabolically healthy obese (MHO) is a transient state. However, little is known about the early markers associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Serum free fatty acids (FFAs) profile is highlighted in its association with obesity-related insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). To examine the association of endogenous fatty acid metabolism with future development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals, we retrospectively analyzed 24 [product FFA]/[precursor FFA] ratios in fasting sera and clinical data from 481 individuals who participated in three independent studies, including 131 metabolic healthy subjects who completed the 10-year longitudinal Shanghai Diabetes Study (SHDS), 312 subjects cross-sectionally sampled from the Shanghai Obesity Study (SHOS), and 38 subjects who completed an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) intervention study. Results showed that higher baseline level of oleic acid/stearic acid (OA/SA), and lower levels of stearic acid/palmitic acid (SA/PA) and arachidonic acid/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (AA/DGLA) ratios were associated with higher rate of MHO to MUO conversion in the longitudinal SHDS. Further, the finding was validated in the cross-sectional and interventional studies. This panel of FFA ratios could be used for identification and early intervention of at-risk obese individuals. PMID:27344992

  1. A panel of free fatty acid ratios to predict the development of metabolic abnormalities in healthy obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linjing; Ni, Yan; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Aihua; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Jiajian; Chen, Tianlu; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Su, Mingming; Yu, Herbert; Wang, Congrong; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences support that metabolically healthy obese (MHO) is a transient state. However, little is known about the early markers associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Serum free fatty acids (FFAs) profile is highlighted in its association with obesity-related insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). To examine the association of endogenous fatty acid metabolism with future development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals, we retrospectively analyzed 24 [product FFA]/[precursor FFA] ratios in fasting sera and clinical data from 481 individuals who participated in three independent studies, including 131 metabolic healthy subjects who completed the 10-year longitudinal Shanghai Diabetes Study (SHDS), 312 subjects cross-sectionally sampled from the Shanghai Obesity Study (SHOS), and 38 subjects who completed an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) intervention study. Results showed that higher baseline level of oleic acid/stearic acid (OA/SA), and lower levels of stearic acid/palmitic acid (SA/PA) and arachidonic acid/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (AA/DGLA) ratios were associated with higher rate of MHO to MUO conversion in the longitudinal SHDS. Further, the finding was validated in the cross-sectional and interventional studies. This panel of FFA ratios could be used for identification and early intervention of at-risk obese individuals. PMID:27344992

  2. Cerebellar cortex development in the weaver condition presents regional and age-dependent abnormalities without differences in Purkinje cells neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Hervás, José P; Bayer, Shirley A; Villegas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ataxias are neurological disorders associated with the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). Homozygous weaver mice (wv/wv) have been proposed as a model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia because they present motor abnormalities and PC loss. To ascertain the physiopathology of the weaver condition, the development of the cerebellar cortex lobes was examined at postnatal day (P): P8, P20 and P90. Three approaches were used: 1) quantitative determination of several cerebellar features; 2) qualitative evaluation of the developmental changes occurring in the cortical lobes; and 3) autoradiographic analyses of PC generation and placement. Our results revealed a reduction in the size of the wv/wv cerebellum as a whole, confirming previous results. However, as distinguished from these reports, we observed that quantified parameters contribute differently to the abnormal growth of the wv/wv cerebellar lobes. Qualitative analysis showed anomalies in wv/wv cerebellar cytoarchitecture, depending on the age and lobe analyzed. Such abnormalities included the presence of the external granular layer after P20 and, at P90, ectopic cells located in the molecular layer following several placement patterns. Finally, we obtained autoradiographic evidence that wild-type and wv/wv PCs presented similar neurogenetic timetables, as reported. However, the innovative character of this current work lies in the fact that the neurogenetic gradients of wv/wv PCs were not modified from P8 to P90. A tendency for the accumulation of late-formed PCs in the anterior and posterior lobes was found, whereas early-generated PCs were concentrated in the central and inferior lobes. These data suggested that wv/wv PCs may migrate properly to their final destinations. The extrapolation of our results to patients affected with cerebellar ataxias suggests that all cerebellar cortex lobes are affected with several age-dependent alterations in cytoarchitectonics. We also propose that PC loss may be regionally

  3. Cerebellar cortex development in the weaver condition presents regional and age-dependent abnormalities without differences in Purkinje cells neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Hervás, José P; Bayer, Shirley A; Villegas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ataxias are neurological disorders associated with the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). Homozygous weaver mice (wv/wv) have been proposed as a model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia because they present motor abnormalities and PC loss. To ascertain the physiopathology of the weaver condition, the development of the cerebellar cortex lobes was examined at postnatal day (P): P8, P20 and P90. Three approaches were used: 1) quantitative determination of several cerebellar features; 2) qualitative evaluation of the developmental changes occurring in the cortical lobes; and 3) autoradiographic analyses of PC generation and placement. Our results revealed a reduction in the size of the wv/wv cerebellum as a whole, confirming previous results. However, as distinguished from these reports, we observed that quantified parameters contribute differently to the abnormal growth of the wv/wv cerebellar lobes. Qualitative analysis showed anomalies in wv/wv cerebellar cytoarchitecture, depending on the age and lobe analyzed. Such abnormalities included the presence of the external granular layer after P20 and, at P90, ectopic cells located in the molecular layer following several placement patterns. Finally, we obtained autoradiographic evidence that wild-type and wv/wv PCs presented similar neurogenetic timetables, as reported. However, the innovative character of this current work lies in the fact that the neurogenetic gradients of wv/wv PCs were not modified from P8 to P90. A tendency for the accumulation of late-formed PCs in the anterior and posterior lobes was found, whereas early-generated PCs were concentrated in the central and inferior lobes. These data suggested that wv/wv PCs may migrate properly to their final destinations. The extrapolation of our results to patients affected with cerebellar ataxias suggests that all cerebellar cortex lobes are affected with several age-dependent alterations in cytoarchitectonics. We also propose that PC loss may be regionally

  4. From Millennium Development Goals to post-2015 sustainable development: sexual and reproductive health and rights in an evolving aid environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Huntington, Dale; Dodd, Rebecca; Buttsworth, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Using research from country case studies, this paper offers insights into the range of institutional and structural changes in development assistance between 2005 and 2011, and their impact on the inclusion of a sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda in national planning environments. At a global level during this period, donors supported more integrative modalities of aid - sector wide approaches, poverty reduction strategy papers, direct budgetary support - with greater use of economic frameworks in decision-making. The Millennium Development Goals brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, but at the expense of a broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. Advocacy at the national planning level was not well linked to programme implementation; health officials were disadvantaged in economic arguments, and lacked financial and budgetary controls to ensure a connection between advocacy and action. With increasing competency in higher level planning processes, health officials are now refocusing the post-2015 development goals. If sexual and reproductive health and rights is to claim engagement across all its multiple elements, advocates need to link them to the key themes of sustainable development: inequalities in gender, education, growth and population, but also to urbanisation, migration, women in employment and climate change.

  5. The Internet’s Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Serrano, Pedro A.; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents’ sexual orientation identity development is the Internet since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15–23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including: 1) increasing self awareness of sexual orientation identity; 2) learning about gay/bisexual community life; 3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people; 4) meeting other gay/bisexual people; 5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation; and 6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. PMID:25585861

  6. The Internet's Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-09-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity.

  7. The Fast-Evolving phy-2 Gene Modulates Sexual Development in Response to Light in the Model Fungus Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Li, Ning; Li, Jigang; Dunlap, Jay C.; Trail, Frances

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapid responses to changes in incident light are critical to the guidance of behavior and development in most species. Phytochrome light receptors in particular play key roles in bacterial physiology and plant development, but their functions and regulation are less well understood in fungi. Nevertheless, genome-wide expression measurements provide key information that can guide experiments that reveal how genes respond to environmental signals and clarify their role in development. We performed functional genomic and phenotypic analyses of the two phytochromes in Neurospora crassa, a fungal model adapted to a postfire environment that experiences dramatically variable light conditions. Expression of phy-1 and phy-2 was low in early sexual development and in the case of phy-2 increased in late sexual development. Under light stimulation, strains with the phytochromes deleted exhibited increased expression of sexual development-related genes. Moreover, under red light, the phy-2 knockout strain commenced sexual development early. In the evolution of phytochromes within ascomycetes, at least two duplications have occurred, and the faster-evolving phy-2 gene has frequently been lost. Additionally, the three key cysteine sites that are critical for bacterial and plant phytochrome function are not conserved within fungal phy-2 homologs. Through the action of phytochromes, transitions between asexual and sexual reproduction are modulated by light level and light quality, presumably as an adaptation for fast asexual growth and initiation of sexual reproduction of N. crassa in exposed postfire ecosystems. PMID:26956589

  8. Development of Topical Microbicides to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen M.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Ham, Anthony S.

    2009-01-01

    Women comprise almost 50% of the population of people living with HIV and the majority of these women contracted the virus through sexual transmission in monogamous relationships in the developing world. In these environments, where women are not empowered to protect themselves through the negotiation of condom use, effective means of preventing HIV transmission are urgently needed. In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent HIV transmission from their infected partners. Topical microbicides are agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment that prevent infection by sexually transmitted infectious organisms, including pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi. Although a microbicidal product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective agents and would be similarly developed through human clinical trials, microbicide development bears its own challenges related to formulation and delivery and the unique environment in which the product must act, as well as the requirement to develop a product that is acceptable to the user. Herein, perspectives based on preclinical and clinical microbicide development experience, which have led to an evolving microbicide development algorithm, will be discussed. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010”. PMID:19874851

  9. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  10. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  11. Abnormal Development of the Femoral Head Epiphysis in an Infant with no Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Apparent on Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Hakan; Gunay, Cuneyd; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the investigation of hip development in newborns and infants, ultrasonography and radiography are widely used, but their optimal roles in this setting remain controversial. Case Report: Here we describe an 8.5-month-old infant who had undergone hip radiography at a primary care facility and was referred to our hospital to be evaluated for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Ultrasonography showed no developmental dysplasia of the hip according to standard criteria, but developmental retardation of the femoral head was apparent on the radiograph. Conclusion: This patient's findings demonstrate that abnormalities in femoral head epiphysis development can go undetected during routine ultrasonographic evaluations for developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:27298982

  12. Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: Declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Maheu, Françoise S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Schroth, Elizabeth A.; Keil, Margaret F.; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2008-01-01

    Summary Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effect of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12 to 14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30 minutes after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p < 0.01). There were no group differences on memory performance for either positive or neutral pictures (p’s >0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development. PMID:18162329

  13. Agricultural intensity in ovo affects growth, metamorphic development and sexual differentiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Routledge, Edwin

    2011-06-01

    Pollution was cited by the Global Amphibian Assessment to be the second most important cause of amphibian decline worldwide, however, the effects of the agricultural environment on amphibians are not well understood. In this study, spawn from Bufo bufo was taken from four sites in England and Wales with varying intensities of arable agriculture. Spawn was either placed in tanks containing aged tap water (ex-situ, five replicates) or in cages at the native site (caged, five replicates). Hatching success, abnormal tadpoles, and forelimb emergence were recorded during the larval stage. Individuals were also sampled at five time points (TP) during development (5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 15-weeks post-hatch) and analysed for morphological parameters. The thyroids (TP2) and the gonads (TP3,4,5) were also analysed histologically. With the exception of the thyroid histopathology, all analysed endpoints were significantly different between ex-situ individuals reared under identical conditions from the different sites. In addition, intensity of arable agriculture had a negative effect on growth and development. At one site, despite distinct rearing conditions, a high level of intersex (up to 42%) and similar sex ratios were observed in both ex-situ and caged individuals. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal exposure and/or events in ovo had a much larger effect on growth, metamorphic development, and sexual differentiation in B. bufo than the ambient environment. This could have important implications for traditional exposure scenarios that typically begin at the larval stage. Intersex is reported for the first time in European amphibians in situ, highlighting the potential use of distinct populations of amphibians in fundamental research into the aetiology of specific developmental effects in wild amphibians.

  14. Perceived "out of control" sexual behavior in a cohort of young adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.

    PubMed

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample.

  15. Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: emergence of a transgender sexuality.

    PubMed

    Bockting, Walter; Benner, Autumn; Coleman, Eli

    2009-10-01

    We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior, and social support. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Scores for sexual identity, self esteem, sexual functioning, and psychological adjustment were compared to those of a comparison group (N = 76 nontransgender gay and bisexual men). Of the 25 FtMs, 15 (60%) identified as gay, 8 (32%) as bisexual, and 2 (8%) as queer. All were comfortable with their gender identity and sexual orientation. The FtM group was more bisexual than the nontransgender gay and bisexual controls. No significant group differences were found in self esteem, sexual satisfaction, or psychological adjustment. For some FtMs, sexual attractions and experiences with men affirmed their gender identity; for others, self-acceptance of a transgender identity facilitated actualization of their attractions toward men. Most were "out" as transgender among friends and family, but not on the job or within the gay community. Disclosure and acceptance of their homosexuality was limited. The sexual identity of gay and bisexual FtMs appears to mirror the developmental process for nontransgender homosexual men and women in several ways; however, participants also had experiences unique to being both transgender and gay/bisexual. This signals the emergence of a transgender sexuality.

  16. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  17. Effects of developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) on sex steroids, sexual development, and sexually dimorphic behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Hack, Alfons; Roth-Härer, Astrid; Grande, Simone Wichert; Talsness, Chris E

    2006-02-01

    Increasing concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in breast milk cause concern about possible developmental effects in nursed babies. Because previous studies in rats have indicated effects on sex steroids and sexually dimorphic behavior after maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), our goal in the present study was to determine if developmental exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) induces similar endocrine-mediated effects. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or PBDE-99 (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight, daily during gestational days 10-18). For comparison, we also included a group exposed to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (30 mg/kg body weight, daily). PBDE exposure resulted in pronounced decreases in circulating sex steroids in male offspring at weaning and in adulthood. Female offspring were less affected. Anogenital distance was reduced in male offspring. Puberty onset was delayed in female offspring at the higher dose level, whereas a slight acceleration was detected in low-dose males. The number of primordial/primary ovarian follicles was reduced in females at the lower dose, whereas decline of secondary follicles was more pronounced at the higher dose. Sweet preference was dose-dependently increased in PBDE-exposed adult males, indicating a feminization of this sexually dimorphic behavior. Aroclor 1254 did not alter sweet preference and numbers of primordial/primary and secondary follicles but it did affect steroid concentrations in males and sexual development in both sexes. PBDE concentrations in tissues of dams and offspring were highest on gestational day 19. These results support the hypothesis that PBDEs are endocrine-active compounds and interfere with sexual development and sexually dimorphic behavior.

  18. Sexual selection on male size drives the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism via the prolongation of male development.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Patrick T; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2016-06-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) arises when the net effects of natural and sexual selection on body size differ between the sexes. Quantitative SSD variation between taxa is common, but directional intraspecific SSD reversals are rare. We combined micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to study geographic SSD variation in closely related black scavenger flies. Common garden experiments revealed stark intra- and interspecific variation: Sepsis biflexuosa is monomorphic across the Holarctic, while S. cynipsea (only in Europe) consistently exhibits female-biased SSD. Interestingly, S. neocynipsea displays contrasting SSD in Europe (females larger) and North America (males larger), a pattern opposite to the geographic reversal in SSD of S. punctum documented in a previous study. In accordance with the differential equilibrium model for the evolution of SSD, the intensity of sexual selection on male size varied between continents (weaker in Europe), whereas fecundity selection on female body size did not. Subsequent comparative analyses of 49 taxa documented at least six independent origins of male-biased SSD in Sepsidae, which is likely caused by sexual selection on male size and mediated by bimaturism. Therefore, reversals in SSD and the associated changes in larval development might be much more common and rapid and less constrained than currently assumed. PMID:27168489

  19. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G.; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

  20. Auditory Processing in Infancy: Do Early Abnormalities Predict Disorders of Language and Cognitive Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetta, Francesco; Conti, Guido; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for…

  1. Descriptive Links between Childhood Sexual Abuse during the First Five Eriksonian Stages and the Development of the Last Four Stages: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendt, Elizabeth Ann

    The empirical literature regarding the descriptive links between childhood sexual abuse and adult development is reviewed from an Eriksonian perspective. The problems with studying the developmental effects of childhood sexual abuse are discussed. These include the following problems: the lack of differentiation between sexual abuse cases,…

  2. Abnormal development of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells in mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene.

