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Sample records for abnormal signal intensity

  1. Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

    2011-05-01

    Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

  2. Improving the performance of cardiac abnormality detection from PCG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujit, N. R.; Kumar, C. Santhosh; Rajesh, C. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Phonocardiogram (PCG) signal contains important information about the condition of heart. Using PCG signal analysis prior recognition of coronary illness can be done. In this work, we developed a biomedical system for the detection of abnormality in heart and methods to enhance the performance of the system using SMOTE and AdaBoost technique have been presented. Time and frequency domain features extracted from the PCG signal is input to the system. The back-end classifier to the system developed is Decision Tree using CART (Classification and Regression Tree), with an overall classification accuracy of 78.33% and sensitivity (alarm accuracy) of 40%. Here sensitivity implies the precision obtained from classifying the abnormal heart sound, which is an essential parameter for a system. We further improve the performance of baseline system using SMOTE and AdaBoost algorithm. The proposed approach outperforms the baseline system by an absolute improvement in overall accuracy of 5% and sensitivity of 44.92%.

  3. Contribution of metals to brain MR signal intensity: review articles.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tomonori; Nakai, Yudai; Aoki, Shuri; Oba, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Keiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Furui, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Various metals are essential nutrients in humans, and metal shortages lead to a variety of deficiency diseases. Metal concentration abnormalities may cause metal deposition in the brain, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most potent and sensitive technique now available for detecting metal deposition given the difficulties associated with performing brain tissue biopsy. However, the brain contains many kinds of metals that affect the signal intensity of MRI, which has led to numerous misunderstandings in the history of metal analysis. We reviewed the history of brain metal analysis with histologic findings. Typically, manganese overload causes high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) in the globus pallidus, iron overload causes low signal intensity in the globus pallidus on T2-weighted images, and gadolinium deposition causes high signal intensity in the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, and pulvinar of thalamus on T1WI. However, because nonparamagnetic materials and other coexisting metals also affect the signal intensity of brain MRI, the quantitative analysis of metal concentrations is difficult. Thus, when analyzing metal deposition using MRI, caution should be exercised when interpreting the validity and reliability of the obtained data. PMID:26932404

  4. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene. PMID:23630501

  5. Observation and analysis of abnormal absorption signals in laser flash photolysis measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Yuan, Yao-feng; Li, Xiao-lin; Su, Xiao-long; Sun, Wen-hua

    2013-03-15

    In order to investigate a noise-like signal appearing in dynamic mode measurement during laser flash photolysis experiments, five compounds were chosen which show this abnormal phenomenon. The reproducibility of this phenomenon was done repeatedly, indicating that it originates from each molecular structural property. Also their two regulation pattern or features were found by our analysis. One is a U-shaped curve of main frequency intensity with time and it seems to be directly related to the concentration of the T(1) excited state. The other is a high damping oscillation curve of the frequency shift with time and this curve seems to be indicating an energy transportation process from light into chemical energy. Finally, a possible origin of hydrogen nuclear optical resonance was proposed for the abnormal signal. PMID:23376219

  6. Observation and analysis of abnormal absorption signals in laser flash photolysis measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Yuan, Yao-feng; Li, Xiao-lin; Su, Xiao-long; Sun, Wen-hua

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate a noise-like signal appearing in dynamic mode measurement during laser flash photolysis experiments, five compounds were chosen which show this abnormal phenomenon. The reproducibility of this phenomenon was done repeatedly, indicating that it originates from each molecular structural property. Also their two regulation pattern or features were found by our analysis. One is a U-shaped curve of main frequency intensity with time and it seems to be directly related to the concentration of the T1 excited state. The other is a high damping oscillation curve of the frequency shift with time and this curve seems to be indicating an energy transportation process from light into chemical energy. Finally, a possible origin of hydrogen nuclear optical resonance was proposed for the abnormal signal.

  7. Abnormality of Auditory Mismatch Negativity in Depression and Its Dependence on Stimulus Intensity.

    PubMed

    Restuccia, Domenico; Vollono, Catello; Scaloni, Lorenzo; Buccelletti, Francesco; Camardese, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to reveal several abnormalities of cognitive functioning. Although depression often affects cognitive functioning, previous studies concerning MMN in depressed patients provided conflicting results. In recent reports, it has been suggested that depressed patients may show abnormal auditory response to regular auditory stimuli presented with at a relatively high intensity. We thus recorded acoustic MMN in 16 drug-free patients suffering from moderate depression and in 10 healthy subjects at 2 different stimulus intensities. Differences in MMN latency and amplitude between depressed patients and healthy subjects reached the significance level only for high intensity stimulation, and they were consistent with a dysfunction of frontal MMN subcomponents in depressed patients. This finding suggests that consistent MMN abnormalities can be observed in depressed patients by using high-intensity stimulation; moreover, it supports the hypothesis of disturbances of frontal networks in depression even in early stages of disease. PMID:26071432

  8. Acute subendocardial infarction with diffuse intense Tc-99m PYP uptake and minimal Tl-201 abnormality.

    PubMed

    Taki, J; Taki, S; Ichiyanagi, K; Akashi, Y; Hisada, K

    1992-08-01

    Tc-99m PYP scintigraphy performed on a patient with severe anterior chest pain showed diffuse intense uptake with central decreased activity corresponding to the left ventricular cavity. Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy at rest revealed a minimal perfusion abnormality with decreased apical uptake in the lateral view. Because of these findings, diffuse subendocardial infarction was suggested. PMID:1387053

  9. 33 CFR 86.21 - Intensity of signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Bell or Gong § 86.21 Intensity of signal. A bell or gong, or other device having similar sound characteristics shall produce a...

  10. Cell signaling abnormalities may drive neurodegeneration in familial Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Robakis, Nikolaos K

    2014-01-01

    Presenilins (PSs) are catalytic components of the γ-secretase complex that produces Aβ peptides. Substrates of γ-secretase are membrane-bound protein fragments deriving from the cleavage of extracellular sequence of cell surface proteins. APP-derived γ-secretase substrates are cleaved at gamma (γ) sites to produce Aβ while cleavage at the epsilon (ε) site produces AICD proposed to function in transcription. In addition to APP, γ-secretase promotes the ε-cleavage of a large number of cell surface proteins producing cytosolic peptides shown to function in cell signaling. A common hypothesis suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by Aβ peptides or their products. Treatment of patients with inhibitors of Aβ production however, showed no therapeutic benefits while inducing cytotoxicity. Similarly, treatments with anti-Aβ antibodies yielded disappointing results. Importantly, recent evidence shows that PS familial AD (FAD) mutations cause a loss of γ-secretase cleavage activity at ε site of substrates thus inhibiting production of biologically important cell signaling peptides while promoting accumulation of membrane-bound cytotoxic substrates. These data support a hypothesis that FAD mutations may increase neurotoxicity by inhibiting the γ-secretase-catalyzed ε cleavage of substrates thus interfering with cell signaling while also promoting accumulation of cytotoxic peptides. Similar mechanisms may explain γ-secretase inhibitor-associated toxicities observed in clinical trials. Here we discuss evidence that FAD neurodegeneration may be caused by loss of γ-secretase cleavage function at ε sites of substrates. PMID:23436150

  11. Quantitative analysis of MRI signal intensity in new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, A; Hall, K; English, P T; Ince, P G; Burn, D J; Bates, D

    1999-08-01

    High signal intensity within the posterior thalamus (pulvinar nucleus) has been noted on MRI in patients with new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD). In this study MRI examinations from three patients with proven nvCJD were compared with MRI examinations from a control group of 14 age-matched subjects with no neurological abnormalities. Mean signal intensity from seven target areas (periaqueductal tissue, posterior thalamus, dorsomedial thalamus, anterior thalamus, putamen, caudate head and frontal white matter) was calculated in each case. Absolute signal intensity measurements were not significantly different between the groups. Patients with nvCJD showed significantly higher signal intensity within dorsomedial thalamus, posterior thalamus and periaqueductal region than control patients when these measurements were normalized to the signal intensity of normal appearing white matter. Highly significant differences in posterior thalamus/putamen signal intensity ratio (PPR) and posterior thalamus/caudate ratio (PCR) were observed between the groups. For proton density images, PPR and PCR were greater than 1 for all nvCJD patients and less than 1 for all control patients. Both PPR and PCR are simple to calculate and offer a simple, non-invasive indicator of nvCJD. PMID:10624339

  12. Extraction of fault component from abnormal sound in diesel engines using acoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayong, Ning; Changle, Sun; Yongjun, Gong; Zengmeng, Zhang; Jiaoyi, Hou

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a method for extracting fault components from abnormal acoustic signals and automatically diagnosing diesel engine faults is presented. The method named dislocation superimposed method (DSM) is based on the improved random decrement technique (IRDT), differential function (DF) and correlation analysis (CA). The aim of DSM is to linearly superpose multiple segments of abnormal acoustic signals because of the waveform similarity of faulty components. The method uses sample points at the beginning of time when abnormal sound appears as the starting position for each segment. In this study, the abnormal sound belonged to shocking faulty type; thus, the starting position searching method based on gradient variance was adopted. The coefficient of similar degree between two same sized signals is presented. By comparing with a similar degree, the extracted fault component could be judged automatically. The results show that this method is capable of accurately extracting the fault component from abnormal acoustic signals induced by faulty shocking type and the extracted component can be used to identify the fault type.

  13. Disruption of Axonal Transport Perturbs Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) - Signaling and Contributes to Synaptic Abnormalities in Two Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J.; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J.; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-01-01

    Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases. PMID:25127478

  14. [An acute severe heat stroke patient showing abnormal diffuse high intensity of the cerebellar cortex in diffusion weighted image: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yusuke; Yasui, Keizo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Akira; Sobue, Gen

    2009-10-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of general convulsion, loss of consciousness and hyperthermia. A diagnosis of acute heat stroke was made clinically and neuroradiologically. As the consciousness level ameliorated, he developed severe abulia and mutism, then cerebellar ataxic syndrome (viz. truncal ataxia, hypermetria, ataxic speech and nystagmus). An MRI (diffusion weighted image; DWI) disclosed abnormal diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex with reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Two months later after the onset, truncal ataxia and dysarthria significantly improved, while dysmetria of the extremities rather worsened. At that time, the abnormal signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex disappeared, and the cerebellum became atrophic. The cerebellar blood flow was significantly decreased on brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD). The abnormal DWI signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex in the present patient may represent the cytotoxic edema of Purkinje cells resulting from heat stroke-related hyperthermia It is essential to repeat MRI examination for cerebellar pathology and to obtain better insight into sequelae in patients with acute heat stroke. Protirelin tartrate seemed to be valid for improvement of abulia in the present patient. Further study is indicated. PMID:19999144

  15. Constitutive Notch Signaling Causes Abnormal Development of the Oviducts, Abnormal Angiogenesis, and Cyst Formation in Mouse Female Reproductive Tract.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lydia; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Manresa, Carmen; Barbara, Agustin M; Poppiti, Robert J; Tan, Yingchun; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2016-03-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is critical for the differentiation of many tissues and organs in the embryo. To study the consequences of Notch1 gain-of-function signaling on female reproductive tract development, we used a cre-loxP strategy andAmhr2-cretransgene to generate mice with conditionally activated Notch1 (Rosa(Notch1)). TheAmhr2-cretransgene is expressed in the mesenchyme of developing female reproductive tract and in granulosa cells in the ovary. Double transgenicAmhr2-cre, Rosa(Notch1)females were infertile, whereas controlRosa(Notch1)mice had normal fertility. All female reproductive organs in mutants showed hemorrhaging of blood vessels progressing with age. The mutant oviducts did not develop coiling, and were instead looped around the ovary. There were multiple blockages in the lumen along the oviduct length, creating a barrier for sperm or oocyte passage. Mutant females demonstrated inflamed uteri with increased vascularization and an influx of inflammatory cells. Additionally, older females developed ovarian, oviductal, and uterine cysts. The significant change in gene expression was detected in the mutant oviduct expression ofWnt4, essential for female reproductive tract development. Similar oviductal phenotypes have been detected previously in mice with activatedSmoand inbeta-catenin,Wnt4,Wnt7a, andDicerconditional knockouts, indicating a common regulatory pathway disrupted by these genetic abnormalities. PMID:26843448

  16. Meclozine Facilitates Proliferation and Differentiation of Chondrocytes by Attenuating Abnormally Activated FGFR3 Signaling in Achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Mishima, Kenichi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and -G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:24324705

  17. Meclozine facilitates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes by attenuating abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Mishima, Kenichi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and -G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:24324705

  18. Abnormal White Matter Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent Signals in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Astafiev, Serguei V; Shulman, Gordon L; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Rengachary, Jennifer; MacDonald, Christine L; Harrington, Deborah L; Maruta, Jun; Shimony, Joshua S; Ghajar, Jamshid; Diwakar, Mithun; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), can cause persistent behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if this condition is associated with detectable structural or functional brain changes. At two sites, chronic mTBI human subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms (three months to five years after injury) and age- and education-matched healthy human control subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological and visual tracking eye movement tests. At one site, patients and controls also performed the visual tracking tasks while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although neither neuropsychological nor visual tracking measures distinguished patients from controls at the level of individual subjects, abnormal BOLD signals were reliably detected in patients. The most consistent changes were localized in white matter regions: anterior internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, BOLD signals were normal in cortical regions, such as the frontal eye field and intraparietal sulcus, that mediate oculomotor and attention functions necessary for visual tracking. The abnormal BOLD signals accurately differentiated chronic mTBI patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, although they did not correlate with symptoms or neuropsychological performance. We conclude that subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms can be identified years after their TBI using fMRI and an eye movement task despite showing normal structural MRI and DTI. PMID:25758167

  19. Hemangiomas, angiosarcomas, and vascular malformations represent the signaling abnormalities of pathogenic angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arbiser, J L; Bonner, M Y; Berrios, R L

    2009-11-01

    Angiogenesis is a major factor in the development of benign, inflammatory, and malignant processes of the skin. Endothelial cells are the effector cells of angiogenesis, and understanding their response to growth factors and inhibitors is critical to understanding the pathogenesis and treatment of skin disease. Hemangiomas, benign tumors of endothelial cells, represent the most common tumor of childhood. In our previous studies, we have found that tumor vasculature in human solid tumors expresses similarities in signaling to that of hemangiomas, making the knowledge of signaling in hemangiomas widely applicable. These similarities include expression of reactive oxygen, NFkB and akt in tumor vasculature. Furthermore, we have studied malignant vascular tumors, including hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma and have shown distinct signaling abnormalities in these tumors. The incidence of these tumors is expected to rise due to environmental insults, such as radiation and lumpectomy for breast cancer, dietary and industrial carcinogens (hepatic angiosarcoma), and chronic ultraviolet exposure and potential Agent Orange exposure. I hypothesize that hemangiomas, angiosarcomas, and vascular malformations represent the extremes of signaling abnormalities seen in pathogenic angiogenesis. PMID:19925405

  20. Resolution of abnormal cardiac MRI T2 signal following immune suppression for cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Crouser, Elliott D; Ruden, Emily; Julian, Mark W; Raman, Subha V

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac MR (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement is commonly used to detect cardiac damage in the setting of cardiac sarcoidosis. The addition of T2 mapping to CMR was recently shown to enhance cardiac sarcoidosis detection and correlates with increased cardiac arrhythmia risk. This study was conducted to determine if CMR T2 abnormalities and related arrhythmias are reversible following immune suppression therapy. A retrospective study of subjects with cardiac sarcoidosis with abnormal T2 signal on baseline CMR and a follow-up CMR study at least 4 months later was conducted at The Ohio State University from 2011 to 2015. Immune suppression treated participants had a significant reduction in peak myocardial T2 value (70.0±5.5 vs 59.2±6.1 ms, pretreatment vs post-treatment; p=0.017), and 83% of immune suppression treated subjects had objective improvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Two subjects who had received inadequate immune suppression treatment experienced progression of cardiac sarcoidosis. This report indicates that abnormal CMR T2 signal represents an acute inflammatory manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis that is potentially reversible with adequate immune suppression therapy. PMID:27354042

  1. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F; Charbonneau, Noe L; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y

    2015-06-01

    Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can

  2. Pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation related to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Sha, Xiang-Yin; Liu, Yi; Yang, Rui-Ming; Wen, Ye

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether the abnormal differentiation of the pterygium epithelium is related to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS The expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK), keratin family members including K19 and K10 and the ocular master control gene Pax-6 were measured in 16 surgically excised pterygium tissues and 12 eye bank conjunctiva. In colony-forming cell assays, the differences in clone morphology and in K10, K19, P-ERK and Pax-6 expression between the head and body were investigated. When cocultured with the ERK signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059, the changes in clone morphology, colony-forming efficiency, differentiated marker K10, K19 and Pax-6 expression and P-ERK protein expression level were examined by immunoreactivity and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The expression of K19 and Pax-6 decreased in the pterygium, especially in the head. No staining of K10 was found in the normal conjunctiva epithelium, but it was found to be expressed in the superficial cells in the head of the pterygium. Characteristic upregulation of P-ERK was observed by immunohistochemistry. The clone from the head with more differentiated cells in the center expressed more K10, and the clone from the body expressed more K19. The P-ERK protein level increased in the pterygium epithelium compared with conjunctiva and decreased when cocultured with PD98059. The same medium with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 was more effective in promoting clonal growth than conventional medium with 3T3 murine feeder layers. It was observed that the epithelium clone co-cultured with the inhibitor had decreased K10 expression and increased K19 and Pax-6 expression. CONCLUSION We suggest ERK signaling pathway activation might play a role in the pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation. PMID:26682158

  3. Early Standard Electroencephalogram Abnormalities Predict Mortality in Septic Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Azabou, Eric; Magalhaes, Eric; Braconnier, Antoine; Yahiaoui, Lyria; Moneger, Guy; Heming, Nicholas; Annane, Djillali; Mantz, Jean; Chrétien, Fabrice; Durand, Marie-Christine; Lofaso, Frédéric; Porcher, Raphael; Sharshar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis is associated with increased mortality, delirium and long-term cognitive impairment in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities occurring at the acute stage of sepsis may correlate with severity of brain dysfunction. Predictive value of early standard EEG abnormalities for mortality in ICU septic patients remains to be assessed. Methods In this prospective, single center, observational study, standard EEG was performed, analyzed and classified according to both Synek and Young EEG scales, in consecutive patients acutely admitted in ICU for sepsis. Delirium, coma and the level of sedation were assessed at the time of EEG recording; and duration of sedation, occurrence of in-ICU delirium or death were assessed during follow-up. Adjusted analyses were carried out using multiple logistic regression. Results One hundred ten patients were included, mean age 63.8 (±18.1) years, median SAPS-II score 38 (29–55). At the time of EEG recording, 46 patients (42%) were sedated and 22 (20%) suffered from delirium. Overall, 54 patients (49%) developed delirium, of which 32 (29%) in the days after EEG recording. 23 (21%) patients died in the ICU. Absence of EEG reactivity was observed in 27 patients (25%), periodic discharges (PDs) in 21 (19%) and electrographic seizures (ESZ) in 17 (15%). ICU mortality was independently associated with a delta-predominant background (OR: 3.36; 95% CI [1.08 to 10.4]), absence of EEG reactivity (OR: 4.44; 95% CI [1.37–14.3], PDs (OR: 3.24; 95% CI [1.03 to 10.2]), Synek grade ≥ 3 (OR: 5.35; 95% CI [1.66–17.2]) and Young grade > 1 (OR: 3.44; 95% CI [1.09–10.8]) after adjustment to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-II) at admission and level of sedation. Delirium at the time of EEG was associated with ESZ in non-sedated patients (32% vs 10%, p = 0.037); with Synek grade ≥ 3 (36% vs 7%, p< 0.05) and Young grade > 1 (36% vs 17%, p< 0.001). Occurrence of delirium in the days after

  4. Augmented noncanonical BMP type II receptor signaling mediates the synaptic abnormality of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Risa; Roy, Sougata; Ascano, Manuel; Martinez-Cerdeno, Veronica; Ariza-Torres, Jeanelle; Kim, Sunghwan; Louie, Justin; Lu, Yao; Leyton, Patricio; Bloch, Kenneth D; Kornberg, Thomas B; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common inherited form of intellectual disability and autism. FXS correlates with abnormal synapse and dendritic spine development, but the molecular link between the absence of the FMR1 product FMRP, an RNA binding protein, and the neuropathology is unclear. We found that the messenger RNA encoding bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2) is a target of FMRP. Depletion of FMRP increased BMPR2 abundance, especially that of the full-length isoform that bound and activated LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1), a component of the noncanonical BMP signal transduction pathway that stimulates actin reorganization to promote neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Heterozygosity for BMPR2 rescued the morphological abnormalities in neurons both in Drosophila and in mouse models of FXS, as did the postnatal pharmacological inhibition of LIMK1 activity. Compared with postmortem prefrontal cortex tissue from healthy subjects, the amount of full-length BMPR2 and of a marker of LIMK1 activity was increased in this brain region from FXS patients. These findings suggest that increased BMPR2 signal transduction is linked to FXS and that the BMPR2-LIMK1 pathway is a putative therapeutic target in patients with FXS and possibly other forms of autism. PMID:27273096

  5. Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis Reveals Abnormal Oligomerization of Proteins in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Godin, Antoine G; Rappaz, Benjamin; Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Kennedy, Timothy E; De Koninck, Yves; Wiseman, Paul W

    2015-08-18

    Knowledge of membrane receptor organization is essential for understanding the initial steps in cell signaling and trafficking mechanisms, but quantitative analysis of receptor interactions at the single-cell level and in different cellular compartments has remained highly challenging. To achieve this, we apply a quantitative image analysis technique-spatial intensity distribution analysis (SpIDA)-that can measure fluorescent particle concentrations and oligomerization states within different subcellular compartments in live cells. An important technical challenge faced by fluorescence microscopy-based measurement of oligomerization is the fidelity of receptor labeling. In practice, imperfect labeling biases the distribution of oligomeric states measured within an aggregated system. We extend SpIDA to enable analysis of high-order oligomers from fluorescence microscopy images, by including a probability weighted correction algorithm for nonemitting labels. We demonstrated that this fraction of nonemitting probes could be estimated in single cells using SpIDA measurements on model systems with known oligomerization state. Previously, this artifact was measured using single-step photobleaching. This approach was validated using computer-simulated data and the imperfect labeling was quantified in cells with ion channels of known oligomer subunit count. It was then applied to quantify the oligomerization states in different cell compartments of the proteolipid protein (PLP) expressed in COS-7 cells. Expression of a mutant PLP linked to impaired trafficking resulted in the detection of PLP tetramers that persist in the endoplasmic reticulum, while no difference was measured at the membrane between the distributions of wild-type and mutated PLPs. Our results demonstrate that SpIDA allows measurement of protein oligomerization in different compartments of intact cells, even when fractional mislabeling occurs as well as photobleaching during the imaging process, and

  6. Abnormal Calcium Handling and Exaggerated Cardiac Dysfunction in Mice with Defective Vitamin D Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Sangita; Bae, Soochan; Ke, Qingen; Lee, Ji Yoo; Singh, Sylvia S.; St-Arnaud, René; del Monte, Federica; Kang, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Altered vitamin D signaling is associated with cardiac dysfunction, but the pathogenic mechanism is not clearly understood. We examine the mechanism and the role of vitamin D signaling in the development of cardiac dysfunction. Methods and Results We analyzed 1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) knockout (1α-OHase−/−) mice, which lack 1α-OH enzymes that convert the inactive form to hormonally active form of vitamin D. 1α-OHase−/− mice showed modest cardiac hypertrophy at baseline. Induction of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) demonstrated exaggerated cardiac dysfunction in 1α-OHase−/− mice compared to their WT littermates with a significant increase in fibrosis and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Analysis of calcium (Ca2+) transient demonstrated profound Ca2+ handling abnormalities in 1α-OHase−/− mouse cardiomyocytes (CMs), and treatment with paricalcitol (PC), an activated vitamin D3 analog, significantly attenuated defective Ca2+ handling in 1α-OHase−/− CMs. We further delineated the effect of vitamin D deficiency condition to TAC by first correcting the vitamin D deficiency in 1α-OHase−/− mice, followed then by either a daily maintenance dose of vitamin D or vehicle (to achieve vitamin D deficiency) at the time of sham or TAC. In mice treated with vitamin D, there was a significant attenuation of TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, inflammatory markers, Ca2+ handling abnormalities and cardiac function compared to the vehicle treated animals. Conclusions Our results provide insight into the mechanism of cardiac dysfunction, which is associated with severely defective Ca2+ handling and defective vitamin D signaling in 1α-OHase−/− mice. PMID:25268137

  7. Abnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways in frontal cortical areas in postmortem brain in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Funk, Adam J; McCullumsmith, Robert E; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia may result from alterations of integration of signaling mediated by multiple neurotransmitter systems. Abnormalities of associated intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Proteins and phospho-proteins comprising mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-associated signaling pathways may be abnormally expressed in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia. Using western blot analysis we examined proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in these two brain regions. Postmortem samples were used from a well-characterized collection of elderly patients with schizophrenia (ACC=36, DLPFC=35) and a comparison (ACC=33, DLPFC=31) group. Near-infrared intensity of IR-dye labeled secondary antisera bound to targeted proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways was measured using LiCor Odyssey imaging system. We found decreased expression of Rap2, JNK1, JNK2, PSD-95, and decreased phosphorylation of JNK1/2 at T183/Y185 and PSD-95 at S295 in the ACC in schizophrenia. In the DLPFC, we found increased expression of Rack1, Fyn, Cdk5, and increased phosphorylation of PSD-95 at S295 and NR2B at Y1336. MAPK- and cAMP-associated molecules constitute ubiquitous intracellular signaling pathways that integrate extracellular stimuli, modify receptor expression and function, and regulate cell survival and neuroplasticity. These data suggest abnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in frontal cortical areas in schizophrenia. These alterations may underlie the hypothesized hypoglutamatergic function in this illness. Together with previous findings, these data suggest that abnormalities of intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:22048463

  8. Integrated Heterodyne MOEMS for detection of low intensity signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elman, Noel M.; Krylov, Slava; Sternheim, Marek; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2006-01-01

    A novel MEMS-based modulation scheme is presented as a method to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of silicon photodiodes adapted for the detection of light-emitting bio-reporter signals. Photodiodes are an attractive photodetector choice because they are VLSI compatible, easily miniaturized, highly scalable, and inexpensive. Silicon photodiodes exhibit a wide response range extending from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (IR) part of the spectrum, which in principle is appropriate for sensing low intensity optical signals. Silicon photodiodes, however, exhibit limited sensitivity to optical dc signals, as the magnitude of the low frequency noise is comparable to signal magnitude. Optical modulation prior to photodetection overcomes the inherent low frequency noise of photodetectors and system detection circuits. The enhancement scheme is based on a design of high frequency optical modulators that operate in the 1-2 kHz range in order to overcome the low frequency spectral noise. We have denominated this MEMS-based scheme Integrated Heterodyne Optical System (IHOS). The modulation efficiency of the proposed architecture can reach up to 50 percent. In order to implement the MOEMS optical modulators, a new two-mask fabrication process was developed that combines high-aspect ratio and low aspect ratio structures at the same device layer (aspect ratio is defined as a ratio between the structure height to its width). Long stroke electrostatic combdrive actuators integrated with folded flexures (high aspect-ratio) were fabricated together to drive large aperture shutters (low aspect ratio). We have denominated this process MASIS (Multiple Aspect Ratio Structural Integration). Under resonant excitation at approximately 1 kHz, MOEMS modulators demonstrated maximum displacement of about 40 microns at an actuation voltage of 15 V peak in air, and 3.5 V peak in vacuum (8 mTorr). Results of analytical solutions and finite element analysis (FEA) simulations are

  9. Abnormal Ras signaling in Costello syndrome (CS) negatively regulates enamel formation

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Alice F.; Tidyman, William E.; Jheon, Andrew H.; Sharir, Amnon; Zheng, Xu; Charles, Cyril; Fagin, James A.; McMahon, Martin; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Ganss, Bernhard; Rauen, Katherine A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    RASopathies are syndromes caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Ras signaling pathway. One of these conditions, Costello syndrome (CS), is typically caused by an activating de novo germline mutation in HRAS and is characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological and developmental abnormalities. We report that a majority of individuals with CS have hypo-mineralization of enamel, the outer covering of teeth, and that similar defects are present in a CS mouse model. Comprehensive analysis of the mouse model revealed that ameloblasts, the cells that generate enamel, lacked polarity, and the ameloblast progenitor cells were hyperproliferative. Ras signals through two main effector cascades, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. To determine through which pathway Ras affects enamel formation, inhibitors targeting either PI3K or MEK 1 and 2 (MEK 1/2), kinases in the MAPK pathway, were utilized. MEK1/2 inhibition rescued the hypo-mineralized enamel, normalized the ameloblast polarity defect and restored normal progenitor cell proliferation. In contrast, PI3K inhibition only corrected the progenitor cell proliferation phenotype. We demonstrate for the first time the central role of Ras signaling in enamel formation in CS individuals and present the mouse incisor as a model system to dissect the roles of the Ras effector pathways in vivo. PMID:24057668

  10. Amplification and Damping of Environmental Signals in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmont, P.; Kumarasamy, K.; Kelly, S. A.; Vaughan, A. A.; Call, B.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes transmit pulses of water, sediment and solutes through the terrestrial environment and network of stream channels. The timing, frequency and magnitude of these pulses depend on inputs of water, energy and rock/soil as well as a multitude of critical zone processes that may modulate the signal. Therefore, the potential for a landscape to generate and transmit these pulses changes over long timescales, primarily as a function of climate and local base level rise or fall. Humans have profoundly altered many critical zone processes that govern these environmental signals, often targeting rate-limiting processes for the purpose of enhancing economic productivity and/or reducing financial risk. These alterations are especially evident in the intensively managed landscapes of the Midwestern US, where vegetation change, soil tillage, and pervasive modifications of the surface and subsurface drainage system have substantially changed water, sediment and nutrient fluxes. Effects, in terms of amplification or damping of environmental signals, are strongly dependent on landscape setting, and often non-linear. Hysteresis and sensitivity may hinder the return to the initial state when perturbations have reached a certain threshold. We draw from multiple examples in the upper Midwestern US to illustrate, at a basic level, the mechanisms by which landscape evolution establishes the template for generation and transmission of environmental signals and furthermore how humans have altered critical zone processes to optimize specific landscape outputs, often at the expense of modifying the rate and/or magnitude of many other landscape outputs. We present a conceptual model and discuss implications for mathematical modeling of water, sediment and nutrient fluxes to guide watershed management and restoration.

  11. Abnormal proteins can form aggresome in yeast: aggresome-targeting signals and components of the machinery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Meriin, Anatoli B.; Zaarur, Nava; Romanova, Nina V.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Costello, Catherine E.; Sherman, Michael Y.

    2009-01-01

    In mammalian cells, abnormal proteins that escape proteasome-dependent degradation form small aggregates that can be transported into a centrosome-associated structure, called an aggresome. Here we demonstrate that in yeast a single aggregate formed by the huntingtin exon 1 with an expanded polyglutamine domain (103QP) represents a bona fide aggresome that colocalizes with the spindle pole body (the yeast centrosome) in a microtubule-dependent fashion. Since a polypeptide lacking the proline-rich region (P-region) of huntingtin (103Q) cannot form aggresomes, this domain serves as an aggresome-targeting signal. Coexpression of 103Q with 25QP, a soluble polypeptide that also carries the P-region, led to the recruitment of 103Q to the aggresome via formation of hetero-oligomers, indicating the aggresome targeting in trans. To identify additional factors involved in aggresome formation and targeting, we purified 103QP aggresomes and 103Q aggregates and identified the associated proteins using mass spectrometry. Among the aggresome-associated proteins we identified, Cdc48 (VCP/p97) and its cofactors, Ufd1 and Nlp4, were shown genetically to be essential for aggresome formation. The 14-3-3 protein, Bmh1, was also found to be critical for aggresome targeting. Its interaction with the huntingtin fragment and its role in aggresome formation required the huntingtin N-terminal N17 domain, adjacent to the polyQ domain. Accordingly, the huntingtin N17 domain, along with the P-region, plays a role in aggresome targeting. We also present direct genetic evidence for the protective role of aggresomes by demonstrating genetically that aggresome targeting of polyglutamine polypeptides relieves their toxicity.—Wang, Y., Meriin, A. B., Zaarur, N., Romanova, N. V., Chernoff, Y. O., Costello, C. E., Sherman, M. Y. Abnormal proteins can form aggresome in yeast: aggresome-targeting signals and components of the machinery. PMID:18854435

  12. High Pressure CPT Signals using Intensity Modulated Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Amber; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Miron, Eli; Romalis, Michael; Kuzma, Nicholas; Happer, William

    2004-05-01

    Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) is a promising technique for use in miniature atomic clocks, since it uses modulated light to detect clock resonances rather than microwaves. This method typically uses frequency-modulated light to probe cells with low buffer gas pressure, in which the ground-state hyperfine structure is clearly resolved. However, conventional frequency-modulated CPT fails at the higher pressures needed to inhibit wall collisions in miniature cells. We present theory and supporting experimental results of high-pressure CPT signals using intensity-modulated light. Circularly polarized light tuned to the Rb D1 line traps most of the atoms in the F=2, m_F=2, where the microwave ``end resonance"^2 is excited. We will show experimental data and briefly discuss linewidth broadening mechanisms. 2 Y.-Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press, 2004).

  13. Sizing Gaseous Emboli Using Doppler Embolic Signal Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Banahan, Caroline; Hague, James P.; Evans, David H.; Patel, Rizwan; Ramnarine, Kumar V.; Chung, Emma M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Extension of transcranial Doppler embolus detection to estimation of bubble size has historically been hindered by difficulties in applying scattering theory to the interpretation of clinical data. This article presents a simplified approach to the sizing of air emboli based on analysis of Doppler embolic signal intensity, by using an approximation to the full scattering theory that can be solved to estimate embolus size. Tests using simulated emboli show that our algorithm is theoretically capable of sizing 90% of “emboli” to within 10% of their true radius. In vitro tests show that 69% of emboli can be sized to within 20% of their true value under ideal conditions, which reduces to 30% of emboli if the beam and vessel are severely misaligned. Our results demonstrate that estimation of bubble size during clinical monitoring could be used to distinguish benign microbubbles from potentially harmful macrobubbles during intraoperative clinical monitoring. PMID:22402022

  14. White Matter Signal Abnormalities in Children with suspected HIV-Related Neurologic Disease on Early Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Christelle; Andronikou, Savvas; Laughton, Barbara; Kidd, Martin; Dobbels, Els; Innes, Steve; van Toorn, Ronald; Cotton, Mark

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The natural history and manifestation of HIV-related neurological disease have been ameliorated by combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We describe the characteristics of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with HIV-related neurological disease. METHODS We reviewed MRI scans of children with suspected HIV-related neurological disease despite early ART, and correlated with clinical, neurodevelopmental data, virological markers and time on ART. These children were also on the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral (CHER) trial. RESULTS MRI scans were performed at a mean age 31.9 months (range 8-54) on 44 children: 10 on deferred and 34 on early treatment arms, commencing ART at mean age of 18.5 and 8 weeks respectively. Multiple high signal intensity lesions on T2 /FLAIR were documented in 22 patients (50%), predominantly in frontal (91%) and parietal (82%) white matter. No differences in neurodevelopmental scores comparing children with and without WMSA were found. Neither lesion load nor distribution showed significant correlation with neurodevelopmental scores or neurological examination. Normal head growth was more common in the WMSA group (p=0.01). There was a trend for association of WMSA and longer time on ART (p=0.13) and nadir CD4% (p=0.08). CONCLUSION Half of children referred with HIV-related brain disease had WMSA on T2/FLAIR. Our findings of the association with normal head growth and duration of ART require further study. We suspect that WMSA can occur early and that initiating ART by 8 weeks of life may be too late to prevent HIV from entering the CNS. PMID:24595047

  15. 33 CFR 86.05 - Sound signal intensity and range of audibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sound signal intensity and range... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Whistles § 86.05 Sound signal intensity and range of audibility. A whistle on a vessel shall provide, in...

  16. 33 CFR 86.05 - Sound signal intensity and range of audibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal intensity and range... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Whistles § 86.05 Sound signal intensity and range of audibility. A whistle on a vessel shall provide, in...

  17. 33 CFR 86.05 - Sound signal intensity and range of audibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sound signal intensity and range... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Whistles § 86.05 Sound signal intensity and range of audibility. A whistle on a vessel shall provide, in...

  18. 33 CFR 86.05 - Sound signal intensity and range of audibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sound signal intensity and range... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Whistles § 86.05 Sound signal intensity and range of audibility. A whistle on a vessel shall provide, in...

  19. 33 CFR 86.05 - Sound signal intensity and range of audibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sound signal intensity and range... HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Whistles § 86.05 Sound signal intensity and range of audibility. A whistle on a vessel shall provide, in...

  20. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Vinicius S; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

  1. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Vinicius S.; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

  2. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and body composition abnormalities are common in advanced intensively-treated (transplanted) multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, D M; Boland, E; Ezaydi, Y; Ross, R J M; Ahmedzai, S H; Snowden, J A

    2014-07-01

    Modern treatment strategies have increased life expectancy in multiple myeloma, but little is known about the endocrine, metabolic and nutritional status of long-term survivors. We performed endocrine, metabolic, bone, body composition and nutritional evaluations in 32 patients with intensively-treated, advanced but stable, myeloma a median duration of 6 years from diagnosis and three lines of intensive treatment, including at least one haematopoietic SCT procedure. All patients were off active treatment. There was a high prevalence of endocrine dysfunction: hypothyroidism (9%), hypogonadism (65% males) and elevated prolactin (19%). Adrenocortical function was preserved despite large cumulative corticosteroid pretreatment. Biochemical markers were consistent with postmenopausal status in all females and infertility in males. Nutritionally, 59% were vitamin D insufficient/deficient, reduced serum folate in 25% and vitamin B12 in 6%. Total body DEXA scanning confirmed 'sarcopenic-obesity' in 65%, but reduced bone density was seen in a minority. We conclude that potentially correctable endocrine, metabolic and nutritional abnormalities are prevalent in heavily-treated patients with stable multiple myeloma. Preservation of bone supports the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment from diagnosis, but sarcopenic-obesity may contribute to frailty. Ultimately, multi-system screening and appropriate interventions may optimise quality of long-term survival and further studies are warranted. PMID:24710566

  3. White matter signal abnormality quality differentiates mild cognitive impairment that converts to Alzheimer's disease from nonconverters.

    PubMed

    Lindemer, Emily R; Salat, David H; Smith, Eric E; Nguyen, Khoa; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how longitudinal change in the quantity and quality of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) contributes to the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Mahalanobis distance of WMSA from normal-appearing white matter using T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted MRI was defined as a quality measure for WMSA. Cross-sectional analysis of WMSA volume in 104 cognitively healthy older adults, 116 individuals with MCI who converted to AD within 3 years (mild cognitive impairment converter [MCI-C]), 115 individuals with MCI that did not convert in that time (mild cognitive impairment nonconverter [MCI-NC]), and 124 individuals with AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative revealed that WMSA volume was substantially greater in AD relative to the other groups but did not differ between MCI-NC and MCI-C. Longitudinally, MCI-C exhibited faster WMSA quality progression but not volume compared with matched MCI-NC beginning 18 months before MCI-C conversion to AD. The strongest difference in rate of change was seen in the time period starting 6 months before MCI-C conversion to AD and ending 6 months after conversion (p < 0.001). The relatively strong effect in this time period relative to AD conversion in the MCI-C was similar to the relative rate of change in hippocampal volume, a traditional imaging marker of AD pathology. These data demonstrate changes in white matter tissue properties that occur within WMSA in individuals with MCI that will subsequently obtain a clinical diagnosis of AD within 18 months. Individuals with AD have substantially greater WMSA volume than all MCI suggesting that there is a progressive accumulation of WMSA with progressive disease severity, and that quality change predates changes in this total volume. Given the timing of the changes in WMSA tissue quality relative to the clinical diagnosis of AD, these findings suggest that WMSAs are a critical

  4. MRI follow-up of subchondral signal abnormalities in a selected group of chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Katariina; Vehmas, Tapio; Grönblad, Mats; Kerttula, Liisa; Kääpä, Eeva

    2008-10-01

    Subchondral signal abnormalities have been suggested to play an important role in chronic low back pain (LBP) syndromes. Their natural course is not well known. In this study the morphology and natural course of isolated subchondral signal abnormalities in the lumbosacral spine were analyzed with MRI. Twenty-four chronic LBP patients with a subchondral hypointensity on T1-weighted image (hyperintense on T2), indicating edema, were selected from a base population of 1,015 consecutive LBP patients to a follow-up MRI study within 18-72 months. Exclusion criteria were age >60 years, nerve root compression, a more specific back disease or a recent or major spine operation. The size and location of each subchondral signal abnormality and endplate lesion and the degree of degenerative disc changes were evaluated and compared between the baseline and follow-up studies. Most subchondral hypointensities were found at the L4/L5 or L5/S1 disc space, anteriorly and in both adjacent endplates. Almost all (53/54) hypointensities were associated with an endplate lesion. Twelve of the 54 subchondral hypointensities enlarged, six remained constant and 36 decreased or disappeared while five new ones appeared. Twenty-two (41%) hypointensities changed totally to hyperintensities or to mixed lesions. If the hypointensity increased, decreased or changed into hyperintensity, a change tended to develop in the adjacent endplate. If the hypointensity was absent or unchanged, endplate lesions did not tend to progress. In the absence of disc herniation or other specific spinal disease, subchondral hypointensities indicating edema are uncommon. They seem to have a highly variable course. There appears to be a link between endplate lesions and subchondral signal abnormalities. Further study is needed to explain the contribution of these findings to low back symptoms. PMID:18648860

  5. In Vivo Notch Signaling Blockade Induces Abnormal Spermatogenesis in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Murta, Daniel; Batista, Marta; Trindade, Alexandre; Silva, Elisabete; Henrique, Domingos; Duarte, António; Lopes-da-Costa, Luís

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we identified active Notch signaling in key cellular events occurring at adult spermatogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the function of Notch signaling in spermatogenesis through the effects of in vivo Notch blockade. Adult CD1 male mice were either submitted to a long term DAPT (?-secretase inhibitor) or vehicle treatment. Treatment duration was designed to attain one half the time (25 days) or the time (43 days) required to accomplish a complete cycle of spermatogenesis. Blockade of Notch signaling was depicted from decreased transcription of Notch effector genes. Notch signaling blockade disrupted the expression patterns of Notch components in the testis, induced male germ cell fate aberrations, and significantly increased germ cell apoptosis, mainly in the last stages of the spermatogenic cycle, and epididymis spermatozoa morphological defects. These effects were more pronounced following the 43 day than the 25 day DAPT treatment schedule. These results indicate a relevant regulatory role of Notch signaling in mammalian spermatogenesis. PMID:25412258

  6. Abnormal salience signaling in schizophrenia: The role of integrative beta oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Brookes, Matthew J.; Robson, Siân E.; Hall, Emma L.; Morris, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aberrant salience attribution and cerebral dysconnectivity both have strong evidential support as core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Aberrant salience arising from an excess of dopamine activity has been implicated in delusions and hallucinations, exaggerating the significance of everyday occurrences and thus leading to perceptual distortions and delusional causal inferences. Meanwhile, abnormalities in key nodes of a salience brain network have been implicated in other characteristic symptoms, including the disorganization and impoverishment of mental activity. A substantial body of literature reports disruption to brain network connectivity in schizophrenia. Electrical oscillations likely play a key role in the coordination of brain activity at spatially remote sites, and evidence implicates beta band oscillations in long‐range integrative processes. We used magnetoencephalography and a task designed to disambiguate responses to relevant from irrelevant stimuli to investigate beta oscillations in nodes of a network implicated in salience detection and previously shown to be structurally and functionally abnormal in schizophrenia. Healthy participants, as expected, produced an enhanced beta synchronization to behaviorally relevant, as compared to irrelevant, stimuli, while patients with schizophrenia showed the reverse pattern: a greater beta synchronization in response to irrelevant than to relevant stimuli. These findings not only support both the aberrant salience and disconnectivity hypotheses, but indicate a common mechanism that allows us to integrate them into a single framework for understanding schizophrenia in terms of disrupted recruitment of contextually appropriate brain networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1361‐1374, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26853904

  7. Abnormal salience signaling in schizophrenia: The role of integrative beta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Elizabeth B; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Brookes, Matthew J; Robson, Siân E; Hall, Emma L; Morris, Peter G; Liddle, Peter F

    2016-04-01

    Aberrant salience attribution and cerebral dysconnectivity both have strong evidential support as core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Aberrant salience arising from an excess of dopamine activity has been implicated in delusions and hallucinations, exaggerating the significance of everyday occurrences and thus leading to perceptual distortions and delusional causal inferences. Meanwhile, abnormalities in key nodes of a salience brain network have been implicated in other characteristic symptoms, including the disorganization and impoverishment of mental activity. A substantial body of literature reports disruption to brain network connectivity in schizophrenia. Electrical oscillations likely play a key role in the coordination of brain activity at spatially remote sites, and evidence implicates beta band oscillations in long-range integrative processes. We used magnetoencephalography and a task designed to disambiguate responses to relevant from irrelevant stimuli to investigate beta oscillations in nodes of a network implicated in salience detection and previously shown to be structurally and functionally abnormal in schizophrenia. Healthy participants, as expected, produced an enhanced beta synchronization to behaviorally relevant, as compared to irrelevant, stimuli, while patients with schizophrenia showed the reverse pattern: a greater beta synchronization in response to irrelevant than to relevant stimuli. These findings not only support both the aberrant salience and disconnectivity hypotheses, but indicate a common mechanism that allows us to integrate them into a single framework for understanding schizophrenia in terms of disrupted recruitment of contextually appropriate brain networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1361-1374, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26853904

  8. Characterization of the TGF-β1 signaling abnormalities in the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zingariello, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Ciaffoni, Fiorella; Masiello, Francesca; Ghinassi, Barbara; D’Amore, Emanuela; Massa, Margherita; Barosi, Giovanni; Sancillo, Laura; Li, Xiaochun; Goldberg, Judith D.; Rana, Rosa Alba

    2013-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is characterized by fibrosis, ineffective hematopoiesis in marrow, and hematopoiesis in extramedullary sites and is associated with abnormal megakaryocyte (MK) development and increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 release. To clarify the role of TGF-β1 in the pathogenesis of this disease, the TGF-β1 signaling pathway of marrow and spleen of the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis (MF) was profiled and the consequences of inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling on disease manifestations determined. The expression of 20 genes in marrow and 36 genes in spleen of Gata1low mice was altered. David-pathway analyses identified alterations of TGF-β1, Hedgehog, and p53 signaling in marrow and spleen and of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in spleen only and predicted that these alterations would induce consequences consistent with the Gata1low phenotype (increased apoptosis and G1 arrest both in marrow and spleen and increased osteoblast differentiation and reduced ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in marrow only). Inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling normalized the expression of p53-related genes, restoring hematopoiesis and MK development and reducing fibrosis, neovascularization, and osteogenesis in marrow. It also normalized p53/mTOR/Hedgehog-related genes in spleen, reducing extramedullary hematopoiesis. These data identify altered expression signatures of TGF-β1 signaling that may be responsible for MF in Gata1low mice and may represent additional targets for therapeutic intervention in PMF. PMID:23462118

  9. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  10. Loss and re-adaptation of lumbar intervertebral disc water signal intensity after prolonged bedrest.

    PubMed

    Kordi, M; Belavý, D L; Armbrecht, G; Sheikh, A; Felsenberg, D; Trudel, G

    2015-09-01

    The adaptation and re-adaptation process of the intervertebral disc (IVD) to prolonged bedrest is important for understanding IVD physiology and IVD herniations in astronauts. Little information is available on changes in IVD composition. In this study, 24 male subjects underwent 60-day bedrest and In/Out Phase magnetic resonance imaging sequences were performed to evaluate IVD shape and water signal intensity. Scanning was performed before bedrest (baseline), twice during bedrest, and three, six and twenty-four months after bedrest. Area, signal intensity, average height, and anteroposterior diameter of the lumbar L3/4 and L4/5 IVDs were measured. At the end of bedrest, disc height and area were significantly increased with no change in water signal intensity. After bedrest, we observed reduced IVD signal intensity three months (p=0.004 versus baseline), six months (p=0.003 versus baseline), but not twenty-four months (p=0.25 versus baseline) post-bedrest. At these same time points post-bedrest, IVD height and area remained increased. The reduced lumbar IVD water signal intensity in the first months after bedrest implies a reduction of glycosaminoglycans and/or free water in the IVD. Subsequently, at two years after bedrest, IVD hydration status returned towards pre-bedrest levels, suggesting a gradual, but slow, re-adaptation process of the IVD after prolonged bedrest. PMID:26350949

  11. Stabilization of signal beam intensity for fault-tolerant automatic routing with double phase conjugate mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hayato; Okamoto, Atsushi; Bunsen, Masatoshi

    2004-06-01

    We have proposed a fault-tolerant automatic routing method with two photorefractive double phase conjugate mirrors (DPCMs) for free space optical communication by now. In this method, a signal beam can be all-optically and automatically switched from a main line to a backup line when the main line is shut off by obstacles. The optical link between a transmitter and a receiver is kept without any electronic devices and complex optical configuration because the adequate communication line is automatically selected by two DPCMs which are generated by the signal beam and support beams in one photorefractive crystal. In this report, we equalize the signal beam intensities on the main line and the backup line to increase the reliability of communication. If a coupling strength ratio between two DPCMs is inappropriate, the signal beam intensities on both lines become inequality and this induces the increase of the bit error rate in beam detection. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the signal beam intensities by changing the coupling strength ratio between two DPCMs. We show that the signal beam intensities on both lines can be equalized completely by using the optimum coupling strength ratio between two DPCMs, e.g. about 1.28 in BaTiO3 crystal.

  12. Intracranial Lesions with Low Signal Intensity on T2-weighted MR Images - Review of Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zimny, Anna; Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Bladowska, Joanna; Sąsiadek, Marek J

    2015-01-01

    In this article we presented intracranial pathological substances and lesions with low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Eight groups of substances were discussed i.e. 1. Gadolinium-based contrast materials, 2. hemoglobin degradation products 3. melanin, 4. mucous- or protein-containing lesions, 5. highly cellular lesions, 6. lesions containing mineral substances such as: calcium, copper and iron, 7. turbulent and rapid blood or CSF flow 8. air-containing spaces. Appropriate interpretation of signal intensity as well as analysis of lesion location and clinical symptoms enable a correct choice of a further diagnostic algorithm or, in many cases, final diagnosis based exclusively on an MRI examination. PMID:25628772

  13. Noiseless intensity amplification of repetitive signals by coherent addition using the temporal Talbot effect

    PubMed Central

    Maram, Reza; Van Howe, James; Li, Ming; Azaña, José

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of signal intensity is essential for initiating physical processes, diagnostics, sensing, communications and measurement. During traditional amplification, the signal is amplified by multiplying the signal carriers through an active gain process, requiring the use of an external power source. In addition, the signal is degraded by noise and distortions that typically accompany active gain processes. We show noiseless intensity amplification of repetitive optical pulse waveforms with gain from 2 to ~20 without using active gain. The proposed method uses a dispersion-induced temporal self-imaging (Talbot) effect to redistribute and coherently accumulate energy of the original repetitive waveforms into fewer replica waveforms. In addition, we show how our passive amplifier performs a real-time average of the wave-train to reduce its original noise fluctuation, as well as enhances the extinction ratio of pulses to stand above the noise floor. Our technique is applicable to repetitive waveforms in any spectral region or wave system. PMID:25319207

  14. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    PubMed

    Purrier, Nicole; Engeland, William C; Kofuji, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF) visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR) via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay) in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods). Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light. PMID:25357191

  15. Genetic and functional analyses demonstrate a role for abnormal glycinergic signaling in autism.

    PubMed

    Pilorge, M; Fassier, C; Le Corronc, H; Potey, A; Bai, J; De Gois, S; Delaby, E; Assouline, B; Guinchat, V; Devillard, F; Delorme, R; Nygren, G; Råstam, M; Meier, J C; Otani, S; Cheval, H; James, V M; Topf, M; Dear, T N; Gillberg, C; Leboyer, M; Giros, B; Gautron, S; Hazan, J; Harvey, R J; Legendre, P; Betancur, C

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity. Recent studies of rare structural and sequence variants have identified hundreds of loci involved in ASD, but our knowledge of the overall genetic architecture and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remains incomplete. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the adult nervous system but exert an excitatory action in immature neurons. GlyRs containing the α2 subunit are highly expressed in the embryonic brain, where they promote cortical interneuron migration and the generation of excitatory projection neurons. We previously identified a rare microdeletion of the X-linked gene GLRA2, encoding the GlyR α2 subunit, in a boy with autism. The microdeletion removes the terminal exons of the gene (GLRA2(Δex8-9)). Here, we sequenced 400 males with ASD and identified one de novo missense mutation, p.R153Q, absent from controls. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that the GLRA2(Δex8)(-)(9) protein failed to localize to the cell membrane, while the R153Q mutation impaired surface expression and markedly reduced sensitivity to glycine. Very recently, an additional de novo missense mutation (p.N136S) was reported in a boy with ASD, and we show that this mutation also reduced cell-surface expression and glycine sensitivity. Targeted glra2 knockdown in zebrafish induced severe axon-branching defects, rescued by injection of wild type but not GLRA2(Δex8-9) or R153Q transcripts, providing further evidence for their loss-of-function effect. Glra2 knockout mice exhibited deficits in object recognition memory and impaired long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these results implicate GLRA2 in non-syndromic ASD, unveil a novel role for GLRA2 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, and link altered glycinergic signaling to social and cognitive

  16. B cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus display abnormal antigen receptor-mediated early signal transduction events.

    PubMed Central

    Liossis, S N; Kovacs, B; Dennis, G; Kammer, G M; Tsokos, G C

    1996-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the B cell overactivity that is observed in patients with SLE, we have conducted experiments in which the surface immunoglobulin (sIg)-mediated early cell signaling events were studied. The anti-sIgM-mediated free intracytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]i) responses were significantly higher in SLE B cells compared with responses of normal individuals and to those of patients with other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The anti-IgD mAb induced [Ca2+]i responses were also higher in lupus B cells than in controls. The magnitude of anti-sIgM-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores was also increased in B cells from SLE patients compared with normal controls. The amount of inositol phosphate metabolites produced upon crosslinking of sIgM was slightly higher in patients with lupus than in normal controls, although the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, the degree of anti-sIgM-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation was obviously increased in lupus patients. Our study demonstrates clearly for the first time that SLE B cells exhibit aberrant early signal transduction events, including augmented calcium responses after crosslinking of the B cell receptor and increased antigen-receptor-mediated phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. Because the above abnormalities did not correlate with disease activity or treatment status, we propose that they may have pathogenic significance. PMID:8958217

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Diffusion Weighted MR Images of Brain Tumor Using Signal Intensity Gradient Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhag, S. S.; Udupi, G. R.; Patil, K. M.; Ranganath, K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of diffusion weighted-magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in the examination and classification of brain tumors, namely, glioma and meningioma. Our hypothesis was that as signal intensity variations on diffusion weighted (DW) images depend on histology and cellularity of the tumor, analysing the signal intensity characteristics on DW images may allow differentiating between the tumor types. Towards this end the signal intensity variations on DW images of the entire tumor volume data of 20 subjects with glioma and 12 subjects with meningioma were investigated and quantified using signal intensity gradient (SIG) parameter. The relative increase in the SIG values (RSIG) for the subjects with glioma and meningioma was in the range of 10.08–28.36 times and 5.60–9.86 times, respectively, compared to their corresponding SIG values on the contralateral hemisphere. The RSIG values were significantly different between the subjects with glioma and meningioma (P < 0.01), with no overlap between RSIG values across the two tumors. The results indicate that the quantitative changes in the RSIG values could be applied in the differential diagnosis of glioma and meningioma, and their adoption in clinical diagnosis and treatment could be helpful and informative. PMID:27006934

  18. Decrease in the electric intensity of VLF/LF radio signals and possible connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, P. F.; Castellana, L.; Maggipinto, T.; Maggipinto, G.; Minafra, A.; Ermini, A.; Capozzi, V.; Perna, G.; Solovieva, M.; Rozhnoi, A.; Molchanov, O. A.; Hayakawa, M.

    2007-06-01

    In February 2002, a receiver was put into operation at the Department of Physics of Bari University (Southern Italy) to record VLF-LF radio signals. The intensity and the phase of the signals transmitted by GB (f=16 kHz, United Kingdom), FR (f=20.9 kHz, France), GE (f=23.4 kHz, Germany), IC (f=37.5 kHz, Island) and IT (f=54 kHz, Sicily, Italy) has been monitored with a 5 s sampling rate. The intensity raw data averaged over 10 min, from February 2002 to April 2006, have been analysed. Several decreases of the electric field intensity of the radio signals with a duration of some days were revealed, generally occurring in not concomitant periods. The GE signal decreases systematically in winter and summer each year and so, it could be supposed that such decreases are related to the transmitter. On the contrary, all the other decreases pointed out are sporadic and the previous justification does not seem realistic. On the time occurrence of these decreases, the geomagnetic activity, the meteorological conditions in the receiver area and the regional seismic activity were investigated. The main result is that, generally, a pre or post seismic effect seems to give the most convincing justification. The effect seems to appear for earthquakes with magnitude M≥4.3, when the epicentres are within the third Fresnel zone of the radio signals or near enough to some radio path.

  19. Quantitative optical coherence tomography by maximum a-posteriori estimation of signal intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Aaron C.; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Miyazawa, Arata; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    A maximum a-posteriori (MAP) estimator for signal amplitude of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is presented. This estimator provides an accurate and low bias estimation of the correct OCT signal amplitude even at very low signal-tonoise ratios. As a result, contrast improvement of retinal OCT images is demonstrated. In addition, this estimation method allows for an estimation reliability to be calculated. By combining the MAP estimator with a previously demonstrated attenuation imaging algorithm, we present attenuation coefficient images of the retina. From the reliability derived from the MAP image one can also determine which regions of the attenuation images are unreliable. From Jones matrix OCT data of the optic nerve head (ONH), we also demonstrate that combining MAP with polarization diversity (PD) OCT images can generate intensity images with fewer birefringence artifacts, resulting in better attenuation images. Analysis of the MAP intensity images shows higher image SNR than averaging.

  20. Shot-Peening Intensities VS. Eddy Current Signals as Seen in Iterative Treatment-Measurement Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Frishman, A. M.; Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.

    2009-03-01

    We report on progress in a swept high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) technique for characterization of surface residual stress on shot-peened superalloy surfaces. Our aim here is to demonstrate the sensitivity of our measurement for practical shot peening intensities, i.e. at 4˜6 A. First, we present our improved probe and instrumentation being sufficiently sensitive to resolve the surface conditions at these low Almen intensities, where our earlier measurements encountered noise problems. The previous coil was also larger (18 mm in diameter) than desirable. Our new probe integrates smaller coils (12 mm in diameter, forming an AC bridge) and on-board electronics on a common printed circuit board, mutually connected at the shortest possible distance. The operational-amplifier-based electronics acts as impedance buffers, and maintains the cabling impedance at the characteristic 50 Ω between the probe board and the instruments. We have thus reduced the instrumentation noises. Second, we present the result of an iterative treatment-measurement experiment, performed on a 2"-by-3" Inconel 718 block specimen, initially polished to a mirror finish. After an initial baseline SHFEC measurement, we performed shot peening, an Almen strip deflection measurement, and a SHFEC measurement as one iteration cycle, and repeated the cycles multiple times at predetermined intervals. We will show the resulting SHFEC signals (i.e. lift-off normalized vertical-component signals) plotted against the Almen intensities. We then draw several conclusions from the experimental data, including a) the SHFEC signals increase monotonically in correlation with the Almen intensity increase, and b) the SHFEC signals exhibit sufficient deviations to resolve 4˜6 A intensities, while c) the SHFEC signals indicate saturation of the Inconel 718 response against peening, but the saturation occurs later in the iteration than indicated by the A-series Almen strip.

  1. Intracranial lesions with high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images – review of pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Zimny, Anna; Zińska, Lidia; Bladowska, Joanna; Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Summary In the article we present pathological intracranial substances and lesions, which produce high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images. Six groups of substances are discussed: 1. Gadolinium – based contrast agents, 2.hemoglobin degradation products (intra- and extra-cellular methemoglobin), 3. lipid-containing lesions (lipoma, dermoid cyst, implanted fatty materials, laminar cortical necrosis), 4. substances with high concentration of proteins (colloid cyst, craniopharyngioma, Rathke’s cleft cyst, ectopic posterior pituitary gland), 5. melanin (metastatic melanoma), 6. lesions containing mineral substances such as: calcium (calcifications, Fahr’s disease), copper (Wilson’s disease) and manganese (hepatic encephalopathy, manganese intoxication in intravenous drug abusers). Appropriate interpretation of signal intensity as well as analysis of location of lesions and clinical symptoms enables planning of further diagnostics and, in many cases, establishing the final diagnosis based on MR examination. PMID:24505222

  2. Intracranial Lesions with Low Signal Intensity on T2-weighted MR Images – Review of Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Zimny, Anna; Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Bladowska, Joanna; Sąsiadek, Marek J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this article we presented intracranial pathological substances and lesions with low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Eight groups of substances were discussed i.e. 1. Gadolinium-based contrast materials, 2. hemoglobin degradation products 3. melanin, 4. mucous- or protein-containing lesions, 5. highly cellular lesions, 6. lesions containing mineral substances such as: calcium, copper and iron, 7. turbulent and rapid blood or CSF flow 8. air-containing spaces. Appropriate interpretation of signal intensity as well as analysis of lesion location and clinical symptoms enable a correct choice of a further diagnostic algorithm or, in many cases, final diagnosis based exclusively on an MRI examination. PMID:25628772

  3. Intracranial lesions with high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images - review of pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zimny, Anna; Zińska, Lidia; Bladowska, Joanna; Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-10-01

    In the article we present pathological intracranial substances and lesions, which produce high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images. Six groups of substances are discussed: 1. Gadolinium - based contrast agents, 2.hemoglobin degradation products (intra- and extra-cellular methemoglobin), 3. lipid-containing lesions (lipoma, dermoid cyst, implanted fatty materials, laminar cortical necrosis), 4. substances with high concentration of proteins (colloid cyst, craniopharyngioma, Rathke's cleft cyst, ectopic posterior pituitary gland), 5. melanin (metastatic melanoma), 6. lesions containing mineral substances such as: calcium (calcifications, Fahr's disease), copper (Wilson's disease) and manganese (hepatic encephalopathy, manganese intoxication in intravenous drug abusers). Appropriate interpretation of signal intensity as well as analysis of location of lesions and clinical symptoms enables planning of further diagnostics and, in many cases, establishing the final diagnosis based on MR examination. PMID:24505222

  4. Uterine Fibroids: Correlation of T2 Signal Intensity with Semiquantitative Perfusion MR Parameters in Patients Screened for MR-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationships between T2 signal intensity and semiquantitative perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) parameters of uterine fibroids in patients who were screened for MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was granted, and informed consents were waived. One hundred seventy most symptom-relevant, nondegenerated uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 7.3 cm; range, 3.0-17.2 cm) in 170 women (mean age, 43.5 years; range, 24-56 years) undergoing screening MR examinations for MR-guided HIFU ablation from October 2009 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Fibroid signal intensity was assessed as the ratio of the fibroid T2 signal intensity to that of skeletal muscle. Parameters of semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging obtained during screening MR examination (peak enhancement, percentage of relative peak enhancement, time to peak [in seconds], wash-in rate [per seconds], and washout rate [per seconds]) were investigated to assess their relationships with T2 signal ratio by using multiple linear regression analysis. Correlations between T2 signal intensity and independently significant perfusion parameters were then evaluated according to fibroid type by using Spearman correlation test. Results Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that relative peak enhancement showed an independently significant correlation with T2 signal ratio (Β = 0.004, P < .001). Submucosal intracavitary (n = 20, ρ = 0.275, P = .240) and type III (n = 18, ρ = 0.082, P = .748) fibroids failed to show significant correlations between perfusion and T2 signal intensity, while significant correlations were found for all other fibroid types (ρ = 0.411-0.629, P < .05). Conclusion In possible candidates for MR-guided HIFU ablation, the T2 signal intensity of nondegenerated uterine fibroids showed an independently significant positive correlation with relative peak enhancement in most cases, except

  5. Intensive Rehabilitation Enhances Lymphocyte BDNF-TrkB Signaling in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Cecilia; Kvint, Svetlana; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Bera, Rossana; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Rebholz, Heike; Friedman, Eitan; Pezzoli, Gianni; Quartarone, Angelo; Wang, Hoau-Yan; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2016-06-01

    Background In a combined animal and human study, we have previously found that a 5-day treatment that enhances cortical plasticity also facilitates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling and increases activated TrkB and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) association in both the cortex and the peripheral lymphocytes. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), in general, show decreased cortical plasticity, as demonstrated by electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Here, we test the hypothesis that an exercise program that improves motor function and seems to slow down symptom progression can enhance BDNF-TrkB signaling in lymphocytes. Methods A total of 16 patients with PD underwent a 4-week multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment (MIRT), which included aerobic training and physical and occupational therapy. Blood was collected before and after 2 and 4 weeks of MIRT. Lymphocytes were isolated to examine BDNF-TrkB signaling induced by incubation with recombinant human BDNF. TrkB signaling complexes, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 and protein-kinase-B were immunoprecipitated; the content of immunocomplexes was determined by Western blotting. Results After MIRT, all patients showed improvement in motor function. TrkB interaction with NMDAR and BDNF-TrkB signaling increased in peripheral lymphocytes at receptor, intracellular mediator, and downstream levels. The decrements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II (UPDRSII) and total scores were significantly correlated with the increases in TrkB signaling at receptor, intracellular mediator, and NMDAR interaction levels. Conclusions The significant correlation between reduced UPDRS scores and the changes in lymphocyte activity suggest that enhanced BDNF-TrkB signaling in lymphocyte and reduced severity of PD symptoms may be related. PMID:26253177

  6. G-stack modulated probe intensities on expression arrays - sequence corrections and signal calibration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The brightness of the probe spots on expression microarrays intends to measure the abundance of specific mRNA targets. Probes with runs of at least three guanines (G) in their sequence show abnormal high intensities which reflect rather probe effects than target concentrations. This G-bias requires correction prior to downstream expression analysis. Results Longer runs of three or more consecutive G along the probe sequence and in particular triple degenerated G at its solution end ((GGG)1-effect) are associated with exceptionally large probe intensities on GeneChip expression arrays. This intensity bias is related to non-specific hybridization and affects both perfect match and mismatch probes. The (GGG)1-effect tends to increase gradually for microarrays of later GeneChip generations. It was found for DNA/RNA as well as for DNA/DNA probe/target-hybridization chemistries. Amplification of sample RNA using T7-primers is associated with strong positive amplitudes of the G-bias whereas alternative amplification protocols using random primers give rise to much smaller and partly even negative amplitudes. We applied positional dependent sensitivity models to analyze the specifics of probe intensities in the context of all possible short sequence motifs of one to four adjacent nucleotides along the 25meric probe sequence. Most of the longer motifs are adequately described using a nearest-neighbor (NN) model. In contrast, runs of degenerated guanines require explicit consideration of next nearest neighbors (GGG terms). Preprocessing methods such as vsn, RMA, dChip, MAS5 and gcRMA only insufficiently remove the G-bias from data. Conclusions Positional and motif dependent sensitivity models accounts for sequence effects of oligonucleotide probe intensities. We propose a positional dependent NN+GGG hybrid model to correct the intensity bias associated with probes containing poly-G motifs. It is implemented as a single-chip based calibration algorithm for Gene

  7. Misleading changes of the signal intensity on opposed-phase MRI after injection of contrast medium

    SciTech Connect

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H.; Hoefer, H.; Spielmann, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The effect of opposed-phase imaging on the interpretation of MR contrast studies is highlighted. A model calculation is performed. It demonstrates the change of signal intensity of an average tumor before and after application of Gd-DTPA on an in-phase and an opposed-phase image, depending on the percentage of fat within the voxels. The effect is then demonstrated, using a small cotton stick soaked with water or a solution of contrast agent representing a tumor before and after i.v. application of Gd-DTPA. If an average enhancing tumor, which is surrounded by fat, occupies less than 50-60% of the slice thickness, it becomes undetectable on opposed-phase images. The reason is that due to signal cancellation on the the opposed image, no signal change or even signal decrease results, while signal increase is visible on the in-phase image. In those areas of the body where significant partial volume of a tumor with fat may occur (such as for breast tumors growing along ducts, which are surrounded by fat), severe errors can result. Therefore we explicitly warn from using opposed-image sequences for MR contrast studies. 14 ref.s, 4 figs.

  8. Tactile texture signals in primate primary somatosensory cortex and their relation to subjective roughness intensity.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Stéphanie; Dépeault, Alexandra; Meftah, El-Mehdi; Chapman, C Elaine

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that a simple intensive code, based on mean firing rate, could explain the cortical representation of subjective roughness intensity and its invariance with scanning speed. We examined the sensitivity of neurons in the cutaneous, finger representation of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to a wide range of textures [1 mm high, raised-dot surfaces; spatial periods (SPs), 1.5-8.5 mm], scanned under the digit tips at different speeds (40-115 mm/s). Since subjective roughness estimates show a monotonic increase over this range and are independent of speed, we predicted that the mean firing rate of a subgroup of S1 neurons would share these properties. Single-unit recordings were made in four alert macaques (areas 3b, 1 and 2). Cells whose discharge rate showed a monotonic increase with SP, independent of speed, were particularly concentrated in area 3b. Area 2 was characterized by a high proportion of cells sensitive to speed, with or without texture sensitivity. Area 1 had intermediate properties. We suggest that area 3b and most likely area 1 play a key role in signaling roughness intensity, and that a mean rate code, signaled by both slowly and rapidly adapting neurons, is present at the level of area 3b. Finally, the substantial proportion of neurons that showed a monotonic change in discharge limited to a small range of SPs (often independent of response saturation) could play a role in discriminating smaller changes in SP. PMID:26763776

  9. PDM-16QAM vector signal generation and detection based on intensity modulation and direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel and simple method to generate and detect high speed polarization-division-multiplexing 16-ary quadrature-amplitude-modulation (PDM-16QAM) vector signal enabled by Mach-Zehnder modulator-based (MZM-based) optical-carrier-suppression (OCS) intensity modulation and direct detection. Due to the adoption of OCS intensity modulation, carrier beating can be avoided at the receiver, and thus polarization de-multiplexing can be implemented by digital-signal-processing-based (DSP-based) cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization instead of a polarization tracking system. The change of both amplitude and phase information due to the adoption of OCS modulation can be equalized by DSP-based amplitude and phase precoding at the transmitter. Up to 64-Gb/s PDM-16QAM vector signal is generated and detected after 2-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) or 20-km large-effective-area fiber (LEAF) transmission with a bit-error-ratio (BER) less than the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  10. Reversal of Early Abnormalities in Glucose Metabolism in Obese Youth: Results of an Intensive Lifestyle Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Savoye, Mary; Caprio, Sonia; Dziura, James; Camp, Anne; Germain, Greg; Summers, Craig; Li, Fangyong; Shaw, Melissa; Nowicka, Paulina; Kursawe, Romy; DePourcq, Fredrick; Kim, Grace; Tamborlane, William V.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The childhood obesity epidemic has been accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), particularly in minority children. Twenty to thirty percent of obese youth have “prediabetes,” a precursor to diabetes marked by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and impaired glucose tolerance. The Diabetes Prevention Program demonstrated that T2D could be prevented/delayed by intensive lifestyle modification in adults with prediabetes, but efficacy of similar interventions in youth has not been established. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of the Bright Bodies (BB) Healthy Lifestyle Program on 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose in comparison with adolescents receiving standard of care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A parallel-group randomized controlled trial comparing BB with standard clinical care (CC) in obese adolescents (10–16 years old, Tanner stage >2) with elevated OGTT 2-h blood glucose (130–199 mg/dL) from a racially/ethnically diverse population. OGTTs, including cardiovascular and anthropometric assessments, were conducted at baseline and 6 months. Children attended BB twice per week for exercise and nutrition/behavior modification, and the CC group received CC from their pediatrician. Primary outcome was change in 2-h OGTT glucose and percentage conversion from elevated 2-h blood glucose to nonelevated (<130 mg/dL) 2-h blood glucose. Changes in outcomes were compared between groups using an ANCOVA, with adjustment for baseline outcome and multiple imputation for missing data. RESULTS Reductions in 2-h glucose were more favorable in BB compared with CC (−27.2 vs. −10.1 mg/dL; difference = −17.1, 95% CI; P = 0.005). Moreover, greater conversion to <130 mg/dL 2-h glucose occurred in BB than CC (P = 0.003), and other insulin sensitivity indices were significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS Compared with standard of care, the Yale BB Program is a more effective means of reducing the risk of T2D in obese

  11. Temporal drift in Raman signal intensity during SERS measurements performed on analytes in liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Setti, G O; Joanni, E; Poppi, R J; Dos Santos, D P; Jesus, D P de

    2016-08-15

    In this communication, we report one factor that could limit the quantitative analysis by SERS, which has not yet been discussed in the literature. Our results show that SERS experiments performed with the substrate immersed in liquid solutions are subjected to a temporal drift in the Raman signal intensity. Measurements were performed using gold nanoparticle suspensions and gold-covered nanostructured ITO surfaces as SERS substrates, immersed in analyte solutions of crystal violet and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. Depending on the substrate and the conditions used for measurements, the Raman signal can take between 30 min and several hours to stabilize. This effect, if not taken into account, could have a negative impact on the results of the quantitative chemical analysis by SERS performed in situ in liquid solutions. PMID:27471752

  12. Robust monitoring of hypovolemia in intensive care patients using photoplethysmogram signals.

    PubMed

    Roederer, Alexander; Weimer, James; DiMartino, Joseph; Gutsche, Jacob; Insup Lee

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a fingertip photoplethysmography based technique to assess patient fluid status that is robust to waveform artifacts and health variability in the underlying patient population. The technique is intended for use in intensive care units, where patients are at risk for hypovolemia, and signal artifacts and inter-patient variations in health are common. Input signals are preprocessed to remove artifact, then a parameter-invariant statistic is calculated to remove effects of patient-specific physiology. Patient data from the Physionet MIMICII database was used to evaluate the performance of this technique. The proposed method was able to detect hypovolemia within 24 hours of onset in all hypovolemic patients tested, while producing minimal false alarms over non-hypovolemic patients. PMID:26736556

  13. New model for gain control of signal intensity to object distance in echolocating bats.

    PubMed

    Nørum, Ulrik; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2012-09-01

    Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic calls and listen for the returning echoes to orient and localize prey in darkness. The emitted source level, SL (estimated signal intensity 10 cm from the mouth), is adjusted dynamically from call to call in response to sensory feedback as bats approach objects. A logarithmic relationship of SL=20 log(10)(x), i.e. 6 dB output reduction per halving of distance, x, has been proposed as a model for the relationship between emitted intensity and object distance, not only for bats but also for echolocating toothed whales. This logarithmic model suggests that the approaching echolocator maintains a constant intensity impinging upon the object, but it also implies ever-increasing source levels with distance, a physical and biological impossibility. We developed a new model for intensity compensation with an exponential rise to the maximum source level: SL=SL(max)-ae(-)(bx). In addition to providing a method for estimating maximum output, the new model also offers a tool for estimating a minimum detection distance where intensity compensation starts. We tested the new exponential model against the 'conventional' logarithmic model on data from five bat species. The new model performed better in 77% of the trials and as good as the conventional model in the rest (23%). We found much steeper rates of compensation when fitting the model to individual rather than pooled data, with slopes often steeper than -20 dB per halving of distance. This emphasizes the importance of analyzing individual events. The results are discussed in light of habitat constraints and the interaction between bats and their eared prey. PMID:22875770

  14. Correlation of laser ablation plasma emission with ICP-AES signal intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.J.; Mao, X.L.; Shannon, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Laser ablation offers many favorable characteristics for direct solid sample chemical analysis. However, the technique usually provides poor precision in comparison to solution nebulization. The primary contributor to this imprecision is the irreproducibility of the laser material interaction. This paper describes a technique for monitoring changes in the laser material interaction directly, and using these data to improve inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Simultaneous measurements of the spectral emission intensity in the laser-induced plasma (LIP) and the ICP-AES were made under different power density conditions. The LIP spatial profile and excitation temperature was measured. The data from the LIP show a strong correlation with ICP-AES signal intensity. Both emission signals increase linearly with the laser power density (log-log) and show a change in the slope for different spot sizes and laser powers. These results support the occurrence of two different ablation mechanisms, a less efficient interaction dominating at the higher power densities (> 1 GW/cm2) and a more efficient interaction in the lower power density regimes. The benefits of using simultaneous monitoring of the laser induced plasma for chemical analysis by ICP-AES will be discussed.

  15. High prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory abnormalities in advanced, intensively treated (transplanted) myeloma: The case for ‘late effects’ screening and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Clare; O'Toole, Laurence; Boland, Elaine; Greenfield, Diana; Ezaydi, Yousef; Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Snowden, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modern management of myeloma has significantly improved survival, with increasing numbers of patients living beyond a decade. However, little is known about the long-term cardiovascular and respiratory status of intensively treated and multiply relapsed survivors. Methods: We performed detailed cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations in patients with intensively treated, advanced but stable myeloma. All patients had received at least two lines of treatment, including at least one haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure, but had stable, controlled disease and were off active treatment at the time of evaluation. Results: Thirty-two patients with a median duration of 6 years (range 2–12) from original diagnosis of myeloma and three lines (range 2–6) of treatment were evaluated. Despite normal physical examination in the majority, there was a high prevalence of sub-clinical cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, reflected by abnormalities of electrocardiography (45%), echocardiography (50%), serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP, 50%), and pulmonary function testing (45%). NT-pro-BNP level correlated negatively with quality of life (P = 0.012) and positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.027). Dyspnoea score correlated with BMI (P = 0.001). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia) were common. Discussion: Even in the absence of overt clinical features, the majority of intensively treated long-term survivors of myeloma have established cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction, above levels expected in the general population of a similar age. Conclusion: This study supports routine screening and lifestyle modification combined with primary and secondary preventive strategies to reduce cardiovascular and respiratory disease and to preserve quality of life in transplanted myeloma patients. PMID:27077780

  16. Predicting the intensity mapping signal for multi-J CO lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashian, Natalie; Sternberg, Amiel; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity mapping signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star formation rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR-M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, we predict a mean CO(1-0) brightness temperature ranging from ~ 0.6 μK at z = 6 to ~ 0.03 μK at z = 10 with brightness temperature fluctuations of ΔCO2 ~ 0.1 and 0.005 μK respectively, at k = 0.1 Mpc-1. In this model, the CO emission signal remains strong for higher rotational levels at z = 6, with langle TCO rangle ~ 0.3 and 0.05 μK for the CO J = 6arrow5 and CO J = 10arrow9 transitions respectively. Including the effects of CO photodissociation in these molecular clouds, especially at low metallicities, results in the overall reduction in the amplitude of the CO signal, with the low- and high-J lines weakening by 2-20% and 10-45%, respectively, over the redshift range 4 < z < 10.

  17. Intensity-based signal separation algorithm for accuratequantification of clustered centrosomes in tissue sections

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxell, Christopher A.; Kuper, Claudia K.; Brown, Erika T.; Parvin, Bahram; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Costes,Sylvain V.

    2006-03-08

    Centrosomes are small organelles that organize the mitoticspindle during cell division and are also involved in cell shape andpolarity. Within epithelial tumors, such as breast cancer, and somehematological tumors, centrosome abnormalities (CA) are common, occurearly in disease etiology, and correlate with chromosomal instability anddisease stage. In situ quantification of CA by optical microscopy ishampered by overlap and clustering of these organelles, which appear asfocal structures. CA has been frequently associated with Tp53 status inpremalignant lesions and tumors. Here we describe an approach toaccurately quantify centrosomes in tissue sections and tumors.Considering proliferation and baseline amplification rate the resultingpopulation based ratio of centrosomes per nucleus allow the approximationof the proportion of cells with CA. Using this technique we show that20-30 percent of cells have amplified centrosomes in Tp53 null mammarytumors. Combining fluorescence detection, deconvolution microscopy and amathematical algorithm applied to a maximum intensity projection we showthat this approach is superior to traditional investigator based visualanalysis or threshold-based techniques.

  18. Signal intensity transfer function determination on thermal systems with stray light or scattering present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Haefner, David P.; Burks, Thomas J.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate Signal Intensity Transfer Functions (SITF) measurements are necessary to determine the calibration factor in the 3D noise calculation of an electro-optical imaging system. The typical means for measuring a sensor's SITF is to place the sensor in a flooded field environment at a distance that is relatively close to the aperture of the emitter. Unfortunately, this arrangement has the potential to allow for additional contributions to the SITF in the form of scattering or stray light if the optics are not designed properly in the system under test. Engineers at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate are working to determine a means of evaluating the contribution due to scatting or stray light.

  19. [A case of dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction, which spinal MRI findings reveals increased intensity signal in Th3-medullary cone].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masamichi; Ueda, Miki; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ochiai, Jun; Mabuchi, Chiyuki; Hattori, Shinnosuke

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman had transient weakness of the legs and urinary retention for six weeks. She presented with a gait disorder and was admitted to the hospital. She showed symptoms of paraplegia, tingling in the lower extremities, dysuria. She underwent an MRI, and T2-weighted images showed an enlargement of the thoracolumbar spinal cord and high intensity signal from Th3 to the medullary cone, and a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image showed abnormal vessels anterior to the spine cord. Cervical and spinal angiography documented a dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction that was fed by the right vertebral artery and the right ascending pharyngeal arteries and drained into the perimedullary veins. Surgical therapy improved her symptoms and MRI images. Craniocervical junction DAVF with thoracic-medullary cones lesion is rare. PMID:26616488

  20. Laser phase induced intensity noise in fiber-optic signal processing and sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arie, Ady

    1991-03-01

    The effects of random phase fluctuations in laser output on the performance of optical systems was studied. The statistical nature of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) was measured and analysed by studying its probability density function and the second and fourth moments of the optical field at the output of several multiple path systems. The properties of the semiconductor laser, including broad spectral linewidth and non-Lorentzian line shape were shown to have significant influence on the generated PIIN. The PIIN statistics was first studied via the probability density function (PDF) of the beat signal obtained from a two-beam interferometer fed by the laser. Two distinct operating regimes could be defined, according to the ratio between the interferometer delay and the laser coherence time. Analytical expressions were obtained for statistical averages of the PIIN at the output of a general multiple path system; they represent the variance and autocovariance, and the power spectral density of the PIIN at the system output. The non-Lorentzian lineshape of the semiconductor laser was taken into account and the results obtained were found to differ from the Lorentzian model predictions; power spectrum measurements by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer confirmed the theoretical model. Analysis of the PIIN for complex signal processing systems comprising several subsystems showed that the PIIN spectrum was determined by two mechanisms: noise generation and noise filtration.

  1. Absence of the Regulator of G-protein Signaling, RGS4, Predisposes to Atrial Fibrillation and Is Associated with Abnormal Calcium Handling.

    PubMed

    Opel, Aaisha; Nobles, Muriel; Montaigne, David; Finlay, Malcolm; Anderson, Naomi; Breckenridge, Ross; Tinker, Andrew

    2015-07-31

    The description of potential molecular substrates for predisposition to atrial fibrillation (AF) is incomplete, and it is unknown what role regulators of G-protein signaling might play. We address whether the attenuation of RGS4 function may promote AF and the mechanism through which this occurs. For this purpose, we studied a mouse with global genetic deletion of RGS4 (RGS4(-/-)) and the normal littermate controls (RGS4(+/+)). In vivo electrophysiology using atrial burst pacing revealed that mice with global RGS4 deletion developed AF more frequently than control littermates. Isolated atrial cells from RGS4(-/-) mice show an increase in Ca(2+) spark frequency under basal conditions and after the addition of endothelin-1 and abnormal spontaneous Ca(2+) release events after field stimulation. Isolated left atria studied on a multielectrode array revealed modest changes in path length for re-entry but abnormal electrical events after a pacing train in RGS4(-/-) mice. RGS4 deletion results in a predisposition to atrial fibrillation from enhanced activity in the Gαq/11-IP3 pathway, resulting in abnormal Ca(2+) release and corresponding electrical events. PMID:26088132

  2. Abnormal structural luteolysis in ovaries of the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM): expression of Fas ligand/Fas-mediated apoptosis signaling molecules in luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Minako; Manabe, Noboru; Komatsu, Kohji; Shimabe, Munetake; Miyamoto, Hajime

    2003-12-01

    Senescence accelerated mouse-prone (SAMP) mice with a shortened life span show accelerated changes in many of the signs of aging and a shorter reproductive life span than SAM-resistant (SAMR) controls. We previously showed that functional regression (progesterone dissimilation) occurs in abnormally accumulated luteal bodies (aaLBs) of SAMP mice, but structural regression of luteal cells in aaLB is inhibited. A deficiency of luteal cell apoptosis causes the abnormal accumulation of LBs in SAMP ovaries. In the present study, to show the abnormality of Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-mediated apoptosis signal transducing factors in the aaLBs of the SAMP ovaries, we assessed the changes in the expression of FasL, Fas, caspase-8 and caspase-3 mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and in the expression and localization of FasL, Fas and activated caspase-3 proteins by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively, during the estrus cycle/luteolysis. These mRNAs and proteins were expressed in normal LBs of both SAMP and SAMR ovaries, but not at all or only in trace amounts in aaLBs of SAMP, indicating that structural regression is inhibited by blockage of the expression of these transducing factors in luteal cells of aaLBs in SAMP mice. PMID:14967896

  3. Identification of copy-number abnormalities and inactivating mutations in two negative regulators of NF-kB signaling pathways in Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Braggio, Esteban; Keats, Jonathan J; Leleu, Xavier; Van Wier, Scott; Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Valdez, Riccardo; Schop, Roelandt FJ; Price-Troska, Tammy; Henderson, Kimberly; Sacco, Antonio; Azab, Feda; Greipp, Philip; Gertz, Morie; Hayman, Suzanne; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Carpten, John; Chesi, Marta; Barrett, Michael; Stewart, A Keith; Dogan, Ahmet; Bergsagel, P Leif; Ghobrial, Irene M; Fonseca, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct clinico-biological entity defined as a B-cell neoplasm characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in the bone marrow (BM) and immunoglobulin M paraprotein production. Cytogenetic analyses were historically limited by the difficulty in obtaining tumor metaphases and the genetic basis of the disease remains poorly defined. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis in 42 WM patients by using high-resolution, array-based comparative genomic hybridization approach to unravel the genetic mechanisms associated with WM pathogenesis. Overall, 83% of patients have chromosomal abnormalities, with a median of three abnormalities per patient. Gain of 6p was the second most common abnormality (17%) and its presence was always concomitant with 6q loss. A minimal deleted region, including MIRN15A and MIRN16-1, was delineated on 13q14 in 10% of patients. Of interest, we reported biallelic deletions and/or inactivating mutations with uniparental disomy in TRAF3 and TNFAIP3, two negative regulators of the NF-kB signaling pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed the association between TRAF3 inactivation and increased transcriptional activity of NF-kB target genes. Mutational activation of the NF-kB pathway, which is normally activated by ligand-receptor interactions within the BM microenvironment, highlights its biologic importance, and suggests a therapeutic role for inhibitors of NF-kB pathway activation in the treatment of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. PMID:19351844

  4. GABA receptor subunit distribution and FMRP-mGluR5 signaling abnormalities in the cerebellum of subjects with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABAergic receptor abnormalities have been documented in several major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. Abnormal expression of mRNA and protein for multiple GABA receptors has also been observed in multiple brain regions leading to alterations in the balance between excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the brain with potential profound consequences for normal cognition and maintenance of mood and perception. Altered expression of GABAA receptor subunits has been documented in fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) knockout mice, suggesting that loss of its protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), impacts GABAA subunit expression. Recent postmortem studies from our laboratory have shown reduced expression of FMRP in the brains of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and autism. FMRP acts as a translational repressor and, under normal conditions, inhibits metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling. In fragile X syndrome (FXS), the absence of FMRP is hypothesized to lead to unregulated mGluR5 signaling, ultimately resulting in the behavioral and intellectual impairments associated with this disorder. Our laboratory has identified changes in mGluR5 expression in autism, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. In the current review article, we discuss our postmortem data on GABA receptors, FMRP, and mGluR5 levels and compare our results with other laboratories. Finally, we discuss the interactions between these molecules and the potential for new therapeutic interventions that target these interconnected signaling systems. PMID:25432637

  5. Abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity, impaired remote spatial memory, and increased D1-mediated dopaminergic signaling in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Koichi; Nishi, Akinori; Matsuo, Naoki; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Tohru; Toyama, Keiko; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mice with targeted disruption of the nNOS gene exhibit abnormal behaviors. Here, we subjected nNOS knockout (KO) mice to a battery of behavioral tests to further investigate the role of nNOS in neuropsychiatric functions. We also examined the role of nNOS in dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in striatal slices from nNOS KO mice and the effects of the administration of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist on behavior in nNOS KO mice. Results nNOS KO mice showed hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment, increased social interaction in their home cage, decreased depression-related behavior, and impaired spatial memory retention. In striatal slices from nNOS KO mice, the effects of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297, on the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 at protein kinase A sites were enhanced. Consistent with the biochemical results, intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of SKF81297 significantly decreased prepulse inhibition in nNOS KO mice, but not in wild-type mice. Conclusion These findings indicate that nNOS KO upregulates dopamine D1 receptor signaling, and induces abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity and impaired remote spatial memory. nNOS KO mice may serve as a unique animal model of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19538708

  6. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of thermal ghost imaging based on positive-negative intensity correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shu-Chun; Sun, Ming-Jie; Wu, Ling-An

    2016-05-01

    Ghost imaging with thermal light is a topic in optical imaging that has aroused great interest in recent years. However, the imaging quality must be greatly improved before the technology can be transferred from the lab to engineering applications. By means of correspondence ghost imaging (CGI) with a pseudo-thermal light source and appropriate sorting of the intensity fluctuations of the signal and reference beams, we obtain the positive and negative Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity correlation characteristics of the optical field. Then, for ghost imaging of a transmissive binary object, we find that by subtracting the negative from the positive fluctuation frames of the presorted reference detector signals, the signal-to-noise ratio can be effectively increased, with almost all the background noise eliminated. Our results show that, compared with the generic CGI technique, the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by nearly 60%.

  7. Signal formation and decay in CdTe x-ray detectors under intense irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, A; Matz, R

    1999-01-01

    The response of Cd(Zn)Te Schottky and resistive detectors to intense x-rays is investigated in a commercial computed tomography (CT) system to assess their potential for medical diagnostics. To describe their signal height, responsivity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and detective quantum efficiency the devices are modeled as solid-state ionization chambers with spatially varying electric field and charge collection efficiency. The thicknesses and pixel areas of the discrete detector elements are 0.5-2 mm and a few mm2, respectively. The incident spectrum extends from 26 to 120 keV and comprises 10(10) quanta/s cm2. It photogenerates a carrier concentration in the semiconductor that is two to three orders of magnitude above the intrinsic concentration, but remains to a similar extent below the charge densities on the device electrodes. Stable linear operation is achieved with the Schottky-type devices under high bias. Their behavior can be modeled well if negatively charged near-midgap bulk defects with a concentration of 10(11)-10(13) cm-3 are assumed. The bulk defects explain the amount and time constant (about 100 ms) of the detrapping current measured after x-ray pulses (afterglow). To avoid screening by the trapped space charge the bias voltage should exceed 100(V) x [detector thickness/mm]2. Dark currents are of the order of the generation-recombination current, i.e., 300 pA/mm3 detector volume. With proper device design the signal height approaches the theoretical maximum of 0.2 A/W. This high responsivity, however, is not exploited in CT since the SNR is determined here by the incident quantum noise. As a consequence of the detrapping current, the response speed does not meet CT requirements. A medium-term effort for crystal growth appears necessary to achieve the required reduction of the trap density by an order of magnitude. Scintillation based detectors are, therefore, still preferred in fast operating medical diagnostic systems. PMID:9949396

  8. The impact of relative intensity noise on the signal in multiple reference optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, Kai; Subhash, Hrebesh; Alexandrov, Sergey; Dsouza, Roshan; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin; Slepneva, Svetlana; Huyet, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) applies a unique low-cost solution to enhance the scanning depth of standard time domain OCT by inserting an partial mirror into the reference arm of the interferometric system. This novel approach achieves multiple reflections for different layers and depths of an sample with minimal effort of engineering and provides an excellent platform for low-cost OCT systems based on well understood production methods for micro-mechanical systems such as CD/DVD pick-up systems. The direct integration of a superluminescent light-emitting diode (SLED) is a preferable solution to reduce the form- factor of an MR-OCT system. Such direct integration exposes the light source to environmental conditions that can increase fluctuations in heat dissipation and vibrations and affect the noise characteristics of the output spectrum. This work describes the impact of relative intensity noise (RIN) on the quality of the interference signal of MR-OCT related to a variety of environmental conditions, such as temperature.