    PubMed

    Abrass, C K; Berfield, A K; Ryan, M C; Carter, W G; Hansen, K M

    2006-09-01

    Mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 chain of laminin-5 (alpha3beta3gamma2, 332), develop a blistering skin disease similar to junctional epidermolysis bullosa in humans. These animals also develop abnormalities in glomerulogenesis. In both wild-type and mutant animals (lama3(-/-)), podocytes secrete glomerular basement membrane and develop foot processes. Endothelial cells migrate into this scaffolding and secrete a layer of basement membrane that fuses with the one formed by the podocyte. In lama3(-/-) animals, glomerular maturation arrests at this stage. Endothelial cells do not attenuate, develop fenestrae, or form typical lumens, and mesangial cells (MCs) were not identified. LN alpha3 subunit (LAMA3) protein was identified in the basement membrane adjacent to glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) in normal rats and mice. In developing rat glomeruli, the LAMA3 subunit was first detectable in the early capillary loop stage, which corresponds to the stage at which maturation arrest was observed in the mutant mice. Lama3 mRNA and protein were identified in isolated rat and mouse glomeruli and cultured rat GEnCs, but not MC. These data document expression of LAMA3 in glomeruli and support a critical role for it in GEnC differentiation. Furthermore, LAMA3 chain expression and/or another product of endothelial cells are required for MC migration into the developing glomerulus. PMID:16850021

  3. Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

  4. Assessing the reliability and validity of the Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS): scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Hwai; Lee, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Yu-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish and verify the psychometric and structural properties of the self-report Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS) to assess the trauma experienced by Chinese victims of sexual assault. An earlier version of the C-SASS was constructed using a modified list of the same trauma symptoms administered to an American sample and used to develop and validate the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II). The rationale of this study is to revise the earlier version of the C-SASS, using a larger and more representative sample and more robust statistical analysis than in earlier research, to permit a more thorough examination of the instrument and further confirm the dimensions of sexual assault trauma in Chinese victims of rape. In this study, a sample of 418 victims from northern Taiwan was collected to confirm the reliability and validity of the C-SASS. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five common factors: Safety Fears, Self-Blame, Health Fears, Anger and Emotional Lability, and Fears About the Criminal Justice System. Further tests of the validity and composite reliability of the C-SASS were provided by the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicated that the C-SASS was a brief, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims in Taiwan. The scale can be used to evaluate victims in sexual assault treatment centers around Taiwan, as well as to capture the characteristics of sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims.

  5. A mouse model for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-leucodystrophy reveals abnormal development of brain white matter.

    PubMed

    Geva, Michal; Cabilly, Yuval; Assaf, Yaniv; Mindroul, Nina; Marom, Liraz; Raini, Gali; Pinchasi, Dalia; Elroy-Stein, Orna

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. Mutations in any of its five subunits lead to leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease with unknown aetiology, which is among the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders. We generated the first animal model for the disease by introducing a point mutation into the mouse Eif2b5 gene locus, leading to R132H replacement corresponding to the clinically significant human R136H mutation in the catalytic subunit. In contrast to human patients, mice homozygous for the mutant Eif2b5 allele (Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice) enable multiple analyses under a defined genetic background during the pre-symptomatic stages and during recovery from a defined brain insult. Time-course magnetic resonance imaging revealed for the first time the delayed development of the brain white matter due to the mutation. Electron microscopy demonstrated a higher proportion of small-calibre nerve fibres. Immunohistochemistry detected an abnormal abundance of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the brain of younger animals, as well as an abnormal level of major myelin proteins. Most importantly, mutant mice failed to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, reflecting an increased sensitivity to brain insults. The anomalous development of white matter in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice underscores the importance of tight translational control to normal myelin formation and maintenance.

  6. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  7. A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, C; Lu, M; Lyznik, A; Mackenzie, S

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis. PMID:1498602

  8. P53 functional abnormality in mesenchymal stem cells promotes osteosarcoma development

    PubMed Central

    Velletri, T; Xie, N; Wang, Y; Huang, Y; Yang, Q; Chen, X; Chen, Q; Shou, P; Gan, Y; Cao, G; Melino, G; Shi, Y

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that p53 has a critical role in the differentiation and functionality of various multipotent progenitor cells. P53 mutations can lead to genome instability and subsequent functional alterations and aberrant transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The significance of p53 in safeguarding our body from developing osteosarcoma (OS) is well recognized. During bone remodeling, p53 has a key role in negatively regulating key factors orchestrating the early stages of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, changes in the p53 status can compromise bone homeostasis and affect the tumor microenvironment. This review aims to provide a unique opportunity to study the p53 function in MSCs and OS. In the context of loss of function of p53, we provide a model for two sources of OS: MSCs as progenitor cells of osteoblasts and bone tumor microenvironment components. Standing at the bone remodeling point of view, in this review we will first explain the determinant function of p53 in OS development. We will then summarize the role of p53 in monitoring MSC fidelity and in regulating MSC differentiation programs during osteogenesis. Finally, we will discuss the importance of loss of p53 function in tissue microenvironment. We expect that the information provided herein could lead to better understanding and treatment of OS. PMID:26775693

  9. Glycosylation patterns are sexually dimorphic throughout development of the olfactory system in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Nicholas J; Hildebrand, John G; Tolbert, Leslie P

    2004-08-01

    In the moth Manduca sexta, development of the adult olfactory system depends on complex interactions between olfactory receptor neurons in the antenna, antennal-lobe neurons in the brain, and several classes of glial cells. As one approach to characterizing molecules that may play roles in these interactions, we used lectins to screen antennae and antennal lobes at different stages of adult development. We find that each of the major neural cell types has a distinct pattern of labeling by lectins. Effects of enzymatic and other treatments on lectin labeling lead us to conclude that the predominant lectin ligands are: glycosphingolipids and an O-linked, fucose-containing glycoprotein on axons of olfactory receptor neurons, O-linked glycoproteins on antennal-lobe neurons, and N-linked glycoproteins on all classes of glial cells in the primary olfactory pathway. Wheat germ agglutinin labels all olfactory axons uniformly during much of development, but labeling becomes restricted to the pheromone-responsive olfactory receptor neurons in the adult male. Succinylated WGA reveals differences in these axon classes earlier, as glomerului develop from protoglomeruli. The adult female displays a less pronounced difference in labeling of axons targeting ordinary and sexually dimorphic glomeruli. Differences in labeling of receptor axons targeted to ordinary and sexually dimorphic glomeruli may be correlated with differences in function or connectivity in different regions of the antennal lobe.

  10. Abnormal development of monoaminergic neurons is implicated in mood fluctuations and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Marin M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Bar, Michal; Becker, Gal; Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Zega, Ksenija; Binder, Elisabeth B; Brodski, Claude

    2015-03-01

    Subtle mood fluctuations are normal emotional experiences, whereas drastic mood swings can be a manifestation of bipolar disorder (BPD). Despite their importance for normal and pathological behavior, the mechanisms underlying endogenous mood instability are largely unknown. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor Otx2 orchestrates the genetic networks directing the specification of dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. Here we behaviorally phenotyped mouse mutants overexpressing Otx2 in the hindbrain, resulting in an increased number of DA neurons and a decreased number of 5-HT neurons in both developing and mature animals. Over the course of 1 month, control animals exhibited stable locomotor activity in their home cages, whereas mutants showed extended periods of elevated or decreased activity relative to their individual average. Additional behavioral paradigms, testing for manic- and depressive-like behavior, demonstrated that mutants showed an increase in intra-individual fluctuations in locomotor activity, habituation, risk-taking behavioral parameters, social interaction, and hedonic-like behavior. Olanzapine, lithium, and carbamazepine ameliorated the behavioral alterations of the mutants, as did the mixed serotonin receptor agonist quipazine and the specific 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809101. Testing the relevance of the genetic networks specifying monoaminergic neurons for BPD in humans, we applied an interval-based enrichment analysis tool for genome-wide association studies. We observed that the genes specifying DA and 5-HT neurons exhibit a significant level of aggregated association with BPD but not with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The results of our translational study suggest that aberrant development of monoaminergic neurons leads to mood fluctuations and may be associated with BPD.

  11. Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

    2009-02-01

    In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our

  12. Heterosexual male perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Gans, Sniezyna; Poznansky, Olga; McGeoch, Pamela; Weaver, Carrie; King, Enid Gertmanian; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents data from a series of preliminary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and erotic discrimination and the frontal regions mediating the cognitive aspects of sexual desire and behavioral inhibition. In this way, pedophiles develop deviant pedophilic arousal. Subsequently, if there is comorbid personality pathology, specifically sociopathy and cognitive distortions, there will be failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior. PMID:12418359

  13. Neural tube opening and abnormal extraembryonic membrane development in SEC23A deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Tao, Jiayi; Vasievich, Matthew P.; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Guojing; Khoriaty, Rami N.; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    COPII (coat protein complex-II) vesicles transport proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. Higher eukaryotes have two or more paralogs of most COPII components. Here we characterize mice deficient for SEC23A and studied interactions of Sec23a null allele with the previously reported Sec23b null allele. SEC23A deficiency leads to mid-embryonic lethality associated with defective development of extraembryonic membranes and neural tube opening in midbrain. Secretion defects of multiple collagen types are observed in different connective tissues, suggesting that collagens are primarily transported in SEC23A-containing vesicles in these cells. Other extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, are not affected by SEC23A deficiency. Intracellular accumulation of unsecreted proteins leads to strong induction of the unfolded protein response in collagen-producing cells. No collagen secretion defects are observed in SEC23B deficient embryos. We report that E-cadherin is a cargo that accumulates in acini of SEC23B deficient pancreas and salivary glands. Compensatory increase of one paralog is observed in the absence of the second paralog. Haploinsufficiency of the remaining Sec23 paralog on top of homozygous inactivation of the first paralog leads to earlier lethality of embryos. Our results suggest that mammalian SEC23A and SEC23B transport overlapping yet distinct spectra of cargo in vivo. PMID:26494538

  14. Zebrafish embryos exposed to alcohol undergo abnormal development of motor neurons and muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Sylvain, Nicole J; Brewster, Daniel L; Ali, Declan W

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol in utero have significantly delayed gross and fine motor skills, as well as deficiencies in reflex development. The reasons that underlie the motor deficits caused by ethanol (EtOH) exposure remain to be fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure (1.5%, 2% and 2.5% EtOH) on motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology in 3 days post fertilization (dpf) larval zebrafish. EtOH treated fish exhibited morphological deformities and fewer bouts of swimming in response to touch, compared with untreated fish. Immunolabelling with anti-acetylated tubulin indicated that fish exposed to 2.5% EtOH had significantly higher rates of motor neuron axon defects. Immunolabelling of primary and secondary motor neurons, using znp-1 and zn-8, revealed that fish exposed to 2% and 2.5% EtOH exhibited significantly higher rates of primary and secondary motor neuron axon defects compared to controls. Examination of red and white muscle fibers revealed that fish exposed to EtOH had significantly smaller fibers compared with controls. These findings indicate that motor neuron and muscle fiber morphology is affected by early alcohol exposure in zebrafish embryos, and that this may be related to deficits in locomotion. PMID:20211721

  15. Roles of retinoic acid signaling in normal and abnormal development of the palate and tongue.

    PubMed

    Okano, Junko; Udagawa, Jun; Shiota, Kohei

    2014-05-01

    Palatogenesis involves various developmental events such as growth, elevation, elongation and fusion of opposing palatal shelves. Extrinsic factors such as mouth opening and subsequent tongue withdrawal are also needed for the horizontal elevation of palate shelves. Failure of any of these steps can lead to cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. It has been shown that retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles during palate development, but excess RA causes cleft palate in fetuses of both rodents and humans. Thus, the coordinated regulation of retinoid metabolism is essential for normal palatogenesis. The endogenous RA level is determined by the balance of RA-synthesizing (retinaldehyde dehydrogenases: RALDHs) and RA-degrading enzymes (CYP26s). Cyp26b1 is a key player in normal palatogenesis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of the pathogenesis of RA-induced cleft palate, with special reference to the regulation of endogenous RA levels by RA-degrading enzymes.

  16. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  17. Abnormal etioplast development in barley seedlings infected with BSMV by seed transmission.

    PubMed

    Harsányi, Anett; Böddi, Béla; Bóka, Károly; Almási, Asztéria; Gáborjányi, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus (BSMV) was studied on the ultrastructure of etioplasts, protochlorophyllide forms and the greening process of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Pannónia) plants infected by seed transmission. The leaves of 7- to 11-day-old etiolated seedlings were examined by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The etioplasts of infected seedlings contained smaller prolamellar bodies with less regular membrane structure, while prothylakoid content was higher than in the control. The protochlorophyllide content of virus-infected seedlings was reduced to 74% of the control. In the 77 K fluorescence spectra the relative amount of 655 nm emitting photoactive protochlorophyllide form decreased, and the amount of the 645 and 633 nm emitting forms increased in the infected leaves. A characteristic effect was observed in the process of the Shibata-shift: 40 min delay was observed in the infected leaves. The results of this work proved that BSMV infection delays or inhibits plastid development and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:11982946

  18. Deficiency in DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs causes infertility due to multiple abnormalities during uterine development in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Sun; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Hyongbum; Yang, Seung Chel; Park, Mira; Yoon, Jung Ah; Lim, Hyunjung J; Hong, Seok-Ho; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Choi, Youngsok; Lee, Dong Ryul; Song, Haengseok

    2016-01-01

    DGCR8 is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with DROSHA to produce pre-microRNA in the nucleus, while DICER generates not only mature microRNA, but also endogenous small interfering RNAs in the cytoplasm. Here, we produced Dgcr8 conditional knock-out mice using progesterone receptor (PR)-Cre (Dgcr8(d/d)) and demonstrated that canonical microRNAs dependent on the DROSHA-DGCR8 complex are required for uterine development as well as female fertility in mice. Adult Dgcr8(d/d) females neither underwent regular reproductive cycles nor produced pups, whereas administration of exogenous gonadotropins induced normal ovulation in these mice. Interestingly, immune cells associated with acute inflammation aberrantly infiltrated into reproductive organs of pregnant Dgcr8(d/d) mice. Regarding uterine development, multiple uterine abnormalities were noticeable at 4 weeks of age when PR is significantly increased, and the severity of these deformities increased over time. Gland formation and myometrial layers were significantly reduced, and the stromal cell compartment did not expand and became atrophic during uterine development in these mice. These results were consistent with aberrantly reduced stromal cell proliferation and completely failed decidualization. Collectively, we suggest that DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs are essential for uterine development and physiological processes such as proper immune modulation, reproductive cycle, and steroid hormone responsiveness in mice. PMID:26833131

  19. Deficiency in DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs causes infertility due to multiple abnormalities during uterine development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sun; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Hyongbum; Yang, Seung Chel; Park, Mira; Yoon, Jung Ah; Lim, Hyunjung J.; Hong, Seok-Ho; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Choi, Youngsok; Lee, Dong Ryul; Song, Haengseok

    2016-01-01

    DGCR8 is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with DROSHA to produce pre-microRNA in the nucleus, while DICER generates not only mature microRNA, but also endogenous small interfering RNAs in the cytoplasm. Here, we produced Dgcr8 conditional knock-out mice using progesterone receptor (PR)-Cre (Dgcr8d/d) and demonstrated that canonical microRNAs dependent on the DROSHA-DGCR8 complex are required for uterine development as well as female fertility in mice. Adult Dgcr8d/d females neither underwent regular reproductive cycles nor produced pups, whereas administration of exogenous gonadotropins induced normal ovulation in these mice. Interestingly, immune cells associated with acute inflammation aberrantly infiltrated into reproductive organs of pregnant Dgcr8d/d mice. Regarding uterine development, multiple uterine abnormalities were noticeable at 4 weeks of age when PR is significantly increased, and the severity of these deformities increased over time. Gland formation and myometrial layers were significantly reduced, and the stromal cell compartment did not expand and became atrophic during uterine development in these mice. These results were consistent with aberrantly reduced stromal cell proliferation and completely failed decidualization. Collectively, we suggest that DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs are essential for uterine development and physiological processes such as proper immune modulation, reproductive cycle, and steroid hormone responsiveness in mice. PMID:26833131

  20. R6/2 Huntington’s disease Mice Develop Early and Progressive Abnormal Brain Metabolism and Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda-Prado, E; Popp, S; Khan, U; Stefanov, D; Rodriguez, J; Menalled, L; Dow-Edwards, D; Small, SA; Moreno, H

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several HD mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI-signals (relative cerebral blood volumes-rCBV) and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions- thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [14C] deoxyglucose (2DG) maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice, and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668

  1. Knockdown of zebrafish Lgi1a results in abnormal development, brain defects and a seizure-like behavioral phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; Rempala, Grzegorz; Kozlowski, David J.; Mumm, Jeff S.; Cowell, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common disorder, typified by recurrent seizures with underlying neurological disorders or disease. Approximately one-third of patients are unresponsive to currently available therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the genetics and etiology of epilepsy is needed to advance the development of new therapies. Previously, treatment of zebrafish with epilepsy-inducing pharmacological agents was shown to result in a seizure-like phenotype, suggesting that fish provide a tractable model to understand the function of epilepsy-predisposing genes. Here, we report the first model of genetically linked epilepsy in zebrafish and provide an initial characterization of the behavioral and neurological phenotypes associated with morpholino (MO) knockdown of leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1a (lgi1a) expression. Mutations in the LGI1 gene in humans have been shown to predispose to a subtype of autosomal dominant epilepsy. Low-dose Lgi1a MO knockdown fish (morphants) appear morphologically normal but are sensitized to epilepsy-inducing drugs. High-dose Lgi1a morphants have morphological defects which persist into adult stages that are typified by smaller brains and eyes and abnormalities in tail shape, and display hyperactive swimming behaviors. Increased apoptosis was observed throughout the central nervous system of high-dose morphant fish, accounting for the size reduction of neural tissues. These observations demonstrate that zebrafish can be exploited to dissect the embryonic function(s) of genes known to predispose to seizure-like behavior in humans, and offer potential insight into the relationship between developmental neurobiological abnormalities and seizure. PMID:20819949

  2. Sexuality and Autistic-Like Symptoms in Juvenile Sex Offenders: A Follow-Up After 8 Years.

    PubMed

    Baarsma, M Ewoud; Boonmann, Cyril; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; de Graaf, Hanneke; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Jansen, Lucres M C

    2016-08-01

    Juveniles who have committed a sexual offense (JSOs) are thought to have abnormal sexual development, as well as increased ASD symptoms. In the current study, sexual development and behavior, as well as stability of ASD-like symptoms were assessed in a sample of 44 male JSOs (mean age 24.7 ± 1.5 years) 8 years after their sexual offence. JSOs exhibited less knowledge of sexuality, less positive attitudes towards pornography and more often reported having been a victim of verbal sexual intimidation than a matched normal population sample. ASD symptoms were relatively stable over the 8 years follow-up, indicating that social difficulties in JSOs may be part of life-long autistic-like traits. However, ASD symptoms were not related to alterations in sexual development or behavior. PMID:27193182

  3. Sexual differentiation in the developing mouse brain: contributions of sex chromosome genes.

    PubMed

    Wolstenholme, J T; Rissman, E F; Bekiranov, S

    2013-03-01

    Neural sexual differentiation begins during embryogenesis and continues after birth for a variable amount of time depending on the species and brain region. Because gonadal hormones were the first factors identified in neural sexual differentiation, their role in this process has eclipsed investigation of other factors. Here, we use a mouse with a spontaneous translocation that produces four different unique sets of sex chromosomes. Each genotype has one normal X-chromosome and a unique second sex chromosome creating the following genotypes: XY(*x) , XX, XY(*) , XX(Y) (*) . This Y(*) mouse line is used by several laboratories to study two human aneuploid conditions: Turner and Klinefelter syndromes. As sex chromosome number affects behavior and brain morphology, we surveyed brain gene expression at embryonic days 11.5 and 18.5 to isolate X-chromosome dose effects in the developing brain as possible mechanistic changes underlying the phenotypes. We compared gene expression differences between gonadal males and females as well as individuals with one vs. two X-chromosomes. We present data showing, in addition to genes reported to escape X-inactivation, a number of autosomal genes are differentially expressed between the sexes and in mice with different numbers of X-chromosomes. Based on our results, we can now identify the genes present in the region around the chromosomal break point that produces the Y(*) model. Our results also indicate an interaction between gonadal development and sex chromosome number that could further elucidate the role of sex chromosome genes and hormones in the sexual differentiation of behavior.

  4. International Conference on Population and Development at 15 Years: Achieving Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All?

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Mindy Jane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health remains the contentious concept it was at the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, Egypt. In light of the recent 15-year review of ICPD, we suggest several areas where advocates, practitioners, and researchers can inform future progress for sexual and reproductive health. These include the following: improving measurement and accountability related to the evidence base for sexual and reproductive health, indicators of program success, and the tracking of resource flows; creating and renewing alliances to strengthen advocacy; and employing new resource mobilization strategies. Given the 20-year goals established at ICPD, now is the time to move toward finally achieving the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. PMID:20075310

  5. The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: Update and next steps.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Deal, Carolyn D; Giersing, Birgitte; Rees, Helen; Bolan, Gail; Johnston, Christine; Timms, Peter; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Jerse, Ann E; Cameron, Caroline E; Moorthy, Vasee S; Kiarie, James; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, and global technical partners published a comprehensive roadmap for development of new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since its publication, progress has been made in several roadmap activities: obtaining better epidemiologic data to establish the public health rationale for STI vaccines, modeling the theoretical impact of future vaccines, advancing basic science research, defining preferred product characteristics for first-generation vaccines, and encouraging investment in STI vaccine development. This article reviews these overarching roadmap activities, provides updates on research and development of individual vaccines against herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum, and discusses important next steps to advance the global roadmap for STI vaccine development.

  6. The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: Update and next steps.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Deal, Carolyn D; Giersing, Birgitte; Rees, Helen; Bolan, Gail; Johnston, Christine; Timms, Peter; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Jerse, Ann E; Cameron, Caroline E; Moorthy, Vasee S; Kiarie, James; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, and global technical partners published a comprehensive roadmap for development of new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since its publication, progress has been made in several roadmap activities: obtaining better epidemiologic data to establish the public health rationale for STI vaccines, modeling the theoretical impact of future vaccines, advancing basic science research, defining preferred product characteristics for first-generation vaccines, and encouraging investment in STI vaccine development. This article reviews these overarching roadmap activities, provides updates on research and development of individual vaccines against herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum, and discusses important next steps to advance the global roadmap for STI vaccine development. PMID:27105564

  7. Altered sexual characteristics in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 17beta-estradiol and 4-tert-octylphenol during sexual development.

    PubMed

    Toft, Gunnar; Baatrup, Erik

    2003-10-01

    The effects of estrogenic compounds on the development of sexual characteristics in juvenile guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were examined. After exposure for 3 months, the sex ratio was female biased in guppies exposed to 0.5 microg/L 17beta-estradiol (E2) or higher but unaffected by exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). When exposed to 100 microg/L OP, the male guppy sexual behavior and sperm count were increased. In contrast, the male sperm count was markedly reduced after exposure to a high concentration of E2. The length of the gonopodium (copulatory organ) was increased when exposed to 100 microg/L OP and at all the tested concentrations of E2. Similar concentrations of OP and E2 reduced the gonad weight of the females. The results demonstrate that the development of sexual characteristics in guppies can be disturbed by environmentally realistic concentrations of E2 but higher concentrations of OP are needed to induce similar alterations.

  8. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  9. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  10. "Mostly Straight" Young Women: Variations in Sexual Behavior and Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have begun to explore and identify various gradations in sexual orientation identity, paying attention to alternative sexual identity categories and attempting to clarify potential subtypes of same-sex sexuality, particularly among women. This study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data to explore the behavioral experiences…

  11. Silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.

    PubMed

    El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Hajeri, Subhas; El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5(th)) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5(th) instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP.

  12. Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-01-01

    The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii.

  13. Relationships of Pubertal Development Among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of Washington, DC, fifth graders (mean age 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408), we examined associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors; and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Youths reporting signs of pubertal development were more likely to engage in these risk behaviors than students reporting no signs. Pubertal development was not related to parenting behaviors; however, parents of youths who reported multiple nonsexual risk behaviors reported more parent-child communication about sexual topics. These results highlight the need to begin risk prevention efforts early, prior to pubertal development. Research is needed to understand how parents can help youths better cope with pubertal development to avoid involvement in sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors. PMID:21808444

  14. Assessing Sexual Orientation-Related Obsessions and Compulsions in Italian Heterosexual Individuals: Development and Validation of the Sexual Orientation Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (SO-OCS).

    PubMed

    Melli, Gabriele; Moulding, Richard; Gelli, Simona; Chiorri, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Sexual Orientation-Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (SO-OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts, images, and urges related to one's sexual orientation, and by consequent avoidance, reassurance seeking, and overt and covert compulsions. Currently there is no short self-report measure that assesses SO-OCD symptoms. The current article describes two studies that develop and evaluate the first version of the Sexual Orientation Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (SO-OCS), a 14-item Italian self-report measure targeted towards heterosexual individuals. In Study 1, the SO-OCS was developed and refined through item analysis and exploratory factor analysis from an initial pool of 33 items administered to 732 Italian nonclinical participants. The SO-OCS showed a unidimensional structure and an acceptable internal consistency. In Study 2, the factor structure, internal consistency, temporal stability, construct and criterion validity, and diagnostic sensitivity of the SO-OCS were investigated in three samples of Italian participants (294 from the general population, 52 OCD patients who reported sexual orientation-related symptoms or concerns as a primary complaint, and 51 OCD patients who did not report these symptoms as primary complaint). The SO-OCS was again found to have a unidimensional structure and good internal consistency, as well as to exhibit strong construct validity. Specifically, the SO-OCS showed an excellent criterion validity and diagnostic sensitivity, as it successfully discriminated between those with SO-OCD and all other groups of participants. Finally, evidence of temporal stability of the SO-OCS in a nonclinical subsample was found. The SO-OCS holds promise as a measure of SO-OCD symptoms in heterosexual individuals. PMID:27423161

  15. Can Signal Abnormalities Detected with MR Imaging in Knee Articular Cartilage Be Used to Predict Development of Morphologic Cartilage Defects? 48-Month Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Gersing, Alexandra S; Mbapte Wamba, John; Nevitt, Michael C; McCulloch, Charles E; Link, Thomas M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence with which morphologic articular cartilage defects develop over 48 months in cartilage with signal abnormalities at baseline magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in comparison with the incidence in articular cartilage without signal abnormalities at baseline. Materials and Methods The institutional review boards of all participating centers approved this HIPAA-compliant study. Right knees of 90 subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (mean age, 55 years ± 8 [standard deviation]; 51% women) with cartilage signal abnormalities but without morphologic cartilage defects at 3.0-T MR imaging and without radiographic osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence score, 0-1) were frequency matched for age, sex, Kellgren-Lawrence score, and body mass index with right knees in 90 subjects without any signal abnormalities or morphologic defects in the articular cartilage (mean age, 54 years ± 5; 51% women). Individual signal abnormalities (n = 126) on intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo MR images were categorized into four subgrades: subgrade A, hypointense; subgrade B, inhomogeneous; subgrade C, hyperintense; and subgrade D, hyperintense with swelling. The development of morphologic articular cartilage defects (Whole-Organ MR Imaging Score ≥2) at 48 months was analyzed on a compartment level and was compared between groups by using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Cartilage signal abnormalities were more frequent in the patellofemoral joint than in the tibiofemoral joint (59.5% vs 39.5%). Subgrade A was seen more frequently than were subgrades C and D (36% vs 22%). Incidence of morphologic cartilage defects at 48 months was 57% in cartilage with baseline signal abnormalities, while only 4% of compartments without baseline signal abnormalities developed morphologic defects at 48 months (all compartments combined and each compartment separately, P < .01). The development of morphologic defects was not significantly

  16. Clinical profile of 93 cases of 46, XY disorders of sexual development in a referral center

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Bianca Costa; Oliveira, Luciana Mattos Barros; Lago, Renata; Brito, Paula; Canguçú-Campinho, Ana Karina; Barroso, Ubirajara; Toralles, Maria Betânia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The term DSD refers to disorders that affect the normal process of sexual development causing disagreement between chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex, and this study aimed to describe the clinical profile of a group with DSD 46, XY joined on DSD Clinic of Hospital of Salvador, Bahia Clinics. It was a retrospective study of medical records of survey data of 93 patients with DSD 46, XY. Among the patients studied 50.5% had no defined etiology and 20.4% had androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), 63.4% had been initially recorded in males, 31 (33.3%) in females, being that in two it was necessary to reassignment. All patients with complete AIS pure gonadal dysgenesis and had female genitalia. Others have been diagnosed with genital ambiguity or severe hypospadias and cryptorchidism. The gonads were palpable at the first consultation in 75.3% of patients. It is important to establish an active surveillance program for these patients. The first assessment took place before the age of ten in more than 50% of cases, which shows that much needs to be done for medical education and community about the DSD. Because the phenotypic variability of sexual development disorders was noted that the clinical profile of patients studied ranged between different etiologies, including hindering the diagnostic conclusion of these individuals. PMID:26689524

  17. The genetics of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism:unraveling the biology of human sexual development.

    PubMed

    Bhangoo, Amrit; Jacobson-Dickman, Elka

    2009-03-01

    Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH), a syndrome of GnRH deficiency, is characterized by varying degrees of sexual development disruption. When associated with anosmia, it is termed Kallmann Syndrome (KS). Although it was identified as a hereditary disorder over half a century ago, only during the last two decades have specific putative IHH genes been revealed, including: KAL1, GnRHR, FGFR1, GPR54, PROK2, PROKR2, FGF8, CHD7, TAC3 and TAC3R. Human mutations have shed light on the molecular control of GnRH neuronal embryogenesis and have elucidated elements critical in sexual development. Furthermore, the newly proposed oligogenic model has challenged the dogma of IHH being a single gene disorder and has heightened appreciation for the functional overlap of distinct signaling systems. This review offers an historical perspective to gene discoveries in IHH, genotype-phenotype correlations, and finally, discussion of the evolving complexity of the new IHH genetic model, no longer simply characterized by Mendelian inheritance. PMID:19396025

  18. Reproductive and sexual behaviour development of dam or artificially reared male lambs.

    PubMed

    Damián, Juan Pablo; Beracochea, Florencia; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if artificially reared male lambs differ from those reared by their mothers in their reproductive development and sexual behaviour during the first breeding season and in their serum testosterone to a GnRH challenge at the end of the first breeding season. Lambs were assigned to two experimental groups: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36h after birth (Week 0) and fed sheep milk until 10weeks of age (group AR, n=14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10weeks of age (group DR, n=13). Reproductive parameters and sexual behaviour were recorded from Weeks 9 to 39. The GnRH challenge was performed on Week 40. Body weight, scrotal circumference, gonado-somatic index, testosterone concentration and sperm parameters were unaffected by group, but increased with age (P<0.0001). Lambs reared by their mothers had greater values of gonado-somatic index on Weeks 9, 16 and 19 (P<0.05), and tended to reach puberty earlier than AR (22.9±0.7 vs. 25.1±1.1weeks, respectively, P=0.087). Lambs reared by their mothers presented more lateral approaches and mount attempts than AR (P<0.05), and DR lambs presented more mounts on Weeks 32 and 39 than AR (P<0.05). Blood testosterone concentrations 3.5 and 4h after the GnRH challenge were higher in AR than in DR lambs (P<0.05). In conclusion mother rearing promoted sexual behaviour and reproductive performance of male lambs. PMID:25846838

  19. Morphological abnormalities during early-life development of the estuarine mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as an indicator of androgenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Monica; Courtenay, Simon C; Maclatchy, Deborah L; Bérubé, Céline H; Hewitt, L Mark; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2005-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gross morphological abnormalities are a sensitive indicator of exposure to waterborne androgenic and anti-androgenic compounds during embryonic, larval and juvenile stages of development in the common estuarine killifish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus; Pisces: Cyprinodontidae). Static exposures with daily renewal were carried out with 10-100,000 ng/L of the androgen agonist, 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), or the androgen antagonist, cyproterone acetate (CA), for 60 days post-fertilization (PF) in duplicate exposures. Measured concentrations were 78.4-155.8% of nominal concentrations for MT and 13.5-168.1% for CA. No dose-related or consistent effects of MT or CA were observed before hatch. In 60 days PF juveniles, incidence of skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis, lordosis, head, facial and fin), soft tissue abnormality (anal swelling) and hemorrhaging were significantly increased by MT but only at high concentrations (> or =1000 ng/L). The 10,000 and 100,000 ng/L concentrations of MT produced a wider range of abnormalities than 1000ng/L. Over 90% of fish exposed to 10,000 or 100,000 ng/L were abnormal with an average of over 3.5 abnormalities per fish. CA did not increase the incidence of any type of abnormality. Survival of juveniles to the end of the exposure was reduced by MT at concentrations of 1000 ng/L and greater in the first experiment and at concentrations of 10,000 ng/L and greater in the second experiment. Juvenile length was reduced by high concentrations of MT (> or =10,000 ng/L) in the first experiment and by most concentrations in the second experiment. We conclude that morphological abnormalities in early-life stages of mummichogs are not a sensitive indicator of exposure to androgenic or anti-androgenic waterborne EDSs at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  20. Transition to Adult Care in Persons With Disorders of Sexual Development: The Role of the Gynecologist

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlager, Anne-Marie Amies; Muscarella, Miriam; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are a spectrum of conditions diagnosed in infancy due to atypical development of the external genitalia, in adolescence due to atypical pubertal development, or in adulthood due to infertility. Obstetricians may be the first providers to identify a DSD in the fetus or newborn, and should be part of the interdisciplinary team assembled to best care for these patients. Gynecologists must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of these conditions in late adolescence and adulthood. The creation of DSD “centers of excellence” may provide optimal care for individuals with these conditions but many will live too far from such centers and need to be followed by local gynecologists. The purpose of this commentary is to emphasize important medical and psychological issues so gynecologists can provide optimal care for their patients with DSD conditions. PMID:26348185

  1. [Genetic nature of abnormal larval development in the progeny of l(1)ts403(sbr10) females of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Pugacheva, O M; Mamon, L A

    2005-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster the small bristles (sbr) gene is vital and evolutionary conservative and controls nuclear export of mRNA. Sbr mutant alleles had a broad pleiotropic effect. High frequency of abnormal larva dying (up to 18 %) at the first instar stage in progeny of heat shock (37 degrees C, 1 h) treated mutant females is one of the most interesting l(l)ts403(sbr10) allele effects. Abnormal larvae display characteristic phenotype that involves the Malpighian tubules defect. Using interphase FISH method (fluorescence in situ hybridization), we showed that abnormal larvae had monosomy on chromosomes 2 and 3. DNA content in neuroblast interphase nuclei of abnormal larvae is 2.1 times less than in normal larvae. We suggest that abnormal larvae could be full or mosaic haploids that appeared as a result of maternal genome loss during fertilization or the mitotic division. Larvae with the same abnormalities appear in a progeny of females with different genotypes mating with males carrying compound chromosomes 2 or 3. FISH analysis showed that such larvae had monosomy only on a chromosome that is compound in paternal strain. Thus, monosomy on large autosomes may cause aspecial phenotype of abnormal larvae in D. melanogaster.