  9. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization signal detection by computing intensity variance along the optical axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bin; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization technology is a commonly used tool to detect chromosome aberrations, which are often pathologically significant. Since manual FISH analysis is a tedious and time-consuming procedure, reliable and robust automated image acquisition and analysis are in demand. Under high magnification objective lenses such as 60x and 100x, the depth of field will often be too small and the FISH probes may not always lie in the same focal plane. A statistical variance based automated FISH analysis method is developed in order to address this problem. On a stack of slices at consecutive image planes with a step size d, the statistical variance alone the z-axis is calculated to form a 2-D matrix. Since pixels shift dramatically to high intensity at FISH probe location, the probes will manifest high peak values in the matrix. A computer-aided detection scheme based on top-hat transform is applied to the matrix to detect FISH probe signals. This study demonstrates a simple and robust method for FISH probe detection as well as a way of 2- D representation of 3-D data.

  10. Electronic polarization-division demultiplexing based on digital signal processing in intensity-modulation direct-detection optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2014-01-27

    We propose a novel configuration of optical receivers for intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM · DD) systems, which can cope with dual-polarization (DP) optical signals electrically. Using a Stokes analyzer and a newly-developed digital signal-processing (DSP) algorithm, we can achieve polarization tracking and demultiplexing in the digital domain after direct detection. Simulation results show that the power penalty stemming from digital polarization manipulations is negligibly small. PMID:24515206

  11. Quantification of myocardial perfusion based on signal intensity of flow sensitized MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeykoon, Sumeda B.

    The quantitative assessment of perfusion is important for early recognition of a variety of heart diseases, determination of disease severity and their cure. In conventional approach of measuring cardiac perfusion by arterial spin labeling, the relative difference in the apparent T1 relaxation times in response to selective and non-selective inversion of blood entering the region of interest is related to perfusion via a two-compartment tissue model. But accurate determination of T1 in small animal hearts is difficult and prone to errors due to long scan times. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast, robust and simple method to quantitatively assess myocardial perfusion using arterial spin labeling. The proposed method is based on signal intensities (SI) of inversion recovery slice-select, non-select and steady-state images. Especially in this method data are acquired at a single inversion time and at short repetition times. This study began by investigating the accuracy of assessment of perfusion using a two compartment system. First, determination of perfusion by T1 and SI were implemented to a simple, two-compartment phantom model. Mathematical model developed for full spin exchange models (in-vivo experiments) by solving a modified Bloch equation was modified to develop mathematical models (T1 and SI) for a phantom (zero spin exchange). The phantom result at different flow rates shows remarkable evidence of accuracy of the two-compartment model and SI, T1 methods: the SI method has less propagation error and less scan time. Next, twelve healthy C57BL/6 mice were scanned for quantitative perfusion assessment and three of them were repeatedly scanned at three different time points for a reproducibility test. The myocardial perfusion of healthy mice obtained by the SI-method, 5.7+/-1.6 ml/g/min, was similar (p=0.38) to that obtained by the conventional T1 method, 5.6+/- 2.3 ml/g/min. The reproducibility of the SI method shows acceptable results: the

  12. Germ cell specific overactivation of WNT/βcatenin signalling has no effect on folliculogenesis but causes fertility defects due to abnormal foetal development

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Camlin, Nicole J.; Holt, Janet E.; Teixeira, Jose M.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Tanwar, Pradeep S.

    2016-01-01

    All the major components of the WNT signalling pathway are expressed in female germ cells and embryos. However, their functional relevance in oocyte biology is currently unclear. We examined ovaries collected from TCFGFP mice, a well-known Wnt reporter mouse model, and found dynamic changes in the Wnt/βcatenin signalling activity during different stages of oocyte development and maturation. To understand the functional importance of Wnt signalling in oocytes, we developed a mouse model with the germ cell-specific constitutive activation of βcatenin using cre recombinase driven by the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box protein 4 (Ddx4) gene promoter. Histopathological and functional analysis of ovaries from these mutant mice (Ctnnb1ex3cko) showed no defects in ovarian functions, oocytes, ovulation and early embryonic development. However, breeding of the Ctnnb1ex3cko female mice with males of known fertility never resulted in birth of mutant pups. Examination of uteri from time pregnant mutant females revealed defects in ectoderm differentiation leading to abnormal foetal development and premature death. Collectively, our work has established the role of active WNT/βcatenin signalling in oocyte biology and foetal development, and provides novel insights into the possible mechanisms of complications in human pregnancy such as repeated spontaneous abortion, sudden intrauterine unexpected foetal death syndrome and stillbirth. PMID:27265527

  13. Insulin Receptor Signaling in the GnRH Neuron Plays a Role in the Abnormal GnRH Pulsatility of Obese Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    DiVall, Sara A.; Herrera, Danny; Sklar, Bonnie; Wu, Sheng; Wondisford, Fredric; Radovick, Sally; Wolfe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Infertility associated with obesity is characterized by abnormal hormone release from reproductive tissues in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. These tissues maintain insulin sensitivity upon peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin receptor signaling may play a role in the dysregulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in obesity, but the interdependence of hormone secretion in the reproductive axis and the multi-hormone and tissue dysfunction in obesity hinders investigations of putative contributing factors to the disrupted GnRH secretion. To determine the role of GnRH insulin receptor signaling in the dysregulation of GnRH secretion in obesity, we created murine models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without intact insulin signaling in the GnRH neuron. Obese control female mice were infertile with higher luteinizing hormone levels and higher GnRH pulse amplitude and total pulsatile secretion compared to lean control mice. In contrast, DIO mice with a GnRH specific knockout of insulin receptor had improved fertility, luteinizing hormone levels approaching lean mice, and GnRH pulse amplitude and total secretion similar to lean mice. Pituitary responsiveness was similar between genotypes. These results suggest that in the obese state, insulin receptor signaling in GnRH neurons increases GnRH pulsatile secretion and consequent LH secretion, contributing to reproductive dysfunction. PMID:25780937

  14. Germ cell specific overactivation of WNT/βcatenin signalling has no effect on folliculogenesis but causes fertility defects due to abnormal foetal development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Camlin, Nicole J; Holt, Janet E; Teixeira, Jose M; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Tanwar, Pradeep S

    2016-01-01

    All the major components of the WNT signalling pathway are expressed in female germ cells and embryos. However, their functional relevance in oocyte biology is currently unclear. We examined ovaries collected from TCFGFP mice, a well-known Wnt reporter mouse model, and found dynamic changes in the Wnt/βcatenin signalling activity during different stages of oocyte development and maturation. To understand the functional importance of Wnt signalling in oocytes, we developed a mouse model with the germ cell-specific constitutive activation of βcatenin using cre recombinase driven by the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box protein 4 (Ddx4) gene promoter. Histopathological and functional analysis of ovaries from these mutant mice (Ctnnb1(ex3)cko) showed no defects in ovarian functions, oocytes, ovulation and early embryonic development. However, breeding of the Ctnnb1(ex3)cko female mice with males of known fertility never resulted in birth of mutant pups. Examination of uteri from time pregnant mutant females revealed defects in ectoderm differentiation leading to abnormal foetal development and premature death. Collectively, our work has established the role of active WNT/βcatenin signalling in oocyte biology and foetal development, and provides novel insights into the possible mechanisms of complications in human pregnancy such as repeated spontaneous abortion, sudden intrauterine unexpected foetal death syndrome and stillbirth. PMID:27265527

  15. Allosteric Modulation of the Calcium-sensing Receptor Rectifies Signaling Abnormalities Associated with G-protein α-11 Mutations Causing Hypercalcemic and Hypocalcemic Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Babinsky, Valerie N.; Hannan, Fadil M.; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Howles, Sarah A.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Rust, Nigel; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C.; Hu, Jianxin; Spiegel, Allen M.; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2016-01-01

    Germline loss- and gain-of-function mutations of G-protein α-11 (Gα11), which couples the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) signaling, lead to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 2 (FHH2) and autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), respectively, whereas somatic Gα11 mutations mediate uveal melanoma development by constitutively up-regulating MAPK signaling. Cinacalcet and NPS-2143 are allosteric CaSR activators and inactivators, respectively, that ameliorate signaling disturbances associated with CaSR mutations, but their potential to modulate abnormalities of the downstream Gα11 protein is unknown. This study investigated whether cinacalcet and NPS-2143 may rectify Ca2+i alterations associated with FHH2- and ADH2-causing Gα11 mutations, and evaluated the influence of germline gain-of-function Gα11 mutations on MAPK signaling by measuring ERK phosphorylation, and assessed the effect of NPS-2143 on a uveal melanoma Gα11 mutant. WT and mutant Gα11 proteins causing FHH2, ADH2 or uveal melanoma were transfected in CaSR-expressing HEK293 cells, and Ca2+i and ERK phosphorylation responses measured by flow-cytometry and Alphascreen immunoassay following exposure to extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o) and allosteric modulators. Cinacalcet and NPS-2143 rectified the Ca2+i responses of FHH2- and ADH2-associated Gα11 loss- and gain-of-function mutations, respectively. ADH2-causing Gα11 mutations were demonstrated not to be constitutively activating and induced ERK phosphorylation following Ca2+o stimulation only. The increased ERK phosphorylation associated with ADH2 and uveal melanoma mutants was rectified by NPS-2143. These findings demonstrate that CaSR-targeted compounds can rectify signaling disturbances caused by germline and somatic Gα11 mutations, which respectively lead to calcium disorders and tumorigenesis; and that ADH2-causing Gα11 mutations induce non-constitutive alterations in MAPK signaling. PMID:26994139

  16. Effect of trichostatin A on human T cells resembles signaling abnormalities in T cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a new mechanism for TCR zeta chain deficiency and abnormal signaling.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Warke, Vishal G; Fisher, Carolyn U; Tsokos, George C

    2002-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent reversible inhibitor of histone deacetylase, and it has been reported to have variable effects on the expression of a number of genes. In this report, we show that TSA suppresses the expression of the T cell receptor zeta chain gene, whereas, it upregulates the expression if its homologous gene Fc(epsilon) receptor I gamma chain. These effects are associated with decreased intracytoplasmic-free calcium responses and altered tyrosine phosphorylation pattern of cytosolic proteins. Along with these effects, we report that TSA suppresses the expression of the interleukin-2 gene. The effects of TSA on human T cells are predominantly immunosuppressive and reminiscent of the signaling aberrations that have been described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:11967985

  17. Disturbances of the VLF/LF radio signal reception at Dobrogea Seismological Observatory due to local abnormal electric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Toader, Victorin; Dolea, Paul; Biagi, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The National Institute for Earth Physics, as part of the INFREP initiative, has monitored radio waves emitted by 10 transmitters all over Europe in relation with seismicity in the last 5 years. In Romania a radio receiving system is located in only one site (Dobrogea Seismological Observatory) situated in Eforie Nord, in the Eastern part of Romania. The electro-magnetic field monitored both at the ground and (sub) ionospheric level, in different frequency ranges (VLF/LF) is considered to be promising for earthquake forecasting. Because the abnormal behavior of the VLF/LF recordings that could not be correlated with the tectonic activity of the seismogenic zones crossed by the radio paths, we decided to monitor other two parameters, at the receiving site: the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field, which indicates variations of electrical properties of the near-ground air (Boltek electric field mill), and the atmospheric local conditions (WS-3600 weather station). The zone is also surveyed by seismic devices (seismometers, accelerometers and infrasonic equipment) and GPS/GNSS base stations to emphasize the local tectonic conditions. We obtained in such way a multiple-parameter monitoring system that increases the confidence in observational data and decreases uncertainties regarding the accuracy of the data recorded until now. As we are exploring different parameters we have obtained some conclusions regarding the correlation of the anomalies with their possible causes. The final expectation of the monitoring system regard the chance to take a snapshot of the geophysical medium before, during and after a significant earthquake occurrence and to reveal if there was or wasn't a noticeable trace of the preparatory stage of it. This work was partially supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programe for research- Space Technology and Avanced Research - STAR, project number 84/2013, and by the NUCLEU project, PN 09

  18. Oncoprotein HBXIP Modulates Abnormal Lipid Metabolism and Growth of Breast Cancer Cells by Activating the LXRs/SREBP-1c/FAS Signaling Cascade.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Hang; Zhang, Yingyi; Li, Leilei; Fang, Runping; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Weiying; Qiu, Liyan; Liu, Fabao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-08-15

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that fatty acid synthase (FAS, FASN) is a metabolic oncogene that supports the growth and survival of tumor cells and is highly expressed in many cancers. Here, we report that the oncoprotein, hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP, LAMTOR5) contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism. We show that high expression of HBXIP in 236 breast cancer patients was significantly associated with decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Interestingly, the expression of HBXIP was positively related to that of FAS in clinical breast cancer tissues, and HBXIP overexpression in breast cancer cells resulted in FAS upregulation. Mechanistically, HBXIP upregulated SREBP-1c (SREBF1), which activates the transcription of FAS, by directly interacting with and coactivating nuclear receptor (NR) liver X receptors (LXR). Physiologically, LXRs are activated via a coactivator containing NR motif in a ligand-dependent manner. However, in breast cancer cells, HBXIP containing the corepressor/nuclear receptor motif with special flanking sequence could coactivate LXRs independent of ligand. Moreover, overexpressed SREBP-1c was able to activate the transcription of HBXIP, forming a positive-feedback loop. Functionally, HBXIP enhanced lipogenesis, resulting in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP contributes to the abnormal lipid metabolism in breast cancer through LXRs/SREBP-1c/FAS signaling, providing new insights into the mechanisms by which cancer cells reprogram lipid metabolism in their favor. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4696-707. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26980761

  19. Decreased SAP Expression in T Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Contributes to Early Signaling Abnormalities and Reduced IL-2 Production.

    PubMed

    Karampetsou, Maria P; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C; Tsokos, George C

    2016-06-15

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of abnormalities, including increased early signaling events following engagement of the TCR. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating the immune response. We present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and three men with SLE, independent of disease activity. In SLE T cells, SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells normalized IL-2 production, calcium (Ca(2+)) responses, and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR Abs, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP, probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. PMID:27183584

  20. REST alleviates neurotoxic prion peptide-induced synaptic abnormalities, neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal death partially via LRP6-mediated Wnt-β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiqi; Zhu, Ting; Zhou, Xiangmei; Barrow, Paul; Yang, Wei; Cui, Yongyong; Yang, Lifeng; Zhao, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of infectious neurodegenerative diseases characterized by multiple neuropathological hallmarks including synaptic damage, spongiform degeneration and neuronal death. The factors and mechanisms that maintain cellular morphological integrity and protect against neurodegeneration in prion diseases are still unclear. Here we report that after stimulation with the neurotoxic PrP106-126 fragment in primary cortical neurons, REST translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and protects neurons from harmful effects of PrP106-126. Overexpression of REST reduces pathological damage and abnormal biochemical alterations of neurons induced by PrP106-126 and maintains neuronal viability by stabilizing the level of pro-survival protein FOXO1 and inhibiting the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm and the activation of Capase3. Conversely, knockdown of REST exacerbates morphological damage and inhibits the expression of FOXO1. Additionally, by overexpression or knockdown of LRP6, we further show that LRP6-mediated Wnt-β-catenin signaling partly regulates the expression of REST. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time novel neuroprotective function of REST in prion diseases and hypothesise that the LRP6-Wnt-β-catenin/REST signaling plays critical and collaborative roles in neuroprotection. This signaling of neuronal survival regulation could be explored as a viable therapeutic target for prion diseases and associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26919115

  1. Amplification of the Signal Intensity of Fluorescence-Based Fiber-Optic Biosensors Using a Fabry-Perot Resonator Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chiu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Fu; Chang, Jenq-Yang; Chang, Chia-Ou; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent biosensors have been widely used in biomedical applications. To amplify the intensity of fluorescence signals, this study developed a novel structure for an evanescent wave fiber-optic biosensor by using a Fabry-Perot resonator structure. An excitation light was coupled into the optical fiber through a laser-drilled hole on the proximal end of the resonator. After entering the resonator, the excitation light was reflected back and forth inside the resonator, thereby amplifying the intensity of the light in the fiber. Subsequently, the light was used to excite the fluorescent molecules in the reactive region of the sensor. The experimental results showed that the biosensor signal was amplified eight-fold when the resonator reflector was formed using a 92% reflective coating. Furthermore, in a simulation, the biosensor signal could be amplified 20-fold by using a 99% reflector. PMID:25690548

  2. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling. PMID:26335177

  3. In silico analysis of missense mutations in LPAR6 reveals abnormal phospholipid signaling pathway leading to hypotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Raza, Syed Irfan; Muhammad, Dost; Jan, Abid; Ali, Raja Hussain; Hassan, Mubashir; Ahmad, Wasim; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a rare genetic irreversible hair loss disorder characterized by sparse scalp hair, sparse to absent eyebrows and eyelashes, and sparse axillary and body hair. The study, presented here, established genetic linkage in four families showing similar phenotypes to lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6) gene on chromosome 13q14.11-q21.32. Subsequently, sequence analysis of the gene revealed two previously reported missense mutations including p.D63V in affected members of one and p.I188F in three other families. Molecular modeling and docking analysis was performed to investigate binding of a ligand oleoyl-L-alpha-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to modeled protein structures of normal and mutated (D63V, G146R, I188F, N248Y, S3T, L277P) LPAR6 receptors. The mutant receptors showed a complete shift in orientation of LPA at the binding site. In addition, hydropathy analysis revealed a significant change in the membrane spanning topology of LPAR6 helical segments. The present study further substantiated involvement of LPAR6-LPA signaling in the pathogenesis of hypotrichosis/woolly hair and provided additional insight into the molecular mechanism of hair development. PMID:25119526

  4. In Silico Analysis of Missense Mutations in LPAR6 Reveals Abnormal Phospholipid Signaling Pathway Leading to Hypotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Irfan; Muhammad, Dost; Jan, Abid; Ali, Raja Hussain; Hassan, Mubashir; Ahmad, Wasim; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a rare genetic irreversible hair loss disorder characterized by sparse scalp hair, sparse to absent eyebrows and eyelashes, and sparse axillary and body hair. The study, presented here, established genetic linkage in four families showing similar phenotypes to lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6) gene on chromosome 13q14.11-q21.32. Subsequently, sequence analysis of the gene revealed two previously reported missense mutations including p.D63V in affected members of one and p.I188F in three other families. Molecular modeling and docking analysis was performed to investigate binding of a ligand oleoyl-L-alpha-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to modeled protein structures of normal and mutated (D63V, G146R, I188F, N248Y, S3T, L277P) LPAR6 receptors. The mutant receptors showed a complete shift in orientation of LPA at the binding site. In addition, hydropathy analysis revealed a significant change in the membrane spanning topology of LPAR6 helical segments. The present study further substantiated involvement of LPAR6-LPA signaling in the pathogenesis of hypotrichosis/woolly hair and provided additional insight into the molecular mechanism of hair development. PMID:25119526

  5. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Mutant forms of tumour necrosis factor receptor I that occur in TNF-receptor-associated periodic syndrome retain signalling functions but show abnormal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ian; Radford, Paul M; Draper-Morgan, Kelly-Ann; McIntosh, Richard; Bainbridge, Susan; Dickinson, Peter; Jamhawi, Lama; Sansaridis, Marios; Huggins, Mary L; Tighe, Patrick J; Powell, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder involving autosomal-dominant missense mutations in TNF receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) ectodomains. To elucidate the molecular effects of TRAPS-related mutations, we transfected HEK-293 cells to produce lines stably expressing high levels of either wild-type (WT) or single mutant recombinant forms of TNFRSF1A. Mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the first cysteine-rich domain (CRD1) were produced both as full-length receptor proteins and as truncated forms lacking the cytoplasmic signalling domain (Δsig). High-level expression of either WT or mutant full-length TNFRSF1A spontaneously induced apoptosis and interleukin-8 production, indicating that the mutations in CRD1 did not abrogate signalling. Consistent with this, WT and mutant full-length TNFRSF1A formed cytoplasmic aggregates that co-localized with ubiquitin and chaperones, and with the signal transducer TRADD, but not with the inhibitor, silencer of death domain (SODD). Furthermore, as expected, WT and mutant Δsig forms of TNFRSF1A did not induce apoptosis or interleukin-8 production. However, whereas the WT full-length TNFRSF1A was expressed both in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface, the mutant receptors showed strong cytoplasmic expression but reduced cell-surface expression. The WT and mutant Δsig forms of TNFRSF1A were all expressed at the cell surface, but a proportion of the mutant receptors were also retained in the cytoplasm and co-localized with BiP. Furthermore, the mutant forms of surface-expressed Δsig TNFRSF1A were defective in binding TNF-α. We conclude that TRAPS-related CRD1 mutants of TNFRSF1A possess signalling properties associated with the cytoplasmic death domain, but other behavioural features of the mutant receptors are abnormal, including intracellular trafficking and TNF binding. PMID:15312137

  7. A facile and general route to synthesize silica-coated SERS tags with the enhanced signal intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youlin; Li, Xiaokun; Xue, Bin; Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Tu, Langping; Chang, Yulei

    2015-10-01

    Silica-coated SERS tags have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, the reported methods to synthesize these tags are tedious, and often subjected to the limited signal intensity. Here, we report a facile and general method to prepare the silica-coated Ag SERS tags with the enhanced signal intensity by no introducing the primers. This approach mainly depends on the colloidal stability of the Ag NPs in alcohol solution. By decreasing the concentration of salt in Ag NP solution, the citrate-stabilized Ag NPs can be well dispersed in alcohol solution. Based on this, the Ag SERS tags can be directly coated with thickness-controlled and homogeneous silica shells. This approach is highly reproducible for silica shell growth and signal intensity, not depending on the properties of Raman molecules, proved by 7 kinds of the Raman molecules. Moreover, this kind of SERS tags coated with silica hold the stronger SERS signals than the traditional method due to no interference from the priming molecules.

  8. High-intensity physical exercise disrupts implicit memory in mice: involvement of the striatal glutathione antioxidant system and intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A S; Boemer, G; Rial, D; Cordova, F M; Mancini, G; Walz, R; de Bem, A F; Latini, A; Leal, R B; Pinho, R A; Prediger, R D S

    2010-12-29

    Physical exercise is a widely accepted behavioral strategy to enhance overall health, including mental function. However, there is controversial evidence showing brain mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and decreased neurotrophin levels after high-intensity exercise, which presumably worsens cognitive performance. Here we investigated learning and memory performance dependent on different brain regions, glutathione antioxidant system, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT), cAMP response element binding (CREB) and dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP)-32 signaling in adult Swiss mice submitted to 9 weeks of high-intensity exercise. The exercise did not alter the animals' performance in the reference and working memory versions of the water maze task. On the other hand, we observed a significant impairment in the procedural memory (an implicit memory that depends on basal ganglia) accompanied by a reduced antioxidant capacity and ERK1/2 and CREB signaling in this region. In addition, we found increased striatal DARPP-32-Thr-75 phosphorylation in trained mice. These findings indicate an increased vulnerability of the striatum to high-intensity exercise associated with the disruption of implicit memory in mice and accompanied by alteration of signaling proteins involved in the plasticity of this brain structure. PMID:20888397

  9. A facile and general route to synthesize silica-coated SERS tags with the enhanced signal intensity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youlin; Li, Xiaokun; Xue, Bin; Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Tu, Langping; Chang, Yulei

    2015-01-01

    Silica-coated SERS tags have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, the reported methods to synthesize these tags are tedious, and often subjected to the limited signal intensity. Here, we report a facile and general method to prepare the silica-coated Ag SERS tags with the enhanced signal intensity by no introducing the primers. This approach mainly depends on the colloidal stability of the Ag NPs in alcohol solution. By decreasing the concentration of salt in Ag NP solution, the citrate-stabilized Ag NPs can be well dispersed in alcohol solution. Based on this, the Ag SERS tags can be directly coated with thickness-controlled and homogeneous silica shells. This approach is highly reproducible for silica shell growth and signal intensity, not depending on the properties of Raman molecules, proved by 7 kinds of the Raman molecules. Moreover, this kind of SERS tags coated with silica hold the stronger SERS signals than the traditional method due to no interference from the priming molecules. PMID:26450559

  10. VLF station signals and radio noise intensity variations depending on solar activity registrated in Yakutsk during 2009-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakov, Alexey A.; Kozlov, Vladimir I.; Mullayarov, Viktor A.; Karimov, Rustam R.; Tarabukina, Lena D.; Mel'chinov, Viktor P.

    2015-11-01

    Diurnal variations of radio noise intensity (14.88 kHz) registered in Yakutsk in June 2009-2014 is 10 dB, March - 9 dB, September - 8.7 dB, December - 7.3 dB. Diurnal variations of intensity of radio station VLF signals, radio noise intensity and the number of lightning discharges in Yakutsk are compared. VLF noise variations in summer 5-10 UT defined local thunderstorm activity. The period 11-20 UT for receiving radio noise defined distant thunderstorm cells in Western Siberia, the territory between Hinggan, Buretsky and Stanovoy mountaines. Radio signals from these areas propagate in similar paths like signals Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk navaid stations. The attenuation variations from a solar activity minimum to the maximum are estimated. Taking into account the changes of propagation attenuation of 1.2 dB (signal Khabarovsk) from a minimum to a maximum of solar activity in July, the power of VLF radio noise at a minimum on 7.6 dB greater than at solar activity maximum.

  11. Reference-tissue correction of T2-weighted signal intensity for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Oto, Aytekin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether correction with respect to reference tissue of T2-weighted MRimage signal intensity (SI) improves its effectiveness for classification of regions of interest (ROIs) as prostate cancer (PCa) or normal prostatic tissue. Two image datasets collected retrospectively were used in this study: 71 cases acquired with GE scanners (dataset A), and 59 cases acquired with Philips scanners (dataset B). Through a consensus histology- MR correlation review, 175 PCa and 108 normal-tissue ROIs were identified and drawn manually. Reference-tissue ROIs were selected in each case from the levator ani muscle, urinary bladder, and pubic bone. T2-weighted image SI was corrected as the ratio of the average T2-weighted image SI within an ROI to that of a reference-tissue ROI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of T2-weighted image SIs for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs. AUC (+/- standard error) for uncorrected T2-weighted image SIs was 0.78+/-0.04 (datasets A) and 0.65+/-0.05 (datasets B). AUC for corrected T2-weighted image SIs with respect to muscle, bladder, and bone reference was 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), and 0.75+/-0.04 (p=0.8), respectively, for dataset A; and 0.81+/-0.04 (p=0.002), 0.78+/-0.04 (p<0.001), and 0.79+/-0.04 (p<0.001), respectively, for dataset B. Correction in reference to the levator ani muscle yielded the most consistent results between GE and Phillips images. Correction of T2-weighted image SI in reference to three types of extra-prostatic tissue can improve its effectiveness for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs, and correction in reference to the levator ani muscle produces consistent T2-weighted image SIs between GE and Phillips MR images.

  12. MAB21L2, a vertebrate member of the Male-abnormal 21 family, modulates BMP signaling and interacts with SMAD1

    PubMed Central

    Baldessari, Danila; Badaloni, Aurora; Longhi, Renato; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Consalez, G Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    Background Through in vivo loss-of-function studies, vertebrate members of the Male abnormal 21 (mab-21) gene family have been implicated in gastrulation, neural tube formation and eye morphogenesis. Despite mounting evidence of their considerable importance in development, the biochemical properties and nature of MAB-21 proteins have remained strikingly elusive. In addition, genetic studies conducted in C. elegans have established that in double mutants mab-21 is epistatic to genes encoding various members of a Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway involved in the formation of male-specific sensory organs. Results Through a gain-of-function approach, we analyze the interaction of Mab21l2 with a TGF-beta signaling pathway in early vertebrate development. We show that the vertebrate mab-21 homolog Mab21l2 antagonizes the effects of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) overexpression in vivo, rescuing the dorsal axis and restoring wild-type distribution of Chordin and Xvent2 transcripts in Xenopus gastrulae. We show that MAB21L2 immunoprecipitates in vivo with the BMP4 effector SMAD1, whilst in vitro it binds SMAD1 and the SMAD1-SMAD4 complex. Finally, when targeted to an heterologous promoter, MAB21L2 acts as a transcriptional repressor. Conclusions Our results provide the first biochemical and cellular foundation for future functional studies of mab-21 genes in normal neural development and its pathological disturbances. PMID:15613244

  13. Relationships between laser powers and photoacoustic signal intensities of flavin adenine dinucleotide and beta-carotene dissolved in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imakubo, Keiichi

    1994-10-01

    Ar ion laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy has been performed on 0.01 mu M flavin adenine dinucleotide in H2O and 0.01 mu M beta-carotene in n-hexane where the optical absorption spectroscopy is not applicable. On the basis of the linear relationships between laser powers and photoacoustic signal intensities up to 500 mW, it may be concluded that laser power ranging from 10 to 50 mW is required for the successful observation of photoacoustic signals without any photochemical or photobiological effects.

  14. Atmospheric velocity spectral width measurements using the statistical distribution of pulsed CO2 lidar return signal intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, Gerard M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Grant, William B.

    1989-01-01

    A pulsed CO2 lidar with coherent detection has been used to measure the correlation time of backscatter from an ensemble of atmospheric aerosol particles which are illuminated by the pulsed radiation. The correlation time of the backscatter of the return signal, which is directly related to the velocity spectral width, can be used to study the velocity structure constant of atmospheric turbulence and wind shear. Various techniques for correlation time measurement are discussed, and several measurement results are presented for the technique using the information contained in the statistical distribution of a set of lidar return signal intensities.

  15. Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

    2013-03-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35-50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. PMID:23224839

  16. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Decreases BDNF/TrkB Signaling and Increases Abnormal Behaviors Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133

  17. Possible involvement of PPARγ-associated eNOS signaling activation in rosuvastatin-mediated prevention of nicotine-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Sonam; Mahadevan, Nanjaian; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2013-02-01

    Nicotine exposure via cigarette smoking and tobacco chewing is associated with vascular complications. The present study investigated the effect of rosuvastatin in nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of thoracic aorta were performed to assess the vascular endothelial integrity. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed by estimating aortic superoxide anion generation and serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The nicotine administration produced VED by markedly reducing acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, increasing oxidative stress, and inducing lipid alteration. However, treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) markedly attenuated nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities, oxidative stress, and lipid alteration. Interestingly, the co-administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, GW9662 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) submaximally, significantly prevented rosuvastatin-induced improvement in vascular endothelial integrity, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and nitrite/nitrate concentration in rats administered nicotine. However, GW9662 co-administration did not affect rosuvastatin-associated vascular anti-oxidant and lipid-lowering effects. The incubation of aortic ring, isolated from rosuvastatin-treated nicotine-administered rats, with L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly attenuated rosuvastatin-induced improvement in acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Rosuvastatin prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities by activating

  18. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  19. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  20. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  2. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  3. Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain

    PubMed Central

    Flory, Graham S.; O’Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to nonhuman primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in nonhuman primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals. PMID:20018244

  4. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-02-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates. PMID:24634733

  5. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates. PMID:24634733

  6. Is courtship intensity a signal of male parental care in Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasukawa, Ken; Knight, Richard L.; Skagen, Susan Knight

    1987-01-01

    We studied Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) behavior in marsh and prairie habitats to determine whether courting males provide cues of their nest defense, whether females prefer males that defend nests vigorously, and whether male nest defense affects nest success. We found no evidence that courtship behavior provides cues of male nest defense, or that females prefer males that court intensely. We found evidence that females nesting in marshes prefer males that defend nests intensely, but no evidence that intensely defending males in the prairie habitat achieve high nest success. We found differences, however, between marsh and prairie habitats that suggest a coarse-grained relationship between male parental quality and female choice of mate in this species.

  7. Light intensity regulation of cab gene transcription is signaled by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool.

    PubMed Central

    Escoubas, J M; Lomas, M; LaRoche, J; Falkowski, P G

    1995-01-01

    The eukaryotic green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta acclimates to decreased growth irradiance by increasing cellular levels of light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex apoproteins associated with photosystem II (LHCIIs), whereas increased growth irradiance elicits the opposite response. Nuclear run-on transcription assays and measurements of cab mRNA stability established that light intensity-dependent changes in LHCII are controlled at the level of transcription. cab gene transcription in high-intensity light was partially enhanced by reducing plastoquinone with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU), whereas it was repressed in low-intensity light by partially inhibiting the oxidation of plastoquinol with 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). Uncouplers of photosynthetic electron transport and inhibition of water splitting had no effect on LHCII levels. These results strongly implicate the redox state of the plastoquinone pool in the chloroplast as a photon-sensing system that is coupled to the light-intensity regulation of nuclear-encoded cab gene transcription. The accumulation of cellular chlorophyll at low-intensity light can be blocked with cytoplasmically directed phosphatase inhibitors, such as okadaic acid, microcystin L-R, and tautomycin. Gel mobility-shift assays revealed that cells grown in high-intensity light contained proteins that bind to the promoter region of a cab gene carrying sequences homologous to higher plant light-responsive elements. On the basis of these experimental results, we propose a model for a light intensity signaling system where cab gene expression is reversibly repressed by a phosphorylated factor coupled to the redox status of plastoquinone through a chloroplast protein kinase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479759

  8. Selective attention and the auditory vertex potential. 2: Effects of signal intensity and masking noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    A randomized sequence of tone bursts was delivered to subjects at short inter-stimulus intervals with the tones originating from one of three spatially and frequency specific channels. The subject's task was to count the tones in one of the three channels at a time, ignoring the other two, and press a button after each tenth tone. In different conditions, tones were given at high and low intensities and with or without a background white noise to mask the tones. The N sub 1 component of the auditory vertex potential was found to be larger in response to attended channel tones in relation to unattended tones. This selective enhancement of N sub 1 was minimal for loud tones presented without noise and increased markedly for the lower tone intensity and in noise added conditions.

  9. Two cascaded SOAs used as intensity modulators for adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in optical access networks.

    PubMed

    Hamié, Ali; Hamzé, Mohamad; Taki, Haidar; Makouk, Layaly; Sharaiha, Ammar; Alaeddine, Ali; Al Housseini, Ali; Giacoumidis, Elias; Tang, J M

    2014-06-30

    Detailed theoretical and numerical investigations of the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (AMOOFDM) signals are undertaken, for the first time, in optical amplification and chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation free single mode fiber (SMF) intensity-modulated and direct-detection (IMDD) systems using two cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers in a counterpropagating configuration as an intensity modulator (TC-SOA-CC-IM). A theoretical model describing the characteristics of this configuration is developed. Extensive performance comparisons are also made between the TC-SOA-CC and the single SOA intensity modulators. It is shown that, the TC-SOA-CC reaches its strongly saturated region using a lower input optical power much faster than the single SOA resulting in significantly reduced effective carrier lifetime and thus wide TC-SOA-CC bandwidths. It is shown that at low input optical power, we can increase the signal line rate almost 115% which will be more than twice the transmission performance offered by single SOA. In addition, the TC-SOA-CC-IM is capable of supporting signal line rates higher than corresponding to the SOA-IM by using 10dB lower input optical powers. For long transmission distance, the TC-SOA-CC-IM has much stronger CD compensation capability compared to the SOA-IM. In addition the use of TC-SOA-CC-IM is more effective regarding the capability to benefit from the CD compensation for shorter distances starting at 60km SMF, whilst for the SOA-IM starting at 90km. PMID:24977835

  10. A computational method for the detection of activation/deactivation patterns in biological signals with three levels of electric intensity.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J A; Macías-Díaz, J E

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, we develop a computational technique to approximate the changes of phase in temporal series associated to electric signals of muscles which perform activities at three different levels of intensity. We suppose that the temporal series are samples of independent, normally distributed random variables with mean equal to zero, and variance equal to one of three possible values, each of them associated to a certain degree of electric intensity. For example, these intensity levels may represent a leg muscle at rest, or active during a light activity (walking), or active during a highly demanding performance (jogging). The model is presented as a maximum likelihood problem involving discrete variables. In turn, this problem is transformed into a continuous one via the introduction of continuous variables with penalization parameters, and it is solved recursively through an iterative numerical method. An a posteriori treatment of the results is used in order to avoid the detection of relatively short periods of silence or activity. We perform simulations with synthetic data in order to assess the validity of our technique. Our computational results show that the method approximates well the occurrence of the change points in synthetic temporal series, even in the presence of autocorrelated sequences. In the way, we show that a generalization of a computational technique for the change-point detection of electric signals with two phases of activity (Esquivel-Frausto et al., 2010 [40]), may be inapplicable in cases of temporal series with three levels of intensity. In this sense, the method proposed in the present manuscript improves previous efforts of the authors. PMID:24418009

  11. A boostrap algorithm for temporal signal reconstruction in the presence of noise from its fractional Fourier transformed intensity spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    A bootstrap algorithm for reconstructing the temporal signal from four of its fractional Fourier intensity spectra in the presence of noise is described. An optical arrangement is proposed which realises the bootstrap method for the measurement of ultrashort laser pulses. The measurement of short laser pulses which are less than 1 ps is an ongoing challenge in optical physics. One reason is that no oscilloscope exists today which can directly measure the time structure of these pulses and so it becomes necessary to invent other techniques which indirectly provide the necessary information for temporal pulse reconstruction. One method called FROG (frequency resolved optical gating) has been in use since 19911 and is one of the popular methods for recovering these types of short pulses. The idea behind FROG is the use of multiple time-correlated pulse measurements in the frequency domain for the reconstruction. Multiple data sets are required because only intensity information is recorded and not phase, and thus by collecting multiple data sets, there is enough redundant measurements to yield the original time structure, but not necessarily uniquely (or even up to an arbitrary constant phase offset). The objective of this paper is to describe another method which is simpler than FROG. Instead of collecting many auto-correlated data sets, only two spectral intensity measurements of the temporal signal are needed in the absence of noise. The first can be from the intensity components of its usual Fourier transform and the second from its FrFT (fractional Fourier transform). In the presence of noise, a minimum of four measurements are required with the same FrFT order but with two different apertures. Armed with these two or four measurements, a unique solution up to a constant phase offset can be constructed.

  12. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, B. B.; Richardson, E.; Siwal, D.; Hudan, S.; Souza, R. T. de

    2015-08-15

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s{sup −1} are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM)

  13. Modern optical signal processing experiments demonstrating intensity and pulse-width modulation using an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; McNeill, Mark D.; Moore, Daniel J.

    1997-09-01

    Two experiments are presented to introduce undergraduate students in electrical engineering or physics to modern optical signal processing. Both experiments use an acousto-optic (AO) Bragg cell together with additional electronics to modify the intensity of a laser beam. Specifically, we show how an AO feedback system operating in the Bragg regime can be configured to produce amplitude modulated (AM) and pulse-width modulated optical signals. The basic components of the AO feedback system include a laser, an AO Bragg cell, an electronic AM modulator, a photodetector, an amplifier, and an electronic adder. Except for the laser, the AM modulator, and the Bragg cell, each of these components can be constructed with low cost electronics. A tutorial outlining the principles of acousto-optics is included to provide sufficient understanding of the Bragg cell. The project described in the paper has been used as a demonstration for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students in electrical engineering communications and optics classes.

  14. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ∼30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400 000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (∼6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (∼8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination. PMID:26132513

  15. A miniaturized compact open-loop RFOG with demodulation signal compensation technique to suppress intensity modulation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Diqing; Mao, Jianmin; Li, Qiang; Jin, Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    A miniaturized compact open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) prototype with main body size of about 10.4 cm×10.4 cm×5.2 cm is reported, and a demodulation signal compensation technique is proposed, aiming to suppress the drift arising from accompanying intensity modulation induced by semiconductor laser diode (LD). The scheme of how to establish this miniaturized RFOG prototype is specifically stated. The linear relationship between the first-harmonic and second-harmonic demodulated signals respectively for the two counter propagating beams in the resonator is verified by theory and experiment, and based on this relationship, the demodulation signal compensation technique by monitoring the second-harmonic demodulated signal is described in detail. With this compensation technique, the gyro output stability under 1°/s rotation rate is effectively improved from 0.12°/s to 0.03°/s, and especially, an about 0.36°/s peak-to-peak fluctuation due to tuning current reset is significantly suppressed. A long term bias stability of about 4.5°/h in 1 h for such a small-sized RFOG prototype is demonstrated, which is of the same magnitude as that of currently reported large-sized RFOG systems utilizing LD as the laser source as well.

  16. Cerebral abnormalities: use of calculated T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images for diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, C.M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential clinical importance of T1 and T2 relaxation times in distinguishing normal and pathologic tissue with magnetic resonance (MR) is discussed and clinical examples of cerebral abnormalities are given. Five patients with cerebral infarction, 15 with multiple sclerosis, two with Wilson disease, and four with tumors were imaged. Hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents were distinguished using the spin echo technique. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, lesions had prolonged T1 and T2 times, but the definition of plaque was limited by spatial resolution. No abnormalities in signal intensity were seen in the patient with Wilson disease who was no longer severly disabled; abnormal increased signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found in the second patient with Wilson disease. Four tumors produced abnormal T1 and T2 relaxation times but these values alone were not sufficient for tumor characterization.

  17. Study on signal intensity of low field nuclear magnetic resonance via an indirect coupling measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Feng-Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Yi-Rong; Deng, Hui; Tian, Ye; Lang, Pei-Lin; Li, Jie; Chen, Ying-Fei; Zheng, Dong-Ning

    2013-04-01

    We carry out an ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment based on high-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The measurement field is in a micro-tesla range (~10 μT-100 μT) and the experiment is conducted in a home-made magnetically-shielded-room (MSR). The measurements are performed by the indirect coupling method in which the signal of nuclei precession is indirectly coupled to the SQUID through a tuned copper coil transformer. In such an arrangement, the interferences of applied measurement and polarization field to the SQUID sensor are avoided and the performance of the SQUID is not destroyed. In order to compare the detection sensitivity obtained by using the SQUID with that achieved using a conventional low-noise-amplifier, we perform the measurements using a commercial room temperature amplifier. The results show that in a wide frequency range (~1 kHz-10 kHz) the measurements with the SQUID sensor exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Further, we discuss the dependence of NMR peak magnitude on measurement frequency. We attribute the reduction of the peak magnitude at high frequency to the increased field inhomogeneity as the measurement field increases. This is verified by compensating the field gradient using three sets of gradient coils.