  2. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. PMID:26272398

  3. Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

  4. Sexual Dimorphism in the Andromonoecious Euphorbia nicaeensis: Effects of Gender and Inflorescence Development

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pedro Luis; Arista, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In andromonoecious taxa with separate floral types along the inflorescence, architectural or plastic effects can simulate floral sexual dimorphism. Both the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of the cyathia of the protogynous andromonoecious species Euphorbia nicaeensis were analysed according to their sex and arrangement on the inflorescence. Methods The production of male and hermaphrodite cyathia at each inflorescence level was surveyed in two natural populations. The longevity, size, pollen production and viability, and nectar secretion of both types of cyathia were checked between inflorescence levels and between sexes at the only level at which they occur together. This sampling method makes it possible to know whether differences between cyathia types are based on sex or are attributable to inflorescence development. Key Results Male cyathia were produced predominantly at the first and second inflorescence levels, whereas at levels 3–5, the cyathia were almost exclusively hermaphrodite. Viable pollen production by male cyathia at the second inflorescence level was higher than that of hermaphrodite cyathia at the third level but, when males and hermaphrodites at the same level were compared, their pollen production was similar. Male and hermaphrodite cyathia were similar in size, irrespective of the inflorescence level, although the exclusively hermaphrodite cyathia of the last level were smaller. Both cyathium types produced similar amounts of sugar. However, male cyathia produced nectar during their whole lifespans, whereas hermaphrodites produced it exclusively during their male phase. Moreover, the nectary activity of male cyathia started earlier in the day than that of hermaphrodites. Conclusions An apparent floral dimorphism exists in the primary sexual characteristics of Euphorbia nicaeensis because differences in pollen production between cyathium types are due to theirs positions. Similarly, differences affecting most

  5. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

  6. Characterization of the skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mouse showing axial skeleton abnormalities caused by defects of embryonic skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kouyou; Katayama, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the axial skeleton is a complex process, consisting of segmentation and differentiation of somites and ossification of the vertebrae. The autosomal recessive skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mutation of the mouse causes skeletal malformations due to fusion of the vertebrae and ribs, but the underlying defects of vertebral formation during embryonic development have not yet been elucidated. For the present study, we examined the skeletal phenotypes of sks/sks mice during embryonic development and the chromosomal localization of the sks locus. Multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including fusion of vertebrae and fusion and bifurcation of ribs, were observed in adult and neonatal sks/sks mice. In addition, we also found polydactyly and delayed skull ossification in the sks/sks mice. Morphological defects, including disorganized vertebral arches and fusions and bifurcations of the axial skeletal elements, were observed during embryonic development at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5. However, no morphological abnormality was observed at E11.5, indicating that defects of the axial skeleton are caused by malformation of the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs at an early developmental stage after formation and segmentation of the somites. By linkage analysis, the sks locus was mapped to an 8-Mb region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit331 and D4Mit199. Since no gene has already been identified as a cause of malformation of the vertebra and ribs in this region, the gene responsible for sks is suggested to be a novel gene essential for the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs.

  7. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  8. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  9. Sexual development of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is induced by zinc or iron limitation through Ecl1 family genes.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Ishida, Maiko; Naito, Chikako; Murakami, Hiroshi; Aiba, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Ecl1 family genes (ecl1 (+), ecl2 (+), and ecl3 (+)) have been identified as extenders of the chronological lifespan in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we found that the triple-deletion mutant (∆ecl1/2/3) had a defect in sexual development after entry into the stationary phase, although the mutant essentially showed normal mating and sporulation under nitrogen starvation or carbon limitation. In this study, we showed that limitation of zinc or iron can be a signal for sexual development of S. pombe cells grown in Edinburgh minimal medium until the stationary phase and that Ecl1 family genes are important for this process. Because the ∆ecl1/2/3 mutant diminishes the zinc depletion-dependent gene expression, Ecl1 family proteins may function as zinc sensors in the process of sexual development.

  10. Guidelines for evaluating and managing children born with disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ganka; Axelrad, Marni E; Brandt, Mary L; Crabtree, Elizabeth; Dietrich, Jennifer E; French, Shannon; Gunn, Sheila; Karaviti, Lefkothea; Lopez, Monica E; Macias, Charles G; McCullough, Laurence B; Suresh, Deepa; Austin, Elise; Reid Sutton, V

    2012-04-01

    Children born with disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) pose numerous challenges for the parents, family, and treating physicians. The pediatrician is usually the first medical contact for newborns with DSD or for toddlers and children who present with DSD at a later time. Several years ago, we formed a Gender Medicine Team (GMT) at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) to explore and evaluate the most appropriate management strategies, which had long been a matter of concern and contention. Subsequently, the GMT, composed of experts in the fields of endocrinology, ethics, genetics, gynecology, psychology, pediatric surgery, and urology, formed a Task Force to evaluate the information available from our own experiences and from reviews of the literature. Utilizing the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the evidence and recommendations, the Task Force developed a consensus statement for clinical management of DSD and for making appropriate sex assignments.

  11. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptors by SU6668 promotes abnormal stromal development at the periphery of carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Farace, P; Galiè, M; Merigo, F; Daducci, A; Calderan, L; Nicolato, E; Degrassi, A; Pesenti, E; Sbarbati, A; Marzola, P

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (albumin-Gd-DTPA) magnetic resonance imaging, performed during 2 weeks of daily administration of an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase receptors (SU6668) in an HT-29 colon carcinoma model, revealed the onset of a hyper-enhancing rim, not observed in untreated tumours. To account for tissue heterogeneity in the quantitative analysis, we segmented tumours into three subunits automatically identified by cluster analysis of the enhancement curves using a k-means algorithm. Transendothelial permeability (Kps) and fractional plasma volume (fPV) were calculated in each subunit. An avascular and necrotic region, an intermediate zone and a well-vascularised periphery were reliably identified. During untreated tumour growth, the identified sub-regions did not substantially change their enhancement pattern. Treatment with SU6668 induced major changes at tumour periphery where a significant increase of Kps and fPV was observed with respect to control tumours. Histology revealed a sub-capsular layer composed of hyper-dense viable tumour cells in the periphery of untreated tumours. The rim of viable neoplastic cells was reduced in treated tumours, and replaced by loose connective tissue characterised by numerous vessels, which explains the observed hyper-enhancement. The present data show a peripheral abnormal development of cancer-associated stroma, indicative of an adaptive response to anti-angiogenic treatment. PMID:19384298

  12. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage.

  13. Multiple Renal Cyst Development but Not Situs Abnormalities in Transgenic RNAi Mice against Inv::GFP Rescue Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamijho, Yuki; Shiozaki, Yayoi; Sakurai, Eiki; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In this study we generated RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown transgenic mice (transgenic RNAi mice) against the functional Inv gene. Inv mutant mice show consistently reversed internal organs (situs inversus), multiple renal cysts and neonatal lethality. The Inv::GFP-rescue mice, which introduced the Inv::GFP fusion gene, can rescue inv mutant mice phenotypes. This indicates that the Inv::GFP gene is functional in vivo. To analyze the physiological functions of the Inv gene, and to demonstrate the availability of transgenic RNAi mice, we introduced a short hairpin RNA expression vector against GFP mRNA into Inv::GFP-rescue mice and analyzed the gene silencing effects and Inv functions by examining phenotypes. Transgenic RNAi mice with the Inv::GFP-rescue gene (Inv-KD mice) down-regulated Inv::GFP fusion protein and showed hypomorphic phenotypes of inv mutant mice, such as renal cyst development, but not situs abnormalities or postnatal lethality. This indicates that shRNAi-mediated gene silencing systems that target the tag sequence of the fusion gene work properly in vivo, and suggests that a relatively high level of Inv protein is required for kidney development in contrast to left/right axis determination. Inv::GFP protein was significantly down-regulated in the germ cells of Inv-KD mice testis compared with somatic cells, suggesting the existence of a testicular germ cell-specific enhanced RNAi system that regulates germ cell development. The Inv-KD mouse is useful for studying Inv gene functions in adult tissue that are unable to be analyzed in inv mutant mice showing postnatal lethality. In addition, the shRNA-based gene silencing system against the tag sequence of the fusion gene can be utilized as a new technique to regulate gene expression in either in vitro or in vivo experiments. PMID:24586938

  14. How Effective Is Peer Education in Addressing Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Neil; Knibbs, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This review article questions the assumptions at the core of peer education interventions adopted in young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes in developing countries. Peer education is a more complex and problematic approach than its popularity with development agencies and practitioners implies. Its rise to prominence is more…

  15. Differences in sexual development in inbred and outbred zebrafish (Danio rerio) and implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, A Ross; Bickley, Lisa K; Ryan, Thomas A; Paull, Gregory C; Hamilton, Patrick B; Owen, Stewart F; Sharpe, Alan D; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-05-15

    Outbred laboratory animal strains used in ecotoxicology are intended to represent wild populations. However, breeding history may vary considerably between strains, driving differences in genetic variation and phenotypes used for assessing effects of chemical exposure. We compared a range of phenotypic endpoints in zebrafish from four different "breeding treatments" comprising a Wild Indian Karyotype (WIK) zebrafish strain and a WIK/Wild strain with three levels of inbreeding (F(IT)=n, n+0.25, n+0.375) in a new Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). There were no differences between treatments in terms of egg viability, hatch success or fry survival. However, compared with WIKs, WIK/Wild hybrids were significantly larger in size, with more advanced gonadal (germ cell) development at the end of the test (63 days post fertilisation). Increasing the levels of inbreeding in the related WIK/Wild lines did not affect body size, but there was a significant male-bias (72%) in the most inbred line (F(IT)=n+0.375). Conversely, in the reference WIK strain there was a significant female-bias in the population (80% females). Overall, our results support the use of outbred zebrafish strains in the FSDT, where one of the core endpoints is sex ratio. Despite increased variance (and reduced statistical power) for some endpoints, WIK/Wild outbreds (F(IT)=n) met all acceptance criteria for controls in this test, whereas WIKs failed to comply with tolerance limits for sex ratio (30-70% females). Sexual development was also more advanced in WIK/Wild outbreds (cf. WIKs), providing greater scope for detection of developmental reproductive toxicity following chemical exposure.

  16. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic-neural development.

    PubMed

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes

  17. Advocating for sexual rights at the UN: the unfinished business of global development.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saida; Kowalski, Shannon; Silva, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Twenty years ago, governments agreed that the right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on all matters related to one's sexuality, free from coercion, discrimination and violence, is a fundamental human right. Since then, many aspects of sexual rights have been agreed by consensus at the global level, but the term "sexual rights" itself continues to be removed from negotiated outcomes and left out of international agreements, often at the last stages of negotiations. This commentary represents our point of view on the unfinished business of the UN with regards to the fight for sexual rights. Our perspective draws from lessons learned in cross-movement organizing in various regional UN spaces and outlines some of the tactics by conservative forces to push sexual rights to the periphery. The article reaffirms the position that broadening the debate and concepts surrounding sexual rights to be more inclusive, has enormous transformational potential and should inform collective advocacy efforts moving forward. PMID:26718994

  18. Advocating for sexual rights at the UN: the unfinished business of global development.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saida; Kowalski, Shannon; Silva, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Twenty years ago, governments agreed that the right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on all matters related to one's sexuality, free from coercion, discrimination and violence, is a fundamental human right. Since then, many aspects of sexual rights have been agreed by consensus at the global level, but the term "sexual rights" itself continues to be removed from negotiated outcomes and left out of international agreements, often at the last stages of negotiations. This commentary represents our point of view on the unfinished business of the UN with regards to the fight for sexual rights. Our perspective draws from lessons learned in cross-movement organizing in various regional UN spaces and outlines some of the tactics by conservative forces to push sexual rights to the periphery. The article reaffirms the position that broadening the debate and concepts surrounding sexual rights to be more inclusive, has enormous transformational potential and should inform collective advocacy efforts moving forward.

  19. The sexual consent scale-revised: development, reliability, and preliminary validity.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Terry P; Brousseau, Mélanie M

    2010-09-01

    The Sexual Consent Scale-Revised (SCS-R) measures an individual's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to how sexual consent should be and is negotiated between sexual partners. This study extends previous research on sexual consent by revising a scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2001, 2005) as its theoretical foundation. The psychometric properties of the SCS-R were established using factor analysis, construct validity tests, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Five factors emerged: perceived behavioral control, positive attitude toward establishing consent, sexual consent norms, indirect consent behaviors, and awareness of consent. Results indicated that the SCS-R can be useful for examining a variety of research questions relating to sexual consent. PMID:19685367

  20. Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Melanie LA; Shoveller, Jean A; Burgess, Susan; Stancer, Karen; Patrick, David M; Tyndall, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    Background As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women. Methods A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales. Results Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others) and internal stigma (self-judgement) – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years) was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores. Conclusion Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of culture and age on specific

  1. Immunity, immunopathology, and human vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen GP; Cripps, Allan W

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the immunity, immunopathology, and contemporary problems of vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis. Despite improved surveillance and treatment initiatives, the incidence of C. trachomatis infection has increased dramatically over the past 30 years in both the developed and developing world. Studies in animal models have shown that protective immunity to C. trachomatis is largely mediated by Th1 T cells producing IFN-γ which is needed to prevent dissemination of infection. Similar protection appears to develop in humans but in contrast to mice, immunity in humans may take years to develop. Animal studies and evidence from human infection indicate that immunity to C. trachomatis is accompanied by significant pathology in the upper genital tract. Although no credible evidence is currently available to indicate that autoimmunity plays a role, nevertheless, this underscores the necessity to design vaccines strictly based on chlamydial-specific antigens and to avoid those displaying even minimal sequence homologies with host molecules. Current advances in C. trachomatis vaccine development as well as alternatives for designing new vaccines for this disease are discussed. A novel approach for chlamydia vaccine development, based on targeting endogenous dendritic cells, is described. PMID:25483666

  2. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  3. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass.

    PubMed

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O C; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1-LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1 may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1((-/-)) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1((-/-)) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1((-/-)) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology.

  4. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1–LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1(−/−) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1(−/−) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1(−/−) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology. PMID:21569876

  5. The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca’s area is abnormal in people who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Deryk S.; Lerch, Jason P.; Cameron, Brodie; Henderson, Rhaeling; Gracco, Vincent L.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition and mastery of speech-motor control requires years of practice spanning the course of development. People who stutter often perform poorly on speech-motor tasks thereby calling into question their ability to establish the stable neural motor programs required for masterful speech-motor control. There is evidence to support the assertion that these neural motor programs are represented in the posterior part of Broca’s area, specifically the left pars opercularis. Consequently, various theories of stuttering causation posit that the disorder is related to a breakdown in the formation of the neural motor programs for speech early in development and that this breakdown is maintained throughout life. To date, no study has examined the potential neurodevelopmental signatures of the disorder across pediatric and adult populations. The current study aimed to fill this gap in our knowledge. We hypothesized that the developmental trajectory of cortical thickness in people who stutter would differ across the lifespan in the left pars opercularis relative to a group of control participants. We collected structural magnetic resonance images from 116 males (55 people who stutter) ranging in age from 6 to 48 years old. Differences in cortical thickness across ages and between patients and controls were investigated in 30 brain regions previously implicated in speech-motor control. An interaction between age and group was found for the left pars opercularis only. In people who stutter, the pars opercularis did not demonstrate the typical maturational pattern of gradual gray matter thinning with age across the lifespan that we observed in control participants. In contrast, the developmental trajectory of gray matter thickness in other regions of interest within the neural network for speech-motor control was similar for both groups. Our findings indicate that the developmental trajectory of gray matter in left pars opercularis is abnormal in people who stutter

  6. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  7. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  8. Development and Pilot Test of a Commercial Sexual Exploitation Prevention Tool: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Molly; Bennett, Nicole; Kottke, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a persistent problem in the United States, yet few youth-oriented CSEC prevention tools exist. The objectives of this project were to develop an educational website about CSEC for adolescents and evaluate it through pre- and posttests of adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about CSEC. Results demonstrated increases in participants' CSEC knowledge and decreases in their tolerance of CSEC after navigating the website and viewing an embedded video. Qualitative and quantitative results suggest that CSEC is deemed an important issue by adolescents and web-based content is a relevant and useful mode through which to educate adolescents about CSEC. Consideration should be given to further exploration of this and other tools for CSEC prevention tailored to adolescents' needs and preferences. PMID:26646412

  9. [Legal developments--from taboo to sexual self-determination for handicapped patients?].

    PubMed

    Degener, Theresia

    2002-10-01

    The author describes the development in German law regarding the protection of sexual self-determination of disabled persons. Her analysis encompasses the last twenty years, starting from the "cripple-tribunal 1981", where disabled women first raised the subject in German public. As the main legal reforms for disabled persons in Germany, the author analysis the Thirty-First-Criminal-Law-Change-Act and the Sixth-Act-To-Reform-Criminal-Law of 1997/98 as well as the Ninth-Social-Law-Code of 2001. The author welcomes these legislative reforms but points to the fact that the judiciary has yet failed to implement particularly the criminal law reform. In addition she shows that the new criminal law does not fill all former protection gaps. She demands further reforms in other areas of law. Finally she emphasizes that comprehensive information and education for all those who are concerned by the subject are necessary.

  10. Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Adams, S.; Choat, J. H.

    2008-03-01

    An investigation of the reproductive biology of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) from three areas in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands revealed that B. muricatum exhibits several features that differ from the pattern of reproductive development observed in most parrotfishes. Unlike most parrotfishes, histological evidence suggests that the sexual pattern of B. muricatum is essentially gonochoristic with high incidences of anatomical but non-functional hermaphroditism. B. muricatum also differs from other parrotfishes in that all males pass through an immature female (or bisexual) phase as demonstrated by all adult testis retaining the ex-ovarian lumen and peripheral sperm sinuses in the gonad wall. However, a protogynous diandric reproductive strategy cannot be excluded given that sampling may have missed transitional individuals. Marked variation in the demography of male B. muricatum between the three locations examined is considered to reflect variation in historical fishing effort.

  11. Protein Composition of Infectious Spores Reveals Novel Sexual Development and Germination Factors in Cryptococcus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingwei; Hebert, Alexander S; Coon, Joshua J; Hull, Christina M

    2015-08-01

    Spores are an essential cell type required for long-term survival across diverse organisms in the tree of life and are a hallmark of fungal reproduction, persistence, and dispersal. Among human fungal pathogens, spores are presumed infectious particles, but relatively little is known about this robust cell type. Here we used the meningitis-causing fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to determine the roles of spore-resident proteins in spore biology. Using highly sensitive nanoscale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we compared the proteomes of spores and vegetative cells (yeast) and identified eighteen proteins specifically enriched in spores. The genes encoding these proteins were deleted, and the resulting strains were evaluated for discernable phenotypes. We hypothesized that spore-enriched proteins would be preferentially involved in spore-specific processes such as dormancy, stress resistance, and germination. Surprisingly, however, the majority of the mutants harbored defects in sexual development, the process by which spores are formed. One mutant in the cohort was defective in the spore-specific process of germination, showing a delay specifically in the initiation of vegetative growth. Thus, by using this in-depth proteomics approach as a screening tool for cell type-specific proteins and combining it with molecular genetics, we successfully identified the first germination factor in C. neoformans. We also identified numerous proteins with previously unknown functions in both sexual development and spore composition. Our findings provide the first insights into the basic protein components of infectious spores and reveal unexpected molecular connections between infectious particle production and spore composition in a pathogenic eukaryote.

  12. Role of Tec1 in the development, architecture, and integrity of sexual biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Karla J; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude; Park, Yang-Nim; Soll, David R

    2015-03-01

    MTL-homozygous ( A: / A: or α/α) white cells form a complex sexual biofilm that exhibits the same architecture as that of MTL-heterozygous ( A: /α) pathogenic biofilms. However, the former is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, while the latter is regulated by the Ras1/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway. We previously demonstrated that in the formation of an MTL-homozygous, mature (48 h) sexual biofilm in RPMI 1640 medium, the MAP kinase pathway targets Tec1 rather than Cph1, the latter of which is the target of the same pathway, but for the opaque cell mating response. Here we continued our analysis of the role of Tec1 by comparing the effects of deleting TEC1 on initial adhesion to silicone elastomer, high-resolution confocal microscopy assessments of the stages and cellular phenotypes during the 48 h of biofilm development, human white cell penetration, and biofilm fragility. We show that although Tec1 plays only a minor role in initial adhesion to the silicone elastomer, it does play a major role in the growth of the basal yeast cell polylayer, vertical extension of hyphae and matrix deposition in the upper portion of the biofilm, final biofilm thickness, penetrability of human white blood cells, and final biofilm integrity (i.e., resistance to fluid flow). These results provide a more detailed description of normal biofilm development and architecture and confirm the central role played by the transcription factor Tec1 in the biofilm model employed here. PMID:25556183

  13. Protein Composition of Infectious Spores Reveals Novel Sexual Development and Germination Factors in Cryptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingwei; Hebert, Alexander S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Hull, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Spores are an essential cell type required for long-term survival across diverse organisms in the tree of life and are a hallmark of fungal reproduction, persistence, and dispersal. Among human fungal pathogens, spores are presumed infectious particles, but relatively little is known about this robust cell type. Here we used the meningitis-causing fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to determine the roles of spore-resident proteins in spore biology. Using highly sensitive nanoscale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we compared the proteomes of spores and vegetative cells (yeast) and identified eighteen proteins specifically enriched in spores. The genes encoding these proteins were deleted, and the resulting strains were evaluated for discernable phenotypes. We hypothesized that spore-enriched proteins would be preferentially involved in spore-specific processes such as dormancy, stress resistance, and germination. Surprisingly, however, the majority of the mutants harbored defects in sexual development, the process by which spores are formed. One mutant in the cohort was defective in the spore-specific process of germination, showing a delay specifically in the initiation of vegetative growth. Thus, by using this in-depth proteomics approach as a screening tool for cell type-specific proteins and combining it with molecular genetics, we successfully identified the first germination factor in C. neoformans. We also identified numerous proteins with previously unknown functions in both sexual development and spore composition. Our findings provide the first insights into the basic protein components of infectious spores and reveal unexpected molecular connections between infectious particle production and spore composition in a pathogenic eukaryote. PMID:26313153

  14. The Coming-Out Process of Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Are There Butch/Femme Differences in Sexual Identity Development?

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce; Levy-Warren, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Research on lesbian and bisexual women has documented various biological and behavioral differences between butch and femme women. However, little research has examined whether differences exist in sexual identity development (i.e., the coming-out process). The present study examined longitudinally potential butch/femme differences in sexual identity formation and integration among an ethnically diverse sample of 76 self-identified lesbian and bisexual young women (ages 14–21 years). A composite measure of butch/femme identity classified 43% as butch and 51% as femme. Initial comparisons found butch/femme differences in sexual identity (i.e., nearly all butches identified as lesbian, but about half of femmes identified as bisexual), suggesting the need to examine this confound. Comparisons of lesbian butches, lesbian femmes, and bisexual femmes found that lesbian butches and femmes generally did not differ on sexual identity formation, but they differed from bisexual femmes. Lesbian butches and femmes had sexual behaviors and a cognitive sexual orientation that were more centered on women than those of bisexual femmes. With respect to sexual identity integration, lesbian butches were involved in more gay social activities, were more comfortable with others knowing about their homosexuality, and were more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their sexual identity than were bisexual femmes. Fewer differences were found between lesbian femmes and bisexual femmes or between lesbian butches and lesbian femmes. The findings suggest that sexual identity formation does not differ between butch or femme women, but differences are linked to sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Further, the findings that lesbian femmes sometimes differed from lesbian butches and at other times from bisexual femmes on sexual identity integration suggest that neither sexual identity nor butch/femme alone may explain sexual identity integration. Research examining the intersection between

  15. "Sexual Violence Is Not Good for Our Country's Development". Students' Interpretations of Sexual Violence in a Secondary School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mat, Marielle L. J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…

  16. Comparison of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as test species in the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT).

    PubMed

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Bjerregaard, Poul; Petersen, Gitte I; Norrgren, Leif; Orn, Stefan; Braunbeck, Thomas; Baumann, Lisa; Bomke, Christiane; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Ruehl-Fehlert, Christine; Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Gourmelon, Anne

    2012-03-01

    Results are presented from a validation (with 5 laboratories) of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) developed to detect endocrine disrupters (EDs) and included in the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) working program. The aromatase-inhibiting fungicide prochloraz was tested in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The fish were exposed during sexual differentiation and development from 0 to 60 days post hatch (dph). After exposure, the vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were quantified in head/tail homogenate and the sex ratio was determined (defined as female, male, intersex or undifferentiated). NOEC/LOEC and EC(x) designs were compared to optimize the test approach. Results show that both species are highly sensitive to prochloraz during sexual development. They respond by skewing of the sex ratio towards male phenotype and by a VTG decline in females. The NOEC/LOEC approach is preferred because sex ratio is difficult to analyze with a regression model. The mean NOEC/LOEC for prochloraz on the sex ratio was 43.3/134 μg/L and 101/293 μg/L for zebrafish and fathead minnow, respectively. The mean NOEC/LOEC on the decline in female VTG concentration was 65/110 μg/L and ~30/68 μg/L respectively. In conclusion, zebrafish and fathead minnow are suitable species in the FSDT and their sexual differentiation is equally labile to EDs. PMID:22115822

  17. Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

    This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

  18. Over-expression of a grape stilbene synthase gene in tomato induces parthenocarpy and causes abnormal pollen development.

    PubMed

    Ingrosso, Ilaria; Bonsegna, Stefania; De Domenico, Stefania; Laddomada, Barbara; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo; Giovinazzo, Giovanna

    2011-10-01

    A novel strategy to induce parthenocarpy in tomato fruits by the induction of resveratrol biosynthesis in flower tissues was exploited. Two transgenic tomato lines were considered: a higher resveratrol-producing (35SS) line, constitutively expressing a grape stilbene synthase cDNA, and a lower resveratrol-producing (LoxS) line, expressing stilbene synthase under a fruit-specific promoter. The expression of the stilbene synthase gene affected flavonoid metabolism in a different manner in the transgenic lines, and in one of these, the 35SS line, resulted in complete male sterility. Resveratrol was synthesised either in 35SS or LoxS tomato flowers, at an even higher extent (about 8-10 times) in the former line. We further investigated whether stilbene synthase expression may have resulted in impaired naringenin accumulation during flower development. In the 35SS flowers, naringenin was significantly impaired by about 50%, probably due to metabolic competition. Conversely, the amount of glycosylated flavonols increased in transgenic flowers, thereby excluding the diminished production of flavonols as a reason for parthenocarpy in tomato. We further investigated whether resveratrol synthesis may have resulted changes to pollen structure. Microscopic observations revealed the presence of few and abnormal flake-like pollen grains in 35SS flowers with no germination capability. Finally, the analysis of coumaric and ferulic acids, the precursors of lignin and sporopollenin biosynthesis, revealed significant depletion of these compounds, therefore suggesting an impairment in structural compounds as a reason for pollen ablation. These overall outcomes, to the best of our knowledge, reveal for the first time the major role displayed by resveratrol synthesis on parthenocarpy in tomato fruits. PMID:21843947

  19. Safe-sex belief and sexual risk behaviours among adolescents from three developing countries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13–18. Results One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. PMID:25916489

  20. Components of Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  1. Do sleep abnormalities and misaligned sleep/circadian rhythm patterns represent early clinical characteristics for developing psychosis in high risk populations?

    PubMed

    Zanini, Marcio; Castro, Juliana; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Bittencourt, Lia; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Tufik, Sergio; Brietzke, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    Sleep architecture changes, such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) percentage variations and reductions in latency and density of rapid eye movement (REM), are found in most patients with schizophrenia and are considered to be an important part of the pathophysiology of the disorder. In addition to these sleep parameters changes, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and the sleep/circadian rhythm also occur in these patients. Sleep/circadian rhythm abnormalities negatively affect neocortical plasticity and cognition and often precede the diagnosis of the illness. Thus, it has been suggested that the sleep/circadian rhythm might be involved in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Recent advances in the identification of individuals at a high risk for developing schizophrenia allow us to investigate several neurobiological processes involved in the development of psychosis. In this article, we review the current evidence of the effects of sleep parameter abnormalities, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and misalignments of sleep circadian rhythm on the early stages of schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the preliminary evidence of sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during the prodromal stages of psychosis and propose that these abnormalities can be explored as potential predictors, as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis, of developing a psychotic disorder in at risk populations.

  2. Ethical Parenting of Sexually Active Youth: Ensuring Safety While Enabling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2013-01-01

    The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of "good" parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding…

  3. Toward a Sexual Ethics Curriculum: Bringing Philosophy and Society to Bear on Individual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, battles have raged between conservative Abstinence Only Until Marriage (AOUM) sexuality education advocates and liberal Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) advocates. While these battles have focused on the inclusion of health information about contraception and whether or not a curriculum must advocate abstinence as the…

  4. Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

  5. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  6. Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sexual behaviors that were more same-sex centered and they scored higher on aspects of the identity integration process (e.g., more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their same-sex sexuality, more involved in gay-related social activities, more possessing of positive attitudes toward homosexuality, and more comfortable with others knowing about their sexuality) than youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity and youths who consistently identified as bisexual. Contrary to the hypothesis that females are more sexually fluid than males, female youths were less likely to change identities than male youths. The finding that youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity differed from consistently gay/lesbian youths suggests that identity integration continues after the adoption of a gay/lesbian sexual identity.

  7. A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Kafsack, Björn F C; Rovira-Graells, Núria; Clark, Taane G; Bancells, Cristina; Crowley, Valerie M; Campino, Susana G; Williams, April E; Drought, Laura G; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Baker, David A; Cortés, Alfred; Llinás, Manuel

    2014-03-13

    The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches. Transmission of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation from asexual stages replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. Although gametocytes were first described in 1880, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in commitment to gametocyte formation is extremely limited, and disrupting this critical developmental transition remains a long-standing goal. Here we show that expression levels of the DNA-binding protein PfAP2-G correlate strongly with levels of gametocyte formation. Using independent forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrate that PfAP2-G function is essential for parasite sexual differentiation. By combining genome-wide PfAP2-G cognate motif occurrence with global transcriptional changes resulting from PfAP2-G ablation, we identify early gametocyte genes as probable targets of PfAP2-G and show that their regulation by PfAP2-G is critical for their wild-type level expression. In the asexual blood-stage parasites pfap2-g appears to be among a set of epigenetically silenced loci prone to spontaneous activation. Stochastic activation presents a simple mechanism for a low baseline of gametocyte production. Overall, these findings identify PfAP2-G as a master regulator of sexual-stage development in malaria parasites and mark the first discovery of a transcriptional switch controlling a differentiation decision in protozoan parasites.

  8. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth.

  9. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. PMID:25827961

  10. A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in human malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kafsack, Björn F.C.; Rovira-Graells, Núria; Clark, Taane G.; Bancells, Cristina; Crowley, Valerie M.; Campino, Susana G.; Williams, April E.; Drought, Laura G.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Baker, David A.; Cortés, Alfred; Llinás, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches. Transmission of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) from humans to the mosquito vector requires differentiation from asexual stages replicating within red blood cells into non-dividing male and female gametocytes. Although gametocytes were first described in 1880, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in commitment to gametocyte formation is extremely limited and disrupting this critical developmental transition remains a long-standing goal1. We show here that expression levels of the DNA-binding protein PfAP2-G correlate strongly with levels of gametocyte formation. Using independent forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrate that PfAP2-G function is essential for parasite sexual differentiation. By combining genome-wide PfAP2-G cognate motif occurrence with global transcriptional changes resulting from PfAP2-G ablation, we identify early gametocyte genes as likely targets of PfAP2-G and show that their regulation by PfAP2-G is critical for their wild-type level expression. In the asexual blood-stage parasites pfap2-g appears to be among a set of epigenetically silenced loci2,3 prone to spontaneous activation4. Stochastic activation presents a simple mechanism for a low baseline of gametocyte production. Overall, these findings identify PfAP2-G as a master regulator of sexual-stage development in malaria parasites and mark the first identification of a transcriptional switch controlling a differentiation decision in protozoan parasites. PMID:24572369

  11. Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

  12. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON THE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on the Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study
    Cynthia J. Wolf1,2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Joseph S. Ostby1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2 and
    L. Earl Gray1,4, Jr.

    ABSTRACT
    Testosterone plays a major role in ...

  13. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE RATS: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study
    Cynthia Wolf1,2, Joe Ostby1*, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Gerald LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC; 2Dept. of To...

  14. Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  16. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:24908454

  17. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  18. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

  19. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them.