  18. Optimization of parameters affecting signal intensity in an LTQ-orbitrap in negative ion mode: A design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos

    2016-01-15

    A multistage optimization of all the parameters affecting detection/response in an LTQ-orbitrap analyzer was performed, using a design of experiments methodology. The signal intensity, a critical issue for mass analysis, was investigated and the optimization process was completed in three successive steps, taking into account the three main regions of an orbitrap, the ion generation, the ion transmission and the ion detection regions. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were selected as the model compounds. Overall, applying this methodology the sensitivity was increased more than 24%, the resolution more than 6.5%, whereas the elapsed scan time was reduced nearly to its half. A high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap Discovery mass spectrometer was used for the determination of the analytes of interest. Thus, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were infused via the instruments syringe pump and they were analyzed employing electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative high-resolution full-scan ion mode. The parameters of the three main regions of the LTQ-orbitrap were independently optimized in terms of maximum sensitivity. In this context, factorial design, response surface model and Plackett-Burman experiments were performed and analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the validity of the statistical model and to determine the most significant parameters for signal intensity. The optimum MS conditions for each analyte were summarized and the method optimum condition was achieved by maximizing the desirability function. Our observation showed good agreement between the predicted optimum response and the responses collected at the predicted optimum conditions. PMID:26592625

  19. Robust heart rate estimation using wrist-based PPG signals in the presence of intense physical activities.

    PubMed

    Chengzhi Zong; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate tracking from a wrist-type photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal during intensive physical activities is a challenge that is attracting more attention thanks to the introduction of wrist-worn wearable computers. Commonly-used motion artifact rejection methods coupled with simple periodicity-based heart rate estimation techniques are incapable of achieving satisfactory heart rate tracking performance during intense activities. In this paper, we propose a two-stage solution. Firstly, we introduce an improved spectral subtraction method to reject the spectral components of motion artifacts. Secondly, instead of using heuristic mechanisms, we formalize the spectral peaks selection process as the shortest path search problem and validate its effectiveness. Analysis on the experimental results based on a published database shows that: (1) Our proposed method outperforms three other comparable methods with regards to heart rate estimation error. (2) The proposed method is a promising candidate for both offline cardiac health analysis and online heart rate tracking in daily life, even during intensive physical motions. PMID:26738168

  20. Low intensity exercise prevents disturbances in rat cardiac insulin signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase induced by high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Stanišić, Jelena; Korićanac, Goran; Ćulafić, Tijana; Romić, Snježana; Stojiljković, Mojca; Kostić, Milan; Pantelić, Marija; Tepavčević, Snežana

    2016-01-15

    Increase in fructose consumption together with decrease in physical activity contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome and consequently cardiovascular diseases. The current study examined the preventive role of exercise on defects in cardiac insulin signaling and function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in fructose fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, sedentary fructose (received 10% fructose for 9 weeks) and exercise fructose (additionally exposed to low intensity exercise) groups. Concentration of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and visceral adipose tissue weight were determined to estimate metabolic syndrome development. Expression and/or phosphorylation of cardiac insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and eNOS were evaluated. Fructose overload increased visceral adipose tissue, insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment index. Exercise managed to decrease visceral adiposity and insulin level and to increase insulin sensitivity. Fructose diet increased level of cardiac PTP1B and pIRS1 (Ser307), while levels of IR and ERK1/2, as well as pIRS1 (Tyr 632), pAkt (Ser473, Thr308) and pERK1/2 were decreased. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Exercise managed to prevent most of the disturbances in insulin signaling caused by fructose diet (except phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyr 632 and phosphorylation and protein expression of ERK1/2) and consequently restored function of eNOS. Low intensity exercise could be considered as efficient treatment of cardiac insulin resistance induced by fructose diet. PMID:26644274

  1. Changes in Cortical Oxyhaemoglobin Signal During Low-Intensity Cycle Ergometer Activity: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Takai, Haruna; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisuke; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a widely used non-invasive method for measuring human brain activation based on the cerebral hemodynamic response during gross motor tasks. However, systemic changes can influence measured NIRS signals. We aimed to determine and compare time-dependent changes in NIRS signal, skin blood flow (SBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise. Nine healthy volunteers (22.1±1.7 years, 3 women) participated in this study. After a 4-min pre-exercise rest and a 4-min warm-up, they exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads corresponding to 30% VO2 peak for 20 min. An 8-min rest period followed the exercise. Cortical oxyhaemoglobin signals (O2Hb) were recorded while subjects performed the exercise, using an NIRS system. Changes in SBF and MAP were also measured during exercise. O2Hb increased to 0.019 mM cm over 6 min of exercise, decreased slightly from 13 min towards the end of the exercise. SBF continued to increase over 16 min of the exercise period and thereafter decreased till the end of measurement. MAP fluctuated from -1.0 to 7.1 mmHg during the exercise. Pearson's correlation coefficients between SBF and O2Hb, and MAP and O2Hb differed in each time phase, from -0.365 to 0.713. During low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise, the profile of changes in measurements of O2Hb, SBF, and MAP differed. These results suggested that it is necessary to confirm the relationship between O2Hb and systemic factors during motor tasks in order to detect cortical activation during gross motor tasks. PMID:26782198

  2. Radio Frequency Ultrasound Time Series Signal Analysis to Evaluate High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Lesion Formation Status in Tissue.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Saeedeh; Behnam, Hamid; Rangraz, Parisa; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a novel treatment modality used by scientists and clinicians in the recent decades. This modality has had a great and significant success as a noninvasive surgery technique applicable in tissue ablation therapy and cancer treatment. In this study, radio frequency (RF) ultrasound signals were acquired and registered in three stages of before, during, and after HIFU exposures. Different features of RF time series signals including the sum of amplitude spectrum in the four quarters of the frequency range, the slope, and intercept of the best-fit line to the entire power spectrum and the Shannon entropy were utilized to distinguish between the HIFU-induced thermal lesion and the normal tissue. We also examined the RF data, frame by frame to identify exposure effects on the formation and characteristics of a HIFU thermal lesion at different time steps throughout the treatment. The results obtained showed that the spectrum frequency quarters and the slope and intercept of the best fit line to the entire power spectrum both increased two times during the HIFU exposures. The Shannon entropy, however, decreased after the exposures. In conclusion, different characteristics of RF time series signal possess promising features that can be used to characterize ablated and nonablated tissues and to distinguish them from each other in a quasi-quantitative fashion. PMID:27186536

  3. Radio Frequency Ultrasound Time Series Signal Analysis to Evaluate High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Lesion Formation Status in Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Saeedeh; Behnam, Hamid; Rangraz, Parisa; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a novel treatment modality used by scientists and clinicians in the recent decades. This modality has had a great and significant success as a noninvasive surgery technique applicable in tissue ablation therapy and cancer treatment. In this study, radio frequency (RF) ultrasound signals were acquired and registered in three stages of before, during, and after HIFU exposures. Different features of RF time series signals including the sum of amplitude spectrum in the four quarters of the frequency range, the slope, and intercept of the best-fit line to the entire power spectrum and the Shannon entropy were utilized to distinguish between the HIFU-induced thermal lesion and the normal tissue. We also examined the RF data, frame by frame to identify exposure effects on the formation and characteristics of a HIFU thermal lesion at different time steps throughout the treatment. The results obtained showed that the spectrum frequency quarters and the slope and intercept of the best fit line to the entire power spectrum both increased two times during the HIFU exposures. The Shannon entropy, however, decreased after the exposures. In conclusion, different characteristics of RF time series signal possess promising features that can be used to characterize ablated and nonablated tissues and to distinguish them from each other in a quasi-quantitative fashion. PMID:27186536

  4. Loss of c-Cbl RING finger function results in high-intensity TCR signaling and thymic deletion

    PubMed Central

    Thien, Christine B F; Blystad, Frøydis D; Zhan, Yifan; Lew, Andrew M; Voigt, Valentina; Andoniou, Christopher E; Langdon, Wallace Y

    2005-01-01

    Signaling from the T-cell receptor (TCR) in thymocytes is negatively regulated by the RING finger-type ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. To further investigate this regulation, we generated mice with a loss-of-function mutation in the c-Cbl RING finger domain. These mice exhibit complete thymic deletion by young adulthood, which is not caused by a developmental block, lack of progenitors or peripheral T-cell activation. Rather, this phenotype correlates with greatly increased expression of the CD5 and CD69 activation markers and increased sensitivity to anti-CD3-induced cell death. Thymic loss contrasts the normal fate of the c-Cbl−/− thymus, even though thymocytes from both mutant mice show equivalent enhancement in proximal TCR signaling, Erk activation and calcium mobilization. Remarkably, only the RING finger mutant thymocytes show prominent TCR-directed activation of Akt. We show that the mutant c-Cbl protein itself is essential for activating this pathway by recruiting the p85 regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase. This study provides a unique model for analyzing high-intensity TCR signals that cause thymocyte deletion and highlights multiple roles of c-Cbl in regulating this process. PMID:16211006

  5. 'Something normal in a very, very abnormal environment' - Nursing work to honour the life of dying infants and children in neonatal and paediatric intensive care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Endacott, Ruth; Copnell, Beverley; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    The majority of deaths of children and infants occur in paediatric and neonatal intensive care settings. For nurses, managing an infant/child's deterioration and death can be very challenging. Nurses play a vital role in how the death occurs, how families are supported leading up to and after the infant/child's death. This paper describes the nurses' endeavours to create normality amidst the sadness and grief of the death of a child in paediatric and neonatal ICU. Focus groups and individual interviews with registered nurses from NICU and PICU settings gathered data on how neonatal and paediatric intensive care nurses care for families when a child dies and how they perceived their ability and preparedness to provide family care. Four themes emerged from thematic analysis: (1) respecting the child as a person; (2) creating opportunities for family involvement/connection; (3) collecting mementos; and (4) planning for death. Many of the activities described in this study empowered parents to participate in the care of their child as death approached. Further work is required to ensure these principles are translated into practice. PMID:26687773

  6. Aerobic-anaerobic transition intensity measured via EMG signals in athletes with different physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, Jaak; von Duvillard, Serge P; Mäestu, Jarek; Cicchella, Antonio; Purge, Priit; Ruosi, Sergio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Hamra, Jena

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of electromyographic signals (EMG), to determine the EMG threshold (EMGT) in four lower extremity muscles and to compare these thresholds with the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) in subjects participating in different sports and at different performance levels. Forty-nine subjects (23.8 +/- 5.7 years, 182.7 +/- 5.3 cm, 79.1 +/- 8.6 kg) including eleven cyclists, ten team-handball players, nine kayakers, eight power lifters and eleven controls were investigated utilizing a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measures were collected and EMG activity was continuously recorded from four muscles (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius lateralis). The VO(2)max averaged 56.1 +/- 11.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1), the average aerobic power was 348.5 +/- 61.0 W and the corresponding VT2 occurred at 271.4 +/- 64.0 W. The EMGT ranged from 80 to 98% of power output for the different muscles. The VT2 and EMG thresholds from four different muscles were not different. When thresholds were analyzed among different groups of subjects, no significant difference was observed between VT2 and EMGT despite threshold differences between the groups. All four EMGT were significantly related to maximal aerobic power (r = 0.73-0.83) and were highly correlated to each other (r = 0.57-0.88). In conclusion, EMGT can be used to determine the VT2 for individuals independent of sport specificity or performance level. PMID:17624542

  7. Does C5 or C6 Radiculopathy Affect the Signal Intensity of the Brachial Plexus on Magnetic Resonance Neurography?

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae Gyu; Kim, In-Soo; Son, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Patients with C5 or C6 radiculopathy complain of shoulder area pain or shoulder girdle weakness. Typical idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy (INA) is also characterized by severe shoulder pain, followed by paresis of shoulder girdle muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the brachial plexus and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder in patients with INA show high signal intensity (HSI) or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle. We evaluated the value of brachial plexus MRN and shoulder MRI in four patients with typical C5 or C6 radiculopathy. HSI of the brachial plexus was noted in all patients and intramuscular changes were observed in two patients who had symptoms over 4 weeks. Our results suggest that HSI or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle on MRN and MRI may not be specific for INA. PMID:27152289

  8. Does C5 or C6 Radiculopathy Affect the Signal Intensity of the Brachial Plexus on Magnetic Resonance Neurography?

    PubMed

    Seo, Tae Gyu; Kim, Du Hwan; Kim, In-Soo; Son, Eun Seok

    2016-04-01

    Patients with C5 or C6 radiculopathy complain of shoulder area pain or shoulder girdle weakness. Typical idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy (INA) is also characterized by severe shoulder pain, followed by paresis of shoulder girdle muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the brachial plexus and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder in patients with INA show high signal intensity (HSI) or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle. We evaluated the value of brachial plexus MRN and shoulder MRI in four patients with typical C5 or C6 radiculopathy. HSI of the brachial plexus was noted in all patients and intramuscular changes were observed in two patients who had symptoms over 4 weeks. Our results suggest that HSI or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle on MRN and MRI may not be specific for INA. PMID:27152289

  9. T2-weighted high-intensity signals in the basal ganglia as an interesting image finding in Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    PubMed

    Korja, Miikka; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Soilu-Hänninen, Merja; Magaudda, Adriana; Marttila, Reijo; Genton, Pierre; Parkkola, Riitta

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a search for white matter changes (WMCs) in 13 Unverricht-Lundborg disease patients and compared the prevalence of WMCs in these patients to age-matched long-term epileptics and healthy controls. ULD patients had significantly more T2-weighted high-intensity signals on MRI than control subjects, due to the increased prevalence of these signals in the basal ganglia. Interestingly, ULD patients with the basal ganglia changes were overweight. Basal ganglia T2-weighted high-intensity signals are novel findings in ULD. PMID:19896804

  10. The Ulnar Nerve at Elbow Extension and Flexion: Assessment of Position and Signal Intensity on MR Images.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Honda, Yuzo; Tomita, Yumiko; Uetani, Masataka

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To assess the position and signal intensity of the ulnar nerve at elbow extension and flexion by using magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Transverse T2-weighted images were obtained perpendicular to the upper arm in 100 healthy elbows of 50 volunteers (23 men, 27 women; age range, 21-57 years) and nine elbows with ulnar neuropathy (five men, four women; age range, 24-59 years) with extension and 130° of flexion. Ulnar nerve position was classified into three types: no dislocation, subluxation, or dislocation. One-way analysis of variance, paired t tests, Student t tests, and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze correlations between ulnar nerve movement angle during flexion and age, sex, presence of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, and ulnar neuropathy and to compare the contrast-to-noise ratio of nerve to muscle between extension and flexion. Results Nerve positions in healthy elbows were as follows: All had no dislocation at extension, and at flexion, 51 of 100 elbows (51.0%) had no dislocation, 30 of 100 elbows (30.0%) had subluxation, and 19 of 100 elbows (19.0%) had dislocation. Nerve movement angle was smaller in elbows with the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle than in those without the muscle (P = .045, .015). Presence of the muscle was the only significant factor associated with nerve movement angle (P = .047, .013). Only dominant elbows with nerve movement angle of less than 15° and nondominant elbows with nerve movement angle of less than 10° showed contrast-to-noise ratio increase at flexion (P = .021-.030). Conclusion Ulnar nerve movement during flexion was apparent in approximately half of healthy elbows and was similar between healthy elbows and elbows with ulnar neuropathy. Nerve signal intensity increased during flexion only in elbows without apparent nerve movement. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this

  11. The effect of increased T2 signal intensity in the spinal cord on the injury severity and early neurological recovery in patients with central cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Hjelm, Nik; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Weinstein, Michael S; Kepler, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this paper was to compare the severity of the initial neurological injury as well as the early changes in the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score (AMS) between central cord syndrome (CCS) patients with and without an increased T2 signal intensity in their spinal cord. METHODS Patients with CCS were identified and stratified based on the presence of increased T2 signal intensity in their spinal cord. The severity of the initial neurological injury and the progression of the neurological injury over the 1st week were measured according to the patient's AMS. The effect of age, sex, congenital stenosis, surgery within 24 hours, and surgery in the initial hospitalization on the change in AMS was determined using an analysis of variance. RESULTS Patients with increased signal intensity had a more severe initial neurological injury (AMS 57.6 vs 75.3, respectively, p = 0.01). However, the change in AMS over the 1st week was less severe in patients with an increase in T2 signal intensity (-0.85 vs -4.3, p = 0.07). Analysis of variance did not find that age, sex, Injury Severity Score, congenital stenosis, surgery within 24 hours, or surgery during the initial hospitalization affected the change in AMS. CONCLUSIONS The neurological injury is different between patients with and without an increased T2 signal intensity. Patients with an increased T2 signal intensity are likely to have a more severe initial neurological deficit but will have relatively minimal early neurological deterioration. Comparatively, patients without an increase in the T2 signal intensity will likely have a less severe initial injury but can expect to have a slight decline in neurological function in the 1st week. PMID:26745351

  12. Evaluation of Nanoporous Gold with Controlled Surface Structures for Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) Analysis: Surface Area Versus LDI Signal Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jang Mi; Choi, Suhee; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-09-01

    The structural effect of a nanoporous gold (NPG) surface on the signal intensities of laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) were investigated using NPG surfaces with controlled structures. The relationship between surface area and LDI efficiency was compared and evaluated. Comparisons between bare flat gold and NPG surfaces show that nanostructures increased LDI efficiency. We also found that the LDI signal decreased with increasing depth of nanoporous layers, thus increasing the surface area. This result agrees with a previous report (Shin J. A. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2010, 21, 989) in which the LDI efficiency of small molecules decreased for ZnO wires with longer lengths. This observation was explained by the penetration and deposition of samples into locations inaccessible to photons because of structural screening. The LDI-MS analysis of oils with NPG surfaces (but without matrix) showed the same trend whereby the NPG with about a 200 nm depth of porous area showed the highest sensitivity. This study clearly shows that the active surface area for solution chemistry can differ from LDI-MS and that NPGs can function as a substrate for LDI oil analysis.

  13. Predictors of surgical outcome in thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum: focusing on the quantitative signal intensity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, JingTao; Wang, LinFeng; Li, Jie; Yang, Peng; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The association between intramedullary increased signal intensity (ISI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical outcome in thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) remains controversial. We aimed to determine the impact of signal change ratio (SCR) on thoracic OLF surgical outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed 96 cases of thoracic OLF surgery and investigated myelopathy severity, symptom duration, MRI and computed tomographic findings, surgical technique and postoperative recoveries. Surgical outcomes were evaluated according to the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and recovery rate. JOA recovery rate <50% was defined as a poor surgical outcome. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, we identified risk factors associated with surgical outcomes. Forty patients (41.7%) had a recovery rate of <50%. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the optimal preoperative SCR cutoff value as a predictor of poor surgical outcome was 1.54. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a preoperative SCR ≥1.54 and symptom duration >12 months were significant risk factors for a poor surgical outcome. These findings suggest that preoperative SCR and duration of symptoms were significant risk factors of surgical outcome for patients with thoracic OLF. Patients with preoperative SCR ≥1.54 can experience poor postoperative recovery. PMID:26960572

  14. Evolution of Volume and Signal Intensity on Fluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery MR Images after Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

    PubMed

    Federau, Christian; Mlynash, Michael; Christensen, Soren; Zaharchuk, Greg; Cha, Brannon; Lansberg, Maarten G; Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To analyze both volume and signal evolution on magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images between the images after endovascular therapy and day 5 (which was the prespecified end point for infarct volume in the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution [DEFUSE 2] trial) in a subset of patients enrolled in the DEFUSE 2 study. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethics committee at all participating sites. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. In this post hoc analysis of the DEFUSE 2 study, 35 patients with FLAIR images acquired both after endovascular therapy (median time after symptom onset, 12 hours) and at day 5 were identified. Patients were separated into two groups based on the degree of reperfusion achieved on time to maximum greater than 6-second perfusion imaging (≥90% vs <90%). After coregistration and signal normalization, lesion volumes and signal intensity were assessed by using FLAIR imaging for the initial lesion (ie, visible after endovascular therapy) and the recruited lesion (the additional lesion visible on day 5, but not visible after endovascular therapy). Statistical significance was assessed by using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests. Results All 35 patients had FLAIR lesion growth between the after-revascularization examination and day 5. Median lesion growth was significantly larger in patients with <90% reperfusion (27.85 mL) compared with ≥90% (8.12 mL; P = .003). In the initial lesion, normalized signal did not change between after endovascular therapy (median, 1.60) and day 5 (median, 1.58) in the ≥90% reperfusion group (P = .97), but increased in the <90% reperfusion group (from 1.60 to 1.73; P = .01). In the recruited lesion, median normalized signal increased significantly in both groups between after endovascular therapy and day 5 (after endovascular therapy, from 1.19 to 1.56, P

  15. Amplitude and phase perturbations on VLF/LF signals at Belgrade due to X-ray flare intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulic, Desanka

    2016-07-01

    during nighttime and daytime condition, respectively. Propagation of LF radio signal is performed with n _{n} ˜34 (nighttime) and n _{d} ˜10 (daytime) discrete modes. The second purpose of this paper is to give an account of the narrowband VLF/LF perturbations induced by disturbances in the D-region to the event of solar X-ray flare. During occurrence of solar flare the altitude profile of ionospheric conductivity changes, a VLF/LF signal reflects from lower height and these changes result that VLF/LF propagation is performed with more discrete modes than in normal ionospheric condition. Amplitude and phase perturbations on different VLF/LF signals observed at Belgrade have sensitive dependence on: X-ray flare intensity, solar zenith angle, occurrence of solar flare under solar zenith angle which is close with timing of amplitude minimum in normal ionospheric condition and geophysical characteristics of path. The GQD-BEL path is short, D = 1982 km and oriented west-east. A solar flare X17.2 (I _{X} = 1.72 10 ^{-3} Wm ^{-2}) class occurred on 28 Oct 2003 with peak of intensity at 11:10 UT. This powerful solar flare induced amplitude and huge phase perturbation on GQD/22.10 kHz signal (Δ A=5.35 dB and Δ φ = 75 ^{0}). The NSC-BEL path is short, D = 953 km and oriented southwest-northeast. A solar flare M5.77 (I _{X} = 5.77 10 ^{-4} Wm ^{-2}) class occurred on 10 May 2012 with peak of intensity at 04:18 UT. Illumination of the D-region from east to west was under solar zenith angle 80.3 ^{0} < χ < 87.4 ^{0} and the consequence is very untypical LF perturbations. It is interesting to note that these two events are very rare.

  16. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    PubMed

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents. PMID:26701117

  17. Intramuscular anabolic signaling and endocrine response following high volume and high intensity resistance exercise protocols in trained men

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Mangine, Gerald T; Robinson, Edward H; Church, David D; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Willoughby, Darryn S; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise paradigms are often divided into high volume (HV) or high intensity (HI) protocols, however, it is unknown whether these protocols differentially stimulate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to examine mTORC1 signaling in conjunction with circulating hormone concentrations following a typical HV and HI lower-body resistance exercise protocol. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) performed each resistance exercise protocol in a random, counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL), immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), 1 h (1H), 2 h (2H), and 5 h (5H) postexercise. Fine needle muscle biopsies were completed at BL, 1H, and 5H. Electromyography of the vastus lateralis was also recorded during each protocol. HV and HI produced a similar magnitude of muscle activation across sets. Myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were significantly greater following HI compared to HV (P = 0.01–0.02), whereas the lactate response was significantly higher following HV compared to HI (P = 0.003). The growth hormone, cortisol, and insulin responses were significantly greater following HV compared to HI (P = 0.0001–0.04). No significant differences between protocols were observed for the IGF-1 or testosterone response. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed a significantly greater (P = 0.03) phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor at 1H following HV compared to HI. Phosphorylation status of all other signaling proteins including mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6 were not significantly different between trials. Despite significant differences in markers of muscle damage and the endocrine response following HV and HI, both protocols appeared to elicit similar mTORC1 activation in resistance-trained men. PMID:26197935

  18. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Affects Chondrocyte Extracellular Matrix Production via an Integrin-Mediated p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng; Ren, Shasha; Lin, Qiang; Cheng, Kai; Shen, Shihao; Gao, Mingxia; Li, Xueping

    2015-06-01

    Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) regulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and promotes cartilage repair in osteoarthritis, the role of integrin-mediated p38 MAPK in the effect of LIPUS on extracellular matrix (ECM) production of normal and OA chondrocytes remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LIPUS affects ECM production in normal and OA rabbit chondrocytes through an integrin-p38 signaling pathway. A rabbit model of OA was established by anterior cruciate ligament transection, and chondrocytes were isolated from normal or OA cartilage and cultured in vitro. Chondrocytes were treated with LIPUS and then pre-incubated with the integrin inhibitor GRGDSP or the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of type II collagen, MMP-13, integrin β1, p38 and phosphorylated p38 was assessed by Western blot analysis. We found that type II collagen and integrin β1 were upregulated (p < 0.05), whereas MMP-13 was downregulated (p < 0.05) in normal and OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, phosphorylated p38 was upregulated (p < 0.05) in normal chondrocytes, but downregulated (p < 0.05) in OA chondrocytes after LIPUS stimulation. Pre-incubation of chondrocytes with the integrin inhibitor disrupted the effects of LIPUS on normal and OA chondrocytes. Pre-incubation of chrondocytes with the p38 inhibitor reduced the effects of LIPUS on normal chondrocytes, but had no impact on OA chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that the integrin-p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays an important role in LIPUS-mediated ECM production in chondrocytes. PMID:25736607

  19. ESR signal intensity and crystallinity of quartz from Gobi and sandy deserts in East Asia and implication for tracing Asian dust provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youbin; Chen, Hongyun; Tada, Ryuji; Weiss, Dominik; Lin, Min; Toyoda, Shin; Yan, Yan; Isozaki, Yuko

    2013-08-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity and crystallinity index (CI) of fine- (<16 µm) and coarse-grained (>16 µm) quartz were measured in surface samples from the Taklimakan desert in western China, the Badain Juran, Tengger and Mu Us deserts in northern China, and the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia to evaluate whether these geophysical parameters can serve as reliable provenance tracers of Asian dust. The results indicate that spatial variability of both ESR signal intensity and CI is evident within the Taklimakan deserts and the Mongolian Gobi, but less significant in the three deserts of northern China. Coarse-grained quartz from the Mongolian Gobi and northern China deserts can be differentiated from the Taklimakan desert using the ESR signal intensity. Fine-grained quartz originating from three major Asian dust sources, i.e., the Gobi-sandy deserts in western China, northern China and southern Mongolia, can be distinguished effectively using the combination of ESR and CI signals. Our results suggest that ESR signal intensity and CI can discriminate the sources of fine-grained quartz better than coarse-grained quartz, providing an effective approach to trace the provenance of fine-grained dust deposition on the land and in the ocean.

  20. Light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by metabolite signal from mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Ming; Ye, Hua-Xun; Guo, Hong-Qing; Lv, Xin; Yin, Yanhai; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Although mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play essential roles in high light stress tolerance, the effects of AOX on chlorophyll synthesis are unclear. Previous studies indicated that during greening, chlorophyll accumulation was largely delayed in plants whose mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by knocking out nuclear encoded AOX gene. Here, we showed that this delay of chlorophyll accumulation was more significant under high light condition. Inhibition of cyanide-resistant respiration was also accompanied by the increase of plastid NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, especially under high light treatment which subsequently blocked the import of multiple plastidial proteins, such as some components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, the Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and malate/oxaloacetate shuttle components. Overexpression of AOX1a rescued the aox1a mutant phenotype, including the chlorophyll accumulation during greening and plastidial protein import. It thus suggests that light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by a metabolic signal, the AOX-derived plastidial NADPH/NADP(+) ratio change. Further, our results thus revealed a molecular mechanism of chloroplast-mitochondria interactions. PMID:25158995

  1. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI) on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Nelly; Skiöld, Béatrice; Eklöf, Eva; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Vollmer, Brigitte; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55–80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI. Study Design This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test—Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis. Results DEHSI was detected in 39 (59%) of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years. Conclusion The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm. PMID:26886451

  2. The Clinical Value of High-Intensity Signals on the Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques: Noncontrast T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ehara, Shoichi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Shimada, Kenei

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in the pathohistological assessment of vulnerable plaques and in invasive intravascular imaging techniques. However, the assessment of plaque morphology by invasive modalities is of limited value for the detection of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and the subsequent prediction or prevention of acute cardiovascular events. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has reached a sufficient level of spatial resolution, which allowed the plaque visualization of large and static arteries such as the carotids and aorta. However, coronary wall imaging by MR is still challenging due to the small size of coronary arteries, cardiac and respiratory motion, and the low contrast-to-noise ratio between the coronary artery wall and the surrounding structures. Following the introduction of carotid plaque imaging with noncontrast T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), some investigators have reported that coronary artery high-intensity signals on T1WI are associated with vulnerable plaque morphology and an increased risk of future cardiac events. Although there are several limitations and issues that need to be resolved, this novel MR technique for coronary plaque imaging could influence treatment strategies for atherothrombotic disease and may be useful for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherothrombotic plaque formation. PMID:27455243

  3. Abnormal Intracellular Calcium Signaling and SNARE-Dependent Exocytosis Contributes to SOD1G93A Astrocyte-Mediated Toxicity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Ng, Seng Kah; Diaz, Natalia; Burstein, Suzanne; Morel, Lydie; Osgood, Alexandra; Sider, Brittany; Higashimori, Haruki; Haydon, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons are progressively and predominantly degenerated in ALS, which is not only induced by multiple intrinsic pathways but also significantly influenced by the neighboring glial cells. In particular, astrocytes derived from the SOD1 mutant mouse model of ALS or from human familial or sporadic ALS patient brain tissue directly induce motor neuron death in culture; however, the mechanisms of pathological astroglial secretion remain unclear. Here we investigated abnormal calcium homeostasis and altered exocytosis in SOD1G93A astrocytes. We found that purinergic stimulation induces excess calcium release from the ER stores in SOD1G93A astrocytes, which results from the abnormal ER calcium accumulation and is independent of clearance mechanisms. Furthermore, pharmacological studies suggested that store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a calcium refilling mechanism responsive to ER calcium depletion, is enhanced in SOD1G93A astrocytes. We found that oxidant-induced increased S-glutathionylation and calcium-independent puncta formation of the ER calcium sensor STIM1 underlies the abnormal SOCE response in SOD1G93A astrocytes. Enhanced SOCE contributes to ER calcium overload in SOD1G93A astrocytes and excess calcium release from the ER during ATP stimulation. In addition, ER calcium release induces elevated ATP release from SOD1G93A astrocytes, which can be inhibited by the overexpression of dominant-negative SNARE. Selective inhibition of exocytosis in SOD1G93A astrocytes significantly prevents astrocyte-mediated toxicity to motor neurons and delays disease onset in SOD1G93A mice. Our results characterize a novel mechanism responsible for calcium dysregulation in SOD1G93A astrocytes and provide the first in vivo evidence that astrocyte exocytosis contributes to the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:24501372

  4. Inhibited Wnt Signaling Causes Age-Dependent Abnormalities in the Bone Matrix Mineralization in the Apert Syndrome FGFR2S252W/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Peng; Chen, Lin; Weng, Tujun; Zhang, Shichang; Zhou, Xia; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Luchuan

    2015-01-01

    Apert syndrome (AS) is a type of autosomal dominant disease characterized by premature fusion of the cranial sutures, severe syndactyly, and other abnormalities in internal organs. Approximately 70% of AS cases are caused by a single mutation, S252W, in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). Two groups have generated FGFR2 knock-in mice Fgfr2S252W/+ that exhibit features of AS. During the present study of AS using the Fgfr2S252W/+ mouse model, an age-related phenotype of bone homeostasis was discovered. The long bone mass was lower in 2 month old mutant mice than in age-matched controls but higher in 5 month old mutant mice. This unusual phenotype suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which are vital to maintain bone homeostasis, might be involved. BMSCs were isolated from Fgfr2S252W/+ mice and found that S252W mutation could impair osteogenic differentiation BMSCs but enhance mineralization of more mature osteoblasts. A microarray analysis revealed that Wnt pathway inhibitors SRFP1/2/4 were up-regulated in mutant BMSCs. This work provides evidence to show that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is inhibited in both mutant BMSCs and osteoblasts, and differentiation defects of these cells can be ameliorated by Wnt3a treatment. The present study suggested that the bone abnormalities caused by deregulation of Wnt pathway may underlie the symptoms of AS. PMID:25693202

  5. Automatic ROI construction for analyzing time-signal intensity curve in dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the breast.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Koya; Ueda, Yasuyuki; Kudomi, Shohei; Yonezawa, Teppei; Fujimoto, Yuki; Ueda, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to construct a 3-dimensional (3D) region of interest (ROI) for analyzing the time-signal intensity curve (TIC) semi-automatically in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging of the breast. DCE-MR breast imaging datasets were acquired by a 3.0-Tesla MR system with the use of a 3D fast gradient echo sequence. The essential idea in the new method was to analyze each pixel and to construct an ROI made up of pixels with similar TICs. First, an analyst selected a starting point in the contrast media-enhanced tumor. Second, we calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients (CCs) between the TIC in the starting coordinate selected by the analyst and the TIC in the other coordinates. Third, ROI pixels were selected if their CC threshold satisfied a level of coefficient variation of the ROI determined by prior research performed in our institution. We made a retrospective review of patients who underwent breast DCE-MR examination for pre-operative diagnosis. To confirm the feasibility of the resulting 3D-ROI from TIC analysis, we compared Fischer's score obtained from 3D-ROI by applying a new method to a score obtained from a manually selected 2-dimensional (2D) ROI which was used during routine clinical examination. The Fischer's scores obtained from both the automatically selected 3D-ROI and the manually selected 2D-ROI showed almost equivalent results. Thus, we considered that the new method was comparable to the conventional method. Furthermore, the new method has the potential to be used for evaluation of the extent of tumors. PMID:26141767

  6. Lung Parenchymal Signal Intensity in MRI: A Technical Review with Educational Aspirations Regarding Reversible Versus Irreversible Transverse Relaxation Effects in Common Pulse Sequences

    PubMed Central

    MULKERN, ROBERT; HAKER, STEVEN; MAMATA, HATSUHO; LEE, EDWARD; MITSOURAS, DIMITRIOS; OSHIO, KOICHI; BALASUBRAMANIAN, MUKUND; HATABU, HIROTO

    2014-01-01

    Lung parenchyma is challenging to image with proton MRI. The large air space results in ~l/5th as many signal-generating protons compared to other organs. Air/tissue magnetic susceptibility differences lead to strong magnetic field gradients throughout the lungs and to broad frequency distributions, much broader than within other organs. Such distributions have been the subject of experimental and theoretical analyses which may reveal aspects of lung microarchitecture useful for diagnosis. Their most immediate relevance to current imaging practice is to cause rapid signal decays, commonly discussed in terms of short T2* values of 1 ms or lower at typical imaging field strengths. Herein we provide a brief review of previous studies describing and interpreting proton lung spectra. We then link these broad frequency distributions to rapid signal decays, though not necessarily the exponential decays generally used to define T2* values. We examine how these decays influence observed signal intensities and spatial mapping features associated with the most prominent torso imaging sequences, including spoiled gradient and spin echo sequences. Effects of imperfect refocusing pulses on the multiple echo signal decays in single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences and effects of broad frequency distributions on balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) sequence signal intensities are also provided. The theoretical analyses are based on the concept of explicitly separating the effects of reversible and irreversible transverse relaxation processes, thus providing a somewhat novel and more general framework from which to estimate lung signal intensity behavior in modern imaging practice. PMID:25228852

  7. Lung Parenchymal Signal Intensity in MRI: A Technical Review with Educational Aspirations Regarding Reversible Versus Irreversible Transverse Relaxation Effects in Common Pulse Sequences.

    PubMed

    Mulkern, Robert; Haker, Steven; Mamata, Hatsuho; Lee, Edward; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Oshio, Koichi; Balasubramanian, Mukund; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2014-03-01

    Lung parenchyma is challenging to image with proton MRI. The large air space results in ~l/5th as many signal-generating protons compared to other organs. Air/tissue magnetic susceptibility differences lead to strong magnetic field gradients throughout the lungs and to broad frequency distributions, much broader than within other organs. Such distributions have been the subject of experimental and theoretical analyses which may reveal aspects of lung microarchitecture useful for diagnosis. Their most immediate relevance to current imaging practice is to cause rapid signal decays, commonly discussed in terms of short T2 (*) values of 1 ms or lower at typical imaging field strengths. Herein we provide a brief review of previous studies describing and interpreting proton lung spectra. We then link these broad frequency distributions to rapid signal decays, though not necessarily the exponential decays generally used to define T2 (*) values. We examine how these decays influence observed signal intensities and spatial mapping features associated with the most prominent torso imaging sequences, including spoiled gradient and spin echo sequences. Effects of imperfect refocusing pulses on the multiple echo signal decays in single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences and effects of broad frequency distributions on balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) sequence signal intensities are also provided. The theoretical analyses are based on the concept of explicitly separating the effects of reversible and irreversible transverse relaxation processes, thus providing a somewhat novel and more general framework from which to estimate lung signal intensity behavior in modern imaging practice. PMID:25228852

  8. Assessing response in breast cancer with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: are signal intensity-time curves adequate?

    PubMed

    Woolf, David K; Padhani, Anwar R; Taylor, N Jane; Gogbashian, Andrew; Li, Sonia P; Beresford, Mark J; Ah-See, Mei-Lin; Stirling, James; Collins, David J; Makris, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters including K(trans) (transfer constant min(-1)) can predict both response and outcome in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Quantitative methods are time-consuming to calculate, requiring expensive software and interpretive expertise. For diagnostic purposes, signal intensity-time curves (SITCs) are used for tissue characterisation. In this study, we compare the ability of NAC-related changes in SITCs with K(trans) to predict response and outcomes. 73 women with primary breast cancer underwent DCE-MRI studies before and after two cycles of NAC. Patients received anthracycline and/or docetaxel-based chemotherapy. At completion of NAC, patients had local treatment with surgery & radiotherapy and further systemic treatments. SITCs for paired DCE-MRI studies were visually scored using a five-curve type classification schema encompassing wash-in and wash-out phases and correlated with K(trans) values and to the endpoints of pathological response, OS and DFS. 58 paired patients studies were evaluable. The median size by MRI measurement for 52 tumours was 38 mm (range 17-86 mm) at baseline and 26 mm (range 10-85 mm) after two cycles of NAC. Median baseline K(trans) (min(-1)) was 0.214 (range 0.085-0.469), and post-two cycles of NAC was 0.128 (range 0.013-0.603). SITC shapes were significantly related to K(trans) values both before (χ (2) = 43.3, P = 0.000) and after two cycles of NAC (χ (2) = 60.5, P = 0.000). Changes in curve shapes were significantly related to changes in K(trans) (χ (2) = 53.5, P = 0.000). Changes in curve shape were significantly correlated with clinical (P = 0.005) and pathological response (P = 0.005). Reductions in curve shape of ≥1 point were significant for overall improved survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis with a 5-year OS of 80.9 versus 68.6 % (P = 0.048). SITCs require no special software to generate and provide a useful method of assessing the

  9. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  10. Influence of intensity loss in the cavity of a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer on interferometric signals

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping; Wang, Yung-Cheng

    2011-06-15

    Fabry-Perot interferometer is often used for the micro-displacement, because of its common optical path structure being insensitive to the environmental disturbances. Recently, the folded Fabry-Perot interferometer has been investigated for displacement measurements in large ranges. The advantages of a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer are insensitive to the tilt angle and higher optical resolution. But the design of the optical cavity has become more and more complicated. For this reason, the intensity loss in the cavity will be an important parameter for the distribution of the interferometric intensity. To obtain a more accurate result of such interferometer utilized for displacement measurements, the intensity loss of the cavity in the fabricated folded Fabry-Perot interferometer and the modified equation of the folded Fabry-Perot interferometer will be described. According to the theoretical and experimental results, the presented model is available for the analysis of displacement measurements by a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  11. Signalling of a step-like intensity change of noxious mechanical stimuli by dorsal horn neurones in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, J M; Cervero, F

    1991-01-01

    1. Single-unit extracellular recordings were made from thirty-one dorsal horn neurones in the sacral spinal cord of barbiturate-anaesthetized rats. Each neurone was tested with four noxious mechanical pinches applied to its receptive field on the tail. Each pinch lasted 120 s, with a step-like change in intensity after 60 s. In two pinches the step increased the intensity, from 4 to 6 N or from 6 to 8 N, and in two the step decreased the intensity, from 8 to 6 N or from 6 to 4 N. 2. The ability of the neurones to signal these step changes in intensity was examined. Five neurones with an exclusively low-threshold afferent input (class 1) were tested, and found to fire only briefly at the start of the 120 s stimulus. Neurones with a high-threshold input (nociceptive neurones), either exclusively (class 3; n = 10) or in addition to a low-threshold input (class 2: n = 16), responded throughout the 120 s stimuli. 3. Nociceptive dorsal horn neurones have been divided into two groups of 'good' and 'poor' encoders on the basis of their response to the step changes in intensity. 4. 'Good' encoders (n = 13) were neurones signalling both a step increase and a step decrease in intensity, of which seven were class 2 and six class 3, five recorded in the superficial dorsal horn and eight in the deep dorsal horn. 5. 'Poor' encoders (n = 13) were neurones which failed to signal one or both of the step changes in intensity, of which nine were class 2 and four class 3, three recorded in the superficial dorsal horn and ten in the deep dorsal horn. 6. These results demonstrate that neurones with similar input properties and location are not necessarily a homogeneous group in terms of their processing of nociceptive stimuli. Moreover, they suggest that subgroups of both class 2 and class 3 and of superficial and deep dorsal horn neurones contribute to the different components of a nociceptive response. 7. We propose that the output and projection target of a particular dorsal horn

  12. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  13. A Novel Time-Varying Spectral Filtering Algorithm for Reconstruction of Motion Artifact Corrupted Heart Rate Signals During Intense Physical Activities Using a Wearable Photoplethysmogram Sensor.

    PubMed

    Salehizadeh, Seyed M A; Dao, Duy; Bolkhovsky, Jeffrey; Cho, Chae; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of heart rates from photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals during intense physical activity is a very challenging problem. This is because strenuous and high intensity exercise can result in severe motion artifacts in PPG signals, making accurate heart rate (HR) estimation difficult. In this study we investigated a novel technique to accurately reconstruct motion-corrupted PPG signals and HR based on time-varying spectral analysis. The algorithm is called Spectral filter algorithm for Motion Artifacts and heart rate reconstruction (SpaMA). The idea is to calculate the power spectral density of both PPG and accelerometer signals for each time shift of a windowed data segment. By comparing time-varying spectra of PPG and accelerometer data, those frequency peaks resulting from motion artifacts can be distinguished from the PPG spectrum. The SpaMA approach was applied to three different datasets and four types of activities: (1) training datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 12 subjects while performing treadmill exercise from 1 km/h to 15 km/h; (2) test datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 11 subjects while performing forearm and upper arm exercise. (3) Chon Lab dataset including 10 min recordings from 10 subjects during treadmill exercise. The ECG signals from all three datasets provided the reference HRs which were used to determine the accuracy of our SpaMA algorithm. The performance of the SpaMA approach was calculated by computing the mean absolute error between the estimated HR from the PPG and the reference HR from the ECG. The average estimation errors using our method on the first, second and third datasets are 0.89, 1.93 and 1.38 beats/min respectively, while the overall error on all 33 subjects is 1.86 beats/min and the performance on only treadmill experiment datasets (22 subjects) is 1.11 beats/min. Moreover, it was found that dynamics of heart rate variability can be

  14. A Novel Time-Varying Spectral Filtering Algorithm for Reconstruction of Motion Artifact Corrupted Heart Rate Signals During Intense Physical Activities Using a Wearable Photoplethysmogram Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Salehizadeh, Seyed M. A.; Dao, Duy; Bolkhovsky, Jeffrey; Cho, Chae; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of heart rates from photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals during intense physical activity is a very challenging problem. This is because strenuous and high intensity exercise can result in severe motion artifacts in PPG signals, making accurate heart rate (HR) estimation difficult. In this study we investigated a novel technique to accurately reconstruct motion-corrupted PPG signals and HR based on time-varying spectral analysis. The algorithm is called Spectral filter algorithm for Motion Artifacts and heart rate reconstruction (SpaMA). The idea is to calculate the power spectral density of both PPG and accelerometer signals for each time shift of a windowed data segment. By comparing time-varying spectra of PPG and accelerometer data, those frequency peaks resulting from motion artifacts can be distinguished from the PPG spectrum. The SpaMA approach was applied to three different datasets and four types of activities: (1) training datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 12 subjects while performing treadmill exercise from 1 km/h to 15 km/h; (2) test datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 11 subjects while performing forearm and upper arm exercise. (3) Chon Lab dataset including 10 min recordings from 10 subjects during treadmill exercise. The ECG signals from all three datasets provided the reference HRs which were used to determine the accuracy of our SpaMA algorithm. The performance of the SpaMA approach was calculated by computing the mean absolute error between the estimated HR from the PPG and the reference HR from the ECG. The average estimation errors using our method on the first, second and third datasets are 0.89, 1.93 and 1.38 beats/min respectively, while the overall error on all 33 subjects is 1.86 beats/min and the performance on only treadmill experiment datasets (22 subjects) is 1.11 beats/min. Moreover, it was found that dynamics of heart rate variability can be

  15. Platelet signal transduction defect with Gα subunit dysfunction and diminished Gαq in a patient with abnormal platelet responses

    PubMed Central

    Gabbeta, Jagadeesh; Yang, Xu; Kowalska, M. Anna; Sun, Ling; Dhanasekaran, N.; Rao, A. Koneti

    1997-01-01

    G proteins play a major role in signal transduction upon platelet activation. We have previously reported a patient with impaired agonist-induced aggregation, secretion, arachidonate release, and Ca2+ mobilization. Present studies demonstrated that platelet phospholipase A2 (cytosolic and membrane) activity in the patient was normal. Receptor-mediated activation of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex measured by flow cytometry using antibody PAC-1 was diminished despite normal amounts of GPIIb-IIIa on platelets. Ca2+ release induced by guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (GTP[γS]) was diminished in the patient’s platelets, suggesting a defect distal to agonist receptors. GTPase activity (a function of α-subunit) in platelet membranes was normal in resting state but was diminished compared with normal subjects on stimulation with thrombin, platelet-activating factor, or the thromboxane A2 analog U46619. Binding of 35S-labeled GTP[γS] to platelet membranes was decreased under both basal and thrombin-stimulated states. Iloprost (a stable prostaglandin I2 analog) -induced rise in cAMP (mediated by Gαs) and its inhibition (mediated by Gαi) by thrombin in the patient’s platelet membranes were normal. Immunoblot analysis of Gα subunits in the patient’s platelet membranes showed a decrease in Gαq (<50%) but not Gαi, Gαz, Gα12, and Gα13. These studies provide evidence for a hitherto undescribed defect in human platelet G-protein α-subunit function leading to impaired platelet responses, and they provide further evidence for a major role of Gαq in thrombin-induced responses. PMID:9238049

  16. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  18. High signal intensity on T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging correlates with the ventricular tachyarrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hen, Yasuki; Iguchi, Nobuo; Machida, Haruhiko; Takada, Kaori; Utanohara, Yuko; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    2013-11-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can predict ventricular arrhythmia and poor prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. Although myocardial T2-high signal has been reported to appear within LGE in those patients, its clinical significance remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between the T2-high signal and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) in HCM patients. Eighty-one HCM patients who underwent Holter ECG and CMR including T2-weighted and LGE imaging were retrospectively recruited. They were divided into NSVT-positive and NSVT-negative groups. We compared the clinical and CMR characteristics between both of the groups, and assessed predictors of NSVT with multivariate analysis. Myocardial T2-high signal was observed in 15/81 (18.5 %) patients. Each T2-high signal was localized within LGE. Significantly in the NSVT-positive group, the prevalence of atrial fibrillation [5/17 (29.4 %) vs. 2/64 (3.1 %), p = 0.0006] and T2-high signal [9/17 (52.9 %) vs. 6/64 (9.4 %), p < 0.0001] and the left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume index (32.2 ± 15.9 ml/m(2) vs. 23.3 ± 14.9 ml/m(2), p = 0.034) and the number of segments with LGE (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 2.7 ± 2.7, p < 0.0001) was increased, and the LV ejection fraction (54.8 ± 10.9 % vs. 65.1 ± 10.6 %, p = 0.0007) was decreased, compared to the NSVT-negative group. On multivariate analysis, the presence of atrial fibrillation (OR 29.49, p = 0.0025) and DM (OR 7.36, p = 0.0455) and T2-high signal (OR 14.96, p = 0.0014) and reduced LV ejection fraction (OR 0.93, p = 0.0222) were significantly associated with NSVT. The presence of myocardial T2-high signal is a significant independent predictor of NSVT in HCM patients. PMID:23097076

  19. Increased intensity and reduced frequency of EMG signals from feline self-reinnervated ankle extensors during walking do not normalize excessive lengthening.

    PubMed

    Pantall, Annette; Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Gregor, Robert J; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2016-06-01

    Kinematics of cat level walking recover after elimination of length-dependent sensory feedback from the major ankle extensor muscles induced by self-reinnervation. Little is known, however, about changes in locomotor myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated muscles. We examined the myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated muscles and intact synergists to determine the extent to which patterns of muscle activity change as almost normal walking is restored following muscle self-reinnervation. Nerves to soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) of six adult cats were surgically transected and repaired. Intramuscular myoelectric signals of SO, LG, medial gastrocnemius (MG), and plantaris (PL), muscle fascicle length of SO and MG, and hindlimb mechanics were recorded during level and slope (±27°) walking before and after (10-12 wk postsurgery) self-reinnervation of LG and SO. Mean myoelectric signal intensity and frequency were determined using wavelet analysis. Following SO and LG self-reinnervation, mean myoelectric signal intensity increased and frequency decreased in most conditions for SO and LG as well as for intact synergist MG (P < 0.05). Greater elongation of SO muscle-tendon unit during downslope and unchanged magnitudes of ankle extensor moment during the stance phase in all walking conditions suggested a functional deficiency of ankle extensors after self-reinnervation. Possible effects of morphological reorganization of motor units of ankle extensors and altered sensory and central inputs on the changes in myoelectric activity of self-reinnervated SO and LG are discussed. PMID:26912591

  20. Enhancement of on chip chemiluminescence signal intensity of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) peroxydisulphate system for analysis of chlorpheniramine maleate in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O; Al Kindy, Salma M Z; Al-Lawati, Ali M; Varma, Gouri B; Nour, Imad Eldin M

    2010-10-15

    The effect of detection chip geometry on chemiluminescence (CL) signal intensity of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) peroxydisulphate system for analysis of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in pharmaceutical formulations was investigated. It was observed that the design of the detection chip is very crucial and can play an important role in enhancing the CL signal intensity in this system. The CL signal intensity was enhanced 250% when a teardrop micromixer chip was used, compared to the commonly used serpentine chip geometry. The study was conducted using a multi-chip device. In this device, chip 1 was used to prepare and pump the reagent mixture, whereas chip 3 was used for pumping the sample. The two chips were connected to the teardrop chip (2) via silica capillary where detection took place. Non-linear regression curve fitting of the calibration data revealed that the calibration curves are best described by third order polynomial equation with excellent correlation coefficients (R(2)=0.9998) for the concentration range 7.69 × 10(-8) to 5.12 ×1 0(-5)mol L(-1). A linear response is also observed over the range 7.69 × 10(-8) to 1.28 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) (R(2)=0.9996) and the detection limit was found to be 5.49 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). The device was successfully used for the analysis of CPM in tablets and a multi-component cough syrup. Results were reproducible with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.6-1.1%. PMID:20875608

  1. Science to Practice: Can Decreased Lymph Node MR Imaging Signal Intensity Be Used as a Biomarker for the Efficacy of Cancer Vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the study of Zhang et al (1), tumor-bearing mice were vaccinated with magnetically labeled, tumor antigen–primed dendritic cells (DCs). After homing of these antigen-presenting cells to the draining lymph node (LN), it was shown that the iron oxide–induced decrease in LN magnetic resonance (MR) imaging signal intensity correlated with the observed tumor growth delay, suggesting that the degree of hypointensity can serve as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of tumor vaccination. PMID:25531469

  2. MRI Signal Intensity Based B-Spline Nonrigid Registration for Pre- and Intraoperative Imaging During Prostate Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Sota; Tokuda, Junichi; Elhawary, Haytham; Haker, Steven; Kikinis, Ron; Tempany, Clare M.C.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To apply an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm to MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy clinical data and to assess its accuracy. Materials and Methods A nonrigid registration of preoperative MRI to intraoperative MRI images was carried out in 16 cases using a Basis-Spline algorithm in a retrospective manner. The registration was assessed qualitatively by experts’ visual inspection and quantitatively by measuring the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for total gland (TG), central gland (CG), and peripheral zone (PZ), the mutual information (MI) metric, and the fiducial registration error (FRE) between corresponding anatomical landmarks for both the nonrigid and a rigid registration method. Results All 16 cases were successfully registered in less than 5 min. After the nonrigid registration, DSC values for TG, CG, PZ were 0.91, 0.89, 0.79, respectively, the MI metric was −0.19 ± 0.07 and FRE presented a value of 2.3 ± 1.8 mm. All the metrics were significantly better than in the case of rigid registration, as determined by one-sided t-tests. Conclusion The intensity-based nonrigid registration method using clinical data was demonstrated to be feasible and showed statistically improved metrics when compare to only rigid registration. The method is a valuable tool to integrate pre- and intraoperative images for brachytherapy. PMID:19856437

  3. Do intramedullary spinal cord changes in signal intensity on MRI affect surgical opportunity and approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhi; Hu, Hongwei; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yang; Chen, Linwei; Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen

    2011-09-01

    Some controversy still exists over the optimal treatment time and the surgical approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The aim of the current study was first to analyze the effect of intramedullary spinal cord changes in signal intensity (hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging and hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on surgical opportunity and approach for cervical myelopathy due to OPLL. This was a prospective randomized controlled study. Fifty-six patients with cervical myelopathy due to OPLL were enrolled and assigned to either group A (receiving anterior decompression and fusion, n = 27) or group P (receiving posterior laminectomy, n = 29). All the patients were followed up for an average 20.3 months (12-34 months). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the average operative time, blood loss, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, improvement rate (IR) and complication. To determine the relevant statistics, we made two factorial designs and regrouped the data of all patients to group H (with hyperintensity on MRI, n = 31), group L (with hypointensity on MRI, n = 19) and group N (no signal on MRI, n = 25), and then to further six subgroups as well: AH (with hyperintensity on MRI from group A, n = 15), PH (with hyperintensity on MRI from group P, n = 16), AL (with hypointensity on MRI from group A, n = 10), PL (with hypointensity on MRI from group P, n = 9), AN (no signal intensity on MRI from group A, n = 12) and PN (no signal intensity on MRI from group P, n = 13). Both hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging and hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging had a close relationship with the JOA score and IR. The pre- and postoperative JOA score and postoperative IR of either group H or group L was significantly lower than that of group N (P < 0.05), regardless of whether the patients had received anterior or posterior surgery. On the other hand, both the JOA score and

  4. Inverse problem of nonlinear acoustics: Synthesizing intense signals to intensify the thermal and radiation action of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Gurbatov, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    Inverse problems of nonlinear acoustics have important applied significance. On the one hand, they are necessary for nonlinear diagnostics of media, materials, manufactured articles, building units, and biological and geological structures. On the other hand, they are needed for creating devices that ensure optimal action of acoustic radiation on a target. However, despite the many promising applications, this direction remains underdeveloped, especially for strongly distorted high-intensity waves containing shock fronts. An example of such an inverse problem is synthesis of the spatiotemporal structure of a field in a radiating system that ensures the highest possible energy density in the focal region. This problem is also related to the urgent problems of localizing wave energy and the theory of strongly nonlinear waves. Below we analyze some quite general and simple inverse nonlinear problems.

  5. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  6. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  7. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  8. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  9. Examining the feedback signals used in closed-loop control of intense laser fragmentation of CO{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, E.; Todt, Michael; Jochim, Bethany; Gregerson, Neal; Averin, R.; Wells, Nathan G.; Smolnisky, N. L.; Jastram, Nathan; McKenna, J.; Sayler, A. M.; Johnson, Nora G.; Zohrabi, M.; Gaire, B.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2009-12-15

    A closed-loop feedback system is used to determine the optimal pulse shapes for manipulating the branching ratio of carbon monoxide following ionization by an intense laser pulse. We focus on manipulating the C{sup +}+O and C+O{sup +} branching ratios of excited states of transient CO{sup +}. The feedback control system consists of a high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer coupled via a genetic feedback algorithm to an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter that is incorporated into the ultrafast laser system. Using the spectrometer resolution to distinguish dissociation pathways and select a specific pathway to drive the algorithm, we are able to demonstrate enhanced control of some fragmentation channels. Principal control analysis indicates that the more specific feedback results in numerically simpler optimal pulse shapes. The combination of a more specific target and reduction in pulse complexity could lead to more straightforward investigations of the control mechanism. Analysis of the pulse shapes in conjunction with measurement of the fragment kinetic energy release distributions obtained from the optimized laser pulses is used to probe the dissociative ionization mechanisms.

  10. High signal intensity in dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images in three patients with impaired renal function and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Sebastiano; Schroeder, Christophe; Froehlich, Johannes M; Pasch, Andreas; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (primarily those with linear chelates) are associated with a dose-dependent signal hyperintensity in the dentate nucleus and the globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MRI following administration to selected patients with normal renal function. The accumulation of gadolinium has also been reported in the skin, heart, liver, lung, and kidney of patients with impaired renal function suffering from nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Here we report on three patients with impaired renal function and vascular calcification (two with confirmed NSF) whose unenhanced T1-weighted MRIs showed conspicuous high signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and the globus pallidus after they had been exposed to relatively low doses of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (0.27, 0.45, and 0.68 mmol/kg). Signal ratios between dentate nucleus and pons and between globus pallidus and thalamus were comparable with previously reported measurements in subjects without renal impairment. Of note, all three analysed patients suffered from transient signs of neurological disorders of undetermined cause. In conclusion, the exposure to 0.27-0.68 mmol/kg of linear gadolinium-based contrast agent was associated with probable gadolinium accumulation in the brain of three patients suffering from impaired renal function and vascular calcification. © 2016 The Authors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26929131

  11. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes. PMID:26664120

  12. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Concurrent exercise incorporating high-intensity interval or continuous training modulates mTORC1 signaling and microRNA expression in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Russell, Aaron P; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-06-01

    We compared the effects of concurrent exercise, incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and microRNA expression in skeletal muscle, relative to resistance exercise (RE) alone. Eight males (mean ± SD: age, 27 ± 4 yr; V̇o2 peak , 45.7 ± 9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed three experimental trials in a randomized order: 1) RE (8 × 5 leg press repetitions at 80% 1-repetition maximum) performed alone and RE preceded by either 2) HIT cycling [10 × 2 min at 120% lactate threshold (LT); HIT + RE] or 3) work-matched MICT cycling (30 min at 80% LT; MICT + RE). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained immediately before RE, either without (REST) or with (POST) preceding endurance exercise and +1 h (RE + 1 h) and +3 h (RE + 3 h) after RE. Prior HIT and MICT similarly reduced muscle glycogen content and increased ACC(Ser79) and p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation before subsequent RE (i.e., at POST). Compared with MICT, HIT induced greater mTOR(Ser2448) and rps6(Ser235/236) phosphorylation at POST. RE-induced increases in p70S6K and rps6 phosphorylation were not influenced by prior HIT or MICT; however, mTOR phosphorylation was reduced at RE + 1 h for MICT + RE vs. both HIT + RE and RE. Expression of miR-133a, miR-378, and miR-486 was reduced at RE + 1 h for HIT + RE vs. both MICT + RE and RE. Postexercise mTORC1 signaling following RE is therefore not compromised by prior HIT or MICT, and concurrent exercise incorporating HIT, but not MICT, reduces postexercise expression of miRNAs implicated in skeletal muscle adaptation to RE. PMID:27101297

  14. Short bouts of mild-intensity physical exercise improve spatial learning and memory in aging rats: involvement of hippocampal plasticity via AKT, CREB and BDNF signaling.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Aderbal S; Castro, Adalberto A; Moreira, Eduardo L; Glaser, Viviane; Santos, Adair R S; Tasca, Carla I; Latini, Alexandra; Prediger, Rui D S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether mild-intensity physical exercise represents a successful strategy to enhance spatial learning and memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats, as previously described for long-term exposure to running wheel or treadmill exercise. Aging Wistar rats were submitted to short bouts (4-6 min) of exercise treadmill during five consecutive weeks. This mild-intensity exercise program increased muscle oxygen consumption by soleus and heart in aging rats and reversed age-related long-term spatial learning and memory impairments evaluated in the water maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. Remarkably, the observed cognitive-enhancing properties of short bouts of exercise were accompanied by the activation of serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT) and cAMP response element binding (CREB) pro-survival signaling that culminates in the marked increase on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression and BDNF protein levels on the hippocampus of aging rats. Altogether, these results indicate that short bouts of exercise represent a viable behavioral strategy to improve cognition and synaptic plasticity in aging rats which should be taken into account in further studies addressing the effects of physical exercise in aging subjects. PMID:21983475

  15. False alarms during patient monitoring in clinical intensive care units are highly related to poor quality of the monitored electrocardiogram signals.

    PubMed

    Tsimenidis, Charalampos; Murray, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded from patients in intensive care were investigated to quantify any relationship between ECG signal quality and false monitoring alarms. False alarms are a considerable problem for nursing and medical staff as they distract from clinical care, and are also a problem for patients as they disturb rest, which is important for clinical recovery. ECG and alarm data were obtained for 750 patient alarms from the PhysioNet database. The final 8 s period before the alarm was triggered was investigated. All but one ECG channel in 38 ECG recordings with out-of-range data were associated with false positive alarms (p  <  0.0001). The frequency contributions for baseline (BL) instability, electromyogram (EMG) muscle noise, and high frequency (HF) noise were calculated. For all three frequency bands, the contributions associated with false positive alarms were very significantly greater than for true positive alarms (p  <  0.0001). The greatest difference was for BL with a mean level for false positive alarms 4.0 times greater than for true positive alarms, followed by EMG and HF at 1.6 times and 1.4 times respectively. These results confirm that attention needs to be taken to improve ECG signal quality to reduce the frequency of clinical false alarms, and hence improve conditions for clinical staff and patients. PMID:27454130

  16. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  17. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  18. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  19. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  20. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity and volume of extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy with methylprednisolone pulse therapy

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, Tomoaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Ohji, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the relationship between inflammation and swelling of extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Methods The signal intensities and volumes of the superior rectus (SR), inferior rectus (IR), lateral rectus (LR), medial rectus (MR), and superior oblique (SO) muscles were measured with magnetic resonance imaging in 25 eyes of 25 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in the acute inflammatory phase before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of muscles and brain white matter were calculated. Result The mean SIRs before treatment were 2.28±0.74 in SR, 2.66±0.57 in IR, 2.03±0.42 in LR, 2.45±0.49 in MR, and 1.98±0.48 in SO muscles. The mean SIRs after treatment were 1.82±0.62, 1.84±0.52, 1.70±0.35, 1.95±0.46, and 1.60±0.36, respectively. The mean volumes (cm3) before treatment were 1.35±0.67 in SR, 1.21±0.39 in IR, 0.66±0.13 in LR, 0.94±0.31 in MR, and 0.58±0.14 in SO muscles. Those after treatment were 1.12±0.45, 0.91±0.31, 0.61±0.12, 0.85±0.28, and 0.49±0.11, respectively. The SIRs showed significantly positive correlations with volumes both before and after treatment in SR muscles (before, r=0.77; after, r=0.69), IR muscles (before, r=0.65; after, r=0.60), MR muscles (before, r=0.69; after, r=0.73), and SO muscles (before, r=0.52; after, r=0.50) (P<0.01 for all correlations). Conclusion Swelling reflected the inflammation in extraocular muscles of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy both before and after treatment. PMID:27143850

  1. Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) Influences the Multilineage Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cell Lines through ROCK-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kusuyama, Joji; Bandow, Kenjiro; Shamoto, Mitsuo; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into multilineage cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. Mechanical stimulus is one of the crucial factors in regulating MSC differentiation. However, it remains unknown how mechanical stimulus affects the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy is a clinical application of mechanical stimulus and facilitates bone fracture healing. Here, we applied LIPUS to adipogenic progenitor cell and MSC lines to analyze how multilineage cell differentiation was affected. We found that LIPUS suppressed adipogenic differentiation of both cell types, represented by impaired lipid droplet appearance and decreased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (Pparg2) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4). LIPUS also down-regulated the phosphorylation level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein, inhibiting its transcriptional activity. In contrast, LIPUS promoted osteogenic differentiation of the MSC line, characterized by increased cell calcification as well as inductions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin mRNAs. LIPUS induced phosphorylation of cancer Osaka thyroid oncogene/tumor progression locus 2 (Cot/Tpl2) kinase, which was essential for the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) and p44/p42 extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Notably, effects of LIPUS on both adipogenesis and osteogenesis were prevented by a Cot/Tpl2-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, effects of LIPUS on MSC differentiation as well as Cot/Tpl2 phosphorylation were attenuated by the inhibition of Rho-associated kinase. Taken together, these results indicate that mechanical stimulus with LIPUS suppresses adipogenesis and promotes osteogenesis of MSCs through Rho-associated kinase-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:24550383

  2. Intensive microgravity field campaign dedicated to the search of low to medium amplitude hydrological signals: a case study in Southwest Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, J.; Pfeffer, J.; Champollion, C.; Favreau, G.; Cappelaere, B.; Mouyen, M.; Boucher, M.; Nazoumou, Y.; Oi, M.; Robert, O.; Le Moigne, N.; Deroussi, S.; Demarty, J.; Benarrosh, N.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial gravity measurements allow detecting temporal gravity changes in the μGal (absolute free fall gravimeters) to the 0.1 μGal (relative superconducting gravimeters) ranges. However small amplitude signals due to the Earth rotation or deep mass transfers are often masked by hydrological processes occurring in the surroundings of the gravity station. Due to the sharp variability of the water storage at local scale, fundamental questions about the relevance of the gravity measurements could not be studied at a single station; the evaluation of the gravity response to water storage changes needs spatially and temporally distributed measurements. For this study, we investigated the dynamic variations of the water storage at the subcatchment scale (< 1km) by an intensive microgravity field campaign coupled to hydrodynamic data. Weekly microgravity surveys were carried out over 16 stations located in the small Wankama catchment in Southwest Niger. The repetitions over the microgravity network enabled to take 801 relative gravity measurement points, during three months of the rainy season in 2009. Accuracies in the 3 - 5 μGal range were achieved showing that even in difficult field conditions, modern relative gravimeters and careful data processing allow retrieving low amplitude hydrological signals. Gravity changes, measured in the vicinity of a temporary pond, display a significant spatial variability (standard deviation of 5.3 μGal). The analysis of auxiliary hydrodynamic data suggests that the heterogeneity of the water storage in the vadose zone is the main reason for the dispersion of the gravity values at local scale. This experiment evidences the ability of time lapse microgravity survey to detect the intraseasonal variations of the water storage in Sahelian Africa. Besides, this study shows that significant gravity changes occur at subcatchment scale, which should be taken into account for scaling issue such as satellite gravimetry validation or

  3. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) influences the multilineage differentiation of mesenchymal stem and progenitor cell lines through ROCK-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kusuyama, Joji; Bandow, Kenjiro; Shamoto, Mitsuo; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-04-11

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into multilineage cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. Mechanical stimulus is one of the crucial factors in regulating MSC differentiation. However, it remains unknown how mechanical stimulus affects the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy is a clinical application of mechanical stimulus and facilitates bone fracture healing. Here, we applied LIPUS to adipogenic progenitor cell and MSC lines to analyze how multilineage cell differentiation was affected. We found that LIPUS suppressed adipogenic differentiation of both cell types, represented by impaired lipid droplet appearance and decreased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (Pparg2) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4). LIPUS also down-regulated the phosphorylation level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein, inhibiting its transcriptional activity. In contrast, LIPUS promoted osteogenic differentiation of the MSC line, characterized by increased cell calcification as well as inductions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin mRNAs. LIPUS induced phosphorylation of cancer Osaka thyroid oncogene/tumor progression locus 2 (Cot/Tpl2) kinase, which was essential for the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) and p44/p42 extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Notably, effects of LIPUS on both adipogenesis and osteogenesis were prevented by a Cot/Tpl2-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, effects of LIPUS on MSC differentiation as well as Cot/Tpl2 phosphorylation were attenuated by the inhibition of Rho-associated kinase. Taken together, these results indicate that mechanical stimulus with LIPUS suppresses adipogenesis and promotes osteogenesis of MSCs through Rho-associated kinase-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:24550383

  4. Quantitative measurements of relative fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensities in acute stroke for the prediction of time from symptom onset

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bastian; Brinkmann, Mathias; Forkert, Nils D; Treszl, Andras; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C; Christensen, Soren; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2013-01-01

    In acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging, a ‘mismatch' between visibility of an ischemic lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and missing corresponding parenchymal hyperintensities on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) data sets was shown to identify patients with time from symptom onset ≤4.5 hours with high specificity. However, moderate sensitivity and suboptimal interpreter agreement are limitations of a visual rating of FLAIR lesion visibility. We tested refined image analysis methods in patients included in the previously published PREFLAIR study using refined visual analysis and quantitative measurements of relative FLAIR signal intensity (rSI) from a three-dimensional, segmented stroke lesion volume. A total of 399 patients were included. The rSI of FLAIR lesions showed a moderate correlation with time from symptom onset (r=0.382, P<0.001). A FLAIR rSI threshold of <1.0721 predicted symptom onset ≤4.5 hours with slightly increased specificity (0.85 versus 0.78) but also slightly decreased sensitivity (0.47 versus 0.58) as compared with visual analysis. Refined visual analysis differentiating between ‘subtle' and ‘obvious' FLAIR hyperintensities and classification and regression tree algorithms combining information from visual and quantitative analysis also did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Our results raise doubts whether the prediction of stroke onset time by visual image judgment can be improved by quantitative rSI measurements. PMID:23047272

  5. Abnormal head position in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  6. Basis for the barrier abnormality in atopic dermatitis: Outside-inside-outside pathogenic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Hatano, Yutaka; Williams, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    Until quite recently, the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been attributed to primary abnormalities of the immune system. Intensive study revealed the key roles played by TH1/TH2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes AD. Accordingly, current therapy has been largely directed toward ameliorating TH2-mediated inflammation and pruritus. In this review we will assess emerging evidence that inflammation in AD results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier and the therapeutic implications of this paradigm. PMID:18329087

  7. Effect of iron oxide nanoparticles coating type on the relationship between nanoparticles concentration and signal intensity in inversion recovery T1-weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Nazarpoor, Mahmood; Saharkhiz, Hodaiseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are used as blood pool contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and perfusion imaging. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of the two coating types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the relationship between nanoparticles concentration and signal intensity (SI) in T1-weighted MR images. Methods: Different concentrations of the polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carboxydextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were imaged using inversion recovery Turbo-FLASH (Turbo fast low-angle shot) pulse sequence with inversion times (TIs) of 300-900 ms (interval of 100 ms). The maximum non-linear and linear relationship between the corrected SI (after non-uniformity correction) and the concentration of the two coated nanoparticles were calculated in T1-weighted images. Results: The maximum non-linear relationship between the corrected SI and the concentration of the PEG, and carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles were obtained at concentrations of 400 and 200 μmol Fe/L at a TI of 900 ms, respectively. In addition, the maximum linear relationship between the corrected SI and the concentration of the PEG, and carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles (R2=0.99) appeared at 228.184 and 205.654 μmolFe/L with a TI of 300 ms, respectively. Conclusion: The maximum non-linear corrected SI of the carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles was slightly higher than that of the PEG-coated nanoparticles at similar TIs. However, the PEG-coated nanoparticles were better than the carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles as a T1 contrast agent for perfusion measurements. PMID:26478869

  8. Study of interhemispheric asymmetries in electroencephalographic signals by frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, J. F.; Garzón, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a new method for the detection of interhemispheric asymmetries in patients with continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring at Intensive Care Unit (ICU), using wavelet energy. We obtained the registration of EEG signals in 42 patients with different pathologies, and then we proceeded to perform signal processing using the Matlab program, we compared the abnormalities recorded in the report by the neurophysiologist, the images of each patient and the result of signals analysis with the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Conclusions: there exists correspondence between the abnormalities found in the processing of the signal with the clinical reports of findings in patients; according to previous conclusion, the methodology used can be a useful tool for diagnosis and early quantitative detection of interhemispheric asymmetries.

  9. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  10. Hedgehog signalling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond Teck Ho; Zhao, Zhonghua; Ingham, Philip W

    2016-02-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway is one of the key regulators of metazoan development. Hh proteins have been shown to play roles in many developmental processes and have become paradigms for classical morphogens. Dysfunction of the Hh pathway underlies a number of human developmental abnormalities and diseases, making it an important therapeutic target. Interest in Hh signalling thus extends across many fields, from evo-devo to cancer research and regenerative medicine. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an outline of the current understanding of Hh signalling mechanisms, highlighting the similarities and differences between species. PMID:26839340

  11. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  12. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  13. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  17. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  18. Effect of resistance exercise intensity on the expression of PGC-1α isoforms and the anabolic and catabolic signaling mediators, IGF-1 and myostatin, in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Neil A; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K; Spillane, Mike B; Andre, Thomas L; Gann, Joshua J; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute messenger (mRNA) expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) isoforms, insulin-like growth factor-1Ea (IGF-1Ea), and myostatin in response to 2 resistance exercise intensities. In a uniform-balanced, crossover design, 10 participants performed 2 separate testing sessions involving a lower body resistance exercise component consisting of a lower intensity (50% of 1-repetition maximum; 1RM) protocol and a higher intensity (80% of 1RM) protocol of equal volumes. Muscle samples were obtained at before exercise, 45 min, 3 h, 24 h, and 48 h postexercise. Resistance exercise did not alter total PGC-1α mRNA expression; however, distinct responses of each PGC-1α isoform were observed. The response of each isoform was consistent between sessions, suggesting no effect of resistance exercise intensity on the complex transcriptional expression of the PGC-1α gene. IGF-1Ea mRNA expression significantly increased following the higher intensity session compared with pre-exercise and the lower intensity session. Myostatin mRNA expression was significantly reduced compared with pre-exercise values at all time points with no difference between exercise intensity. Further research is needed to determine the effects of the various isoforms of PGC-1α in human skeletal muscle on the translational level as well as their relation to the expression of IGF-1 and myostatin. PMID:27467217

  19. Mitochondrial emitted electromagnetic signals mediate retrograde signaling.

    PubMed

    Bagkos, Georgios; Koufopoulos, Kostas; Piperi, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence shows that mitochondria regulate nuclear transcriptional activity both in normal and cell stress conditions, known as retrograde signaling. Under normal mitochondrial function, retrograde signaling is associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, normal cell phenotype and metabolic profile. In contrast, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to abnormal (oncogenic) cell phenotype and altered bio-energetic profile (nucleus reprogramming). Despite intense research efforts, a concrete mechanism through which mitochondria determine the group of genes expressed by the nucleus is still missing. The present paper proposes a novel hypothesis regarding retrograde signaling. More specifically, it reveals the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the accompanied strong electromagnetic field (EF) as key regulatory factors of nuclear activity. Mitochondrial emitted EFs extend in long distance and affect the function of nuclear membrane receptors. Depending on their frequencies, EFs can directly activate or deactivate different groups of nuclear receptors and so determine nuclear gene expression. One of the key features of the above hypothesis is that nuclear membrane receptors, besides their own endogenous or chemical ligands (hormones, lipids, etc.), can also be activated by electromagnetic signals. Moreover, normal MMP values (about -140 mV) are associated with the production of high ATP quantities and small levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while the hyperpolarization observed in all cancer cell types leads to a dramatic fall in ATP production and an analogous increase in ROS. The diminished ATP and increased ROS production negatively affect the function of all cellular systems including nucleus. Restoration of mitochondrial function, which is characterized by the fluctuation of MMP and EF values within a certain (normal) range, is proposed as a necessary condition for normal nuclear function and cancer therapy. PMID:26474928

  20. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article. PMID:18568069

  1. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  3. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  4. Evaluation of a rubber-compound diaphragm for acoustic fisheries surveys: Effects on dual-beam signal intensity and beam patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.; Argyle, R.L.; Nester, R.T.; Dawson, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of rubber-compound windows for fisheries acoustics must consider operating frequency and ambient water temperatures. Signal attenuation by the rubber becomes pronounced with increased frequency and decreased temperature. Based on our results, a 420 k Hz system could be expected to lose up to 3-4 dB in colder water through a 5.1-cm thick rubber diaphragm. At 120 k Hz, signal loss was negligible and would undoubtedly also be inconsequential for even lower frequencies used in fisheries applications (e.g., 70, 38 k Hz).

  5. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  6. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  7. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  8. High incidence of MYC and BCL2 abnormalities in mantle cell lymphoma, although only MYC abnormality predicts poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengwen; Zhong, Shizhen; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Zengjun; Xiong, Wenjie; Liu, Wei; Liu, Enbin; Cui, Rui; Ru, Kun; Zhang, Peihong; Xu, Yan; An, Gang; Lv, Rui; Qi, Junyuan; Wang, Jianxiang; Cheng, Tao; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prognostic role of MYC and BCL2 rearrangements in mature B-cell lymphomas have been extensively studied, except the infrequent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we analyzed the MYC and BCL2 abnormalities and other cytogenetic aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 50 MCL patients with bone marrow involvement. Eighteen patients (36.0%) had MYC gains and/or amplifications, and twelve patients (24.0%) had BCL2 gains and/or amplifications. Among the 18 patients with MYC abnormality, four had simultaneous MYC translocations, but no BCL2 translocation was detected among patients with BCL2 abnormality. Only two patients (4.0%) had both MYC and BCL2 abnormalities. The patients with a MYC abnormality had a significantly higher tumor burden, a higher percentage of medium/high risk MIPI group and genomic instability compared to those without this abnormality. However, no significant difference was observed between patients with or without a BCL2 abnormality in terms of clinical and cytogenetic factors. Patients with a MYC abnormality had poorer progress-free survival (PFS) (9.0 vs. 48.0 months, p = .000) and overall survival (OS) (12.0 vs. 94.5 months, p = .000), but the presence of a BCL2 abnormality did not significantly influence either PFS or OS. In multivariate analysis, the MYC abnormality was the independent adverse factor for both PFS and OS, and intensive chemotherapy did not improve the outcome of these patients. Thus, the presence of a MYC but not BCL2 abnormality predicted the poor survival of MCL patients, and a new treatment strategy should be developed for these patients. PMID:26517511

  9. Abnormal alterations in the Ca2+/CaV1.2/calmodulin/caMKII signaling pathway in a tremor rat model and in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg2+-free solution

    PubMed Central

    LV, XINTONG; GUO, FENG; XU, XIAOXUE; CHEN, ZAIXING; SUN, XUEFEI; MIN, DONGYU; CAO, YONGGANG; SHI, XIANBAO; WANG, LEI; CHEN, TIANBAO; SHAW, CHRIS; GAO, HUILING; HAO, LIYING; CAI, JIQUN

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are key elements in epileptogenesis. There are several binding-sites linked to calmodulin (CaM) and several potential CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated phosphorylation sites in CaV1.2. The tremor rat model (TRM) exhibits absence-like seizures from 8 weeks of age. The present study was performed to detect changes in the Ca2+/CaV1.2/CaM/CaMKII pathway in TRMs and in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg2+-free solution. The expression levels of CaV1.2, CaM and phosphorylated CaMKII (p-CaMKII; Thr-286) in these two models were examined using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Compared with Wistar rats, the expression levels of CaV1.2 and CaM were increased, and the expression of p-CaMKII was decreased in the TRM hippocampus. However, the expression of the targeted proteins was reversed in the TRM temporal cortex. A significant increase in the expression of CaM and decrease in the expression of CaV1.2 were observed in the TRM cerebellum. In the cultured neuron model, p-CaMKII and CaV1.2 were markedly decreased. In addition, neurons exhibiting co-localized expression of CaV1.2 and CaM immunoreactivities were detected. Furthermore, intracellular calcium concentrations were increased in these two models. For the first time, o the best of our knowledge, the data of the present study suggested that abnormal alterations in the Ca2+/CaV1.2/CaM/CaMKII pathway may be involved in epileptogenesis and in the phenotypes of TRMs and cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Mg2+-free solution. PMID:26299765

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  11. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  12. Abnormalities in Hippocampal Functioning with Persistent Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mutso, Amelia A.; Radzicki, Daniel; Baliki, Marwan N.; Huang, Lejian; Banisadr, Ghazal; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Radulovic, Jelena; Martina, Marco; Miller, Richard J.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain patients exhibit increased anxiety, depression, and deficits in learning and memory. Yet how persistent pain affects the key brain area regulating these behaviors, the hippocampus, has remained minimally explored. In this study we investigated the impact of spared nerve injury (SNI) neuropathic pain in mice on hippocampal-dependent behavior and underlying cellular and molecular changes. In parallel, we measured the hippocampal volume of three groups of chronic pain patients. We found that SNI animals were unable to extinguish to contextual fear and showed increased anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, SNI mice in comparison to sham animals exhibited hippocampal 1) reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression and phosphorylation, 2) decreased neurogenesis and 3) altered short-term synaptic plasticity. In order to relate the observed hippocampal abnormalities with human chronic pain, we measured the volume of human hippocampus in chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and osteoarthritis patients (OA). Compared to controls, CBP and CRPS, but not OA, had significantly less bilateral hippocampal volume. These results indicate that hippocampus-mediated behavior, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis are abnormal in neuropathic rodents. The changes may be related to the reduction in hippocampal volume we see in chronic pain patients, and these abnormalities may underlie learning and emotional deficits commonly observed in such patients. PMID:22539837

  13. Characteristics of abnormal large waves measured from coastal videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.; Lee, D.-Y.; Ha, T.-M.; Cho, Y.-S.; Woo, S.-B.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, tsunami-like sea-level oscillations occurred in a region of the west coast of Korea (i.e. in the eastern part of the Yellow Sea), during a typical rough spring weather episode on 4 May 2008. The analysis of these tsunami-like abnormal waves focuses solely on the videos recorded by a CCTV surveillance system in the directions of the entrance and inside parts of a local coastal pocket beach. Time-series of the vertical and horizontal sea surface oscillations were extracted from the video recordings through calibrating image distortions, accumulating 1-D intensity arrays along the line transects of interest in time, and identifying the trajectories of the oscillations. Frequency and time-domain analysis of the time-series signals revealed that the maximum height of the tsunami-like waves reached 1.3 m, having a dominant period of 185 s (3.1 min). In addition, the results indicate that the celerity of the maximum height wave approximated 7.3 m/s, which lead to the losses of life of several people who could not escape immediately from the fast tsunami flooding the shore.

  14. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  15. Model observer design for detecting multiple abnormalities in anatomical background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Existing model observers were typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g., multifocal and multicentric breast cancers (MMBC)), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MMBC than planar mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model-observer mechanism to detect multiple signals in the same image dataset. To handle the high dimensionality of images, a novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. Without any prior knowledge of the background or the signals, the PLS channels capture interactions between signals and the background which provide discriminant image information. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our preliminary results show that the model observer using PLS channels, compared to our first attempts with Laguerre-Gauss channels, can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels, and the optimal design of the model observer may vary as the tasks of clinical interest change.

  16. Note: steps taken to optimise probe specificity and signal intensity prior to field validation of the MIDTAL (Microarray for the Detection of Toxic Algae).

    PubMed

    Medlin, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    A microarray for the detection of toxic algal species was developed in the European Union 7th Framework project MIDTAL. We initially tested all available fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes for toxic algae, which are normally designed to a length of 18 nt, and found that in most cases the signal was rather weak or all probes designed from the second half of the molecule were inaccessible in a microarray format because of secondary structure of the ribosomal RNA molecule We modified the length of the probes, the fragmentation of the rRNA, the stringency of the washing buffers and the length of the spacer molecules linking the probes to the glass surface of the microarray. Because of the secondary structure of the rRNA molecule, regions of the molecule can be difficult to access by the probes. Each of these modifications has improved probe accessibility and probe specificity to reduce false positives. PMID:23636588

  17. Chemical weathering intensity and terrigenous flux in South China during the last 90,000 years – evidence from magnetic signals in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoqiang; Peng, Xuechao; Qiang, Xiaoke; Li, Niu; Zhou, Qixian; Yuejun, Wang

    2016-04-01

    The level of chemical weathering is strongly affected by climate. We presented magnetic properties associated with element ratios from the northern part of the South China Sea to denote links between chemical weathering intensity and monsoon changes in the previous 90,000 years. The magnetic parameter IRMAF80mT/SIRM, representing the variations of high coercivity minerals in marine sediments accompanied with the Al2O3/TiO2 and the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), demonstrates strong chemical and physical weathering processes during the last 84-40 kyr when intensified Asian monsoon and warm climate occurred. High susceptibility, TiO2 content, and relatively coarser magnetic mineral grain (relatively low ARM/SIRM ratio) also suggest more terrigenous clastic flux resulting from intensified physical erosion and river transport ability. During the 40-15 kyr period, a low IRMAF80mT/SIRM as well as chemical proxies indicate weak weathering as the climate cooled and precipitation decreased.

  18. Selective attention and the auditory vertex potential. I - Effects of stimulus delivery rate. II - Effects of signal intensity and masking noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of varying the rate of delivery of dichotic tone pip stimuli on selective attention measured by evoked-potential amplitudes and signal detectability scores were studied. The subjects attended to one channel (ear) of tones, ignored the other, and pressed a button whenever occasional targets - tones of a slightly higher pitch were detected in the attended ear. Under separate conditions, randomized interstimulus intervals were short, medium, and long. Another study compared the effects of attention on the N1 component of the auditory evoked potential for tone pips presented alone and when white noise was added to make the tones barely above detectability threshold in a three-channel listening task. Major conclusions are that (1) N1 is enlarged to stimuli in an attended channel only in the short interstimulus interval condition (averaging 350 msec), (2) N1 and P3 are related to different modes of selective attention, and (3) attention selectivity in multichannel listening task is greater when tones are faint and/or difficult to detect.

  19. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kim N.

    1998-01-01

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

  20. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOEpatents

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  1. Relaxed Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Kyle

    2004-01-01

    Relaxed intensity refers to a professional philosophy, demeanor, and way of life. It is the key to being an effective educational leader. To be successful one must be relaxed, which means managing stress efficiently, having fun, and enjoying work. Intensity allows one to get the job done and accomplish certain tasks or goals. Educational leaders…

  2. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  3. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  4. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  5. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  6. Steganography in arrhythmic electrocardiogram signal.

    PubMed

    Edward Jero, S; Ramu, Palaniappan; Ramakrishnan, S

    2015-08-01

    Security and privacy of patient data is a vital requirement during exchange/storage of medical information over communication network. Steganography method hides patient data into a cover signal to prevent unauthenticated accesses during data transfer. This study evaluates the performance of ECG steganography to ensure secured transmission of patient data where an abnormal ECG signal is used as cover signal. The novelty of this work is to hide patient data into two dimensional matrix of an abnormal ECG signal using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition based steganography method. A 2D ECG is constructed according to Tompkins QRS detection algorithm. The missed R peaks are computed using RR interval during 2D conversion. The abnormal ECG signals are obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Percentage Residual Difference, Kullback-Leibler distance and Bit Error Rate are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. PMID:26736533

  7. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  8. Genetic abnormalities associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takafumi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs with high frequency in childhood and is associated with high mortality in adults. Recent technical advances in next-generation sequencing have shed light on genetic abnormalities in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as the precursor to ALL pathogenesis. Based on these genetic abnormalities, ALL is now being reclassified into newly identified subtypes. Philadelphia chromosome-like B-lineage ALL is one of the new high-risk subtypes characterized by genetic alterations that activate various signaling pathways, including those involving cytokine receptors, tyrosine kinases, and epigenetic modifiers. Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL is essentially heterogeneous; however, deletion mutations in the IKZF1 gene encoding the transcription factor IKAROS underlie many cases as a key factor inducing aggressive phenotypes and poor treatment responses. Whole-genome sequencing studies of ALL patients and ethnically matched controls also identified inherited genetic variations in lymphoid neoplasm-related genes, which are likely to increase ALL susceptibility. These findings are directly relevant to clinical hematology, and further studies on this aspect could contribute to accurate diagnosis, effective monitoring of residual disease, and patient-oriented therapies. PMID:26991355

  9. Developmental disruptions underlying brain abnormalities in ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiami; Higginbotham, Holden; Li, Jingjun; Nichols, Jackie; Hirt, Josua; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Anton, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human ciliopathies. Nevertheless, the role of primary cilia function in corticogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we delineate the functions of primary cilia in the construction of cerebral cortex and their relevance to ciliopathies, using an shRNA library targeting ciliopathy genes known to cause brain disorders, but whose roles in brain development are unclear. We used the library to query how ciliopathy genes affect distinct stages of mouse cortical development, in particular neural progenitor development, neuronal migration, neuronal differentiation and early neuronal connectivity. Our results define the developmental functions of ciliopathy genes and delineate disrupted developmental events that are integrally related to the emergence of brain abnormalities in ciliopathies. PMID:26206566

  10. Crizotinib-Induced Abnormal Signal Processing in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Toshiyuki; Iwasawa, Shunichiro; Kurimoto, Ryota; Maeda, Akemi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Kaneda, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Molecular target therapy for cancer is characterized by unique adverse effects that are not usually observed with cytotoxic chemotherapy. For example, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib causes characteristic visual disturbances, whereas such effects are rare when another ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, alectinib, is used. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for these visual disturbances, the responses to light exhibited by retinal ganglion cells treated with these agents were evaluated using a C57BL6 mouse ex vivo model. Both crizotinib and alectinib changed the firing rate of ON and OFF type retinal ganglion cells. However, the ratio of alectinib-affected cells (15.7%) was significantly lower than that of crizotinib-affected cells (38.6%). Furthermore, these drugs changed the response properties to light stimuli of retinal ganglion cells in some of the affected cells, i.e., OFF cells responded to both ON and OFF stimuli, etc. Finally, the expressions of ALK (a target receptor of both crizotinib and alectinib) and of MET and ROS1 (additional target receptors of crizotinib) were observed at the mRNA level in the retina. Our findings suggest that these drugs might target retinal ganglion cells and that the potency of the drug actions on the light responses of retinal ganglion cells might be responsible for the difference in the frequencies of visual disturbances observed between patients treated with crizotinib and those treated with alectinib. The present experimental system might be useful for screening new molecular target agents prior to their use in clinical trials. PMID:26271036

  11. Abnormal Temporal Difference Reward-Learning Signals in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, P.; Waiter, G.; Ahearn, T.; Milders, M.; Reid, I.; Steele, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine…

  12. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  13. Atypical MR lenticular signal change in infantile isovaleric acidemia.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nisar A; Qureshi, Umer Amin; Jehangir, Majid; Ahmad, Kaiser; Hussain, Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is an inborn error of branched chain amino acid metabolism that may manifest as acute neonatal metabolic acidosis or as chronic intermittent form with developmental delay or recurrent episodes of acute metabolic acidosis. Early diagnosis is the key to prevent morbidity and mortality. Brain imaging abnormalities are rarely described in IVA. We report a case of chronic intermittent IVA with acute presentation in a 4-month-old infant who presented with acute metabolic acidosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetric signal intensity changes in bilateral lentiform nuclei with an unreported T1-weighted (T1W) symmetric hyperintense ring-like appearance in bilateral putamen. PMID:27081237

  14. Kinetic constants of abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    The grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel with a purity of 99.5 at % during non-isothermal annealing was experimentally investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Nanocrystalline nickel was prepared by electrodeposition and had an average grain size of approximately 20 nm. It was shown that, at a temperature corresponding to the calorimetric signal peak, abnormal grain growth occurs with the formation of a bimodal grain microstructure. Calorimeters signals were processed within the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formalism. This made it possible to determine the exponent of the corresponding equation, the frequency factor, and the activation energy of the grain growth, which was found to be equal to the activation energy of the vacancy migration. The reasons for the abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel were discussed.

  15. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  16. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  17. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  18. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  19. A multiresolution analysis for detection of abnormal lung sounds

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Patil, Kailash; West, James; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Automated analysis and detection of abnormal lung sound patterns has great potential for improving access to standardized diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, especially in low-resource settings. In the current study, we develop signal processing tools for analysis of paediatric auscultations recorded under non-ideal noisy conditions. The proposed model is based on a biomimetic multi-resolution analysis of the spectro-temporal modulation details in lung sounds. The methodology provides a detailed description of joint spectral and temporal variations in the signal and proves to be more robust than frequency-based techniques in distinguishing crackles and wheezes from normal breathing sounds. PMID:23366591

  20. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  1. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  2. Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Ughi, Giovanni J; Verjans, Johan; Fard, Ali M; Wang, Hao; Osborn, Eric; Hara, Tetsuya; Mauskapf, Adam; Jaffer, Farouc A; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2015-02-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a well-established method for the high-resolution investigation of atherosclerosis in vivo. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a novel technique for the assessment of molecular processes associated with coronary artery disease. Integration of NIRF and IVOCT technology in a single catheter provides the capability to simultaneously obtain co-localized anatomical and molecular information from the artery wall. Since NIRF signal intensity attenuates as a function of imaging catheter distance to the vessel wall, the generation of quantitative NIRF data requires an accurate measurement of the vessel wall in IVOCT images. Given that dual modality, intravascular OCT-NIRF systems acquire data at a very high frame-rate (>100 frames/s), a high number of images per pullback need to be analyzed, making manual processing of OCT-NIRF data extremely time consuming. To overcome this limitation, we developed an algorithm for the automatic distance-correction of dual-modality OCT-NIRF images. We validated this method by comparing automatic to manual segmentation results in 180 in vivo images from six New Zealand White rabbit atherosclerotic after indocyanine-green injection. A high Dice similarity coefficient was found (0.97 ± 0.03) together with an average individual A-line error of 22 µm (i.e., approximately twice the axial resolution of IVOCT) and a processing time of 44 ms per image. In a similar manner, the algorithm was validated using 120 IVOCT clinical images from eight different in vivo pullbacks in human coronary arteries. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm enables fully automatic visualization of dual modality OCT-NIRF pullbacks, and provides an accurate and efficient calibration of NIRF data for quantification of the molecular agent in the atherosclerotic vessel wall. PMID:25341407

  3. Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ughi, Giovanni J.; Verjans, Johan; Fard, Ali M.; Wang, Hao; Osborn, Eric; Hara, Tetsuya; Mauskapf, Adam; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a well-established method for the high-resolution investigation of atherosclerosis in vivo. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a novel technique for the assessment of molecular processes associated with coronary artery disease. Integration of NIRF and IVOCT technology in a single catheter provides the capability to simultaneously obtain co-localized anatomical and molecular information from the artery wall. Since NIRF signal intensity attenuates as a function of imaging catheter distance to the vessel wall, the generation of quantitative NIRF data requires an accurate measurement of the vessel wall in IVOCT images. Given that dual modality, intravascular OCT-NIRF systems acquire data at a very high frame-rate (>100 frames/second), a high number of images per pullback need to be analyzed, making manual processing of OCT-NIRF data extremely time consuming. To overcome this limitation, we developed an algorithm for the automatic distance-correction of dual-modality OCT-NIRF images. We validated this method by comparing automatic to manual segmentation results in 180 in vivo images from 6 New Zealand White rabbit atherosclerotic after indocyanine-green (ICG) injection. A high Dice similarity coefficient was found (0.97 ± 0.03) together with an average individual A-line error of 22 μm (i.e., approximately twice the axial resolution of IVOCT) and a processing time of 44 ms per image. In a similar manner, the algorithm was validated using 120 IVOCT clinical images from 8 different in vivo pullbacks in human coronary arteries. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm enables fully automatic visualization of dual modality OCT-NIRF pullbacks, and provides an accurate and efficient calibration of NIRF data for quantification of the molecular agent in the atherosclerotic vessel wall. PMID:25341407

  4. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  5. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Good, Ryan J.; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V.; Press, Craig A.; Carpenter, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic–ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots. PMID:26697417

  6. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  7. Brain MRI abnormalities in the adult form of myotonic dystrophy type 1: A longitudinal case series study.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Renata; de Cristofaro, Mario; Cristofano, Adriana; Brogna, Barbara; Sardaro, Angela; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Cirillo, Sossio; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to verify whether brain abnormalities, previously described in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), progressed over time and, if so, to characterize their progression. Thirteen DM1 patients, who had at least two MRI examinations, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. The mean duration (± standard deviation) of follow-up was 13.4 (±3.8) years, over a range of 7-20 years. White matter lesions (WMLs) were rated by semi-quantitative method, the signal intensity of white matter poster-superior to trigones (WMPST) by reference to standard images and brain atrophy by ventricular/brain ratio (VBR). At the end of MRI follow-up, the scores relative to lobar, temporal and periventricular WMLs, to WMPST signal intensity and to VBR were significantly increased compared to baseline, and MRI changes were more evident in some families than in others. No correlation was found between the MRI changes and age, onset, disease duration, muscular involvement, CTG repetition and follow-up duration. These results demonstrated that white matter involvement and brain atrophy were progressive in DM1 and suggested that progression rate varied from patient to patient, regardless of age, disease duration and genetic defect. PMID:26755488

  8. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  9. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  10. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  11. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, K E; Kim, J H; Moon, S Y; Oh, S K

    1999-08-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in 49 cases and numerical in 20. Inversion of chromosome nine was found in 15 subjects, trisomy of chromosome 21 in 11, and fragile X in five patients. When karyotyping was performed because of intellectual impairment or multiple developmental delay, significantly more abnormalities were found than average; when performed because autistic disorder was suspected, the number of abnormalities was significantly fewer. There were no differences in clinical variables between structural and numerical abnormalities, nor among nine types of chromosomal abnormalities, except that numerical abnormalities and polymorphism were found at a later age, and that walking was more delayed and IQ was lower in patients with Down syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric populations; the close collaboration with geneticists and the use of more defined guidelines for cytogenetic investigation are important. PMID:10485616

  13. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  14. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  15. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  16. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  17. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  18. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  19. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15–20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ≤ 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ≤ a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ. PMID:26487307

  20. Signal voter

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Roy L.