  20. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them. PMID:25528975

  1. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Clewell, Rebecca A. Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-06-15

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  2. Nonmyocytic Androgen Receptor Regulates the Sexually Dimorphic Development of the Embryonic Bulbocavernosus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ipulan, Lerrie Ann; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Yuki; Murashima, Aki; Imai, Yuuki; Omori, Akiko; Nakagata, Naomi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Valasek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The bulbocavernosus (BC) is a sexually dimorphic muscle observed only in males. Androgen receptor knockout mouse studies show the loss of BC formation. This suggests that androgen signaling plays a vital role in its development. Androgen has been known to induce muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell activation and myonuclei accretion during muscle regeneration and growth. Whether the same mechanism is present during embryonic development is not yet elucidated. To identify the mechanism of sexual dimorphism during BC development, the timing of morphological differences was first established. It was revealed that the BC was morphologically different between male and female mice at embryonic day (E) 16.5. Differences in the myogenic process were detected at E15.5. The male BC possesses a higher number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts. To identify the role of androgen signaling in this process, muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) mutation was introduced, which resulted in no observable phenotypes. Hence, the expression of AR in the BC was examined and found that the AR did not colocalize with any muscle markers such as Myogenic differentiation 1, Myogenin, and paired box transcription factor 7. It was revealed that the mesenchyme surrounding the BC expressed AR and the BC started to express AR at E15.5. AR mutation on the nonmyocytic cells using spalt-like transcription factor 1 (Sall1) Cre driver mouse was performed, which resulted in defective BC formation. It was revealed that the number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts was reduced in the Sall1 Cre:ARL−/Y mutant embryos, and the adult mutants were devoid of BC. The transition of myoblasts from proliferation to differentiation is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. An increased expression of p21 was observed in the BC myoblast of the Sall1 Cre:ARL−/Y mutant and wild-type female. Altogether this study suggests that the nonmyocytic AR may paracrinely regulate the

  3. Nonmyocytic androgen receptor regulates the sexually dimorphic development of the embryonic bulbocavernosus muscle.

    PubMed

    Ipulan, Lerrie Ann; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Yuki; Murashima, Aki; Imai, Yuuki; Omori, Akiko; Nakagata, Naomi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Valasek, Petr; Yamada, Gen

    2014-07-01

    The bulbocavernosus (BC) is a sexually dimorphic muscle observed only in males. Androgen receptor knockout mouse studies show the loss of BC formation. This suggests that androgen signaling plays a vital role in its development. Androgen has been known to induce muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell activation and myonuclei accretion during muscle regeneration and growth. Whether the same mechanism is present during embryonic development is not yet elucidated. To identify the mechanism of sexual dimorphism during BC development, the timing of morphological differences was first established. It was revealed that the BC was morphologically different between male and female mice at embryonic day (E) 16.5. Differences in the myogenic process were detected at E15.5. The male BC possesses a higher number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts. To identify the role of androgen signaling in this process, muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) mutation was introduced, which resulted in no observable phenotypes. Hence, the expression of AR in the BC was examined and found that the AR did not colocalize with any muscle markers such as Myogenic differentiation 1, Myogenin, and paired box transcription factor 7. It was revealed that the mesenchyme surrounding the BC expressed AR and the BC started to express AR at E15.5. AR mutation on the nonmyocytic cells using spalt-like transcription factor 1 (Sall1) Cre driver mouse was performed, which resulted in defective BC formation. It was revealed that the number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts was reduced in the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant embryos, and the adult mutants were devoid of BC. The transition of myoblasts from proliferation to differentiation is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. An increased expression of p21 was observed in the BC myoblast of the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant and wild-type female. Altogether this study suggests that the nonmyocytic AR may paracrinely regulate the

  4. The impact of steroid withdrawal on the development of lipid abnormalities and obesity in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lake, K D; Reutzel, T J; Pritzker, M R; Jorgensen, C R; Emery, R W

    1993-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and obesity are common problems after heart transplantation, which may increase the risk of chronic graft atherosclerosis. The intent of this study was to (1) determine the impact of a history of hyperlipidemia on the occurrence of lipid abnormalities after transplantation, (2) compare lipid profiles of those patients being treated with triple-drug immunosuppression versus those patients weaned from prednisone therapy, and (3) identify any factors that would predict which patients are at highest risk for the development of hyperlipidemia after transplantation. Of 89 patients who lived for more than 12 months, 35 patients had a history of hyperlipidemia before heart transplantation (cholesterol level of more than 240 mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of more than 160 mg/dl). The most dramatic rise in cholesterol level was observed in patients with no history of hyperlipidemia who were treated with triple-drug immunosuppression, in whom a 64% increase occurred versus a 24% increase in patients receiving steroid-free immunosuppression (p < 0.001). In patients with a history of hyperlipidemia, cholesterol level increased by 20% with triple-drug immunosuppression versus 14% with steroid-free immunosuppression (p = 0.613); however, 83% of the patients in the triple-drug group and 92% in the steroid-free group had elevated cholesterol levels. Multiple regression analysis revealed that significant independent and additive (p < 0.00001) contributions with respect to percent change in cholesterol level were evident for (1) a negative history of hyperlipidemia (p = 0.005), (2) triple-drug immunosuppression (p = 0.0021), and (3) female sex (p = 0.0113). A negative history of hyperlipidemia was predictive of the percent change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (p = 0.0049), and triple-drug immunosuppression administration predicted the percent change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0119). Patients with a positive history

  5. Formative research for the development of an interactive web-based sexually transmitted disease management intervention for young women.

    PubMed

    Royer, Heather R; Fernandez-Lambert, Katherin M; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are common among young women and effective self-management is foundational to improving health outcomes and preventing negative sequelae. Advances in technology create the opportunity for innovative delivery methods of self-management interventions. However, it is essential to conduct formative research with the target population to identify both the needs and the preferences for the content and delivery method of a sexually transmitted disease self-management intervention prior to intervention development. Eight focus groups were conducted with 35 young women between 18 and 24 years of age. We found that young women strongly support the use of a Web-based intervention to provide sexually transmitted disease self-management guidance. Women were interested in receiving comprehensive management information from the perspective of both clinicians and other women who have experienced a sexually transmitted disease. There was a clear interest in incorporating new media into the Web-based intervention to allow for communication with providers as well as to create opportunities for social networking between women. This formative research provides critical information about the content and delivery method of a self-management intervention and gives direction for intervention development that is inclusive of varying types of new media to allow for connectivity among users, their peers, and clinicians.

  6. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  7. In utero and lactational exposure to fipronil in female rats: Pregnancy outcomes and sexual development.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Rosa, Josiane Lima; Cavariani, Marília Martins; Borges, Cibele Santos; Villela e Silva, Patrícia; Bae, Julie Heejoo; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Cristina Arena, Arielle

    2016-01-01

    Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, is used in agriculture, veterinary medicine, and public health. Because this insecticide is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of perinatal exposure to fipronil on neonatal female reproductive system development. Pregnant rats were exposed (via gavage) daily to fipronil (0.03, 0.3, or 3 mg/kg) from gestational day 15 to day 7 after birth, and effects on the reproductive functions assessed on postnatal day (PND) 22. No signs of maternal toxicity were observed during daily treatment with fipronil. Perinatal exposure to the highest dose of fipronil (3 mg/kg) delayed the age of vaginal opening (VO) and first estrus without markedly affecting the anogenital distance (AGD). Further, exposure to 0.3 mg/kg fipronil produced a significantly shorter estrus cycle and reduced number of cycles during the period of evaluation. However, the other reproductive parameters analyzed, including fertility, hormone levels, sexual behavior, and histology of ovaries and uterus, displayed no marked alterations. In this experimental model, fipronil interfered with development of neonatal female reproductive system as evidenced by delay in VO and estrus cycle alterations without apparent significant effects on fertility. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action associated with the observed female reproductive system changes.

  8. F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima.

  9. In utero and lactational exposure to fipronil in female rats: Pregnancy outcomes and sexual development.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Rosa, Josiane Lima; Cavariani, Marília Martins; Borges, Cibele Santos; Villela e Silva, Patrícia; Bae, Julie Heejoo; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Cristina Arena, Arielle

    2016-01-01

    Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, is used in agriculture, veterinary medicine, and public health. Because this insecticide is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of perinatal exposure to fipronil on neonatal female reproductive system development. Pregnant rats were exposed (via gavage) daily to fipronil (0.03, 0.3, or 3 mg/kg) from gestational day 15 to day 7 after birth, and effects on the reproductive functions assessed on postnatal day (PND) 22. No signs of maternal toxicity were observed during daily treatment with fipronil. Perinatal exposure to the highest dose of fipronil (3 mg/kg) delayed the age of vaginal opening (VO) and first estrus without markedly affecting the anogenital distance (AGD). Further, exposure to 0.3 mg/kg fipronil produced a significantly shorter estrus cycle and reduced number of cycles during the period of evaluation. However, the other reproductive parameters analyzed, including fertility, hormone levels, sexual behavior, and histology of ovaries and uterus, displayed no marked alterations. In this experimental model, fipronil interfered with development of neonatal female reproductive system as evidenced by delay in VO and estrus cycle alterations without apparent significant effects on fertility. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action associated with the observed female reproductive system changes. PMID:27074097

  10. Sexual dimorphism in parental imprint ontogeny and contribution to embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Bourc'his, Déborah; Proudhon, Charlotte

    2008-01-30

    Genomic imprinting refers to the functional non-equivalence of parental genomes in mammals that results from the parent-of-origin allelic expression of a subset of genes. Parent-specific expression is dependent on the germ line acquisition of DNA methylation marks at imprinting control regions (ICRs), coordinated by the DNA-methyltransferase homolog DNMT3L. We discuss here how the gender-specific stages of DNMT3L expression may have influenced the various sexually dimorphic aspects of genomic imprinting: (1) the differential developmental timing of methylation establishment at paternally and maternally imprinted genes in each parental germ line, (2) the differential dependence on DNMT3L of parental methylation imprint establishment, (3) the unequal duration of paternal versus maternal methylation imprints during germ cell development, (4) the biased distribution of methylation-dependent ICRs towards the maternal genome, (5) the different genomic organization of paternal versus maternal ICRs, and finally (6) the overwhelming contribution of maternal germ line imprints to development compared to their paternal counterparts. PMID:18178305

  11. Clinical, hormonal and radiological profile of 46XY disorders of sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Vasundhera, Chauhan; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: 46 XY disorders of sexual development (DSD) cover a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from unambiguous female genitalia to ambiguous male genitalia with hypospadias or dysgenetic gonads. Management of these patients depends on the cause of DSD, degree of feminization, age at presentation, and gender orientation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation and management of patients with 46XY DSD at our center. Patients and Methods: All new and old patients of 46XY DSD attending the endocrine OPD in a period of 16 months were included in this study. Clinical, cytogenetic, hormonal, and radiological evaluation were done to identify the cause of DSD. Results: Among 19 patients, eight were diagnosed with disorders of gonadal development (one with complete gonadal dysgenesis, four with partial gonadal dysgenesis, two with congenital bilateral anorchia, and one with ovotesticular DSD) and eight with disorders of androgen synthesis and action (one with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [AIS], three with partial AIS and four with 5α reductase deficiency). In three patients, a definitive diagnosis could not be made. Conclusions: Management of patients with DSD depends on etiology, gender assignment, gender orientation, hormonal treatment, genital surgery, and consequent psychosocial implications. Due to the overlapping clinical and biochemical parameters in different subsets of DSD, only a preliminary etiological diagnosis can be made in some cases. Genetic studies with long-term follow-up are required for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:27186544

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Policy Concerns and Implications for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser-Stuart, Joan E.; Skibinski, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines public opinion regarding intervention options for intrafamilial child sexual abuse offenders, victims, and families. Investigates the public's willingness to support strategies of victim protection, offender control, and treatment services. Respondents generally supported established, adversarial intervention strategies, and had mixed…

  13. In a Different Position: Conceptualizing Female Adolescent Sexuality Development within Compulsory Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter challenges forthcoming research on adolescent female sexuality to take more seriously the role of dominant cultural ideologies regarding heterosexuality and to consider its theoretical and methodological implications.

  14. Current Concepts for the IND-Directed Development of Microbicide Products to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Karen W; Furlan-Freguia, Christian; Ham, Anthony S; Buckheit, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, topical microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Topical microbicides are chemical and physical agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment to prevent the sexual transmission of infectious organisms. Although a microbicide product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective therapeutic agents, the microbicide development pathway has significant differences which reflect the complex biological environment in which the products must act. These challenges to the development of an effective microbicide are reflected in the recently released FDA Guidance document which defines the microbicide development algorithm and includes the evaluation of preclinical efficacy and toxicity, and safety and toxicology, and indicates the necessity of testing of the active pharmaceutical product as well as an optimal formulation for delivery of the microbicide product. The microbicide development algorithm requires evaluation of the potential microbicidal agent and final formulated product in assays which mimic the microenvironment of the vagina and rectum during the sexual transmission of HIV, including the evaluation of activity and cytotoxicity in the appropriate biological matrices, toxicity testing against normal vaginal flora and at standard vaginal pH, testing in ectocervical and colorectal explant tissue, and irritation studies to vaginal, rectal and penile tissue. Herein, we discuss currently accepted practices required for the development of a successful microbicide product which will prevent virus transmission in the vaginal and rectal vaults.

  15. Current Concepts for the IND-Directed Development of Microbicide Products to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Karen W; Furlan-Freguia, Christian; Ham, Anthony S; Buckheit, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, topical microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Topical microbicides are chemical and physical agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment to prevent the sexual transmission of infectious organisms. Although a microbicide product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective therapeutic agents, the microbicide development pathway has significant differences which reflect the complex biological environment in which the products must act. These challenges to the development of an effective microbicide are reflected in the recently released FDA Guidance document which defines the microbicide development algorithm and includes the evaluation of preclinical efficacy and toxicity, and safety and toxicology, and indicates the necessity of testing of the active pharmaceutical product as well as an optimal formulation for delivery of the microbicide product. The microbicide development algorithm requires evaluation of the potential microbicidal agent and final formulated product in assays which mimic the microenvironment of the vagina and rectum during the sexual transmission of HIV, including the evaluation of activity and cytotoxicity in the appropriate biological matrices, toxicity testing against normal vaginal flora and at standard vaginal pH, testing in ectocervical and colorectal explant tissue, and irritation studies to vaginal, rectal and penile tissue. Herein, we discuss currently accepted practices required for the development of a successful microbicide product which will prevent virus transmission in the vaginal and rectal vaults. PMID:26324047

  16. Dialysis and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Beal-Lloyd, Donna; Groh, Carla J

    2012-01-01

    End stage renal disease is a major health issue in the United States. Dialysis, the major form of renal replacement therapy, has physical and psychological implications that can have a major impact on both men's and women's sexuality and sexual performance. Nurses are in a key position to assist men and women on dialysis to develop healthy and realistic approaches to their sexuality. This article reviews the literature on dialysis and sexuality, and recommends nursing interventions that can assist persons on dialysis achieve the level of sexual intimacy and satisfaction they desire. PMID:23061112

  17. Does knowledge about sexuality prevent adolescents from developing rape-supportive beliefs?

    PubMed

    Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique

    2011-07-01

    Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence.

  18. Defects in androgen biosynthesis causing 46,XY disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Auchus, Richard J; Miller, Walter L

    2012-10-01

    At least one genetic defect in each reaction of the classical androgen biosynthesis pathway has been described. For some steps, such as the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and the 17,20-lyase reaction, two or three genetic defects cause similar disorders with overlapping phenotypes and biochemical profiles. The elucidation of the molecular basis for these diseases has helped to define the pathways, essential genes, and enzymatic steps required to make androgens, and this knowledge is being exploited to develop better treatments of androgen-dependent diseases. Furthermore the description of nonclassical lipoid CAH and the protean manifestations of P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiencies has expanded the spectrum of human disease caused by disordered steroidogenesis. Finally, the recognition of the backdoor pathway to DHT has added a new dimension to our understanding of how steroid flux is maintained in normal and pathologic states. The traditional view of male external genital development has been that fetal testicular testosterone is converted to DHT by 5α-reductase Type 2 in genital skin, which then acts in a paracrine fashion to stimulate fusion of the labio-scrotal folds and phallic growth. This view is consistent with the incomplete external genital development in persons with severe deficiencies of 5α-reductase type 2. The new observations concerning AKR1C2/4 and the backdoor pathway indicate that DHT produced in the testis via the backdoor pathway also acts as a hormone to induce labio-scrotal fusion. Thus, both the classic and backdoor pathways are needed, and DHT acts in male genital development as both a paracrine factor and as a hormone. These surprising findings are revising our understanding of the mechanisms by which male sexual differentiation occurs, and illustrate the importance of detailed studies of rare patients with 46,XY DSD. PMID:23044879

  19. [Diagnosis and care of senile sexual problems].

    PubMed

    Harima, Katsuki

    2013-10-01

    By aging process, sexual behaviors of elderly people may change. Some changes are normal ones, but may be misunderstood as abnormal by prejudice and ignorance of the senile sexuality. As the sexual function of elderly people is influenced by many factors, evaluation of it should include physical, pharmacological, psychological, and partner relational aspects. By using drug, some sexual dysfunctions may be improved. But treatment should not be focused only on penile-vaginal intercourse. Kissing, touching and other alternative sexual behaviors may be useful for the improvement of the senile sexual problems.