    1981-01-01

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals, each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  1. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  2. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Autonomous detection of heart sound abnormalities using an auscultation jacket.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C; Scheffer, C; Lubbe, W W; Doubell, A F

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a study using an auscultation jacket with embedded electronic stethoscopes, and a software classification system capable of differentiating between normal and certain auscultatory abnormalities. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the potential of such a system for semi-automated diagnosis for underserved locations, for instance in rural areas or in developing countries where patients far outnumber the available medical personnel. Using an "auscultation jacket", synchronous data was recorded at multiple chest locations on 31 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with heart pathologies. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were also recorded simultaneously with phonocardiographic data. Features related to heart pathologies were extracted from the signals and used as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network. The system is able to classify between normal and certain abnormal heart sounds with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 86%. Though the number of training and testing samples presented are limited, the system performed well in differentiating between normal and abnormal heart sounds in the given database of available recordings. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of such a system to be used as a fast and cost-effective screening tool for heart pathologies. PMID:20169844

  4. Portable intensity interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Camarata, Matthew A.

    2012-07-01

    A limitation of the current generation of long baseline optical interferometers is the need to make the light interfere prior to detection. This is unlike the radio regime where signals can be recorded fast enough to use electronics to accomplish the same result. This paper describes a modern optical intensity interferometer based on electronics with picosecond timing resolution. The instrument will allow for portable optical interferometry with much larger baselines than currently possible by using existing large telescopes. With modern electronics, the limiting magnitude of the technique at a 4-m aperture size becomes competitive with some amplitude-based interferometers. The instrumentation will permit a wireless mode of operation with GPS clocking technology, extending the work to extremely large baselines. We discuss the basic observing strategy, a planned observational program at the Lowell Observatory 1.8-m and 1.0-m telescopes, and the science that can realistically be done with this instrumentation.

  5. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  6. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  8. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  9. Abnormal brain scan with subacute extradural haematomas

    PubMed Central

    Morley, J. Barrie; Langford, Keith H.

    1970-01-01

    Four patients are described with proven subacute extradural haematomas, each with an abnormal cerebral scan of diagnostic assistance. A possible mechanism of production of the subacute extradural haematoma is discussed, and appears to be similar to the mechanism involved in the subacute subdural haematoma. The means by which the abnormal scan results in such cases is also examined, from which it appears that non-specific meningeal membrane inflammatory reaction surrounding the haematoma is significant. Images PMID:5478950

  10. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  11. Abnormal ferrite in hyper-eutectoid steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chairuangsri, T.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2000-04-19

    The microstructural characteristics of ultra-high carbon hyper-eutectoid Fe-C and Fe-C-Cu experimental steels have been examined after isothermal transformation in a range just beneath the eutectoid temperature. Particular attention was paid to the formation of so-called abnormal ferrite, which refers to coarse ferrite grains which can form, in hyper-eutectoid compositions, on the pro-eutectoid cementite before the pearlite reaction occurs. Thus it is confirmed that the abnormal ferrite is not a result of pearlite coarsening, but of austenite decomposition before the conditions for coupled growth of pearlite are established. The abnormal ferrite formed on both allotriomorphic and Widmanstaetten forms of pro-eutectoid cementite, and significantly, it was observed that the pro-eutectoid cementite continued to grow, despite being enclosed by the abnormal ferrite. Under certain conditions this could lead to the eventual formation of substantially reduced amounts of pearlite. Thus, a model for carbon redistribution that allows the proeutectoid cementite to thicken concurrently with the abnormal ferrite is presented. The orientation relationships between the abnormal ferrite and pro-eutectoid cementite were also determined and found to be close to those which have been reported between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite.

  12. The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS) – A Randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population): 1000 patients

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Lundgren, Bettina; Hein, Lars; Mohr, Thomas; Petersen, Pernille L; Andersen, Lasse H; Lauritsen, Anne Ø; Hougaard, Sine; Mantoni, Teit; Bømler, Bonnie; Thornberg, Klaus J; Thormar, Katrin; Løken, Jesper; Steensen, Morten; Carl, Peder; Petersen, J Asger; Tousi, Hamid; Søe-Jensen, Peter; Bestle, Morten; Hestad, Søren; Andersen, Mads H; Fjeldborg, Paul; Larsen, Kim M; Rossau, Charlotte; Thomsen, Carsten B; Østergaard, Christian; Kjær, Jesper; Grarup, Jesper; Lundgren, Jens D

    2008-01-01

    Background Sepsis and complications to sepsis are major causes of mortality in critically ill patients. Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. The infectious status of the critically ill patient is often difficult to assess because symptoms cannot be expressed and signs may present atypically. The established biological markers of inflammation (leucocytes, C-reactive protein) may often be influenced by other parameters than infection, and may be unacceptably slowly released after progression of an infection. At the same time, lack of a relevant antimicrobial therapy in an early course of infection may be fatal for the patient. Specific and rapid markers of bacterial infection have been sought for use in these patients. Methods Multi-centre randomized controlled interventional trial. Powered for superiority and non-inferiority on all measured end points. Complies with, "Good Clinical Practice" (ICH-GCP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/135/95, Directive 2001/20/EC)). Inclusion: 1) Age ≥ 18 years of age, 2) Admitted to the participating intensive care units, 3) Signed written informed consent. Exclusion: 1) Known hyper-bilirubinaemia. or hypertriglyceridaemia, 2) Likely that safety is compromised by blood sampling, 3) Pregnant or breast feeding. Computerized Randomisation: Two arms (1:1), n = 500 per arm: Arm 1: standard of care. Arm 2: standard of care and Procalcitonin guided diagnostics and treatment of infection. Primary Trial Objective: To address whether daily Procalcitonin measurements and immediate diagnostic and therapeutic response on day-to-day changes in procalcitonin can reduce the mortality of critically ill patients. Discussion For the first time ever, a mortality-endpoint, large scale randomized controlled trial with a biomarker-guided strategy compared to the best standard of care, is conducted in an Intensive care setting. Results will, with a high statistical power answer the question: Can the survival of critically ill

  13. Abnormal neurodevelopment, neurosignaling and behaviour in Npas3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Ehrman, Lisa A; Williams, Michael T; Klanke, Justin; Hammer, Daniel; Schaefer, Tori L; Sah, Renu; Dorn, Gerald W; Potter, S Steven; Vorhees, Charles V

    2005-09-01

    Npas3 is a member of the bHLH-PAS superfamily of transcription factors that is expressed broadly in the developing neuroepithelium. To study the function of this gene, mice deficient in Npas3 were generated and characterized. Npas3-/- mice were growth-retarded and exhibited developmental brain abnormalities that included a reduction in size of the anterior hippocampus, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and enlargement of the ventricles. A number of behavioural abnormalities were identified in Npas3-/- mice including locomotor hyperactivity, subtle gait defects, impairment of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, deficit in recognition memory and altered anxiety-related responses. Characterization of neurosignaling pathways using several pharmacological agents revealed dysfunctional glutamate, dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter signaling. Consistent with these findings, we identified a significant alteration in cortical PSD-95 expression, a PDZ-containing protein that has been shown to be involved in postsynaptic signal transduction. Together, our observations indicate an important role for Npas3 in controlling normal brain development and neurosignaling pathways. PMID:16190882

  14. The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Cavaro-Ménard, C.; Le Callet, P.; Cooper, L. H. K.; Hunault, G.; Tanguy, J.-Y.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel study investigating the influences of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image anatomical information and observer expertise on an abnormality detection task. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities, particularly in the evaluation of white matter diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, MS lesions are simulated as the target stimuli for detection in the present study. Two different image backgrounds are used in the following experiments: a) homogeneous region of white matter tissue, and b) one slice of a healthy brain MR image. One expert radiologist (more than 10 years' experience), three radiologists (less than 5 years' experience) and eight naïve observers (without any prior medical knowledge) have performed these experiments, during which they have been asked different questions dependent upon level of experience; the three radiologists and eight naïve observers were asked if they were aware of any hyper-signal, likely to represent an MS lesion, while the most experienced consultant was asked if a clinically significant sign was present. With the percentages of response "yes" displayed on the y-axis and the lesion intensity contrasts on the x-axis, psychometric function is generated from the observer' responses. Results of psychometric functions and calculated thresholds indicate that radiologists have better hyper-signal detection ability than naïve observers, which is intuitively shown by the lower simple visibility thresholds of radiologists. However, when radiologists perform a task with clinical implications, e.g. to detect a clinically significant sign, their detection thresholds are elevated. Moreover, the study indicates that for the radiologists, the simple visibility thresholds remain the same with and without the anatomical information, which reduces the threshold for the clinically significant sign detection task. Findings provide further insight into human visual system processing for this

  15. Anomalous variation in the wireless signals propagation associated with earthquake preparation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Velichkova-Yotsova, Sylvia; Pulinets, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    propagation correlated with earthquake preparation processes. Our observations revealed a phenomena associated with the artificially enhancement of the intensity 3.5GHz signals by using WiMax technology (no change in the transmitting level) as a result of electric and electrochemical processes in atmosphere over the regions of ongoing earthquake preparation. To illustrate the nature of such variations in the range of 3.5GHz in relation to earthquake processes we present two case studies: 1/ for M5.8 of May 22, 2012 in Bulgaria and 2/ for M6.9 of May 24, 2014 in Aegean Sea. Concerning the M5.8 of May 22, 2012 the abnormal intensity modulation started on 05.17.2012 (five days in advance) and reached 200% increase. Epicenter of the M5.8 of May 25 was on 15 km from the wireless receiver. Concerning and M6.9 of May 24, 2014 in Aegean Sea abnormal signal was observed on May 22 (two days in advance) with 30% intensity increase. Epicenter of M6.9 of May 24 was at 260 km from the wireless receiver. Most likely the observed increase in the intensity is a direct result of the change in the atmospheric properties in the Atmospheric boundary level (ABL) triggered by intensification of radon and other gases release, which lead to change in lowers atmosphere conductivity, already suggested by Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling concept (Pulinets and Ouzounov, 2011). Another possible reason is the forward scattering of WiMax signal (similar to meteor wakes scattering) on aerosol layers formed over the earthquake preparation zone. We are registering an effect of systematic increase (with different rate) at 3.5 GHz associated with the regional seismicity and no significant intensify modulation with an absence of major seismicity in the region.

  16. Sonic Hedgehog: A Good Gene Gone Bad? Detection and Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaich, Lauren E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly in which students explore the "Sonic hedgehog" gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. Presents a two-part assignment that features students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality,…

  17. Estimation of stress relaxation time for normal and abnormal breast phantoms using optical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K.; Sujatha, N.

    2015-03-01

    Many of the early occurring micro-anomalies in breast may transform into a deadliest cancer tumor in future. Probability of curing early occurring abnormalities in breast is more if rightly identified. Even in mammogram, considered as a golden standard technique for breast imaging, it is hard to pick up early occurring changes in the breast tissue due to the difference in mechanical behavior of the normal and abnormal tissue when subjected to compression prior to x-ray or laser exposure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to estimate the stress relaxation time of normal and abnormal breast mimicking phantom using laser speckle image correlation. Phantoms mimicking normal breast is prepared and subjected to precise mechanical compression. The phantom is illuminated by a Helium Neon laser and by using a CCD camera, a sequence of strained phantom speckle images are captured and correlated by the image mean intensity value at specific time intervals. From the relation between mean intensity versus time, tissue stress relaxation time is quantified. Experiments were repeated for phantoms with increased stiffness mimicking abnormal tissue for similar ranges of applied loading. Results shows that phantom with more stiffness representing abnormal tissue shows uniform relaxation for varying load of the selected range, whereas phantom with less stiffness representing normal tissue shows irregular behavior for varying loadings in the given range.

  18. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  19. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  20. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  1. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  2. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  3. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  4. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  5. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  6. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  7. Cone photopigment bleaching abnormalities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elsner, A E; Burns, S A; Lobes, L A; Doft, B H

    1987-04-01

    We have used a color-matching technique to obtain estimates of the optical density of cone photopigments as a function of retinal illuminance in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We found that the half-bleach illuminance of some patients is abnormally high. That is, it takes more light to bleach an equivalent amount of photopigment in these patients. Since low illuminance color matches for these patients are normal, this implies that these patients have normal amounts of photopigment, but the photopigment is not bleaching normally. This result clearly points to abnormalities in the outer retina of these diabetic patients. The most likely causes of this abnormality are either decreases in the ability of the cones to absorb light, or an increased rate of regeneration of the cone photopigments. PMID:3557875

  8. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  9. Is it possible to identify infrahissian cardiac conduction abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy by non-invasive methods?

    PubMed Central

    Babuty, D; Fauchier, L; Tena-Carbi, D; Poret, P; Leche, J; Raynaud, M; Fauchier, J; Cosnay, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify intracardiac conduction abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy from their clinical, ECG, and genetic features.
METHODS—39 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age 42.9 (12.1) years; 16 female, 23 male) underwent clinical examination, genetic studies, resting and 24 hour ambulatory ECG, signal averaged ECG, and electrophysiological studies.
RESULTS—23 patients suffered from cardiac symptoms, 23 had one or more cardiac conduction abnormality on resting ECG, one had sinus deficiency, and 21 (53.8%) had prolonged HV intervals. No correlation was found between the severity of the neurological symptoms, onset of disease, cardiac conduction abnormalities on ECG, and the intracardiac conduction abnormalities on electrophysiological study. The size of the DNA mutation was longer in the abnormal HV interval group than in the normal HV interval group (3.5 (1.8) v 2.2 (1.0) kb, p < 0.02). Signal averaged ECG parameters (total QRS duration (QRSD) and duration of low amplitude signals ⩽ 40 µV (LAS 40)) were greater in patients with an abnormal HV interval than in those with a normal HV interval (123.4 (24.6) v 102.8 (12.3) ms and 47.5 (12.8) v 35.3 (8.8) ms, respectively; p < 0.005). Only the association of QRSD ⩾ 100 ms with LAS 40 ⩾ 36 ms identified patients with an abnormal HV interval with good sensitivity (80%) and specificity (83.3%).
CONCLUSIONS—Infrahissian conduction abnormalities are common in myotonic dystrophy and can be identified using signal averaged electrocardiography.


Keywords: myotonic dystrophy; atrioventricular block; genetic factors; signal averaged ECG PMID:10525524

  10. Brain white matter abnormality in a newborn infant with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients. PMID:24170965

  11. Abnormal carbene-silicon halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; Schaefer, Henry F; Robinson, Gregory H

    2016-04-14

    Reaction of the anionic N-heterocyclic dicarbene (NHDC), [:C{[N(2,6-Pr(i)2C6H3)]2CHCLi}]n (1), with SiCl4 gives the trichlorosilyl-substituted (at the C4 carbon) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (7). Abnormal carbene-SiCl4 complex (8) may be conveniently synthesized by combining 7 with HCl·NEt3. In addition, 7 may react with CH2Cl2 in warm hexane, giving the abnormal carbene-complexed SiCl3(+) cation (9). The nature of the bonding in 9 was probed with complementary DFT computations. PMID:26605692

  12. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  13. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  14. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  15. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  16. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15-20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ≤ 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ≤ a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ. PMID:26487307

  17. Early Blood Gas Abnormalities and the Preterm Brain

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, Alan; Allred, Elizabeth; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Dammann, Olaf; O'Shea, T. Michael; Hirtz, Deborah; Schreiber, Michael D.; Paneth, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored associations between blood gas abnormalities in more than 1,000 preterm infants during the first postnatal days and indicators of neonatal brain damage. During 2002–2004, women delivering infants before 28 weeks’ gestation at one of 14 participating institutions in 5 US states were asked to enroll in the study. The authors compared infants with blood gas values in the highest or lowest quintile for gestational age and postnatal day (extreme value) on at least 1 of the first 3 postnatal days with the remainder of the subjects, with separate analyses for blood gas abnormalities on multiple days and for partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolar gas of <35. Outcomes analyzed were ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion on an ultrasound scan in the neonatal intensive care unit, and cerebral palsy, microcephaly, and a low score on a Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 24 months. Every blood gas derangement (hypoxemia, hyperoxemia, hypocapnia, hypercapnia, and acidosis) was associated with multiple indicators of brain damage. However, for some, the associations were seen with only 1 day of exposure; others were evident with 2 or more days’ exposure. Findings suggest that individual blood gas derangements do not increase brain damage risk. Rather, the multiple derangements associated with indicators of brain damage might be indicators of immaturity/vulnerability and illness severity. PMID:20807736

  18. Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D

    2008-10-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  19. Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Steven; O’Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  20. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  1. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  2. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  3. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  4. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  5. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  6. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  7. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  8. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  9. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy. PMID:27169865

  10. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  11. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  12. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  13. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  14. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  15. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  16. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research. PMID:14965782

  17. First-Trimester Detection of Surface Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rousian, Melek; Koning, Anton H. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Cornette, Jérôme M. J.; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Teunissen, Katinka K.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Exalto, Niek

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D_VR_US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D_US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22 normal, 26 abnormal) were evaluated offline using both techniques by 5 experienced, blinded sonographers. In each case, we analyzed whether each organ category was correctly indicated as normal or abnormal and whether the specific diagnosis was correctly made. Sensitivity in terms of normal or abnormal was comparable for both techniques (P = .24). The general sensitivity for specific diagnoses was 62.6% using 3D_VR_US and 52.2% using 2D/3D_US (P = .075). The 3D_VR_US more often correctly diagnosed skeleton/limb malformations (36.7% vs 10%; P = .013). Mean evaluation time in 3D_VR_US was 4:24 minutes and in 2D/3D_US 2:53 minutes (P < .001). General diagnostic performance of 3D_VR_US and 2D/3D_US apparently is comparable. Malformations of skeleton and limbs are more often detected using 3D_VR_US. Evaluation time is longer in 3D_VR_US. PMID:24440996

  18. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  19. Potential Metabolic Biomarkers to Identify Interstitial Lung Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong; Jia, Dongmei; Lin, Zhang; Guo, Baosheng; He, Bing; Lu, Cheng; Xiao, Cheng; Liu, Zhongdi; Zhao, Ning; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Xinru; Lu, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Determining sensitive biomarkers in the peripheral blood to identify interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) is essential for the simple early diagnosis of ILAs. This study aimed to determine serum metabolic biomarkers of ILAs and the corresponding pathogenesis. Three groups of subjects undergoing health screening, including healthy subjects, subjects with ILAs, and subjects who were healthy initially and with ILAs one year later (Healthy→ILAs), were recruited for this study. The metabolic profiles of all of the subjects’ serum were analyzed by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolic characteristics of the ILAs subjects were discovered, and the corresponding biomarkers were predicted. The metabolomic data from the Healthy→ILAs subjects were collected for further verification. The results indicated that five serum metabolite alterations (up-regulated phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid, betaine aldehyde and phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as down-regulated 1-acylglycerophosphocholine) were sensitive and reliable biomarkers for identifying ILAs. Perturbation of the corresponding biological pathways (RhoA signaling, mTOR/P70S6K signaling and phospholipase C signaling) might be at least partially responsible for the pathogenesis of ILAs. This study may provide a good template for determining the early diagnostic markers of subclinical disease status and for obtaining a better understanding of their pathogenesis. PMID:27438829

  20. Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, M M; Tefferi, A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal stem cell disorder associated with peripheral blood monocytosis and an inherent tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. CMML has overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Clonal cytogenetic changes are seen in ~30%, whereas gene mutations are seen in >90% of patients. Common cytogenetic abnormalities include; trisomy 8, -Y, -7/del(7q), trisomy 21 and del(20q), with the Mayo–French risk stratification effectively risk stratifying patients based on cytogenetic abnormalities. Gene mutations frequently involve epigenetic regulators (TET2 ~60%), modulators of chromatin (ASXL1 ~40%), spliceosome components (SRSF2 ~50%), transcription factors (RUNX1 ~15%) and signal pathways (RAS ~30%, CBL ~15%). Of these, thus far, only nonsense and frameshift ASXL1 mutations have been shown to negatively impact overall survival. This has resulted in the development of contemporary, molecularly integrated (inclusive of ASXL1 mutations) CMML prognostic models, including Molecular Mayo Model and the Groupe Français des Myélodysplasies model. Better understanding of the prevalent genetic and epigenetic dysregulation has resulted in emerging targeted treatment options for some patients. The development of an integrated (cytogenetic and molecular) prognostic model along with CMML-specific response assessment criteria are much needed future goals. PMID:26849014

  1. Control of ignition timing upon occurrence of abnormality in a reference crank angle position sensing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, S.; Ono, T.; Narisawa, N.

    1987-09-01

    A method is described of controlling ignition timing of an internal combustion engine when an abnormality develops in a system for sensing a reference crank angle position of a crankshaft of the engine, in which the timing at which an ignition coil starts and stops conducting is controlled on the basis of a first pulse signal generated once per at least two revolutions of the crankshaft at a predetermined crank angle position associated with a particular cylinder of the engine, a second pulse signal indicative of a predetermined reference crank angle position of the crankshaft for each cylinder, and a third pulse signal indicative of predetermined angular positions of the crankshaft.

  2. Neonatal White Matter Abnormalities an Important Predictor of Neurocognitive Outcome for Very Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Lianne J.; Clark, Caron A. C.; Bora, Samudragupta; Inder, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. Objective Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. Design/Methods The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) infants born from 1998–2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. Results At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white matter abnormalities on

  3. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

  4. Fibrosis, Connexin-43, and Conduction Abnormalities in the Brugada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nademanee, Koonlawee; Raju, Hariharan; de Noronha, Sofia V.; Papadakis, Michael; Robinson, Laurence; Rothery, Stephen; Makita, Naomasa; Kowase, Shinya; Boonmee, Nakorn; Vitayakritsirikul, Vorapot; Ratanarapee, Samrerng; Sharma, Sanjay; van der Wal, Allard C.; Christiansen, Michael; Tan, Hanno L.; Wilde, Arthur A.; Nogami, Akihiko; Sheppard, Mary N.; Veerakul, Gumpanart; Behr, Elijah R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is acknowledged to be responsible for arrhythmogenesis in Brugada syndrome (BrS), but the pathophysiology remains controversial. Objectives This study assessed the substrate underlying BrS at post-mortem and in vivo, and the role for open thoracotomy ablation. Methods Six whole hearts from male post-mortem cases of unexplained sudden death (mean age 23.2 years) with negative specialist cardiac autopsy and familial BrS were used and matched to 6 homograft control hearts by sex and age (within 3 years) by random risk set sampling. Cardiac autopsy sections from cases and control hearts were stained with picrosirius red for collagen. The RVOT was evaluated in detail, including immunofluorescent stain for connexin-43 (Cx43). Collagen and Cx43 were quantified digitally and compared. An in vivo study was undertaken on 6 consecutive BrS patients (mean age 39.8 years, all men) during epicardial RVOT ablation for arrhythmia via thoracotomy. Abnormal late and fractionated potentials indicative of slowed conduction were identified, and biopsies were taken before ablation. Results Collagen was increased in BrS autopsy cases compared with control hearts (odds ratio [OR]: 1.42; p = 0.026). Fibrosis was greatest in the RVOT (OR: 1.98; p = 0.003) and the epicardium (OR: 2.00; p = 0.001). The Cx43 signal was reduced in BrS RVOT (OR: 0.59; p = 0.001). Autopsy and in vivo RVOT samples identified epicardial and interstitial fibrosis. This was collocated with abnormal potentials in vivo that, when ablated, abolished the type 1 Brugada electrocardiogram without ventricular arrhythmia over 24.6 ± 9.7 months. Conclusions BrS is associated with epicardial surface and interstitial fibrosis and reduced gap junction expression in the RVOT. This collocates to abnormal potentials, and their ablation abolishes the BrS phenotype and life-threatening arrhythmias. BrS is also associated with increased collagen throughout the heart

  5. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe the acute (short-term) toxicity ... red letters on the front panel of the product label. 2,4 Acute Oral LD 50 Inhalation LC ...

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Abnormal grain growth in TD-nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the coarse grain transformation occurring in TD-nickel 1 in. bar under certain conditions of deformation and annealing were examined. The transformation exhibits Avrami-type kinetics, with an activation energy of 250 kcal per mole. Characteristics of untransformed regions are like those of the as-received state. The transformed grain size increases with increasing deformation and decreasing annealing temperature. The coarse grain transformation is significantly different from primary recrystallization in pure nickel. Its characteristics cannot be rationalized in terms of primary recrystallization concepts, but may be explained in terms of an abnormal grain growth description. The coarse grain transformation in TD-nickel is abnormal grain growth rather than primary recrystallization. The analysis suggests an explanation for the effect of thermomechanical history on the deformation and annealing behavior of TD-nickel.

  8. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. PMID:26842972

  9. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  10. [TMJ morphological changes in abnormal occlusion].

    PubMed

    Volkov, S I; Bazhenov, D V; Semkin, V A; Bogdanov, A O

    2013-01-01

    TMJ dysfunction is one of the most common diseases among all disorders of the maxillofacial region. Any abnormality in synchrony or amplitude of motion of the TMJ results in the malposition of the articular disc. Researchers and clinicians were always interested in topographic anatomy of the TMJ. There is currently no consensus on matters relating to changes in anatomical features of the TMJ by occlusal disturbances. PMID:23715443

  11. Congenital anorectal abnormalities in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, N N; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Galatos, A D; Gouletsou, P; Rallis, T S

    2003-07-19

    Congenital anorectal abnormalities were diagnosed in three male and three female dogs. One dog had anal stenosis, three had a persistent anal membrane, and the other two had an imperforate anus associated with a rectovaginal fistula. Five of the dogs were treated surgically, and four of them which were followed up for periods ranging from one to five years continued to pass faeces normally. PMID:12892267

  12. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  13. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  14. Chromosome abnormalities in chronic active hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Stefanescu, D. T.; Moanga, M.; Teodorescu, M.; Brucher, J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation on human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomes in chronic active hepatitis was carried out. A higher percentage of chromatid and chromosome lesions was recorded in all patients studied as compared with control groups—normal individuals, healthy subjects who had suffered from acute viral hepatitis, patients with alcoholic liver disease, and patients with mechanical jaundice due to cancer. The possible origin of these abnormalities is discussed. PMID:5076805

  15. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  16. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  17. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  18. Autism and chromosome abnormalities-A review.

    PubMed

    Bergbaum, Anne; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

    2016-07-01

    The neuro-behavioral disorder of autism was first described in the 1940s and was predicted to have a biological basis. Since that time, with the growth of genetic investigations particularly in the area of pediatric development, an increasing number of children with autism and related disorders (autistic spectrum disorders, ASD) have been the subject of genetic studies both in the clinical setting and in the wider research environment. However, a full understanding of the biological basis of ASDs has yet to be achieved. Early observations of children with chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banded chromosome analysis (karyotyping) and in situ hybridization revealed, in some cases, ASD associated with other features arising from such an abnormality. The introduction of higher resolution techniques for whole genome screening, such as array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), allowed smaller imbalances to be detected, some of which are now considered to represent autism susceptibility loci. In this review, we describe some of the work underpinning the conclusion that ASDs have a genetic basis; a brief history of the developments in genetic analysis tools over the last 50 years; and the most common chromosome abnormalities found in association with ASDs. Introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) into the clinical diagnostic setting is likely to provide further insights into this complex field but will not be covered in this review. Clin. Anat. 29:620-627, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012322

  19. Apparent Ruvalcaba syndrome with genitourinary abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bialer, M G; Wilson, W G; Kelly, T E

    1989-07-01

    The Ruvalcaba syndrome is a rare malformation syndrome characterized by skeletal dysplasia, facial anomalies, and mental retardation. We report on a 22-year-old woman with severe growth and mental retardation and numerous manifestations characteristic of the Ruvalcaba syndrome. In addition, she has several anomalies not previously described in the Ruvalcaba syndrome, including upslanting palpebral fissures, torus palatinus, hiatal hernia with gastroesophageal reflux, recurrent respiratory infections, pectus excavatum, equinovarous deformity, hypotonia, unilateral renal hypoplasia, an accessory ovary, and atretic fallopian tube. Review of published reports of Ruvalcaba syndrome confirms variability of the clinical and radiographic changes. Findings present in at least 50% of reported patients include mental retardation, short stature, pubertal delay, an abnormal nose (usually beaked) with hypoplastic nasal alae, microstomia with narrow maxilla, thin upper lip vermilion, broad hips, small hands, joint limitation, short fingers and toes, and vertebral abnormalities. Because 5 of the reported patients had renal abnormalities, a renal ultrasound or contrast study is indicated in the evaluation of these patients. Additional reports, particular from multiplex families, will be important to better characterize this syndrome. PMID:2679089

  20. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  1. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  2. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  3. Helioseismology from SODISM and HMI Intensity Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbard, T.; Salabert, D.; Boumier, P.; Picard Team

    2013-12-01

    Continuum intensity images from PICARD/SODISM and SDO/HMI covering a 209-day period in 2011 are analyzed in order to extract mode parameters for spherical harmonics up to ℓ = 100. SODISM helioseismology signal is affected by the low orbit of PICARD, important gaps, and CCD persistence effects. SODISM intensity has a lower signal to noise ratio and duty cycle than HMI and less modes were successfully fitted over the same period. A comparison of the rotation profiles obtained from both sets of continuum images, however, shows that the results remain compatible within one standard deviation of HMI formal errors.

  4. Clinical Significance of High-intensity Zone for Discogenic Low Back Pain: A Review.

    PubMed

    C Jha, Subash; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakai, Toshinori; Takata, Yoichiro; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Fukuta, Shoji; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity zone (HIZ) was originally described as a high-intensity signal on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, located in the posterior annulus fibrosus, clearly separated from the nucleus pulposus. Among symptomatic patients with low back pain, HIZ is present in 28-59% of cases. In morphologically abnormal discs, high sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 79%, respectively, were reported for HIZs and concordant pain during discography. In contrast, another report indicated low rates. Although most papers reported high sensitivity and specificity for this relationship, it remains controversial. Regarding the pathology of HIZs, inflammatory granulation tissues are found at sites showing HIZs. Such inflammatory tissues produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, which sensitize the nociceptors within the disc and cause pain. An effective treatment for this condition is yet to be established. Recently, minimally invasive surgery using percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) under local anesthesia was introduced. After removal of the degenerated disc material, the HIZ is identified with the endoscope and then coagulated and modulated with a bipolar radio pulse. This technique is called thermal annuloplasty. In conclusion, HIZs is an important sign of painful intervertebral disc disruption, if identified precisely based on factors such as location and intensity. J. Med. Invest. 63: 1-7, February, 2016. PMID:27040045

  5. Intensive Intervention in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    Students who demonstrate persistent mathematics difficulties and whose performance is severely below grade level require "intensive intervention". Intensive intervention is an individualized approach to instruction that is more demanding and concentrated than Tier 2 intervention efforts. We present the elements of intensive intervention…

  6. Abnormal Development of Thalamic Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Lisa B.; Votava-Smith, Jodie K.; Ceschin, Rafael; Nagasunder, Arabhi C.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Blüml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Preterm birth is associated with alteration in cortico-thalamic development, which underlies poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate abnormal thalamic microstructure when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between thalamic microstructural abnormalities and peri-operative clinical variables. Material and Methods We compared thalamic DTI measurements in 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison was made with three other selected white matter regions using ROI manual based measurements. Correlation was made with post-conceptional age and peri-operative clinical variables. Results In preterm neonates with CHD, there were age-related differences in thalamic diffusivity (axial and radial) compared to the preterm and term non-CHD group, in contrast to no differences in anisotropy. Contrary to our hypothesis, abnormal thalamic and optic radiation microstructure was most strongly associated with an elevated first arterial blood gas pO2 and elevated pre-operative arterial blood gas pH (p<0.05). Conclusion Age-related thalamic microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD. Perinatal hyperoxemia and increased peri-operative serum pH was associated with abnormal thalamic microstructure in preterm neonates with CHD. This study emphasizes the vulnerability of thalamo-cortical development in the preterm neonate with CHD. PMID:25608695

  7. Comparison of normal and abnormal cardiotocography with pregnancy outcomes and early neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Jobaida; Chowdhury, T A; Begum, Kohinoor; Khan, Manir Hossain

    2009-01-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most commonly used test for antepartum and intrapartum foetal surveillance in the majority hospitals of developed countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcome and early neonatal outcome among the normal and abnormal CTG groups. In this prospective study, fifty consecutive normal and fifty consecutive abnormal CTG were collected within one hour before delivery from patients who have singleton pregnancy with gestational age >or=32 weeks and having obstetric or medical indication for CTG. In this study, the measure of pregnancy outcomes were mode of delivery, indications of caesarean section, percentage requiring caesarean section for foetal distress, oligohydramnios, meconium stained liquor, small placenta and cord around the neck. Early neonatal outcomes included apgar score, birth weight, admission into neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), duration of stay in NICU and perinatal mortality. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding pregnancy outcomes and early neonatal outcomes. So, CTG is an important test to assess the foetal condition in both antepartum and intrapartum period. The sensitivity of CTG was 87%, specificity was 66%, positive predictive value was 54% and negative predictive value was 92% in the prediction of abnormal outcomes. So, normal CTG is more predictive of normal outcomes than abnormal CTG regarding abnormal outcomes. PMID:19377417

  8. Coherent light in intense spatiospectral twin beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Intense spatio-spectral twin beams generated in the regime with pump depletion are analyzed applying a suggested quantum model that treats the signal, idler, and pump fields in the same way. The model assumes the signal and idler fields in the form of the generalized superposition of signal and noise and reveals nonzero signal coherent components in both fields, contrary to the models developed earlier. The influence of coherent components on the properties of intense twin beams is elucidated. The interference pattern formed in the process of sum-frequency generation and that of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer are shown to be able to experimentally confirm the presence of coherent components.

  9. Abnormal Notochord Branching Is Associated with Foregut Malformations in the Adriamycin Treated Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hajduk, Piotr; Sato, Hideaki; Puri, Prem; Murphy, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheooesophageal fistula (TOF) are relatively common human congenital malformations of the foregut where the oesophagus does not connect with the stomach and there is an abnormal connection between the stomach and the respiratory tract. They require immediate corrective surgery and have an impact on the future health of the individual. These abnormalities are mimicked by exposure of rat and mouse embryos in utero to the drug adriamycin. The causes of OA/TOF during human development are not known, however a number of mouse mutants where different signalling pathways are directly affected, show similar abnormalities, implicating multiple and complex signalling mechanisms. The similarities in developmental outcome seen in human infants and in the adriamycin treated mouse model underline the potential of this model to unravel the early embryological events and further our understanding of the processes disturbed, leading to such abnormalities. Here we report a systematic study of the foregut and adjacent tissues in embryos treated with adriamycin at E7 and E8 and analysed between E9 and E12, comparing morphology in 3D in 149 specimens. We describe a spectrum of 8 defects, the most common of which is ventral displacement and branching of the notochord (in 94% of embryos at E10) and a close spatial correspondence between the site of notochord branching and defects of the foregut. In addition gene expression analysis shows altered dorso-ventral foregut patterning in the vicinity of notochord branches. This study shows a number of features of the adriamycin mouse model not previously reported, implicates the notochord as a primary site of disturbance in such abnormalities and underlines the importance of the model to further address the mechanistic basis of foregut congenital abnormalities. PMID:22132119

  10. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians: impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The centenarian population is gradually increasing, so it is becoming more common to see centenarians in clinical practice. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in the elderly have been reported, but several methodological biases have been detected that limit the validity of their results. The aim of this study is to analyse the ECG abnormalities in a prospective study of the centenarian population and to assess their impact on survival. Method We performed a domiciliary visit, where a medical history, an ECG and blood analysis were obtained. Barthel index (BI), cognitive mini-exam (CME) and Charlson index (ChI) were all determined. Patients were followed up by telephone up until their death. Results A total of 80 centenarians were studied, 26 men and 64 women, mean age 100.8 (SD 1.3). Of these, 81% had been admitted to the hospital at least once in the past, 81.3% were taking drugs (mean 3.3, rank 0–11). ChI was 1.21 (SD 1.19). Men had higher scores both for BI (70 -SD 34.4- vs. 50.4 -SD 36.6-, P = .005) and CME (16.5 -SD 9.1- vs. 9.1 –SD 11.6-, P = .008); 40.3% of the centenarians had anaemia, 67.5% renal failure, 13% hyperglycaemia, 22.1% hypoalbuminaemia and 10.7% dyslipidaemia, without statistically significant differences regarding sex. Only 7% had a normal ECG; 21 (26.3%) had atrial fibrillation (AF), 30 (37.5%) conduction defects and 31 (38.8%) abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, without sex-related differences. A history of heart disease was significantly associated with the presence of AF (P = .002, OR 5.2, CI 95% 1.8 to 15.2) and changes suggestive of ischemia (P = .019, OR 3.2, CI 95% 1.2-8.7). Mean survival was 628 days (SD 578.5), median 481 days. Mortality risk was independently associated with the presence of AF (RR 2.0, P = .011), hyperglycaemia (RR 2.2, P = .032), hypoalbuminaemia (RR 3.5, P < .001) and functional dependence assessed by BI (RR 1.8, P = .024). Conclusion Although ECG abnormalities are

  11. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  12. Bakers' cyst and tibiofemoral abnormalities are more distinctive MRI features of symptomatic osteoarthritis than patellofemoral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Visser, A W; Mertens, B; Reijnierse, M; Bloem, J L; de Mutsert, R; le Cessie, S; Rosendaal, F R; Kloppenburg, M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate which structural MR abnormalities discriminate symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), taking co-occurrence of abnormalities in all compartments into account. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45–65 years. In 1285 participants (median age 56 years, 55% women, median body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m2), MRI of the right knee were obtained. Structural abnormalities (osteophytes, cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), subchondral cysts, meniscal abnormalities, effusion, Baker's cyst) at 9 patellofemoral and tibiofemoral locations were scored following the knee OA scoring system. Symptomatic OA in the imaged knee was defined following the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Logistic ridge regression analyses were used to investigate which structural abnormalities discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic OA, crude and adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Symptomatic knee OA was present in 177 individuals. Structural MR abnormalities were highly frequent both in individuals with OA and in those without. Baker's cysts showed the highest adjusted regression coefficient (0.293) for presence of symptomatic OA, followed by osteophytes and BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment (0.185–0.279), osteophytes in the medial trochlear facet (0.262) and effusion (0.197). Conclusions Baker's cysts discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic knee OA. Structural MR abnormalities, especially in the medial side of the tibiofemoral joint and effusion, add further in discriminating symptomatic OA. Baker's cysts may present as a target for treatment. PMID:27252896

  13. Abnormal reduction of coercivity on magnetic cobalt platinum alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Shern, C. S.

    2006-08-01

    Ultrathin Co-Pt alloy films as substrate were studied by the surface magneto-optical Kerr effect. As the growth of Ni, the films show uniquely high polar Kerr responses without any in-plane signals. The coercivity decreased until the thickness of Ni film was higher than 5 ML. A new surface structure was discovered at 7-10 ML Ni/Co-Pt films by the low-energy electron diffraction. Interestingly, polar Kerr signal and coercivity of the 10 ML Ni/Co-Pt(1 1 1) template film reduced rapidly as Co films were further deposited onto only about 1-2 ML. Then the films show a canted magnetization with a rollback hysteresis in the polar configuration during the growth of Co. Coercivity of the 7 ML Co/Ni/Co-Pt film was found unusually down to almost 100 Oe.The corresponding magic number at around 7 ML of Co in the abnormal reduction of coercivity may be attributed to the cluster formations of Co.

  14. Copy number variants and rasopathies: germline KRAS duplication in a patient with syndrome including pigmentation abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Bilan, Frédéric; Cavé, Hélène; Verloes, Alain; Vidaud, Michel; Vidaud, Dominique; Pasmant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    RAS/MAPK pathway germline mutations were described in Rasopathies, a class of rare genetic syndromes combining facial abnormalities, heart defects, short stature, skin and genital abnormalities, and mental retardation. The majority of the mutations identified in the Rasopathies are point mutations which increase RAS/MAPK pathway signaling. Duplications encompassing RAS/MAPK pathway genes (PTPN11, RAF1, MEK2, or SHOC2) were more rarely described. Here we report, a syndromic familial case of a 12p duplication encompassing the dosage sensitive gene KRAS, whose phenotype overlapped with rasopathies. The patient was referred because of a history of mild learning disabilities, small size, facial dysmorphy, and pigmentation abnormalities (café-au-lait and achromic spots, and axillar lentigines). This phenotype was reminiscent of rasopathies. No mutation was identified in the most common genes associated with Noonan, cardio-facio-cutaneous, Legius, and Costello syndromes, as well as neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient constitutional DNA exhibited a ~10.5 Mb duplication at 12p, including the KRAS gene. The index case's mother carried the same chromosome abnormality and also showed development delay with short stature, and numerous café-au-lait spots. Duplication of the KRAS gene may participate in the propositus phenotype, in particular of the specific pigmentation abnormalities. Array-CGH or some other assessment of gene/exon CNVs of RAS/MAPK pathway genes should be considered in the evaluation of individuals with rasopathies. PMID:27450488

  15. Study on the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation applied in wind turbine farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Qian, Zheng; Tian, Shuangshu

    2016-01-01

    The condition detection of wind turbine is always an important issue which attract more and more attentions because of the rapid development of wind farm. And the on-line data analysis is also difficult since a lot of measured data is collected. In this paper, the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation of wind turbine is processed. At first, since there are large amounts of abnormal data in the normal operation of wind turbine, which is probably caused by fault, maintenance downtime, power-limited operation and failure of wind speed sensor, a novel method is proposed to reject abnormal data in order to make more accurate analysis for the wind turbine condition. The core principle of this method is to fit the wind power curves by using the scatter diagram. The data outside the area covered by wind power curves is the abnormal data. The calculation shows that the abnormal data is rejected effectively. After the rejection, the vibration signals of wind turbine bearing which is a critical component are analyzed and the relationship between the vibration characteristic value and the operating condition of wind turbine is discussed. It will provide powerful support for the accurate fault analysis of wind turbine.

  16. Brain abnormalities in male children and adolescents with hemophilia: detection with MR imaging. The Hemophilia Growth and Development Study Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D A; Nelson, M D; Fenstermacher, M J; Bohan, T P; Hopper, K D; Tilton, A; Mitchell, W G; Contant, C F; Maeder, M A; Donfield, S M

    1992-11-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 124 male patients (aged 7-19 years), from 14 institutions, in whom a diagnosis of moderate to severe hemophilia was made. Blood tests in all subjects were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. Findings in MR studies were abnormal in 25 (20.2%) subjects. Six lesions in five subjects were classified as congenital. The most commonly identified congenital lesion was a posterior fossa collection of cerebrospinal fluid (five cases). Twenty-two subjects had acquired lesions that were probably related to the hemophilia or its treatment. The most commonly acquired lesions were single- or multifocal areas of high signal intensity within the white matter on T2-weighted images noted in 14 (11.3%) subjects. Two subjects had large focal areas of brain atrophy, and six had some degree of diffuse cerebral cortical atrophy. Three subjects (2.4%) had hemorrhagic lesions. To the authors' knowledge, the unexpected finding of small, focal, nonhemorrhagic white matter lesions has not previously been reported. PMID:1410372

  17. Ultrasound diagnosis of structural abnormalities in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Dugoff, Lorraine

    2002-04-01

    The advances in ultrasound technology have made it possible to identify fetal structural abnormalities and genetic syndromes in the first trimester. First trimester prenatal diagnosis of fetal central nervous system, renal, gastrointestinal, cardiac, and skeletal abnormalities is reviewed. PMID:11981912

  18. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  19. Gene Abnormality May Be Key to Down Syndrome, Scientists Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157468.html Gene Abnormality May Be Key to Down Syndrome, Scientists Say Results might eventually lead to new ... abnormality that affects brain development in people with Down Syndrome, and they say this finding might lead to ...