  20. Effects of Long-Term Flutamide Treatment During Development on Sexual Behaviour and Hormone Responsiveness in Rams.

    PubMed

    Roselli, C E; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Estill, C T

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone exposure during midgestation differentiates neural circuits controlling sex-specific behaviours and patterns of gonadotrophin secretion in male sheep. Testosterone acts through androgen receptors (AR) and/or after aromatisation to oestradiol and binding to oestrogen receptors. The present study assessed the role of AR activation in male sexual differentiation. We compared rams that were exposed to the AR antagonist flutamide (Flu) throughout the critical period (i.e. days 30-90 of gestation) to control rams and ewes that received no prenatal treatments. The external genitalia of all Flu rams were phenotypically female. Testes were positioned s.c. in the inguinal region of the abdomen, exhibited seasonally impaired androgen secretion and were azospermic. Flu rams displayed male-typical precopulatory and mounting behaviours but could not intromit or ejaculate because they lacked a penis. Flu rams exhibited greater mounting behaviour than control rams and, similar to controls, showed sexual partner preferences for oestrous ewes. Neither control, nor Flu rams responded to oestradiol treatments with displays of female-typical receptive behaviour or LH surge responses, whereas all control ewes responded as expected. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus in Flu rams was intermediate in volume between control rams and ewes and significantly different from both. These results indicate that prenatal anti-androgen exposure is not able to block male sexual differentiation in sheep and suggest that compensatory mechanisms intervene to maintain sufficient androgen stimulation during development.

  1. Effects of Long-Term Flutamide Treatment During Development on Sexual Behaviour and Hormone Responsiveness in Rams.

    PubMed

    Roselli, C E; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Estill, C T

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone exposure during midgestation differentiates neural circuits controlling sex-specific behaviours and patterns of gonadotrophin secretion in male sheep. Testosterone acts through androgen receptors (AR) and/or after aromatisation to oestradiol and binding to oestrogen receptors. The present study assessed the role of AR activation in male sexual differentiation. We compared rams that were exposed to the AR antagonist flutamide (Flu) throughout the critical period (i.e. days 30-90 of gestation) to control rams and ewes that received no prenatal treatments. The external genitalia of all Flu rams were phenotypically female. Testes were positioned s.c. in the inguinal region of the abdomen, exhibited seasonally impaired androgen secretion and were azospermic. Flu rams displayed male-typical precopulatory and mounting behaviours but could not intromit or ejaculate because they lacked a penis. Flu rams exhibited greater mounting behaviour than control rams and, similar to controls, showed sexual partner preferences for oestrous ewes. Neither control, nor Flu rams responded to oestradiol treatments with displays of female-typical receptive behaviour or LH surge responses, whereas all control ewes responded as expected. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus in Flu rams was intermediate in volume between control rams and ewes and significantly different from both. These results indicate that prenatal anti-androgen exposure is not able to block male sexual differentiation in sheep and suggest that compensatory mechanisms intervene to maintain sufficient androgen stimulation during development. PMID:27005749

  2. Sexual development in prepubertal obese boys: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lingling; Zhao, Jian; Bai, Yinglong; Liu, Li; Zheng, Linlin; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether or not sexual development differs between boys with prepubertal obesity and boys of normal weight. We enrolled healthy obese and normoweight schoolboys from Shenyang City, Liaoning, China. Eligible boys were at Tanner stage 1 and 8 years of age at baseline. We measured testosterone and estradiol concentrations in the saliva and assessed auxology annually for 4 years. In all 56 obese and 56 normoweight boys, the height, weight, body composition, and sex organ volume increased with age. The percentages of body fat, fat mass, and lean mass were all higher in obese than in normoweight boys. The mean testicular volume was smaller in obese boys than in normoweight boys. The sex hormone concentrations increased with age, except for testosterone in obese boys in year 3 of follow-up. In year 4, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in obese boys than in normoweight boys. Excessive adiposity in prepubertal boys might affect testicular volume, possibly because of high estradiol and low testosterone concentrations.

  3. Proteomic approaches to sexual development mediated by antheridiogen in the fern Blechnum spicant L.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Menéndez, Virginia; Canal, María Jesús; Revilla, Angeles; Fernández, Helena

    2014-09-01

    This report is intended to compare proteomic profiles between female and male gametophytes of Blechnum spicant L. For this purpose, female gametophytes were obtained from spores germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium (1962), and the male ones by culturing 30-day-old gametophytes on the same medium supplemented with extract derived from mature gametophytes, which exhibits anteridiogen effect. Proteins were extracted using the phenolic method, and after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 581 spots were detected in Coomassie stained gels within the 3-11 pH range and 10-100 kDa Mr ranges. Quantitative and qualitative differences in spot intensity between both types of gametophytes were found. The induction of male gametophytes by antheridiogens was correlated to a global increase in stress and defence-related pathways, which affect flavonoid signaling and cell division, while reducing protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and other energy-related pathways, reflecting how stressed are the gametophytes during the induction process. This is the first proteomic study that examines proteins associated to sexual development in the gametophyte of the fern B. spìcant.

  4. Gender identity and gender of rearing in 46 XY disorders of sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Gangaher, Arushi; Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Mehta, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disorders of sexual development (DSD) may pose a challenge to live as a fully-functioning male or female. In this study, we prospectively assessed eleven 46 XY DSD patients who were being treated at our center over the last 8 months for gender dysphoria. Materials and Methods: To determine gender dysphoria, age-appropriate gender identity (GI) questionnaires were used. For patients, 12 years and below, parent report GI questionnaire for children was used and for those above 12 years of age, GI/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults was administered. Results: Of 11 patients with 46 XY DSD, three were diagnosed with 5 alpha reductase deficiency (5aRD), two with partial gonadal dysgenesis, three with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with ovotesticular, complete gonadal dysgenesis, and complete androgen insensitivity. Gender assigned at birth was female in eight and male in three patients. Among the eight reared as female, gender had been reassigned as male in three patients well before the present study was conducted. None of the eleven patients had gender dysphoria at the time of this study. Conclusion: Early gender of rearing was seen to be a critical indicator of present GI in our patients except in cases of 5aRD. PMID:27366722

  5. MicroRNA-122 Influences the Development of Sperm Abnormalities from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Regulating TNP2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Jianjun; Zhao, Yanhui; Jiang, Lizhen; Huang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Sperm abnormalities are one of the main factors responsible for male infertility; however, their pathogenesis remains unclear. The role of microRNAs in the development of sperm abnormalities in infertile men has not yet been investigated. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the influence of miR-122 expression on the differentiation of these cells into spermatozoa-like cells in vitro. After induction, mutant miR-122-transfected cells formed spermatozoa-like cells. Flow cytometry of DNA content revealed a significant increase in the haploid cell population in spermatozoa-like cells derived from mutant miR-122-transfected cells as compared to those derived from miR-122-transfected cells. During induction, TNP2 and protamine mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in mutant miR-122-transfected cells than in miR-122-transfected cells. High-throughput isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification were used to identify and quantify the different protein expression levels in miR-122- and mutant miR-122-transfected cells. Among all the proteins analyzed, the expression of lipoproteins, for example, APOB and APOA1, showed the most significant difference between the two groups. This study illustrates that miR-122 expression is associated with abnormal sperm development. MiR-122 may influence spermatozoa-like cells by suppressing TNP2 expression and inhibiting the expression of proteins associated with sperm development. PMID:23327642

  6. Does atrazine influence larval development and sexual differentiation in Xenopus laevis?

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka; Springer, Timothy; Krueger, Henry; Wolf, Jeff; Holden, Larry; Hosmer, Alan

    2009-02-01

    Debate and controversy exists concerning the potential for the herbicide atrazine to cause gonadal malformations in developing Xenopus laevis. Following review of the existing literature the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required a rigorous investigation conducted under standardized procedures. X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to atrazine at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 25, or 100 microg/l from day 8 postfertilization (dpf) until completion of metamorphosis or dpf 83, whichever came first. Nearly identical experiments were performed in two independent laboratories: experiment 1 at Wildlife International, Ltd. and experiment 2 at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB). Both experiments employed optimized animal husbandry procedures and environmental conditions in validated flow-through exposure systems. The two experiments demonstrated consistent survival, growth, and development of X. laevis tadpoles, and all measured parameters were within the expected ranges and were comparable in negative control and atrazine-treated groups. Atrazine, at concentrations up to 100 microg/l, had no effect in either experiment on the percentage of males or the incidence of mixed sex as determined by histological evaluation. In contrast, exposure of larval X. laevis to 0.2 microg 17beta-estradiol/l as the positive control resulted in gonadal feminization. Instead of an even distribution of male and female phenotypes, percentages of males:females:mixed sex were 19:75:6 and 22:60:18 in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. These studies demonstrate that long-term exposure of larval X. laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 microg/l does not affect growth, larval development, or sexual differentiation.

  7. Robust algorithmic detection of the developed cardiac pathologies and emerging or transient abnormalities from short periods of RR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (˜80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single "normal-abnormal" meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.

  8. THE ROLE OF ANDROGENS AND ESTROGENS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING ANIMAL MODELS FOR SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of research on the effects of hormonally active chemicals on sexual differentiation of the brain including (a) research on the role of androgens and estrogens in the development of the brain and peripheral nervous system, (b) approaches to d...

  9. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  10. Developing Software to “Track and Catch” Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed

  11. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  12. Development and Evaluation of the Brief Sexual Openness Scale-A Construal Level Theory Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Yan; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining reliable and valid data on sensitive questions represents a longstanding challenge for public health, particularly HIV research. To overcome the challenge, we assessed a construal level theory (CLT)-based novel method. The method was previously established and pilot-tested using the Brief Sexual Openness Scale (BSOS). This scale consists of five items assessing attitudes toward premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, homosexuality, extramarital sex, and commercial sex, all rated on a standard 5-point Likert scale. In addition to self-assessment, the participants were asked to assess rural residents, urban residents, and foreigners. The self-assessment plus the assessment of the three other groups were all used as subconstructs of one latent construct: sexual openness. The method was validated with data from 1,132 rural-to-urban migrants (mean age = 32.5, SD = 7.9; 49.6% female) recruited in China. Consistent with CLT, the Cronbach alpha of the BSOS as a conventional tool increased with social distance, from .81 for self-assessment to .97 for assessing foreigners. In addition to a satisfactory fit of the data to a one-factor model (CFI = .94, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .08), a common factor was separated from the four perspective factors (i.e., migrants' self-perspective and their perspectives of rural residents, urban residents and foreigners) through a trifactor modeling analysis (CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .08). Relative to its conventional form, CTL-based BSOS was more reliable (alpha: .96 vs .81) and valid in predicting sexual desire, frequency of dating, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and STD history. This novel technique can be used to assess sexual openness, and possibly other sensitive questions among Chinese domestic migrants. PMID:26308336

  13. Development and Evaluation of the Brief Sexual Openness Scale—A Construal Level Theory Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Yan; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining reliable and valid data on sensitive questions represents a longstanding challenge for public health, particularly HIV research. To overcome the challenge, we assessed a construal level theory (CLT)-based novel method. The method was previously established and pilot-tested using the Brief Sexual Openness Scale (BSOS). This scale consists of five items assessing attitudes toward premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, homosexuality, extramarital sex, and commercial sex, all rated on a standard 5-point Likert scale. In addition to self-assessment, the participants were asked to assess rural residents, urban residents, and foreigners. The self-assessment plus the assessment of the three other groups were all used as subconstructs of one latent construct: sexual openness. The method was validated with data from 1,132 rural-to-urban migrants (mean age = 32.5, SD = 7.9; 49.6% female) recruited in China. Consistent with CLT, the Cronbach alpha of the BSOS as a conventional tool increased with social distance, from .81 for self-assessment to .97 for assessing foreigners. In addition to a satisfactory fit of the data to a one-factor model (CFI = .94, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .08), a common factor was separated from the four perspective factors (i.e., migrants’ self-perspective and their perspectives of rural residents, urban residents and foreigners) through a trifactor modeling analysis (CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .08). Relative to its conventional form, CTL-based BSOS was more reliable (alpha: .96 vs .81) and valid in predicting sexual desire, frequency of dating, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and STD history. This novel technique can be used to assess sexual openness, and possibly other sensitive questions among Chinese domestic migrants. PMID:26308336

  14. Development and Evaluation of the Brief Sexual Openness Scale-A Construal Level Theory Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Yan; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining reliable and valid data on sensitive questions represents a longstanding challenge for public health, particularly HIV research. To overcome the challenge, we assessed a construal level theory (CLT)-based novel method. The method was previously established and pilot-tested using the Brief Sexual Openness Scale (BSOS). This scale consists of five items assessing attitudes toward premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, homosexuality, extramarital sex, and commercial sex, all rated on a standard 5-point Likert scale. In addition to self-assessment, the participants were asked to assess rural residents, urban residents, and foreigners. The self-assessment plus the assessment of the three other groups were all used as subconstructs of one latent construct: sexual openness. The method was validated with data from 1,132 rural-to-urban migrants (mean age = 32.5, SD = 7.9; 49.6% female) recruited in China. Consistent with CLT, the Cronbach alpha of the BSOS as a conventional tool increased with social distance, from .81 for self-assessment to .97 for assessing foreigners. In addition to a satisfactory fit of the data to a one-factor model (CFI = .94, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .08), a common factor was separated from the four perspective factors (i.e., migrants' self-perspective and their perspectives of rural residents, urban residents and foreigners) through a trifactor modeling analysis (CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .08). Relative to its conventional form, CTL-based BSOS was more reliable (alpha: .96 vs .81) and valid in predicting sexual desire, frequency of dating, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and STD history. This novel technique can be used to assess sexual openness, and possibly other sensitive questions among Chinese domestic migrants.

  15. Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  16. Altered mRNA Splicing, Chondrocyte Gene Expression and Abnormal Skeletal Development due to SF3B4 Mutations in Rodriguez Acrofacial Dysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Nevarez, Lisette; Pogue, Robert; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The acrofacial dysostoses (AFD) are a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders with craniofacial and limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome is a severe, usually perinatal lethal AFD, characterized by severe retrognathia, oligodactyly and lower limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome has been proposed to be a severe form of Nager syndrome, a non-lethal AFD that results from mutations in SF3B4, a component of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP). Furthermore, a case with a phenotype intermediate between Rodriguez and Nager syndromes has been shown to have an SF3B4 mutation. We identified heterozygosity for SF3B4 mutations in Rodriguez syndrome, confirming that the phenotype is a dominant disorder that is allelic with Nager syndrome. The mutations led to reduced SF3B4 synthesis and defects in mRNA splicing, primarily exon skipping. The mutations also led to reduced expression in growth plate chondrocytes of target genes, including the DLX5, DLX6, SOX9, and SOX6 transcription factor genes, which are known to be important for skeletal development. These data provide mechanistic insight toward understanding how SF3B4 mutations lead to the skeletal abnormalities observed in the acrofacial dysostoses. PMID:27622494

  17. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Aldag, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  18. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Masi, Alfonse T; Rehman, Azeem A; Jorgenson, Laura C; Smith, Jennifer M; Aldag, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  19. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  20. Expression of 6-Cys gene superfamily defines babesia bovis sexual stage development within rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis, an intra-erythrocytic tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, is one of the agents of bovine babesiosis. Its life cycle includes sexual reproduction within cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp. Six B. bovis 6-Cys gene superfamily members were previously identified (A, B, C, D, E, F) and t...

  1. Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)

  2. Sterilization and Training for Normal Sexual Development: Human Rights and Obligations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Adrian F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper notes the lack of attention given to the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities in both the literature and service delivery (in Australia). It discusses sterilization issues (such as authority to give consent and the "best interest" concept) and recommends approaches less intrusive on individual rights than sterilization.…

  3. Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts…

  4. Identification of genes differentially expressed during apomictic and sexual development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction through seeds with the absence of meiosis and fertilization holds great potential for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Buffelgrass, an apomictic forage grass, has well characterized apomictic, facultative and sexual accessions to study apomictic...

  5. Ensuring the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights under a sustainable development goal on health in the post-2015 human rights framework for development.

    PubMed

    Haslegrave, Marianne

    2013-11-01

    Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo placed reproductive health and rights firmly on the international agenda, civil society and other advocates have worked ceaselessly to ensure that they remain central to women's empowerment and have taken all opportunities to expand the framework to include sexual health and rights. When the development process changed with the introduction of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, sexual and reproductive health and rights were excluded, and only in 2007 was universal access to reproductive health added back in. In 2014 and 2015, the future of ICPD Beyond 2014, the MDGs and the post-2015 development framework will be decided, following consultations and meetings across the globe. This paper takes stock of the key influences on efforts to achieve the ICPD agenda and summarises the past, current and planned future events, reports and processes between 1994 and 2014, leading up to the determination of the post-2015 development framework and sustainable development goals. It concludes that the one thing we cannot afford to allow is what happened with the MDGs in 2000. We must not leave the room empty-handed, but must instead ensure the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights as a priority under a new health goal.

  6. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the sustainable development goals and the post-2015 development agenda: less than a year to go.

    PubMed

    Haslegrave, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994 there have been significant achievements in moving towards the goal of sexual and reproductive health and rights. Yet there have also been disappointments, as demonstrated in the Millennium Development Goals, even though in 2007 a target on reproductive health was added. Most recently, the 20-year review of the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action, ICPD Beyond 2014, has taken place, which has moved forward the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. But, the main arena for future negotiations has changed and the UN is in the process of negotiating the post-2015 development agenda and the sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper assesses what has been taking place since 2013 and provides information as to how the process for the post-2015 development agenda and the SDGs are likely to move forward. An understanding of what has been achieved, the processes as they are now proceeding and their future development are important for moving towards the ultimate goal of achieving sexual and reproductive health and rights in the next 15 years.

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD. PMID:24489940

  8. Sexually dimorphic expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Loretta P; Overstreet, Stefanie L; Dyer, Cheryl A; Propper, Catherine R

    2002-06-01

    Genetic sex determination leads to gonadal differentiation and ultimately the differences between the sexes in steroid hormone secretion. Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for the development of a sexually dimorphic phenotype and adult reproductive function. Control of gonadal development and steroidogenesis is under the regulation, at least in part, of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). We have begun to characterize SF-1 expression in an amphibian to determine the role of this protein in development and reproduction. We have detected a putative SF-1 protein from several tissues in the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, that co-migrates with mouse SF-1 on a Western blot. Our results show that bullfrog SF-1 protein is expressed in steroidogenic and other reproductive tissues in a manner similar to that reported for other species, with high expression in the brain, pituitary, gonad, liver, and interrenal, but little or no expression in non-reproductive tissues such as skin and intestine. Using a quantitative Western blot analysis system, we documented changes in SF-1 protein in the gonads of developing tadpoles. Our results indicate that there is sexually dimorphic expression of SF-1 protein that becomes evident at the time of sexual differentiation of the gonads. In males, the expression of SF-1 decreases following testicular formation and in females the expression increases with the formation of ovaries. This is the first study to investigate changes in SF-1 during development at the protein level. The expression is similar to that reported for changes in SF-1 mRNA expression in chickens and alligators, however, opposite to that seen in mammals and turtles. These results indicate that SF-1 may play a pivotal role in development of the reproductive system in amphibians as it does in other vertebrate groups.

  9. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents.

  10. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    PubMed

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed.

  11. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    PubMed

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed. PMID:26350167

  12. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive Systems in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER I. Abnormal Spermatid Development in Males with a Heterochromatin-Deficient X Chromosome (sc4sc8)

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, W. J.; Miklos, George L. Gabor; Goodchild, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The meiotic drive characteristics of the In(1)sc4Lsc8R/Y system have been examined by genetic analysis and by light and electron microscopy. sc4sc8/Y males show a direct correlation between nondisjunction frequency and meiotic drive. Temperature-shift experiments reveal that the temperature-sensitive period for nondisjunction is at meiosis, whereas that for meiotic drive has both meiotic and post-meiotic components. Cytological analyses in the light and electron microscopes reveal failures in spermiogenesis in the testes of sc4sc8 males. The extent of abnormal spermatid development increases as nondisjunction becomes more extreme. PMID:805751

  13. Genetic relationships between measures of sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness in pigs.

    PubMed

    Parois, S P; Prunier, A; Mercat, M J; Merlot, E; Larzul, C

    2015-08-01

    Breeding intact boars is a promising alternative to surgical castration of piglets. Genetic selection should enable farmers to solve problems due to boar taint and aggressiveness while taking into account potential consequences on other traits of interest. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic relations between sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness. About 1,600 Pietrain (purebred) or Pietrain × Large White (crossbred) boars were raised in a testing station. Blood samples were collected at about 105 kg BW for measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and indicators of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein [CRP], pig major acute-phase protein [pigMAP], and blood formula). Animals were slaughtered 9 d later and measured for boar taint compounds present in fat (androstenone and skatole) and skin lesions on carcass, an indicator of aggressiveness. For both genetic types, heritability was moderate for sex hormones (from 0.17 to 0.29) and skatole (0.24 for purebred and 0.37 for crossbred) and high for androstenone (0.63 and 0.70 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Genetic correlations between sex hormones and boar taint compounds were moderate to high (from 0.31 to 0.95). Heritability was moderate for CRP (0.24 and 0.46 for purebred and crossbred, respectively) and very low for pigMAP (0.06 and 0.05 for purebred and crossbred, respectively. Numbers of leukocytes had moderate to high heritabilities according to the genetic type (from 0.21 to 0.52). Heritability of skin lesions was moderate for both genetic types (0.31). Genetic correlations were negative between sex hormones and inflammatory measures (from -0.46 to -0.05), positive between testosterone and number of lesions (0.43 and 0.53 for purebred and crossbred, respectively), and low between androstenone and lesions (-0.06 and -0.17 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Overall, both breeds of pigs had very similar estimations of heritabilities, but estimates of

  14. Genetic relationships between measures of sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness in pigs.

    PubMed

    Parois, S P; Prunier, A; Mercat, M J; Merlot, E; Larzul, C

    2015-08-01

    Breeding intact boars is a promising alternative to surgical castration of piglets. Genetic selection should enable farmers to solve problems due to boar taint and aggressiveness while taking into account potential consequences on other traits of interest. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic relations between sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness. About 1,600 Pietrain (purebred) or Pietrain × Large White (crossbred) boars were raised in a testing station. Blood samples were collected at about 105 kg BW for measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and indicators of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein [CRP], pig major acute-phase protein [pigMAP], and blood formula). Animals were slaughtered 9 d later and measured for boar taint compounds present in fat (androstenone and skatole) and skin lesions on carcass, an indicator of aggressiveness. For both genetic types, heritability was moderate for sex hormones (from 0.17 to 0.29) and skatole (0.24 for purebred and 0.37 for crossbred) and high for androstenone (0.63 and 0.70 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Genetic correlations between sex hormones and boar taint compounds were moderate to high (from 0.31 to 0.95). Heritability was moderate for CRP (0.24 and 0.46 for purebred and crossbred, respectively) and very low for pigMAP (0.06 and 0.05 for purebred and crossbred, respectively. Numbers of leukocytes had moderate to high heritabilities according to the genetic type (from 0.21 to 0.52). Heritability of skin lesions was moderate for both genetic types (0.31). Genetic correlations were negative between sex hormones and inflammatory measures (from -0.46 to -0.05), positive between testosterone and number of lesions (0.43 and 0.53 for purebred and crossbred, respectively), and low between androstenone and lesions (-0.06 and -0.17 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Overall, both breeds of pigs had very similar estimations of heritabilities, but estimates of

  15. Implicit cognitive distortions and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Mihailides, Stephen; Devilly, Grant J; Ward, Tony

    2004-10-01

    This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender implicit cognitive distortions in child sexual offenders ("children as sexual beings," "uncontrollability of sexuality," and "sexual entitlement-bias"). Results showed that child sexual offenders had larger IAT effects than did mainstream offenders and male and female nonoffenders for the "children as sexual beings" and the "uncontrollability of sexuality" implicit theories. Child sexual offenders also had a larger IAT effect than male and female nonoffenders for the "sexual entitlement-bias" implicit theory. Implications for the semantic-motivation hypothesis are discussed.

  16. Development of a sexual assault evidence collection kit - the need for standardization in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gökdoğan, M R; Bafra, J

    2010-05-01

    Sexual offences are recognized to be one of the most critical of crimes throughout the world. In Turkey, forcible rapes show, in the sexual crime rates, an increase of approximately 3% every year. It becomes even more critical, when realizing that less than half of all rapes, which are believed to occur, are reported to law enforcement, and of those few assailants who are arrested even fewer are convicted of rape. Often, little or no knowledge of the correct methods of locating, recovering, packaging, and preserving evidence specimens are the causes for compromising the forensic examination in court. This problem occurs when medical personnel are not adequately trained or properly advised in the evidentiary aspects and medical features of treating a victim. The current survey is aimed to increase the awareness of the need of an initial and continuing education by health care policies to cope with increasing professional demands for forensic practice sexual assault cases, to take judicial and social precautions, and medico-legal evidence. To determine the likelihood of obtaining corroborating evidence this paper presents the results of a study referring to this problem. An updated questionnaire has been applied at random to medical personnel, a total of 543 participants, throughout Turkey. Taking certain criteria into consideration the findings revealed a significant deficiency of knowledge regarding medical-legal examination. In comparison, a one-semester course of basic forensic sciences proved to be sufficient to recognize the amount of knowledge required to work as a forensic professional. Based on the results, recommendations are presented in the form of a sexual assault evidence collection kit (SAECK). A kit, which takes into consideration the needs of crime laboratories, law enforcement agencies, medical personnel, and above all the victim. This is the first step in building a responsible and successful evidence collection program that will survive the rigors

  17. Uncovering Sexual Problems

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, May

    1977-01-01

    While patients frequently make it difficult for us to uncover their sexual concerns, a much greater difficulty is due to physicians' unwillingness to deal with this subject. Physicians need to acquire basic knowledge about human sexuality as well as skills in making patients feel comfortable and open. A non-judgmental attitude is essential. The physician will also be able to anticipate and prevent sexual distress by education. Expertise must be developed in differentiating those problems requiring referral for specialized sexual counselling from those which the family physician can handle. PMID:21304865

  18. Variability in symptom expression among sexually abused girls: developing multivariate models.

    PubMed

    Spaccarelli, S; Fuchs, C

    1997-03-01

    Examined which of several apparent risk variables were predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems in 48 girls who were referred for therapy after disclosing sexual abuse. Specifically, the effects of abuse characteristics, support from nonoffending parents, victims' coping strategies, and victims' cognitive appraisals on symptomatology were assessed. As hypothesized, results indicated that internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with different sets of predictor variables. Victims' self-reports of depression and anxiety were related to lower perceived support from nonoffending parents, more use of cognitive avoidance coping, and more negative appraisals of the abuse. These results were partially replicated when using parent-report measures of depression, but were not replicated for parent reports of victim anxiety. Incest was the only variable that was significantly related to parent-reported anxiety. Parent-reported aggressive behaviors were predicted by level of abuse-related stress; and aggression, social problems, and sexual problems were all related to the tendency to cope by controlling others. Social problems were also related to coping by self-distraction. Regression analyses were done for each dependent variable to examine which predictors accounted for unique variance when controlling for other significant zero-order correlates. Implications of these results for understanding variability in symptom expression among sexual abuse victims are discussed.

  19. Variability in symptom expression among sexually abused girls: developing multivariate models.

    PubMed

    Spaccarelli, S; Fuchs, C

    1997-03-01

    Examined which of several apparent risk variables were predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems in 48 girls who were referred for therapy after disclosing sexual abuse. Specifically, the effects of abuse characteristics, support from nonoffending parents, victims' coping strategies, and victims' cognitive appraisals on symptomatology were assessed. As hypothesized, results indicated that internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with different sets of predictor variables. Victims' self-reports of depression and anxiety were related to lower perceived support from nonoffending parents, more use of cognitive avoidance coping, and more negative appraisals of the abuse. These results were partially replicated when using parent-report measures of depression, but were not replicated for parent reports of victim anxiety. Incest was the only variable that was significantly related to parent-reported anxiety. Parent-reported aggressive behaviors were predicted by level of abuse-related stress; and aggression, social problems, and sexual problems were all related to the tendency to cope by controlling others. Social problems were also related to coping by self-distraction. Regression analyses were done for each dependent variable to examine which predictors accounted for unique variance when controlling for other significant zero-order correlates. Implications of these results for understanding variability in symptom expression among sexual abuse victims are discussed. PMID:9118173

  20. Development and Implementation of Mass Media Campaigns to Delay Sexual Initiation Among African American and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    NOAR, SETH M.; ZIMMERMAN, RICK S.; PALMGREEN, PHILIP; CUPP, PAMELA K.; FLOYD, BRENIKKI R.; MEHROTRA, PURNIMA

    2015-01-01

    Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research over-whelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors’ research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages. PMID:24093220

  1. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women’s health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. Method This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. Results In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. Conclusion This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women’s sexual abstinence. PMID:24924696

  2. Literacy and Sexual Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; MuQaribu, Mudhillun

    2003-01-01

    Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…

  3. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.

  4. Understanding Sexual Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective factors. Step 3: Develop and test prevention strategies Using information gathered in research, CDC develops and evaluates strategies ... or technical help so communities can adopt these strategies. For more information on sexual violence prevention activities at CDC, please ...

  5. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5–2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects.

  6. Functional Roles of FgLaeA in Controlling Secondary Metabolism, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong-Mi; McCormick, Susan P.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Proctor, Robert H.; Yun, Sung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s) belonging to ∼70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ΔFgLaeA strain. In addition, ΔFgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ΔFgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex, controls secondary

  7. Human COL2A1-directed SV40 T antigen expression in transgenic and chimeric mice results in abnormal skeletal development

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The ability of SV40 T antigen to cause abnormalities in cartilage development in transgenic mice and chimeras has been tested. The cis- regulatory elements of the COL2A1 gene were used to target expression of SV40 T antigen to differentiating chondrocytes in transgenic mice and chimeras derived from embryonal stem (ES) cells bearing the same transgene. The major phenotypic consequences of transgenic (pAL21) expression are malformed skeleton, disproportionate dwarfism, and perinatal/neonatal death. Expression of T antigen was tissue specific and in the main characteristic of the mouse alpha 1(II) collagen gene. Chondrocyte densities and levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNAs were reduced in the transgenic mice. Islands of cells which express cartilage characteristic genes such as type IIB procollagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, alpha 2(XI) collagen, and aggrecan were found in the articular and growth cartilages of pAL21 chimeric fetuses and neonates. But these cells, which were expressing T antigen, were not properly organized into columns of proliferating chondrocytes. Levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNA were reduced in these chondrocytes. In addition, these cells did not express type X collagen, a marker for hypertrophic chondrocytes. The skeletal abnormality in pAL21 mice may therefore be due to a retardation of chondrocyte maturation or an impaired ability of chondrocytes to complete terminal differentiation and an associated paucity of some cartilage matrix components. PMID:7822417

  8. Effects of posttraumatic stress disorder and child sexual abuse on self-efficacy development.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Amy S; Prout, Maurice F

    2002-04-01

    The symptoms of child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect a child's self-efficacy. A child's self-efficacy beliefs impact the course and treatment of PTSD, because perceived self-efficacy plays a mediating role in children's ability to cope with trauma. Self-efficacy research indicates that emotional competence can be learned and may provide treatment for PTSD that provides symptom reduction as well as a means of substituting problem-solving coping skills for emotion-focused coping skills.

  9. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  10. Sexuality Education as a Ministry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    The author describes her development from being her religious congregation's sexuality educator to completing doctoral studies and finding her place in the professional sexuality education community. She equates sexuality education to a ministry that reaches out to those in need of knowledge.

  11. Pilot Study in the Development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Sexual Health Interventions: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, P. C.; Bustard, S.; Ferguson, E.; Carlin, E. M.; Neal, K.; Bowman, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with…

  12. Challenges in sexual medicine.

    PubMed

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-09-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field, in an effort to improve the lives of our patients, who wait for effective therapies. PMID:22777290

  13. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ...

  14. Substance Use and the Development of Sexual Risk Behaviors in Youth Perinatally Exposed to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Santamaria, E. Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between sexual behavior and substance use in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed-but-uninfected (PHIV−) youth. Methods Growth curve modeling was used with data from N = 340 PHIV-exposed youth (60.6% PHIV+; 9–22 years) to estimate the onset of penetrative and unprotected sex across time, adding alcohol and marijuana use trajectories as time-varying covariates and examining HIV-status differences. Results The odds of penetrative or unprotected sex more than doubled across time. Alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased the odds of engaging in sex and unprotected sex, with no HIV-status differences. The association between unprotected sex and alcohol use was less salient for PHIV+ than PHIV− youth. Conclusions Similar to youth from other populations, PHIV+ and PHIV− youth are increasingly engaging in sex and substance use as they age. Targeted interventions to prevent sexual risk behavior and further HIV transmission should address the influence of substance use. PMID:25476800

  15. Does Bicycle Riding Impact the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Men?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Dae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether men who engaged in recreational bicycle riding are more likely to be affected by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction than are man who exercised by amateur marathon running with less perineal impact. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy male amateur bicyclists and 17 healthy male amateur marathoners were enrolled in the study. We evaluated questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetric values, postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate in all subjects. We also compared the prevalence of urination disorders (UD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, comorbidities, or exercise habits (p>0.05). Mean total and subscale scores of the IPSS and IIEF and the prevalence of UD (8/22 vs. 4/17, p=0.494) and ED (11/22 vs. 10/17, p=0.748) were not significantly different between the two groups. Also, there were no significant differences between the two groups in uroflowmetric parameters such as peak urinary flow rates, voided urine volume, PVR urine volume, prostate volume, or serum PSA level. Conclusions Bicycle riding seems to have no measurable hazardous effect on voiding function or sexual function in men who cycled recreationally. PMID:21687396

  16. Hemipenes in females of the Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata (Squamata: Anguidae): an example of heterochrony in sexual development.