  20. Familial myopathy with tubular aggregates associated with abnormal pupils.

    PubMed

    Shahrizaila, Nortina; Lowe, James; Wills, Adrian

    2004-09-28

    The authors describe familial tubular aggregate myopathy associated with abnormal pupils. Four family members from two generations had myopathy and pupillary abnormalities. The myopathologic findings consisted of tubular aggregates in many fibers but predominantly type I fibers. PMID:15452313

  1. NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

  2. Mechanisms of Normal and Abnormal Endometrial Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of coagulation, is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) during the progesterone-dominated luteal phase. Progesterone also augments a second HESC hemostatic factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In contrast, progestins inhibit HESC matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 3 and 9 expression to stabilize endometrial stromal and vascular extracellular matrix. Through these mechanisms decidualized endometrium is rendered both hemostatic and resistant to excess trophoblast invasion in the mid-luteal phase and throughout gestation to prevent hemorrhage and accreta. In non-fertile cycles, progesterone withdrawal results in decreased HESC TF and PAI-expression and increased MMP activity and inflammatory cytokine production promoting the controlled hemorrhage of menstruation and related tissue sloughing. In contrast to these well ordered biochemical processes, unpredictable endometrial bleeding associated with anovulation reflects absence of progestational effects on TF, PAI-1 and MMP activity as well as unrestrained angiogenesis rendering the endometrium non-hemostatic, proteolytic and highly vascular. Abnormal bleeding associated with long-term progestin-only contraceptives results not from impaired hemostasis but from unrestrained angiogenesis leading to large fragile endometrial vessels. This abnormal angiogenesis reflects progestational inhibition of endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and generation of reactive oxygen species that increase production of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HESCs and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in endometrial endothelial cells while decreasing HESC expression of angiostatic, Ang-1. The resulting vessel fragility promotes bleeding. Aberrant angiogenesis also underlies abnormal bleeding associated with myomas and endometrial polyps however there are gaps in our understanding of this pathology. PMID:21499503

  3. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  4. [Abnormal daytime drowsiness--attempt at typology].

    PubMed

    Meier-Ewert, K

    1991-11-01

    Abnormal drowsiness during the day is defined on the basis of three criteria: 1. subjective feeling of increased tiredness, 2. objective observation of attacks of falling asleep, 3. detection of premature falling asleep in the multiple sleep latency test. About 3 to 4% of the population of modern industrial countries complain of this symptom which very quickly leads to inability to work in numerous occupations (driving instructors, lorry drivers, airline pilots). In many cases, the symptoms can be eliminated by effective methods of treatment. Early diagnosis and therapy is hence an important task of physicians. Clinically suitable tools and methods of measurement for appraising the phenomena are at present: 1. the multiple sleep latency test (Richardson et al., 1978), 2. the multiple staying awake test (Mitler et al., 1982), 3. the vigilance test according to Quatember and Maly from the Vienna test system. In neurophysiological terms, an attempt is made to differentiate between: REM drowsiness, non-REM drowsiness, hypofunction of the arousal systems of the reticular formation, and hyperfunction and overstimulation of the arousal systems of the reticular formation (over-aroused tiredness). Approaches to a clinical typology of abnormal drowsiness are available from two points of departure: 1. Forms of permanent somnolence which are not alleviated but intensified by a brief restorative sleep and resemble the 'oversleeping syndrome' of the healthy individual. 2. Attacks of imperative falling asleep in narcoleptic patients. The characteristic of this form of abnormal drowsiness during the day is that in the interval between the attacks of falling asleep patients can take on any healthy person with regard to alertness, reaction capacity and ready wit. After a brief restorative sleep of less than 5 min., they immediately feel fresh, alert and fit again. PMID:1754972

  5. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohns, Thomas J.; Kos, Katarina; Henley, William E.; Lang, Iain A.; Annweiler, Cedric; Beauchet, Olivier; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Llewellyn, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992–93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991–1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997–1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and deficient (≥25–50 nmol/L) were 0.76 (0.35–1.66) and 1.09 (0.76–1.55) compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20–1.19) and 1.12 (0.79–1.59) compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84–4.54) and 0.73 (0.47–1.95) compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with

  6. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Thomas J; Kos, Katarina; Henley, William E; Lang, Iain A; Annweiler, Cedric; Beauchet, Olivier; Chaves, Paulo H M; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Kuller, Lewis H; Langa, Kenneth M; Lopez, Oscar L; Llewellyn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L) were 0.76 (0.35-1.66) and 1.09 (0.76-1.55) compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19) and 1.12 (0.79-1.59) compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54) and 0.73 (0.47-1.95) compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  7. Heart beat detection in multimodal physiological data using a hidden semi-Markov model and signal quality indices.

    PubMed

    A F Pimentel, Marco; Santos, Mauro D; Springer, David B; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-08-01

    Accurate heart beat detection in signals acquired from intensive care unit (ICU) patients is necessary for establishing both normality and detecting abnormal events. Detection is normally performed by analysing the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, and alarms are triggered when parameters derived from this signal exceed preset or variable thresholds. However, due to noisy and missing data, these alarms are frequently deemed to be false positives, and therefore ignored by clinical staff. The fusion of features derived from other signals, such as the arterial blood pressure (ABP) or the photoplethysmogram (PPG), has the potential to reduce such false alarms. In order to leverage the highly correlated temporal nature of the physiological signals, a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) approach, which uses the intra- and inter-beat depolarization interval, was designed to detect heart beats in such data. Features based on the wavelet transform, signal gradient and signal quality indices were extracted from the ECG and ABP waveforms for use in the HSMM framework. The presented method achieved an overall score of 89.13% on the hidden/test data set provided by the Physionet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014: Robust Detection of Heart Beats in Multimodal Data. PMID:26218536

  8. Regulation of Hedgehog signaling by ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Elaine Y. C.; Gui, Yirui; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays crucial roles both in embryonic development and in adult stem cell function. The timing, duration and location of Hh signaling activity need to be tightly controlled. Abnormalities of Hh signal transduction lead to birth defects or malignant tumors. Recent data point to ubiquitination-related posttranslational modifications of several key Hh pathway components as an important mechanism of regulation of the Hh pathway. Here we review how ubiquitination regulates the localization, stability and activity of the key Hh signaling components. PMID:26366162

  9. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  10. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  11. C21orf5, a human candidate gene for brain abnormalities and mental retardation in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rachidi, M; Lopes, C; Delezoide, A-L; Delabar, J M

    2006-01-01

    Mental retardation represents the more invalidating pathological aspect of trisomy 21 and has a hard impact on public health. The dosage imbalance of chromosome 21 genes could be the cause of neurological alterations and mental retardation seen in Down syndrome. We studied C21orf5 that we have demonstrated to be overexpressed in Down syndrome tissues, as a candidate gene for trisomy 21. A new optical technology (Rachidi et al., 2000) was used to compare signal intensity and cell density in presumptive embryonic brain compartments, at their boundaries and in higher specialized brain centres during fetal lifespan. We showed a developmentally regulated transcriptional activity of C21orf5 and a regional and cellular specific distribution of gene transcripts during human embryonic and fetal development. A wide but differential expression was detected in the nervous system during embryogenesis with a relatively lower level in the forebrain than in the midbrain and hindbrain and the highest transcription intensity in the future cerebellum. This developmentally regulated expression is maintained during post-embryogenesis and evolves selectively in fetal cerebral, hippocampal and cerebellar areas. Differential and cellular specificity were detected in hippocampus with higher C21orf5 mRNA level in the pyramidal cells compared to granular cells of the dentate gyrus. The expression pattern detected in cortical and cerebellar structures correlates well to the altered cortical lamination and to the lower size of the cerebellum observed in Down syndrome patients. In addition, the patterned differential expression detected in the medial temporal-lobe system, including hippocampal formation and perirhinal cortex, working as control centres of the memory circuits and involved in cognitive processes and memory storage, also corresponds to abnormal brain regions seen in Down syndrome patients. The C21orf5 selective expression in the key brain structures for learning and memory

  12. Neural activation abnormalities during self-referential processing in schizophrenia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiacheng; Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce Edward

    2014-06-30

    Impairments in self-awareness contribute to disability in schizophrenia. Studies have revealed activation abnormalities in schizophrenia in cortical midline structures associated with self-reference. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare activation throughout the brain in people with schizophrenia and healthy controls (Kelly et al., 2002) while they indicated whether trait adjectives described attributes of themselves, their mother or a former president of the United States. Blood oxygenation level dependent signal in each condition was compared to resting fixation. Patients were less likely and slower to endorse positive self-attributes, and more likely and quicker to endorse negative self-attributes than controls. Activation abnormalities reported previously in cortical midline structures were again noted. In addition, patients showed greater signal increases in frontal, temporal gyri and insula, and smaller signal decreases in posterior regions than healthy controls when thinking about themselves. Group differences were less evident when subjects were thinking about their mothers and tended to go in the opposite direction when thinking about a president. Many of the areas showing abnormality have been shown in other studies to differ between patients and controls in structure and with other activation paradigms. We suggest that general neuropathology in schizophrenia alters the neural system configurations associated with self-representation. PMID:24795158

  13. Abnormal serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 is associated with tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Yarchoan, Mark; Toledo, Jon B.; Lee, Edward B.; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Kazi, Hala; Han, Li-Ying; Louneva, Natalia; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Kim, Sangwon F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Arnold, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal insulin signaling abnormalities have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the specificity of this association and its underlying mechanisms have been unclear. This study investigated the expression of abnormal serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in 157 human brain autopsy cases that included AD, tauopathies, α-synucleinopathies, TDP-43 proteinopathies, and normal aging. IRS1-pS616, IRS1-pS312 and downstream target Akt-pS473 measures were most elevated in AD but were also significantly increased in the tauopathies: Pick's disease, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed frequent co-expression of IRS1-pS616 with pathologic tau in neurons and dystrophic neurites. To further investigate an association between tau and abnormal serine phosphorylation of IRS1, we examined the presence of abnormal IRS1-pS616 expression in pathological tau-expressing transgenic mice and demonstrated that abnormal IRS1-pS616 frequently co-localizes in tangle-bearing neurons. Conversely, we observed increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau in the high-fat diet-fed mouse, a model of insulin resistance. These results provide confirmation and specificity that abnormal phosphorylation of IRS1 is a pathological feature of AD and other tauopathies, and provide support for an association between insulin resistance and abnormal tau as well as amyloid-β. PMID:25107476

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  15. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Müller, Lukas; Luder, Hans U

    2009-02-01

    Deviations in the growth of the mandibular condyle can affect both the functional occlusion and the aesthetic appearance of the face. The reasons for these growth deviations are numerous and often entail complex sequences of malfunction at the cellular level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the understanding of pathological alterations occurring during childhood and adolescence that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and, hence, result in disorders of mandibular growth. Pathological conditions taken into account are subdivided into (1) congenital malformations with associated growth disorders, (2) primary growth disorders, and (3) acquired diseases or trauma with associated growth disorders. Among the congenital malformations, hemifacial microsomia (HFM) appears to be the principal syndrome entailing severe growth disturbances, whereas growth abnormalities occurring in conjunction with other craniofacial dysplasias seem far less prominent than could be anticipated based on their often disfiguring nature. Hemimandibular hyperplasia and elongation undoubtedly constitute the most obscure conditions that are associated with prominent, often unilateral, abnormalities of condylar, and mandibular growth. Finally, disturbances of mandibular growth as a result of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and condylar fractures seem to be direct consequences of inflammatory and/or mechanical damage to the condylar cartilage. PMID:19164410

  16. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  17. Karyotypic abnormalities in tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, G.; Johansson, B.; Pandis, N.; Mandahl, N.; Bak-Jensen, E.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Mitelman, F.; Heim, S.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term cultures from 20 pancreatic tumours, three endocrine and 17 exocrine, were cytogenetically analysed. All three endocrine tumours had a normal chromosome complement. Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 13 of the 17 exocrine tumours: simple karyotypic changes were found in five carcinomas and numerous numerical and/or structural changes in eight. When the present findings and those previously reported by our group were viewed in conjunction, the most common numerical imbalances among the 22 karyotypically abnormal pancreatic carcinomas thus available for evaluation turned out to be, in order of falling frequency, -18, -Y, +20, +7, +11 and -12. Imbalances brought about by structural changes most frequently affected chromosomes 1 (losses in 1p but especially gains of 1q), 8 (in particular 8q gains but also 8p losses), and 17 (mostly 17q gain but also loss of 17p). Chromosomal bands 1p32, 1q10, 6q21, 7p22, 8p21, 8q11, 14p11, 15q10-11, and 17q11 were the most common breakpoint sites affected by the structural rearrangements. Abnormal karyotypes were detected more frequently in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas than in moderately and well differentiated tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494707

  18. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  19. Eye movement abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L; Zaccara, G; Ramacciotti, A B; Arnetoli, G

    1998-03-20

    The aim of the present study is to investigate smooth pursuit eye movement and saccadic performance in anorexia nervosa during a restored weight period and to determine if functional links can be made between eye movement performance and clinical features. SPEM parameters were recorded for 28 female anorectic out-patients (DSM IV), who had a body weight loss of up to 20% of ideal body weight. Twenty-eight comparison subjects were also tested. Clinically, each patient was assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Structured Interview for Personality Disorders (SCID II), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Hamilton Scale for Depression (HRSD). The anorectic patients performed slightly worse than the comparison subjects on a number of SPEM measures. No relationship was found between SPEM impairment and a global severity index of psychopathology (SCL 90-R GSI) or depressive symptoms. Moreover, OCD symptoms and scores on some EDI scales (such as perfectionism) appear related to the severity of the eye movement alterations. The evidence of SPEM abnormalities in a subgroup of anorectic patients during the remitted state and the relationship of the abnormalities to obsessive-compulsive symptoms are discussed. Results are in agreement with the hypothesis regarding the persistence of neurophysiological as well as psychopathological traits of disorder in anorectic patients. PMID:9579703

  20. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  1. [Classification and genetic abnormalities of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Ichiro; Iida, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells which develops through genetic aberrations, epigenetic changes and the bone marrow microenvironment interaction. Despite recent tremendous progress in treatments for MM, a complete cure remains elusive. Further development of more effective therapeutic strategies is needed. The International Staging System (ISS) reported in 2005 has been used widely as the most simple and powerful prognostic classification in MM, but genetic abnormalities affecting prognosis were not considered in this model. In the past decade, non-random chromosomal aberrations such as t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), amp1q21 and del17p have shown to be poor prognostic value, and moreover, recent progress in genome-wide deep sequencing studies has revealed novel mutations and intra-tumor subclonal heterogeneity which may explain clinical phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Here we review the current understanding of genetic abnormalities in MM for developing better prognostic classification and molecular targeted therapies leading to the stratified or personalized medicine. PMID:25626298

  2. Method and apparatus for guiding ablative therapy of abnormal biological electrical excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armoundas, Antonis A. (Inventor); Feldman, Andrew B. (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    This invention involves method and apparatus for guiding ablative therapy of abnormal biological electrical excitation. In particular, it is designed for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. In the method of this invention electrical signals are acquired from passive electrodes, and an inverse dipole method is used to identify the site of origin of an arrhytmia. The location of the tip of the ablation catheter is similarly localized from signals acquired from the passive electrodes while electrical energy is delivered to the tip of the catheter. The catheter tip is then guided to the site of origin of the arrhythmia, and ablative radio frequency energy is delivered to its tip to ablate the site.

  3. Rib suppression in chest radiographs to improve classification of textural abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogeweg, Laurens E.; Mol, Christian; de Jong, Pim A.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2010-03-01

    The computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of abnormalities on chest radiographs is difficult due to the presence of overlapping normal anatomy. Suppression of the normal anatomy is expected to improve performance of a CAD system, but such a method has not yet been applied to the computer detection of interstitial abnormalities such as occur in tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of rib suppression on a CAD system for TB. Profiles of pixel intensities sampled perpendicular to segmented ribs were used to create a local PCA-based shape model of the rib. The model was normalized to the local background intensity and corrected for gradients perpendicular to the rib. Subsequently rib suppressed images were created by subtracting the models for each rib from the original image. The effect of rib suppression was evaluated using a CAD system for TB detection. Small square image patches were sampled randomly from 15 normal and 35 TB-affected images containing textural abnormalities. Abnormalities were outlined by a radiologist and were given a subtlety rating from 1 to 5. Features based on moments of intensity distributions of Gaussian derivative filtered images were extracted. A supervised learning approach was used to discriminate between normal and diseased image patches. The use of rib suppressed images increased the overall performance of the system, as measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, from 0.75 to 0.78. For the more subtly rated patches (rated 1-3) the performance increased from 0.62 to 0.70.

  4. Intensive Care, Intense Conflict: A Balanced Approach.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Erin Talati; Kolaitis, Irini N

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a child in a pediatric intensive care unit is emotionally and physically challenging and often leads to conflict. Skilled mediators may not always be available to aid in conflict resolution. Careproviders at all levels of training are responsible for managing difficult conversations with families and can often prevent escalation of conflict. Bioethics mediators have acknowledged the important contribution of mediation training in improving clinicians' skills in conflict management. Familiarizing careproviders with basic mediation techniques is an important step towards preventing escalation of conflict. While training in effective communication is crucial, a sense of fairness and justice that may only come with the introduction of a skilled, neutral third party is equally important. For intense conflict, we advocate for early recognition, comfort, and preparedness through training of clinicians in de-escalation and optimal communication, along with the use of more formally trained third-party mediators, as required. PMID:26752393

  5. Light intensity compressor

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  6. Light intensity compressor

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-02-06

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  7. White and Gray Matter Abnormalities in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Nocker, Michael; Gschliesser, Viola; Ehrmann, Laura; Niederreiter, Markus; Esterhammer, Regina; Seppi, Klaus; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The authors applied diffusion-tensor imaging including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), which is a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), which is a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, and voxel-based morphometry, which is a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Design: N/A. Patients: Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (n = 16) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 12) were studied. Interventions: Whole cerebral MD, FA measures, and the volumes of the gray and white matter compartments were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Measurement and Results: Significant MD increases and concomitant FA decreases were localized in the fronto-orbital cortex (P < 0.001) and the anterior cingulate (FA, P < 0.001; MD, P = 0.03) in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Additional MD increases without FA changes were detected in the ventral tegmental area, the dorsal raphe nuclei (P < 0.001), and the hypothalamus (P < 0.01). FA signal decreases were observed in the white matter tracts of the inferior frontal and inferior temporal cortices of narcolepsy-cataplexy patients (P < 0.001). Brain volume loss was evident in focal areas of the inferior and superior temporal cortices (P < 0.001) and the cingulate (P = 0.038). Conclusions: Areas of increased diffusivity in the hypothalamus appear consistent with hypocretinergic cell loss reported in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Signal abnormalities in the ventral tegmental area and the dorsal raphe nuclei correspond to major synaptic targets of hypocretin neurons that were associated with the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Brain tissue alterations identified in the frontal cortex and cingulate are crucial in the maintenance of attention and reward-dependent decision making, both known to be impaired in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Citation: Scherfler C; Frauscher B; Schocke M; Nocker M; Gschliesser V; Ehrmann L

  8. Abnormal subcellular localization of GABAA receptor subunits in schizophrenia brain.

    PubMed

    Mueller, T M; Remedies, C E; Haroutunian, V; Meador-Woodruff, J H

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory neurotransmission is primarily mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activating synaptic GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)R). In schizophrenia, presynaptic GABAergic signaling deficits are among the most replicated findings; however, postsynaptic GABAergic deficits are less well characterized. Our lab has previously demonstrated that although there is no difference in total protein expression of the α1-6, β1-3 or γ2 GABA(A)R subunits in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in schizophrenia, the α1, β1 and β2 GABA(A)R subunits are abnormally N-glycosylated. N-glycosylation is a posttranslational modification that has important functional roles in protein folding, multimer assembly and forward trafficking. To investigate the impact that altered N-glycosylation has on the assembly and trafficking of GABA(A)Rs in schizophrenia, this study used western blot analysis to measure the expression of α1, α2, β1, β2 and γ2 GABA(A)R subunits in subcellular fractions enriched for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and synapses (SYN) from STG of schizophrenia (N = 16) and comparison (N = 14) subjects and found evidence of abnormal localization of the β1 and β2 GABA(A)R subunits and subunit isoforms in schizophrenia. The β2 subunit is expressed as three isoforms at 52 kDa (β2(52 kDa)), 50 kDa (β2(50 kDa)) and 48 kDa (β2(48 kDa)). In the ER, we found increased total β2 GABA(A)R subunit (β2(ALL)) expression driven by increased β2(50 kDa), a decreased ratio of β(248 kDa):β2(ALL) and an increased ratio of β2(50 kDa):β2(48 kDa). Decreased ratios of β1:β2(ALL) and β1:β2(50 kDa) in both the ER and SYN fractions and an increased ratio of β2(52 kDa):β(248 kDa) at the synapse were also identified in schizophrenia. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that alterations of N-glycosylation may contribute to GABAergic signaling deficits in schizophrenia by disrupting the assembly and trafficking of GABA(A)Rs. PMID:26241350

  9. Abnormal subcellular localization of GABAA receptor subunits in schizophrenia brain

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, T M; Remedies, C E; Haroutunian, V; Meador-Woodruff, J H

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory neurotransmission is primarily mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activating synaptic GABA type A receptors (GABAAR). In schizophrenia, presynaptic GABAergic signaling deficits are among the most replicated findings; however, postsynaptic GABAergic deficits are less well characterized. Our lab has previously demonstrated that although there is no difference in total protein expression of the α1–6, β1–3 or γ2 GABAAR subunits in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in schizophrenia, the α1, β1 and β2 GABAAR subunits are abnormally N-glycosylated. N-glycosylation is a posttranslational modification that has important functional roles in protein folding, multimer assembly and forward trafficking. To investigate the impact that altered N-glycosylation has on the assembly and trafficking of GABAARs in schizophrenia, this study used western blot analysis to measure the expression of α1, α2, β1, β2 and γ2 GABAAR subunits in subcellular fractions enriched for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and synapses (SYN) from STG of schizophrenia (N=16) and comparison (N=14) subjects and found evidence of abnormal localization of the β1 and β2 GABAAR subunits and subunit isoforms in schizophrenia. The β2 subunit is expressed as three isoforms at 52 kDa (β252 kDa), 50 kDa (β250 kDa) and 48 kDa (β248 kDa). In the ER, we found increased total β2 GABAAR subunit (β2ALL) expression driven by increased β250 kDa, a decreased ratio of β248 kDa:β2ALL and an increased ratio of β250 kDa:β248 kDa. Decreased ratios of β1:β2ALL and β1:β250 kDa in both the ER and SYN fractions and an increased ratio of β252 kDa:β248 kDa at the synapse were also identified in schizophrenia. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that alterations of N-glycosylation may contribute to GABAergic signaling deficits in schizophrenia by disrupting the assembly and trafficking of GABAARs. PMID:26241350

  10. Using K-Nearest Neighbor Classification to Diagnose Abnormal Lung Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2015-01-01

    A reported 30% of people worldwide have abnormal lung sounds, including crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes. To date, the traditional stethoscope remains the most popular tool used by physicians to diagnose such abnormal lung sounds, however, many problems arise with the use of a stethoscope, including the effects of environmental noise, the inability to record and store lung sounds for follow-up or tracking, and the physician’s subjective diagnostic experience. This study has developed a digital stethoscope to help physicians overcome these problems when diagnosing abnormal lung sounds. In this digital system, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were used to extract the features of lung sounds, and then the K-means algorithm was used for feature clustering, to reduce the amount of data for computation. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor method was used to classify the lung sounds. The proposed system can also be used for home care: if the percentage of abnormal lung sound frames is > 30% of the whole test signal, the system can automatically warn the user to visit a physician for diagnosis. We also used bend sensors together with an amplification circuit, Bluetooth, and a microcontroller to implement a respiration detector. The respiratory signal extracted by the bend sensors can be transmitted to the computer via Bluetooth to calculate the respiratory cycle, for real-time assessment. If an abnormal status is detected, the device will warn the user automatically. Experimental results indicated that the error in respiratory cycles between measured and actual values was only 6.8%, illustrating the potential of our detector for home care applications. PMID:26053756

  11. Using K-Nearest Neighbor Classification to Diagnose Abnormal Lung Sounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2015-01-01

    A reported 30% of people worldwide have abnormal lung sounds, including crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes. To date, the traditional stethoscope remains the most popular tool used by physicians to diagnose such abnormal lung sounds, however, many problems arise with the use of a stethoscope, including the effects of environmental noise, the inability to record and store lung sounds for follow-up or tracking, and the physician's subjective diagnostic experience. This study has developed a digital stethoscope to help physicians overcome these problems when diagnosing abnormal lung sounds. In this digital system, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were used to extract the features of lung sounds, and then the K-means algorithm was used for feature clustering, to reduce the amount of data for computation. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor method was used to classify the lung sounds. The proposed system can also be used for home care: if the percentage of abnormal lung sound frames is > 30% of the whole test signal, the system can automatically warn the user to visit a physician for diagnosis. We also used bend sensors together with an amplification circuit, Bluetooth, and a microcontroller to implement a respiration detector. The respiratory signal extracted by the bend sensors can be transmitted to the computer via Bluetooth to calculate the respiratory cycle, for real-time assessment. If an abnormal status is detected, the device will warn the user automatically. Experimental results indicated that the error in respiratory cycles between measured and actual values was only 6.8%, illustrating the potential of our detector for home care applications. PMID:26053756

  12. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities. PMID:22439035

  14. What proportion of congenital abnormalities can be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, A E; Intôdy, Z; Modell, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the proportion of preventable congenital abnormalities in Hungary. DESIGN--Analysis of available Hungarian data-bases and of the effectiveness of primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive methods. SETTING--Databases of ad hoc epidemiological studies and of the Hungarian congenital abnormality registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence at birth and prevalence after prevention in 73 congenital abnormality types or groups. RESULTS--Preventive methods are available for 51 (70%) of the 73 congenital abnormality types or groups evaluated. The birth prevalence of all congenital abnormalities could be reduced from 65 to 26 per 1000; thus 39 per 1000 (60%) are preventable. Without congenital dislocation of the hip, which is unusually common in Hungary, the preventable proportion of congenital abnormalities is 52%. CONCLUSION--Many congenital abnormalities can be prevented, but as they do not represent a single pathological category there is no single strategy for their prevention. Images p502-a p503-a PMID:8448464

  15. Phosphoinositide signaling.

    PubMed

    Boss, Wendy F; Im, Yang Ju

    2012-01-01

    "All things flow and change…even in the stillest matter there is unseen flux and movement." Attributed to Heraclitus (530-470 BC), from The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant. Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher, was thinking on a much larger scale than molecular signaling; however, his visionary comments are an important reminder for those studying signaling today. Even in unstimulated cells, signaling pathways are in constant metabolic flux and provide basal signals that travel throughout the organism. In addition, negatively charged phospholipids, such as the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids, provide a circuit board of on/off switches for attracting or repelling proteins that define the membranes of the cell. This template of charged phospholipids is sensitive to discrete changes and metabolic fluxes-e.g., in pH and cations-which contribute to the oscillating signals in the cell. The inherent complexities of a constantly fluctuating system make understanding how plants integrate and process signals challenging. In this review we discuss one aspect of lipid signaling: the inositol family of negatively charged phospholipids and their functions as molecular sensors and regulators of metabolic flux in plants. PMID:22404474

  16. Accumulation of abnormal adult-generated hippocampal granule cells predicts seizure frequency and severity

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Michael S.; Danzer, Steve C.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of abnormally integrated, adult-born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGC) is hypothesized to contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). DGCs have long been implicated in TLE, as they regulate excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit neuroplastic changes during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, DGCs are unusual in that they are continually generated throughout life, with aberrant integration of new cells underlying the majority of restructuring in the dentate during epileptogenesis. While it is known that these abnormal networks promote abnormal neuronal firing and hyperexcitability, it has yet to be established whether they directly contribute to seizure generation. If abnormal DGCs do contribute, a reasonable prediction would be that the severity of epilepsy will be correlated with the number or load of abnormal DGCs. To test this prediction, we utilized a conditional, inducible transgenic mouse model to fate-map adult-generated DGCs. Mossy cell loss, also implicated in epileptogenesis, was assessed as well. Transgenic mice rendered epileptic using the pilocarpine-status epilepticus model of epilepsy were monitored 24/7 by video/EEG for four weeks to determine seizure frequency and severity. Positive correlations were found between seizure frequency and: 1) the percentage of hilar ectopic DGCs, 2) the amount of mossy fiber sprouting and 3) the extent of mossy cell death. In addition, mossy fiber sprouting and mossy cell death were correlated with seizure severity. These studies provide correlative evidence in support of the hypothesis that abnormal DGCs contribute to the development of TLE, and also support a role for mossy cell loss. PMID:23699504

  17. Aberrant Wnt Signaling in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Staal, Frank J T; Famili, Farbod; Garcia Perez, Laura; Pike-Overzet, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is essential in the development and homeostasis of blood and immune cells, but its exact role is still controversial and is the subject of intense research. The malignant counterpart of normal hematopoietic cells, leukemic (stem) cells, have hijacked the Wnt pathway for their self-renewal and proliferation. Here we review the multiple ways dysregulated Wnt signaling can contribute to leukemogenesis, both cell autonomously as well as by changes in the microenvironment. PMID:27571104

  18. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  19. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed Central

    Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B.; Avery, Gerard R.; Kastelik, Jack A.; Morjaria, Jaymin B.

    2013-01-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  20. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed

    Aslam, Imran; Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B; Avery, Gerard R; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

    2013-07-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  1. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  2. States of 13C with abnormal radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanova, A. S.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Danilov, A. N.; Goncharov, S. A.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Burtebaev, N.; Trzaska, W.; Heikkinen, P.; Tyurin, G. P.; Janseitov, D.; Gurov, Yu. B.

    2016-05-01

    Differential cross-sections of the elastic and inelastic 13C + α scattering were measured at E(α) = 90 MeV. The root mean-square radii() of 13C nucleus in the states: 8.86 (1/2-), 3.09 (1/2+) and 9.90 (3/2-) MeV were determined by the Modified diffraction model (MDM). The radii of the first two levels are enhanced compared to that of the ground state of 13C, confirming the suggestion that the 8.86 MeV state is an analogue of the Hoyle state in 12C and the 3.09 MeV state has a neutron halo. Some indications to the abnormally small size of the 9.90 MeV state were obtained.

  3. Abnormal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis in Drosophila Synaptogyrin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin J.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2012-01-01

    Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr) null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. PMID:23238721

  4. Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation Abnormalities in Adolescents with Online Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ping; Yang, Xuejuan; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; von Deneen, Karen M.; Yu, Dahua; Liu, Junyu; Liang, Jun; Cheng, Tingting; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and task-related functional abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (OGA). However, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies focused on the regional intensity of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) during the resting state and fewer studies investigated the relationship between the abnormal resting-state properties and the impaired cognitive control ability. In the present study, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in adolescents with OGA and healthy controls during resting-state. Eighteen adolescents with OGA and 18 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with OGA showed a significant increase in ALFF values in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the left precuneus, the left supplementary motor area (SMA), the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC). The abnormalities of these regions were also detected in previous addiction studies. More importantly, we found that ALFF values of the left medial OFC and left precuneus were positively correlated with the duration of OGA in adolescents with OGA. The ALFF values of the left medial OFC were also correlated with the color-word Stroop test performance. Our results suggested that the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of OGA. PMID:24223843

  5. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Jin, Chenwang; Cheng, Ping; Yang, Xuejuan; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yu, Dahua; Liu, Junyu; Liang, Jun; Cheng, Tingting; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and task-related functional abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (OGA). However, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies focused on the regional intensity of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) during the resting state and fewer studies investigated the relationship between the abnormal resting-state properties and the impaired cognitive control ability. In the present study, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in adolescents with OGA and healthy controls during resting-state. Eighteen adolescents with OGA and 18 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with OGA showed a significant increase in ALFF values in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the left precuneus, the left supplementary motor area (SMA), the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC). The abnormalities of these regions were also detected in previous addiction studies. More importantly, we found that ALFF values of the left medial OFC and left precuneus were positively correlated with the duration of OGA in adolescents with OGA. The ALFF values of the left medial OFC were also correlated with the color-word Stroop test performance. Our results suggested that the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of OGA. PMID:24223843

  6. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J.; Prior, David L.; MacIsaac, Andrew I.; Burns, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected PHT were studied. In addition to standard measurements, RV pressure was sampled with a high-fidelity micromanometer, and RV pressure/time curves were analyzed. Patients were divided into a PHT group and a non-PHT group on the basis of a derived mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 25 mmHg. Eleven patients were classified to the PHT group. This group had significantly higher RV minimum diastolic pressure ( vs. mmHg, ) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; vs. mmHg, ), and RV τ was significantly prolonged ( vs. ms, ). There were strong correlations between RV τ and RV minimum diastolic pressure (, ) and between RV τ and RVEDP (, ). There was a trend toward increased RV contractility (end-systolic elastance) in the PHT group ( vs. mmHg/mL, ) and a correlation between RV systolic pressure and first derivative of maximum pressure change (, ). Stroke volumes were similar. Invasive measures of RV early relaxation are abnormal in patients with PHT, whereas measured contractility is static or increasing, which suggests that diastolic dysfunction may precede systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, there is a strong association between measures of RV relaxation and RV filling pressures. PMID:26064464

  7. Protruding labia minora: abnormal or just uncool?

    PubMed

    Michala, Lina; Koliantzaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-09-01

    There is a wide variety in the appearance of normal female external genitalia. Nevertheless a specific prototype is promoted by the media, leading to a false sense that all other appearances are abnormal. As adolescents become sexually aware at an earlier age, most of them are worried about the appearance of their genitalia, especially when labia minora protrude beyond labia majora. This is a prospective audit of adolescents presenting for assessment of their perceived abnormal genitalia. Sixteen girls aged 10.2 to 17.8 years presented between June 2009 and December 2010 to a specialist adolescent gynecology service. Their mean labial width was 36 mm (range: 20-55 mm). In six girls, the reason for attending the service was inequality of the size of labia ranging between 6 mm and 35 mm (mean of 20 mm). Among the remaining 10 girls, the concern had arisen through comparison with a prepubescent sibling (one case), change of genitalia during puberty (four cases), looking at internet pictures (four cases), and looking at an anatomy book (one case). Risks of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS) have not been adequately documented, especially with regards to sexual function and long-term patient satisfaction. External genitalia are likely to change during puberty and therefore, any genital operation in the absence of clear pathology should be deferred until adulthood. Even then, women should have clear expectations of what will be achieved with the operation in terms of appearance and function. PMID:21696338

  8. Glucose abnormalities in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most important causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and has a tremendous impact on public health worldwide. HCV is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic. Replication of HCV in diseased extrahepatic organs and tissues may either trigger latent autoimmunity or induce autoimmune disorders. In addition to established liver injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important feature of extrahepatic metabolic disorders which is attributed to HCV infection. It also has some impact on the disease activity, disease course, clinical outcomes, and treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy. Previous experimental and clinical findings have highly suggested that HCV per se is diabetogenic. The cause-effect interaction between a common endocrine disorder and an infectious disease is an important issue to elucidate. Although the precise mechanisms whereby HCV infection leads to insulin resistance (IR) and glucose abnormalities are not entirely clear, it differs from the usual pathogenesis of T2DM in those with non-HCV liver diseases. This review initially highlights epidemiological and pathophysiological studies addressing the mutual link between chronic HCV infection (CHC) and T2DM. The characteristics of glucose abnormalities in this special population are depicted from the current evidence. The mutual roles of IR and CHC with respect to the prediction of treatment efficacy, how treatment response affects IR, and the role of pancreatic beta cell function in the entire suite are discussed. With the rapid progression of antiviral therapy for CHC in the past decade, we have also listed some points of future perspective in this issue. PMID:23347806

  9. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  10. [Renal abnormalities in HIV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Pernasetti, María Marta; Chiurchiu, Carlos; Fuente, Jorge de la; Arteaga, Javier de; Douthat, Walter; Bardosy, Cecilia; Zarate, Abel; Massari, Pablo U

    2010-01-01

    Several renal complications may occur during HIV infection, especially in advanced stages related to HIV, to other infectious agents and/or drugs. Little is known about the prevalence of renal diseases that may occur as a complication of or related to HIV infection in asymptomatic patients. This is a single center cross-sectional study of asymptomatic HIV(+) patients referred to a nefrology care service at an Argentine hospital to look for the presence of renal abnormalities. Fifty two consecutive patients were studied between April and November 2008. Patients underwent plasma and urine analysis, ultrasound, and kidney biopsy as needed. Mean age was 39.9 +/- 10.6 years, 88% were male, time from HIV diagnosis 53.2 +/- 41.2 months (2-127); 71% had HIV-disease and 77% were on antiretroviral therapy. Mean plasma HIV-RNA copies number was 7.043 +/- 3.322 and CD4+ cell count: 484 +/- 39. Pathologic findings in urine analysis were present in 30.7% of patients: albuminuria 16.6%, microscopic hematuria 11.5%, hypercalciuria 10.8% and crystalluria 6%. Mean glomerular filtration rate was 102.2 +/- 22.95 ml/min (34-149) and 41% of patients could be classified in stages 1 to 3 of chronic kidney disease. Renal abnormalities prevaled in older patients without relationship with presence of HIV-disease. Two patients were biopsied and the findings included: tubulointerstitial nephritis with presence of crystal deposition in one and IgA nephropathy in the other. No HIV-associated nephropathy was detected. The broad spectrum and the high prevalence of lesions found in this series suggest that asymptomatic HIV-infected patients should routinely undergo renal evaluation. PMID:20529774

  11. Intensity Biased PSP Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.; Amer, Tahani R.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The current pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique assumes a linear relationship (Stern-Volmer Equation) between intensity ratio (I(sub 0)/I) and pressure ratio (P/P(sub 0)) over a wide range of pressures (vacuum to ambient or higher). Although this may be valid for some PSPs, in most PSPs the relationship is nonlinear, particularly at low pressures (less than 0.2 psia when the oxygen level is low). This non-linearity can be attributed to variations in the oxygen quenching (de-activation) rates (which otherwise is assumed constant) at these pressures. Other studies suggest that some paints also have non-linear calibrations at high pressures; because of heterogeneous (non-uniform) oxygen diffusion and c quenching. Moreover, pressure sensitive paints require correction for the output intensity due to light intensity variation, paint coating variation, model dynamics, wind-off reference pressure variation, and temperature sensitivity. Therefore to minimize the measurement uncertainties due to these causes, an in- situ intensity correction method was developed. A non-oxygen quenched paint (which provides a constant intensity at all pressures, called non-pressure sensitive paint, NPSP) was used for the reference intensity (I(sub NPSP)) with respect to which all the PSP intensities (I) were measured. The results of this study show that in order to fully reap the benefits of this technique, a totally oxygen impermeable NPSP must be available.

  12. Intensity Biased PSP Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.; Amer, Tahani R.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The current pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique assumes a linear relationship (Stern-Volmer Equation) between intensity ratio (I(sub o)/I) and pressure ratio (P/P(sub o)) over a wide range of pressures (vacuum to ambient or higher). Although this may be valid for some PSPs, in most PSPs the relationship is nonlinear, particularly at low pressures (less than 0.2 psia when the oxygen level is low). This non-linearity can be attributed to variations in the oxygen quenching (de-activation) rates (which otherwise is assumed constant) at these pressures. Other studies suggest that some paints also have non-linear calibrations at high pressures; because of heterogeneous (non-uniform) oxygen diffusion and quenching. Moreover, pressure sensitive paints require correction for the output intensity due to light intensity variation, paint coating variation, model dynamics, wind-off reference pressure variation, and temperature sensitivity. Therefore to minimize the measurement uncertainties due to these causes, an insitu intensity correction method was developed. A non-oxygen quenched paint (which provides a constant intensity at all pressures, called non-pressure sensitive paint, NPSP) was used for the reference intensity (I(sub NPSP) with respect to which all the PSP intensities (I) were measured. The results of this study show that in order to fully reap the benefits of this technique, a totally oxygen impermeable NPSP must be available.

  13. Antioxidants, Redox Signaling, and Pathophysiology in Schizophrenia: An Integrative View

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Schizophrenia (SZ) is a brain disorder that has been intensively studied for over a century; yet, its etiology and multifactorial pathophysiology remain a puzzle. However, significant advances have been made in identifying numerous abnormalities in key biochemical systems. One among these is the antioxidant defense system (AODS) and redox signaling. This review summarizes the findings to date in human studies. The evidence can be broadly clustered into three major themes: perturbations in AODS, relationships between AODS alterations and other systems (i.e., membrane structure, immune function, and neurotransmission), and clinical implications. These domains of AODS have been examined in samples from both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Findings in patients with SZ include decreased nonenzymatic antioxidants, increased lipid peroxides and nitric oxides, and homeostatic imbalance of purine catabolism. Reductions of plasma antioxidant capacity are seen in patients with chronic illness as well as early in the course of SZ. Notably, these data indicate that many AODS alterations are independent of treatment effects. Moreover, there is burgeoning evidence indicating a link among oxidative stress, membrane defects, immune dysfunction, and multineurotransmitter pathologies in SZ. Finally, the body of evidence reviewed herein provides a theoretical rationale for the development of novel treatment approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2011–2035. PMID:21126177

  14. Abnormal aquaporin-3 protein expression in hyperproliferative skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kristen E; Bollag, Roni J; Fussell, Nicole; By, Charya; Sheehan, Daniel J; Bollag, Wendy B

    2011-10-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and psoriasis represent common hyperproliferative skin disorders, with approximately one million new NMSC diagnoses each year in the United States alone and a psoriasis prevalence of about 2% worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the glycerol channel, aquaporin-3 (AQP3) and the enzyme phospholipase D2 (PLD2) interact functionally in epidermal keratinocytes of the skin to inhibit their proliferation. However, others have suggested that AQP3 is pro-proliferative in keratinocytes and is upregulated in the NMSC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To evaluate the AQP3/PLD2 signaling module in skin diseases, we determined their levels in SCC, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and psoriasis as compared to normal epidermis. Skin biopsies with the appropriate diagnoses (10 normal, 5 SCC, 13 BCC and 10 plaque psoriasis samples) were obtained from the pathology archives and examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies recognizing AQP3 and PLD2. In normal epidermis AQP3, an integral membrane protein, was localized mainly to the plasma membrane and PLD2 to the cell periphery, particularly in suprabasal layers. In BCC, AQP3 and PLD2 levels were reduced as compared to the normal-appearing overlying epidermis. In SCC, AQP3 staining was "patchy," with areas of reduced AQP3 immunoreactivity exhibiting positivity for Ki67, a marker of proliferation. PLD2 staining was unchanged in SCC. In psoriasis, AQP3 staining was usually observed in the cytoplasm rather than in the membrane. Also, in the majority of psoriatic samples, PLD2 showed weak immunoreactivity or aberrant localization. These results suggest that abnormalities in the AQP3/PLD2 signaling module correlate with hyperproliferation in psoriasis and the NMSCs. PMID:21400035

  15. Abnormal hematopoiesis in Gab2 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Li, Geqiang; Wang, Zhengqi; Kang, Zizhen; Haviernikova, Eleonora; Rowe, Sara; Qu, Cheng-Kui; Tse, William; Shannon, Kevin M.

    2007-01-01

    Gab2 is an important adapter molecule for cytokine signaling. Despite its major role in signaling by receptors associated with hematopoiesis, the role of Gab2 in hematopoiesis has not been addressed. We report that despite normal numbers of peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cells, and c-Kit+Lin−Sca-1+ (KLS) cells, Gab2-deficient hematopoietic cells are deficient in cytokine responsiveness. Significant reductions in the number of colony-forming units in culture (CFU-C) in the presence of limiting cytokine concentrations were observed, and these defects could be completely corrected by retroviral complementation. In earlier hematopoiesis, Gab2-deficient KLS cells isolated in vitro responded poorly to hematopoietic growth factors, resulting in an up to 11-fold reduction in response to a cocktail of stem cell factor, flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Gab2-deficient c-Kit+Lin− cells also demonstrate impaired activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and S6 in response to IL-3, which supports defects in activating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) and mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Associated with the early defects in cytokine response, competitive transplantation of Gab2−/− bone marrow cells resulted in defective long-term multilineage repopulation. Therefore, we demonstrate that Gab2 adapter function is intrinsically required for hematopoietic cell response to early-acting cytokines, resulting in defective hematopoiesis in Gab2-deficient mice. PMID:17374739

  16. Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

  17. Abnormal copper metabolism in Menke's steely-hair syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lott, I T; Dipaolo, R; Raghavan, S S; Clopath, P; Milunsky, A; Robertson, W C; kanfer, J N

    1979-07-01

    Copper (Cu) metabolism was selectively studied in seven infants with Menke's steely-hair syndrome (SHS). A daily oral regimen of CuSO4 (584 microgram Cu/kg) and L-histidine (100 mg/kg) in three infants produced an increase in serum Cu concentrations ranging from 33-95% of normal, but without the formation of ceruloplasmin. Cohn serum protein fractionation after oral Cu/L-histidine loading showed a disproportionate accumulation of Cu in the albumin fraction (V). The electron spin resonance spectrum of fraction V showed a heightened signal for the SHS patients, suggesting that an increased concentration of a radical Cu species is present after oral loading. The Sephadex G-150 chromatographic profile of serum fraction V in SHS did not differ significantly from controls. These results suggest that, in SHS, Cu absorbed in the presence of L-histidine is in an abnormal complex involving albumin, which does not allow for holoceruloplasmin biosynthesis. Cu and ceruloplasmin concentrations in the cord blood specimen of an infant who went on to develop SHS were normal, a finding which may account for the transient period of seemingly normal development after birth in SHS patients. An almost 6-fold difference in mean Cu concentration was observed in SHS fibroblasts compared to controls. Fibroblast Cu concentration was elevated in one to two possible maternal heterozygotes, a finding which may permit diagnosis of the carrier state for some SHS heterozygotes. PMID:481958

  18. Signalling crosstalk in plants: emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane E; McAinsh, Martin R

    2004-01-01

    The Oxford English Dictionary defines crosstalk as 'unwanted transfer of signals between communication channels'. How does this definition relate to the way in which we view the organization and function of signalling pathways? Recent advances in the field of plant signalling have challenged the traditional view of a signalling transduction cascade as isolated linear pathways. Instead the picture emerging of the mechanisms by which plants transduce environmental signals is of the interaction between transduction chains. The manner in which these interactions occur (and indeed whether the transfer of these signals is 'unwanted' or beneficial) is currently the topic of intense research. PMID:14673021

  19. Exploring intense attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Skantzakis, E.; Maravelias, G.; Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.; Peralta Conde, A.; Tsakiris, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    After introducing the importance of non-linear processes in the extreme-ultra-violet (XUV) spectral regime to the attosecond (asec) pulse metrology and time domain applications, we present two successfully implemented techniques with excellent prospects in generating intense asec pulse trains and isolated asec pulses, respectively. For the generation of pulse trains two-color harmonic generation is exploited. The interferometric polarization gating technique appropriate for the generation of intense isolated asec pulses is discussed and compared to other relevant approaches.

  20. Antenatal diagnosis and management of urinary abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Colodny, A H

    1987-10-01

    Although much time, effort, and money have been expended in the area of fetal surgery and even though considerable unfortunate media publicity has resulted, the actual clinical problem is not one of great magnitude. Currently all those interested in this area agree that consideration of any intrauterine manipulation or surgery should be reserved for a fetus who has bilateral involvement that is progressive, destructive, and associated with oligohydramnios. Except for rare instances, this eliminates all fetuses except those with some type of urethral obstruction. Significant urethral obstruction accounts for approximately 10 per cent of all patients who have a prenatal diagnosis of a urologic abnormality. Of this 10 per cent, some will not be progressive, some will not be destructive, some will not involve both kidneys, and some will not develop oligohydramnios. Some of these patients will be diagnosed early enough in pregnancy to allow termination of the pregnancy if the involvement is significant and if termination is acceptable to the family. Some will be diagnosed late enough in pregnancy so that if the lungs are mature or can be stimulated to mature, early delivery and postnatal management can be elected. Some will have other associated lethal anomalies that can be diagnosed and would preclude any consideration of intrauterine manipulation or therapy. Some will have irreversible renal failure. Occasionally, the mother may refuse any proposed intrauterine therapy. Thus we are probably considering, on a theoretic basis, well under 1 per cent of all fetuses who have a prenatal diagnosis of urologic abnormalities. There may be some unusual situations that justify intrauterine manipulation. One that we encountered involved a fetus with an abdominal mass so large that a cesarean section was deemed necessary (Figs. 12 and 13). Aspiration of the mass just before delivery was performed to allow a vaginal delivery. Another case involved a pregnant woman who developed

  1. Functional Neuroimaging Abnormalities in Psychosis Spectrum Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Calkins, Monica E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Hopson, Ryan D.; Jackson, Chad; Prabhakaran, Karthik; Bilker, Warren B.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The continuum view of the psychosis spectrum (PS) implies that in population-based samples, PS symptoms should be associated with neural abnormalities similar to those found in help-seeking clinical-risk individuals and in schizophrenia. Functional neuroimaging has not previously been applied in large population-based PS samples, and can help understand the neural architecture of psychosis more broadly, and identify brain phenotypes beyond symptomatology that are associated with the extended psychosis phenotype. Objective To examine the categorical and dimensional relationships of PS symptoms to prefrontal hypoactivation during working memory and to amygdala hyperactivation during threat emotion processing. Design The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) is a genotyped prospectively accrued population-based sample of nearly 10,000 youths, who received a structured psychiatric evaluation and a computerized neurocognitive battery. A subsample of 1,445 subjects underwent neuroimaging including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks examined here. Setting The PNC is a collaboration between The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Participants Youths ages 11–22 years identified through structured interview as having psychosis-spectrum features (PS, n=260), and typically developing comparison subjects without significant psychopathology (TD, n=220). Main Outcomes and Measures Two fMRI paradigms were utilized, a fractal n-back working memory task probing executive system function, and an emotion identification task probing amygdala responses to threatening faces. Results In the n-back task, PS showed reduced activation in executive control circuitry, which correlated with cognitive deficits. During emotion identification, PS demonstrated elevated amygdala responses to threatening facial expressions, which correlated with positive symptom severity. Conclusions and Relevance The pattern of

  2. Congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities in patients with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Westcott, M A; Dynes, M C; Remer, E M; Donaldson, J S; Dias, L S

    1992-11-01

    This article presents a radiologic review of the spectrum of acquired and congenital orthopedic abnormalities found in patients with myelomeningocele. These abnormalities are caused predominantly by muscle imbalance, paralysis, and decreased sensation in the lower extremity. Iatrogenic injury, such as a postoperative tethered cord, may also cause bone abnormalities. Selected images were obtained from more than 800 children. Important entities presented include spinal curvatures such as kyphosis, scoliosis, and lordosis; subluxation and dislocation of the hip, coxa valga, contractures of the hip, and femoral torsion; knee deformities; rotational abnormalities of the lower extremity and external and internal torsion; ankle and foot abnormalities such as ankle valgus, calcaneus foot, congenital vertical talus (rocker-bottom deformity), and talipes equinovarus; and metaphyseal, diaphyseal, and physeal fractures. Familiarity with congenital abnormalities and an understanding of the pathogenesis of acquired disorders in patients with myelomeningocele are essential for proper radiologic interpretation and timely therapy. PMID:1439018

  3. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. PMID:19002453

  4. Relating multi-sequence longitudinal intensity profiles and clinical covariates in incident multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Shinohara, Russell T.; Dewey, Blake E.; Schindler, Matthew K.; Muschelli, John; Reich, Daniel S.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Eloyan, Ani

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions is a complex process involving inflammation, tissue damage, and tissue repair — all of which are visible on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and potentially modifiable by pharmacological therapy. In this paper, we introduce two statistical models for relating voxel-level, longitudinal, multi-sequence structural MRI intensities within MS lesions to clinical information and therapeutic interventions: (1) a principal component analysis (PCA) and regression model and (2) function-on-scalar regression models. To do so, we first characterize the post-lesion incidence repair process on longitudinal, multi-sequence structural MRI from 34 MS patients as voxel-level intensity profiles. For the PCA regression model, we perform PCA on the intensity profiles to develop a voxel-level biomarker for identifying slow and persistent, long-term intensity changes within lesion tissue voxels. The proposed biomarker's ability to identify such effects is validated by two experienced clinicians (a neuroradiologist and a neurologist). On a scale of 1 to 4, with 4 being the highest quality, the neuroradiologist gave the score on the first PC a median quality rating of 4 (95% CI: [4,4]), and the neurologist gave the score a median rating of 3 (95% CI: [3,3]). We then relate the biomarker to the clinical information in a mixed model framework. Treatment with disease-modifying therapies (p < 0.01), steroids (p < 0.01), and being closer to the boundary of abnormal signal intensity (p < 0.01) are all associated with return of a voxel to an intensity value closer to that of normal-appearing tissue. The function-on-scalar regression model allows for assessment of the post-incidence time points at which the covariates are associated with the profiles. In the function-on-scalar regression, both age and distance to the boundary were found to have a statistically significant association with the lesion intensities at some time point

  5. Gibberellin signaling.

    PubMed

    Hartweck, Lynn M

    2008-12-01

    This review covers recent advances in gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA signaling is now understood to hinge on DELLA proteins. DELLAs negatively regulate GA response by activating the promoters of several genes including Xerico, which upregulates the abscisic acid pathway which is antagonistic to GA. DELLAs also promote transcription of the GA receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1 (GID1) and indirectly regulate GA biosynthesis genes enhancing GA responsiveness and feedback control. A structural analysis of GID1 provides a model for understanding GA signaling. GA binds within a pocket of GID1, changes GID1 conformation and increases the affinity of GID1 for DELLA proteins. GA/GID1/DELLA has increased affinity for an F-Box protein and DELLAs are subsequently degraded via the proteasome. Therefore, GA induces growth through degradation of the DELLAs. The binding of DELLA proteins to three of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) proteins integrates light and GA signaling pathways. This binding prevents PIFs 3, 4, and 5 from functioning as positive transcriptional regulators of growth in the dark. Since PIFs are degraded in light, these PIFs can only function in the combined absence of light and presence of GA. New analyses suggest that GA signaling evolved at the same time or just after the plant vascular system and before plants acquired the capacity for seed reproduction. An analysis of sequences cloned from Physcomitrella suggests that GID1 and DELLAs were the first to evolve but did not initially interact. The more recently diverging spike moss Selaginella has all the genes required for GA biosynthesis and signaling, but the role of GA response in Selaginella physiology remains a mystery. PMID:18936962

  6. Normal and abnormal coding of painful sensations

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Steven A; Ma, Qiufu; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Noxious stimuli cause pain and pain arises from noxious stimuli… usually. Exceptions to these apparent truisms are the basis for clinically important problems and provide valuable insight into the neural code for pain. In this Perspective, we will discuss how painful sensations are encoded. We will argue that although primary somatosensory afferents are specialized (i.e. tuned to specific stimulus features), natural stimuli often activate >1 type of afferent. Manipulating co-activation patterns can alter perception, which argues against each type of afferent acting independently (as expected for strictly labeled lines) and suggests instead that signals conveyed by different types of afferents interact. Deciphering the central circuits that mediate those interactions is critical for explaining the generation and modulation of neural signals ultimately perceived as pain. The advent of genetic and optical dissection techniques promise to dramatically accelerate progress towards this goal, which will facilitate the rational design of future pain therapeutics. PMID:24473266

  7. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians’ Judgments Of Psychological Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person’s current behaviors? The appropriate role of life-event context in assessment has long been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny among clinical theorists, yet relatively little is known about clinicians’ own judgments in practice. We propose a proportionate-response hypothesis, such that judgments of abnormality are influenced by whether the behaviors are a disproportionate response to past events, rendering them difficult to understand or explain. We presented licensed, practicing clinical psychologists (N=77) with vignettes describing hypothetical people’s behaviors (disordered, mildly distressed, or unaffected) that had been preceded by either traumatic or mildly distressing events. Experts’ judgments of abnormality were strongly and systematically influenced by the degree of mismatch between the past event and current behaviors in strength and valence, such that the greater the mismatch, the more abnormal the person seemed. A separate, additional group of clinical psychologists (N=20) further confirmed that the greater the degree of mismatch, the greater the perceived difficulty in understanding the patient. These findings held true across clinicians of different theoretical orientations and in disorders for which these patterns of judgments ran contrary to formal recommendations in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). The rationality of these effects and implications for clinical decision science are discussed. PMID:22142425

  8. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  9. Screening for fetal and genetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L

    1991-09-01

    Screening for genetic abnormalities is an integral part of obstetrics. Prior to initiating screening, however, several prerequisites must be met: (i) capacity to alter clinical management, (ii) cost effectiveness, (iii) reliable means (usually assays) of assessment, and (iv) capacity to handle problems. In all pregnancies one should determine in systematic fashion whether family history places a pregnant woman at increased risk over the background risk of 2-3% congenital anomalies. All women over age 35 years at delivery should be offered prenatal cytogenetic testing, and women of all ages should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects. Screening ostensibly normal populations is appropriate in certain ethnic groups to determine heterozygosity for selected disorders: Blacks for sickle-cell anaemia, Mediterranean people for beta-thalassaemia, Southeast Asians and Filipinos for alpha-thalassaemia, Ashkenazi Jews and perhaps French-Canadians for Tay-Sachs disease. Cystic fibrosis screening (delta F508 mutations) is not currently recommended for the general populations, but should be offered to relatives of an individual having delta F508 cystic fibrosis. Irrespective of the extent of screening programmes for Mendelian traits, the mutant allele will remain in the general population because by far the greatest genetic load lies in clinically normal heterozygotes, affected contributing far less to the load despite the obvious clinical effect. PMID:1720071

  10. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  11. Update: consequences of abnormal fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Chernausek, Steven D

    2012-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is prevalent worldwide and affects children and adults in multiple ways. These include predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, persistent reduction in stature, and possibly changes in the pattern of puberty. A review of recent literature confirms that the metabolic effects of being born small for gestational age are evident in the very young, persist with age, and are amplified by adiposity. Furthermore, the pattern of growth in the first few years of life has a significant bearing on a person's later health, with those that show increasing weight gain being at the greatest risk for future metabolic dysfunction. Treatment with exogenous human GH is used to improve height in children who remain short after being small for gestational age at birth, but the response of individuals remains variable and difficult to predict. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic programming of IUGR children are just beginning to be explored. It appears that IUGR leads to widespread changes in DNA methylation and that specific "epigenetic signatures" for IUGR are likely to be found in various fetal tissues. The challenge is to link such alterations with modifications in gene expression and ultimately the metabolic abnormalities of adulthood, and it represents one of the frontiers for research in the field. PMID:22238390

  12. Automated Identification of Abnormal Adult EEGs

    PubMed Central

    López, S.; Suarez, G.; Jungreis, D.; Obeid, I.; Picone, J.

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of electroencephalograms (EEGs) is a process that is still dependent on the subjective analysis of the examiners. Though interrater agreement on critical events such as seizures is high, it is much lower on subtler events (e.g., when there are benign variants). The process used by an expert to interpret an EEG is quite subjective and hard to replicate by machine. The performance of machine learning technology is far from human performance. We have been developing an interpretation system, AutoEEG, with a goal of exceeding human performance on this task. In this work, we are focusing on one of the early decisions made in this process – whether an EEG is normal or abnormal. We explore two baseline classification algorithms: k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Random Forest Ensemble Learning (RF). A subset of the TUH EEG Corpus was used to evaluate performance. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data. kNN achieved a 41.8% detection error rate while RF achieved an error rate of 31.7%. These error rates are significantly lower than those obtained by random guessing based on priors (49.5%). The majority of the errors were related to misclassification of normal EEGs. PMID:27195311

  13. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The presence of brain dysfunction in violent offenders has been frequently examined with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to assess the EEG of 84 violent offenders by visual inspection and frequency-domain quantitative analysis in 84 violent prisoners. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was also employed for theta band of the EEG spectra. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was present in 50 of the offenders and it was absent in the remaining 34. The prevalence of EEG abnormalities, by visual inspection, was similar for both the ASPD group (82%) and non-ASPD group (79%). The brain topography of these anomalies also did not differ between groups, in contrast to results of the EEG quantitative analysis (QEEG) and LORETA that showed remarkable regional differences between both groups. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excess of theta-delta activities and decrease of alpha band on the right fronto-temporal and left temporo-parietal regions in the ASPD group. LORETA signified an increase of theta activity (5.08 Hz) in ASPD group relative to non-ASPD group within left temporal and parietal regions. Findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with ASPD, which was not obvious to visual inspection. PMID:22152445

  14. Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, A; Fombonne, E

    1998-09-01

    In order to identify factors associated with the early detection and referral of children with pervasive developmental disorders, a sample of 82 consecutive referrals to an outpatient diagnostic service was studied. All children were thoroughly assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), standardized psychological tests and direct observations. Data from the ADI on the first symptoms to arouse parental concern and on the first professional advice sought were analyzed. The mean age of children was 19.1 months (SD = 9.4) when the parents first became concerned, and the first professional advice was sought when children were 24.1 months old (SD = 11.7). The most common parental concerns were for speech and language development, followed by abnormal socio-emotional response, and medical problem or delay in milestone. In both bivariate and multiple regression analyses, the mean age of children at first parental concern and professional advice was significantly lower in the presence of mental retardation in the child, of an older sibling in the family, and of first parental concerns for medical problem/delay in milestone. More specific autistic behaviours, child's gender, social class and place of residence did not influence the age of recognition of the disorder in this sample. Health visitors and general practitioners were the first professionals contacted by parents. The implications of these findings for early detection and diagnosis of autism are discussed. PMID:9826299

  15. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  16. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  17. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = −0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  18. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  19. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  20. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  1. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior. PMID:16363987

  2. Abnormal reaction of 2,5-Dimethylfuran

    SciTech Connect

    Pevzner, L.M.; Ignat'ev, V.M.

    1987-09-20

    The authors have shown that the expected hydroxymethylation at position 3 of the furan ring does not occur in the reaction of 2,5-dimethylfuran with paraform in acetic acid at 70-80/sup 0/C with the dimethylfuran and paraform in molar ratios of 2:1-1:2, but the products from substitution in the side chain are formed. By vacuum distillation of the reaction mass the authors isolated 2-(5-methyl-2-furyl)- ethanol and a hygroscopic viscous product melting at 136/sup 0/C (5 mm Hg). The yield of the reaction products depends on the molar ratio of the dimethylfuran and paraform. The PMR spectrum of the product contains signals for the ..beta..-protons of the furan ring with chemical shifts of 5.81 and 5.90 ppm, a signal for the methyl group in the furan ring at 2.22 ppm, a doublet at 3.72 ppm with spin-spin coupling constant of 6 Hz, a weak quintet at 3.20 ppm with the same constant, and a broadened signal in the region of 4.66 ppm for the proton of the hydroxyl group.

  3. Intensive care alarm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  4. Respiration signals from photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lena M

    2013-10-01

    Pulse oximetry is based on the technique of photoplethysmography (PPG) wherein light transmitted through tissues is modulated by the pulse. In addition to variations in light modulation by the cardiac cycle, the PPG signal contains a respiratory modulation and variations associated with changing tissue blood volume of other origins. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and neural fluctuations in the PPG signal are of different frequencies and can all be characterized according to their sinusoidal components. PPG was described in 1937 to measure blood volume changes. The technique is today increasingly used, in part because of developments in semiconductor technology during recent decades that have resulted in considerable advances in PPG probe design. Artificial neural networks help to detect complex nonlinear relationships and are extensively used in electronic signal analysis, including PPG. Patient and/or probe-tissue movement artifacts are sources of signal interference. Physiologic variations such as vasoconstriction, a deep gasp, or yawn also affect the signal. Monitoring respiratory rates from PPG are often based on respiratory-induced intensity variations (RIIVs) contained in the baseline of the PPG signal. Qualitative RIIV signals may be used for monitoring purposes regardless of age, gender, anesthesia, and mode of ventilation. Detection of breaths in adult volunteers had a maximal error of 8%, and in infants the rates of overdetected and missed breaths using PPG were 1.5% and 2.7%, respectively. During central apnea, the rhythmic RIIV signals caused by variations in intrathoracic pressure disappear. PPG has been evaluated for detecting airway obstruction with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 85%. The RIIV and the pulse synchronous PPG waveform are sensitive for detecting hypovolemia. The respiratory synchronous variation of the PPG pulse amplitude is an accurate predictor of fluid responsiveness. Pleth variability index is a continuous measure of the

  5. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

  6. A simulation algorithm for ultrasound liver backscattered signals.

    PubMed

    Zatari, D; Botros, N; Dunn, F

    1995-11-01

    In this study, we present a simulation algorithm for the backscattered ultrasound signal from liver tissue. The algorithm simulates backscattered signals from normal liver and three different liver abnormalities. The performance of the algorithm has been tested by statistically comparing the simulated signals with corresponding signals obtained from a previous in vivo study. To verify that the simulated signals can be classified correctly we have applied a classification technique based on an artificial neural network. The acoustic features extracted from the spectrum over a 2.5 MHz bandwidth are the attenuation coefficient and the change of speed of sound with frequency (dispersion). Our results show that the algorithm performs satisfactorily. Further testing of the algorithm is conducted by the use of a data acquisition and analysis system designed by the authors, where several simulated signals are stored in memory chips and classified according to their abnormalities. PMID:8560631

  7. Diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities from compressed ECG: a data mining-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Usage of compressed ECG for fast and efficient telecardiology application is crucial, as ECG signals are enormously large in size. However, conventional ECG diagnosis algorithms require the compressed ECG packets to be decompressed before diagnosis can be performed. This added step of decompression before performing diagnosis for every ECG packet introduces unnecessary delay, which is undesirable for cardiovascular diseased (CVD) patients. In this paper, we are demonstrating an innovative technique that performs real-time classification of CVD. With the help of this real-time classification of CVD, the emergency personnel or the hospital can automatically be notified via SMS/MMS/e-mail when a life-threatening cardiac abnormality of the CVD affected patient is detected. Our proposed system initially uses data mining techniques, such as attribute selection (i.e., selects only a few features from the compressed ECG) and expectation maximization (EM)-based clustering. These data mining techniques running on a hospital server generate a set of constraints for representing each of the abnormalities. Then, the patient's mobile phone receives these set of constraints and employs a rule-based system that can identify each of abnormal beats in real time. Our experimentation results on 50 MIT-BIH ECG entries reveal that the proposed approach can successfully detect cardiac abnormalities (e.g., ventricular flutter/fibrillation, premature ventricular contraction, atrial fibrillation, etc.) with 97% accuracy on average. This innovative data mining technique on compressed ECG packets enables faster identification of cardiac abnormality directly from the compressed ECG, helping to build an efficient telecardiology diagnosis system. PMID:21097383

  8. Abnormal visual experience during development alters the early stages of visual-tactile integration.

    PubMed

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Chin, Jessica; Wolfe, Paul J; Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2016-05-01

    Visual experience during the critical periods in early postnatal life is necessary for the normal development of the visual system. Disruption of visual input during this period results in amblyopia, which is associated with reduced activation of the striate and extrastriate cortices. It is well known that visual input converges with other sensory signals and exerts a significant influence on cortical processing in multiple association areas. Recent work in healthy adults has also shown that task-relevant visual input can modulate neural excitability at very early stages of information processing in the primary somatosensory cortex. Here we used electroencephalography to investigate visual-tactile interactions in adults with abnormal binocular vision due to amblyopia and strabismus. Results showed three main findings. First, in comparison to a visually normal control group, participants with abnormal vision had a significantly lower amplitude of the P50 somatosensory event related potential (ERP) when visual and tactile stimuli were presented concurrently. Second, the amplitude of the P100 somatosensory ERP was significantly greater in participants with abnormal vision. These results indicate that task relevant visual input does not significantly influence the excitability of the primary somatosensory cortex, instead, the excitability of the secondary somatosensory cortex is increased. Third, participants with abnormal vision had a higher amplitude of the P1 visual ERP when a tactile stimulus was presented concurrently. Importantly, these results were not modulated by viewing condition, which indicates that the impact of amblyopia on crossmodal interactions is not simply related to the reduced visual acuity as it was evident when viewing with the unaffected eye and binocularly. These results indicate that the consequences of abnormal visual experience on neurophysiological processing extend beyond the primary and secondary visual areas to other modality

  9. Retinoic acid signaling regulates sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein signalings during genital tubercle development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqing; Suzuki, Kentaro; Nakagata, Naomi; Mihara, Kenichiro; Matsumaru, Daisuke; Ogino, Yukiko; Yashiro, Kenta; Hamada, Hiroshi; Liu, Zhonghua; Evans, Sylvia M; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Yamada, Gen

    2012-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays pivotal roles in organogenesis, and both excessive and reduced amounts of RA cause developmental abnormalities. Reproductive organs are susceptible to teratogen toxigenicity, and the genital tubercle (GT) is one such representative organ. The physiological function of endogenous RA signaling and the mechanisms of RA-induced teratogenicity are poorly understood during the GT development. The objective of this study is to understand the developmental and teratogenic roles of RA during GT development by analyzing genetically modified mouse models. We found dynamic patterns of gene expression for the RA-synthesizing enzyme, Raldh2, and for the RA-catabolizing enzyme, Cyp26b1, during GT development. Rarb, an indicator gene for RA signaling, starts its expression in the prospective corpus cavernosum penis and in the urethral plate epithelium (UE), which plays central roles during GT development. Excessive RA signaling in Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants leads to abnormal extents of cell proliferation and differentiation during GT development, and also upregulates expression of growth factor signalings. They include Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling, which are expressed in the UE and its bilateral mesenchyme. RA signaling positively regulatesShh and Bmp4 expression during GT development as testified also by the experiment of RA administration and analyses of loss-of-function of RA signaling mutants. Thus, RA signaling is involved in the developmental cascade necessary for UE formation and GT development. PMID:22127979

  10. Detection of Cardiac Abnormalities from Multilead ECG using Multiscale Phase Alternation Features.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, R K; Dandapat, S

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac activities such as the depolarization and the relaxation of atria and ventricles are observed in electrocardiogram (ECG). The changes in the morphological features of ECG are the symptoms of particular heart pathology. It is a cumbersome task for medical experts to visually identify any subtle changes in the morphological features during 24 hours of ECG recording. Therefore, the automated analysis of ECG signal is a need for accurate detection of cardiac abnormalities. In this paper, a novel method for automated detection of cardiac abnormalities from multilead ECG is proposed. The method uses multiscale phase alternation (PA) features of multilead ECG and two classifiers, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and fuzzy KNN for classification of bundle branch block (BBB), myocardial infarction (MI), heart muscle defect (HMD) and healthy control (HC). The dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is used to decompose the ECG signal of each lead into complex wavelet coefficients at different scales. The phase of the complex wavelet coefficients is computed and the PA values at each wavelet scale are used as features for detection and classification of cardiac abnormalities. A publicly available multilead ECG database (PTB database) is used for testing of the proposed method. The experimental results show that, the proposed multiscale PA features and the fuzzy KNN classifier have better performance for detection of cardiac abnormalities with sensitivity values of 78.12 %, 80.90 % and 94.31 % for BBB, HMD and MI classes. The sensitivity value of proposed method for MI class is compared with the state-of-art techniques from multilead ECG. PMID:27118009

  11. High intensity hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.

  12. Executive function abnormalities in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by persistent and maladaptive gambling behaviors with disruptive consequences for familial, occupational and social functions. The pathophysiology of PG is still unclear, but it is hypothesized that it might include environmental factors coupled with a genetic vulnerability and dysfunctions of different neurotransmitters and selected brain areas. Our study aimed to evaluate a group of patients suffering from PG by means of some neuropsychological tests in order to explore the brain areas related to the disorder. Methods Twenty outpatients (15 men, 5 women), with a diagnosis of PG according to DSM-IV criteria, were included in the study and evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Wechsler Memory Scale revised (WMS-R) and the Verbal Associative Fluency Test (FAS). The results obtained in the patients were compared with normative values of matched healthy control subjects. Results The PG patients showed alterations at the WCST only, in particular they had a great difficulty in finding alternative methods of problem-solving and showed a decrease, rather than an increase, in efficiency, as they progressed through the consecutive phases of the test. The mean scores of the other tests were within the normal range. Conclusion Our findings showed that patients affected by PG, in spite of normal intellectual, linguistic and visual-spatial abilities, had abnormalities emerging from the WCST, in particular they could not learn from their mistakes and look for alternative solutions. Our results would seem to confirm an altered functioning of the prefrontal areas which might provoke a sort of cognitive "rigidity" that might predispose to the development of impulsive and/or compulsive behaviors, such as those typical of PG. PMID:18371193

  13. Myocardial bioenergetic abnormalities in experimental uremia

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758

  14. Abnormal fucosylation of ileal mucus in cystic fibrosis: I. A histochemical study using peroxidase labelled lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Thiru, S; Devereux, G; King, A

    1990-01-01

    Peroxidase conjugated lectins were used to analyse the glycoproteins of small intestinal mucins in normal infants and those with cystic fibrosis to ascertain whether there are any detectable histochemical differences in saccharide composition. A significant decrease in Lotus tetragonolobus (LTG) binding fucose was shown in normal small intestinal mucin starting around 36 weeks' gestation with total absence of staining at term and beyond. In contrast, the age matched patients with cystic fibrosis showed persistent and intense LTG binding of fucose. These results provide the first clear histochemical evidence that cystic fibrosis mucin is abnormal and confirm the findings of previous biochemical studies. Images PMID:2266173

  15. Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaji, Masahiro; Valentin, Francisco I.; Artoun, Narbeh; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Sohal, Manohar; Schultz, Richard; McEligot, Donald M.

    2015-12-21

    The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.

  16. Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aanei, Carmen Mariana; Eloae, Florin Zugun; Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Carasevici, Eugen; Guyotat, Denis; Campos, Lydia

    2011-11-01

    Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

  17. Methods for identifying subject-specific abnormalities in neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrew R; Bedrick, Edward J; Ling, Josef M; Toulouse, Trent; Dodd, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Algorithms that are capable of capturing subject-specific abnormalities (SSA) in neuroimaging data have long been an area of focus for diverse neuropsychiatric conditions such as multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and traumatic brain injury. Several algorithms have been proposed that define SSA in patients (i.e., comparison group) relative to image intensity levels derived from healthy controls (HC) (i.e., reference group) based on extreme values. However, the assumptions underlying these approaches have not always been fully validated, and may be dependent on the statistical distributions of the transformed data. The current study evaluated variations of two commonly used techniques ("pothole" method and standardization with an independent reference group) for identifying SSA using simulated data (derived from normal, t and chi-square distributions) and fractional anisotropy maps derived from 50 HC. Results indicated substantial group-wise bias in the estimation of extreme data points using the pothole method, with the degree of bias being inversely related to sample size. Statistical theory was utilized to develop a distribution-corrected z-score (DisCo-Z) threshold, with additional simulations demonstrating elimination of the bias and a more consistent estimation of extremes based on expected distributional properties. Data from previously published studies examining SSA in mild traumatic brain injury were then re-analyzed using the DisCo-Z method, with results confirming the evidence of group-wise bias. We conclude that the benefits of identifying SSA in neuropsychiatric research are substantial, but that proposed SSA approaches require careful implementation under the different distributional properties that characterize neuroimaging data. PMID:24931496

  18. MR imaging and spectroscopy of the basal ganglia in chronic liver disease: correlation of T1-weighted contrast measurements with abnormalities in proton and phosphorus-31 MR spectra.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, S D; Sargentoni, J; Oatridge, A; Bryant, D J; Hajnal, J V; Marcus, C D; Seery, J P; Hodgson, H J; deSouza, N M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the hyperintensity in the globus pallidus seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in chronic liver disease with changes in metabolite ratios measured from both proton and phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) localised to the basal ganglia. T1-weighted spin echo (T1WSE) images were obtained in 21 patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis (nine Child's grade A, eight Child's grade B and four Child's grade C). Four subjects showed no evidence of neuropsychiatric impairment on clinical, psychometric and electrophysiological testing, four showed evidence of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy and 13 had overt hepatic encephalopathy. Signal intensities of the globus pallidus and adjacent brain parenchyma were measured and contrast calculated, which correlated with the severity of the underlying liver disease, when graded according to the Pugh's score (p < 0.05). Proton MRS of the basal ganglia was performed in 12 patients and 14 healthy volunteers. Peak area ratios of choline (Cho), glutamine and glutamate (Glx) and N-acetylaspartate relative to creatine (Cr) were measured. Significant reductions in mean Cho/Cr and elevations in mean Glx/Cr ratios were observed in the patient population. Phosphorus-31 MRS of the basal ganglia was performed in the remaining nine patients and in 15 healthy volunteers. Peak area ratios of phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic phosphate, phosphodiesters (PDE) and phosphocreatine relative to beta ATP (ATP) were then measured. Mean values of PME/ATP and PDE/ATP were significantly lower in the patient population. No correlation was found between the T1WSE MRI contrast measurements of the globus pallidus and the abnormalities in the metabolite ratios measured from either proton or phosphorus-31 MR spectra. Our results suggest that pallidal hyperintensity seen on T1WSE MR imaging of patients with chronic liver disease is not related to the functional abnormalities of the

  19. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  20. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  1. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormality: A Cause of Birth Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumridge, Diane

    Intended for parents and professionals, the book explains chromosome abnormalities in lay terms and discusses the relationship of specific conditions to birth defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are defined and factors in diagnosis and recurrence are discussed. Normal chromosome reproduction processes are covered while such numerical abnormalities…

  2. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  3. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  4. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Cancer.gov

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  5. Learning and Intensive Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Dennis R.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the results of an intensive two-week economics institute conducted at Emory University in 1978 to help high school classroom teachers comply with a mandate that all students must take a course in principles of economics, business, and free enterprise. (DB)

  6. Integrin endosomal signalling suppresses anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Alanko, Jonna; Mai, Anja; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Schauer, Kristine; Kaukonen, Riina; Saari, Markku; Goud, Bruno; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrin containing focal adhesions (FAs) transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane to modulate cell adhesion, signalling and survival. Although integrins are known to undergo continuous endo/exocytic traffic, potential impact of endocytic traffic on integrin-induced signals is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that integrin signalling is not restricted to cell-ECM adhesions and identify an endosomal signalling platform that supports integrin signalling away from the plasma membrane. We show that active focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an established marker of integrin-ECM downstream signalling, localises with active integrins on endosomes. Integrin endocytosis positively regulates adhesion-induced FAK activation, which is early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) and small GTPase Rab21 dependent. FAK binds directly to purified endosomes and becomes activated on them, suggesting a role for endocytosis in enhancing distinct integrin downstream signalling events. Finally, endosomal integrin signalling contributes to cancer-related processes such as anoikis resistance, anchorage-independence and metastasis. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors functioning as integrators of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) driven cues, the cellular cytoskeleton and the cellular signalling apparatus 1.Upon adhesion, integrins trigger the formation of plasma-membrane proximal large mechanosensing and signal-transmitting protein clusters depicted as “adhesomes” 2, 3. In addition, integrins undergo constant endocytic traffic to facilitate focal adhesion turnover, cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis 4. For other receptor systems it is well established that endocytic membrane traffic regulates bioavailability of cell-surface molecules and therefore the intensity and/or specificity of receptor-initiated signals 5, 6. Although active integrins and their ligands have been detected in endosomes 7–9 and increased integrin recycling to the plasma membrane contributes

  7. Detection of dominant flow and abnormal events in surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sooyeong; Byun, Hyeran

    2011-02-01

    We propose an algorithm for abnormal event detection in surveillance video. The proposed algorithm is based on a semi-unsupervised learning method, a kind of feature-based approach so that it does not detect the moving object individually. The proposed algorithm identifies dominant flow without individual object tracking using a latent Dirichlet allocation model in crowded environments. It can also automatically detect and localize an abnormally moving object in real-life video. The performance tests are taken with several real-life databases, and their results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect abnormally moving objects in real time. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any situation in which abnormal directions or abnormal speeds are detected regardless of direction.

  8. Cancer stem cell signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Matsui, William H

    2016-09-01

    Tissue development and homeostasis are governed by the actions of stem cells. Multipotent cells are capable of self-renewal during the course of one's lifetime. The accurate and appropriate regulation of stem cell functions is absolutely critical for normal biological activity. Several key developmental or signaling pathways have been shown to play essential roles in this regulatory capacity. Specifically, the Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, Hedgehog, Wnt, Notch, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/phosphatase and tensin homolog, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways have all been shown experimentally to mediate various stem cell properties, such as self-renewal, cell fate decisions, survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Unsurprisingly, many of these crucial signaling pathways are dysregulated in cancer. Growing evidence suggests that overactive or abnormal signaling within and among these pathways may contribute to the survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are a relatively rare population of cancer cells capable of self-renewal, differentiation, and generation of serially transplantable heterogeneous tumors of several types of cancer. PMID:27611937

  9. Automatic detection system for cough sounds as a symptom of abnormal health condition.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung-Hwan; Hashimoto, Takeo; Hatano, Shigeko

    2009-07-01

    The problem of attending to the health of the aged who live alone has became an important issue in developed countries. One way of solving the problem is to check their health condition by a remote-monitoring technique and support them with well-timed treatment. The purpose of this study is to develop an automatic system that can monitor a health condition in real time using acoustical information and detect an abnormal symptom. In this study, cough sound was chosen as a representative acoustical symptom of abnormal health conditions. For the development of the system distinguishing a cough sound from other environmental sounds, a hybrid model was proposed that consists of an artificial neural network (ANN) model and a hidden Markov model (HMM). The ANN model used energy cepstral coefficients obtained by filter banks based on human auditory characteristics as input parameters representing a spectral feature of a sound signal. Subsequently, an output of this ANN model and a filtered envelope of the signal were used for making an input sequence for the HMM that deals with the temporal variation of the sound signal. Compared with the conventional HMM using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, the proposed hybrid model improved recognition rates on low SNR from 5 dB down to -10 dB. Finally, a preliminary prototype of the automatic detection system was simply illustrated. PMID:19273017

  10. Optical intensity interferometry through atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. K.; Chan, A. H.; Kurtsiefer, C.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrow-band spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photodiodes, the Solar g(2)(τ) signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of g(2)(τ) = 1.693 ± 0.003 from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement schemes with both large baselines and long integration times.

  11. Abnormal strain changes of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The tenth Five-Year Project of China Earthquake Administration installed about 40 YRY-4 type high-resolution borehole strainmeters over the mainland China in order to enhance its capability of earthquake-forecasting attempt. The strainmeters are installed in rocks at a depth around 40m and resolve strain changes to the order of 10-11. Measurements are sampled every minute. There are four gauges horizontally placed, 45-degree apart, in an YRY-4 strainmeter, whose measurements are denoted as Si (i=1, 2, 3, 4) in our study. The similarity of the two curves of S1 +S3 and S2 +S4 of Guza recordings gives sufficient credit to the data. Among the sites, Guza is located the nearest (about 140km), from the epicentral area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Even months before the earthquake, it had already been noticed at Guza that the initially smooth curves had become badly interfered from time to time by minor steps or unsymmetrical pulses with periods of minutes~hours. The interferences were dominantly compressional and mostly on the order of 10-9. They were not corresponding to weather changes. Other sites are at least 300km away and did not observe such anomalies. A comparison of the interferences with the long-term and coseismic changes shows a good consistence in the sense of strain variety among them, which suggests a tectonic cause of the abnormal signals. High-passed data show obvious relevance of the abnormal signals to the Wenchuan quake in time. They became stronger as the great event approached, reached the highest at the main shock and diminishing while aftershocks have been dying away. We put forth an Overrun Rate Analysis (ORA) to give out a quantitative description of the interferences. The high-passed interferences can be depicted as positive or negative big values overrunning the normal level. Overrun Rate of Numbers, denoted as Ron, is defined as the total number of overrun points in one day, and Overrun Rate of Strength Ros the daily sum of amplitudes of

  12. Sound intensity processing by the goldfish.

    PubMed

    Fay, R R

    1985-10-01

    Capacities of the goldfish for intensity discrimination were studied using classical respiratory conditioning and a staircase psychophysical procedure. Physiological studies on single saccular (auditory) nerve fibers under similar stimulus conditions helped characterize the dimensions of neural activity used in intensity discrimination. Incremental intensity difference limens (IDLs in dB) for 160-ms increments in continuous noise, 500-ms noise bursts, and 500-ms, 800-Hz tone bursts are 2 to 3 dB, are independent of overall level, and vary with signal duration according to a power function with a slope averaging - 0.33. Noise decrements are relatively poorly detected and the silent gap detection threshold is about 35 ms. The IDLs for increments and decrements in an 800-Hz continuous tone are about 0.13 dB, are independent of duration, and are level dependent. Unlike mammalian auditory nerve fibers, some goldfish saccular fibers show variation in recovery time to tonal increments and decrements, and adaptation to a zero rate. Unit responses to tone increments and decrements show rate effects generally in accord with previous observations on intracellular epsp's in goldfish saccular fibers. Neurophysiological correlates of psychophysical intensity discrimination data suggest the following: (1) noise gap detection may be based on spike rate increments which follow gap offset; (2) detection of increments and decrements in continuous tones may be determined by steep low-pass filtering in peripheral neural channels which enhance the effects of spectral "splatter" toward the lower frequencies; (3) IDLs for pulsed signals of different duration can be predicted from the slopes of rate-intensity functions and spike rate variability in individual auditory nerve fibers; and (4) at different sound pressure levels, different populations of peripheral fibers provide the information used in intensity discrimination. PMID:4056222

  13. Connectome Signatures of Neurocognitive Abnormalities in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ajilore, Olusola; Vizueta, Nathalie; Walshaw, Patricia; Zhan, Liang; Leow, Alex; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Connectomics have allowed researchers to study integrative patterns of neural connectivity in humans. Yet, it is unclear how connectomics may elucidate structure-function relationships in bipolar I disorder (BPI). Expanding on our previous structural connectome study, here we used an overlapping sample with additional psychometric and fMRI data to relate structural connectome properties to both fMRI signals and cognitive performance. Methods 42 subjects completed a neuropsychological (NP) battery covering domains of processing speed, verbal memory, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. 32 subjects also had fMRI data performing a Go/NoGo task. Results Bipolar participants had lower NP performance across all domains, but only working memory reached statistical significance. In BPI participants, processing speed was significantly associated with both white matter integrity (WMI) in the corpus callosum and interhemispheric network integration. Mediation models further revealed that the relationship between interhemispheric integration and processing speed was mediated by WMI, and processing speed mediated the relationship between WMI and working memory. Bipolar subjects had significantly decreased BA47 activation during NoGo vs. Go. Significant predictors of BA47 fMRI activations during the Go/NoGo task were its nodal path length (left hemisphere) and its nodal clustering coefficient (right hemisphere). Conclusions This study suggests that structural connectome changes underlie abnormalities in fMRI activation and cognitive performance in euthymic BPI subjects. Results support that BA47 structural connectome changes may be a trait marker for BPI. Future studies are needed to determine if these “connectome signatures” may also confer a biological risk and/or serve as predictors of relapse. PMID:26228398

  14. Abnormal/Emergency Situations. Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Emergency and Abnormal Events on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Access 5 analyzed the differences between UAS and manned aircraft operations under five categories of abnormal or emergency situations: Link Failure, Lost Communications, Onboard System Failures, Control Station Failures and Abnormal Weather. These analyses were made from the vantage point of the impact that these operations have on the US air traffic control system, with recommendations for new policies and procedures included where appropriate.

  15. Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment.

    PubMed

    Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction. PMID:26441146

  16. Advancing precision cosmology with 21 cm intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley

    In this thesis we make progress toward establishing the observational method of 21 cm intensity mapping as a sensitive and efficient method for mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe. In Part I we undertake theoretical studies to better understand the potential of intensity mapping. This includes forecasting the ability of intensity mapping experiments to constrain alternative explanations to dark energy for the Universe's accelerated expansion. We also considered how 21 cm observations of the neutral gas in the early Universe (after recombination but before reionization) could be used to detect primordial gravity waves, thus providing a window into cosmological inflation. Finally we showed that scientifically interesting measurements could in principle be performed using intensity mapping in the near term, using existing telescopes in pilot surveys or prototypes for larger dedicated surveys. Part II describes observational efforts to perform some of the first measurements using 21 cm intensity mapping. We develop a general data analysis pipeline for analyzing intensity mapping data from single dish radio telescopes. We then apply the pipeline to observations using the Green Bank Telescope. By cross-correlating the intensity mapping survey with a traditional galaxy redshift survey we put a lower bound on the amplitude of the 21 cm signal. The auto-correlation provides an upper bound on the signal amplitude and we thus constrain the signal from both above and below. This pilot survey represents a pioneering effort in establishing 21 cm intensity mapping as a probe of the Universe.

  17. Clinical Utility of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Karen R.; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Yu, Alexander; Folsom, Matthew R.; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Rao, Pulivarthi H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Naeem, Rizwan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities is critical to assign patients to risk-based therapeutic regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Procedure We investigated the utility of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to standard clinical evaluation with karyotype and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Fifty pediatric ALL diagnostic bone marrows were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array, and findings compared to standard clinical evaluation. Results Sensitivity of aCGH was 79% to detect karyotypic findings other than balanced translocations, which cannot be detected by aCGH because they involve no copy number change. aCGH also missed abnormalities occurring in subclones constituting less than 25% of cells. aCGH detected 44 additional abnormalities undetected or misidentified by karyotype, 21 subsequently validated by FISH, including abnormalities in 4 of 10 cases with uninformative cytogenetics. aCGH detected concurrent terminal deletions of both 9p and 20q in three cases, in two of which the 20q deletion was undetected by karyotype. A narrow region of loss at 7p21 was detected in two cases. Conclusions An array with increased BAC density over regions important in ALL, combined with PCR for fusion products of balanced translocations, could minimize labor- and time-intensive cytogenetic assays and provide key prognostic information in the approximately 35% of cases with uninformative cytogenetics. PMID:18253961

  18. Automatic recognition of abnormal cells in cytological tests using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertych, A.; Galliano, G.; Bose, S.; Farkas, D. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic disease-related death worldwide, but is almost completely preventable with regular screening, for which cytological testing is a method of choice. Although such testing has radically lowered the death rate from cervical cancer, it is plagued by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Moreover, its effectiveness is still restricted because the recognition of shape and morphology of nuclei is compromised by overlapping and clumped cells. Multispectral imaging can aid enhanced morphological characterization of cytological specimens. Features including spectral intensity and texture, reflecting relevant morphological differences between normal and abnormal cells, can be derived from cytopathology images and utilized in a detection/classification scheme. Our automated processing of multispectral image cubes yields nuclear objects which are subjected to classification facilitated by a library of spectral signatures obtained from normal and abnormal cells, as marked by experts. Clumps are processed separately with reduced set of signatures. Implementation of this method yields high rate of successful detection and classification of nuclei into predefined malignant and premalignant types and correlates well with those obtained by an expert. Our multispectral approach may have an impact on the diagnostic workflow of cytological tests. Abnormal cells can be automatically highlighted and quantified, thus objectivity and performance of the reading can be improved in a way which is currently unavailable in clinical setting.

  19. Abnormality Detection via Iterative Deformable Registration and Basis-Pursuit Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Shinohara, Russell T; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-08-01

    We present a generic method for automatic detection of abnormal regions in medical images as deviations from a normative data base. The algorithm decomposes an image, or more broadly a function defined on the image grid, into the superposition of a normal part and a residual term. A statistical model is constructed with regional sparse learning to represent normative anatomical variations among a reference population (e.g., healthy controls), in conjunction with a Markov random field regularization that ensures mutual consistency of the regional learning among partially overlapping image blocks. The decomposition is performed in a principled way so that the normal part fits well with the learned normative model, while the residual term absorbs pathological patterns, which may then be detected through a statistical significance test. The decomposition is applied to multiple image features from an individual scan, detecting abnormalities using both intensity and shape information. We form an iterative scheme that interleaves abnormality detection with deformable registration, gradually improving robustness of the spatial normalization and precision of the detection. The algorithm is evaluated with simulated images and clinical data of brain lesions, and is shown to achieve robust deformable registration and localize pathological regions simultaneously. The algorithm is also applied on images from Alzheimer's disease patients to demonstrate the generality of the method. PMID:27046847

  20. Airborne lidar intensity calibration and application for land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Cheng; Luo, She-Zhou; Zuo, Zheng-Li

    2014-11-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology which can acquire the topographic information efficiently. It can record the accurate 3D coordinates of the targets and also the signal intensity (the amplitude of backscattered echoes) which represents reflectance characteristics of targets. The intensity data has been used in land use classification, vegetation fractional cover and leaf area index (LAI) estimation. Apart from the reflectance characteristics of the targets, the intensity data can also be influenced by many other factors, such as flying height, incident angle, atmospheric attenuation, laser pulse power and laser beam width. It is therefore necessary to calibrate intensity values before further applications. In this study, we analyze the factors affecting LiDAR intensity based on radar range equation firstly, and then applying the intensity calibration method, which includes the sensor-to-target distance and incident angle, to the laser intensity data over the study area. Finally the raw LiDAR intensity and normalized intensity data are used for land use classification along with LiDAR elevation data respectively. The results show that the classification accuracy from the normalized intensity data is higher than that from raw LiDAR intensity data and also indicate that the calibration of LiDAR intensity data is necessary in the application of land use classification.