Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal situations project

  1. The Challenge of Aviation Emergency and Abnormal Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Barshi, Immanuel; Dismukes, Key

    2005-01-01

    Emergency and abnormal situations occur on flights everyday around the world. They range from minor situations readily managed to extremely serious and highly time-critical situations that deeply challenge the skills of even the most effective crews. How well crews respond to these situations is a function of several interacting sets of issues: (1) the design of non-normal procedures and checklists, (2) design of aircraft systems and automation, (3) specific aspects of the non-normal situation, such as time criticality and complexity of the situation, (4) human performance capabilities and cognitive limitations under high workload and stress, (5) design of training for non-normal situations, (6) philosophies, policies and practices within the industry, and (7) economic and regulatory constraints. Researchers and pilots working on NASA's Emergency and Abnormal Situations project are addressing these issues in a long-range study. In this paper we discuss these issues and illustrate them with examples from recent incidents and accidents.

  2. Abnormal/Emergency Situations. Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Emergency and Abnormal Events on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Access 5 analyzed the differences between UAS and manned aircraft operations under five categories of abnormal or emergency situations: Link Failure, Lost Communications, Onboard System Failures, Control Station Failures and Abnormal Weather. These analyses were made from the vantage point of the impact that these operations have on the US air traffic control system, with recommendations for new policies and procedures included where appropriate.

  3. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  4. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

  5. [Empowerment of women in difficult life situations: the BIG project].

    PubMed

    Rütten, A; Röger, U; Abu-Omar, K; Frahsa, A

    2008-12-01

    BIG is a project for the promotion of physical activity among women in difficult life situations. Following the main health promotion principles of the WHO, the women shall be enabled or empowered to take control of determinants of their health. A comprehensive participatory approach was applied and women were included in planning, implementing and evaluating the project. For measuring the effects of BIG on the empowerment of participating women, qualitative semi-structured interviews with 15 women participating in BIG were conducted. For data analysis, qualitative content analysis was used. Results showed the empowerment of the women on the individual level as they gained different competencies and perceived self-efficacy. These effects were supported through the empowerment process on the organizational and community levels where women gained control over their life situations and over policies influencing them. Therefore, the participatory approach of BIG is a key success factor for empowerment promotion of women in difficult life situations.

  6. Stent for Life project: present situation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Göktekin, Ömer; Ertaş, Gökhan; Kervan, Ümit; Koç, Orhan; Kozan, Ömer

    2012-08-01

    The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction varies between European countries. The variations arise partly because of differences between countries in the primary percutaneous coronary intervention network system. The lack of an organised primary percutaneous coronary intervention network system in Turkey was the main reason for the low rate of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in Turkey. The Stent for Life project has increased the awareness of the importance of the prompt treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in our country. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention has emerged as the preferred reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in pilot cities after three years of Stent for Life project. In the present manuscript, we aim to summarise the current situation and the targets of the Stent for Life project in Turkey. PMID:22917785

  7. The "Support to Precursor Space Situational Awareness Services" (SPA) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, J. L.; Albani, S.; Gallardo, B.; Matute, J.; O'Dwyer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space activities are increasingly important in areas such as environment, science, navigation and security. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) refers to the knowledge of location and function of space objects and the space environment. The development of an SSA capability will allow the European Union (EU) and its Member States to better use space, strengthening their security and economy. The "Support to Precursor space situational Awareness services" (SPA) project is an FP7 Support Action managed by the European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC) under the full control of EU Member States and implemented with the collaboration of SSA Key Stakeholders. SPA is studying possible SSA Governance and Data Policy models in the EUSC secure environment by experimenting with a number of SSA preliminary services relevant to civilian security and to the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) such as Satellite Over-flight, Satellite Conjunction Warning and Space Re-entry Prediction. The final output of the SPA project will be a report providing recommendations for further development of SSA in Europe, particularly on the technical aspects of its Governance and Data Policy.

  8. Lithuanian women physicists: Current situation and involvement in gender projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkūnienė, Živilė; Kupliauskienė, Alicija

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the situation of women in physics since the last Lithuanian country report are discussed on the basis of available statistics. The overall percentage of women physicists in research is 28%. Results show that there is a noticeable increase in female scientists in most phases of the academic career progression except in the highest positions. The results also show a permanent change in the awareness of gender-related issues in research. We also discuss the initiatives taken by Lithuanian women scientists to change the situation during three last years and their outcomes.

  9. Industrially-Situated Project-Based Learning: A Study of Feedback and Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbuena, Debra M.

    The Virtual Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Process Development Project provides the context for the two areas of the research presented in this dissertation. The first area, generally referred to as feedback in this dissertation, focuses on student learning and the interactions of students and instructors that take place in the project, specifically focused on characterizing feedback and determining the influence of feedback as student teams progress towards completing the project. The characteristics of feedback found in this project are presented within a situative perspective using the analytical framework of episodes. The characteristics include: a list and categorization of episode themes, the structure and flow of episodes during the coaching session, the sub-structure present within individual episodes, and the types of feedback present. This dissertation shows how these characteristics frame participation in a community of practice and can be used as tools to scaffold instructor feedback in project-based learning. Episodes analysis is also used to investigate how feedback on professional skills can help to enculturate students into a community of practice and influence their fluency with professional skills and engagement in more technical activities. The second area examines the spread of this innovative project from its home institution to other institutions. In this area an analysis of the spread of the Virtual CVD Process Development Project in the high school setting is presented. The project was found to provide versatility for instructors and afford student learning in the areas of motivation, cognition, and epistemological beliefs. These two areas inform each other. As the project is assessed at different institutions, it is continually improved and the sensitivity of different aspects of the project is explored, e.g., the aspects of the project that are crucial to maintain effectiveness are identified. One of these aspects is the feedback that

  10. CONTEMPORARY SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS OF ROAD/BRIDGE MAINTENANCE TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROJECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimiya, Noriaki; Sanui, Kazumasa; Mizota, Yuzo

    It is widely acknowledged that roads are the most important transport infrastructure in developing countries. Unlike railroads requiring organizations and systems to operate, individuals can drive on roads. Almost all donors have assisted developing countr ies for new road constructions and rehabilitations. Report of insufficient maintenance in the developing countries, however, has been notable. As a result of the maintenance problems, deterioration of roads is pr ogressing with speed more than expected. It causes the traffic safety problems and an obstacle of economic development. JICA and other donors recognize that this situation can not be overlooked and reci pient countries are increasing their expectation of obtaining assistance on road/bridge maintenance. JICA has implemented over 10 technical cooper ation projects for road/b ridge maintenance in developing countries. JICA conducted a study to review those projects comprehensively. That study aims at obtaining problems, lessons learned and discussion material for policy making and method improvement for future similar pr ojects. This report introduces the outline of the study including additional analysis and recommendations by the authors.

  11. Recovery of the ipsilateral oculotectal projection following nerve crush in the frog: evidence that retinal afferents make synapses at abnormal tectal locations.

    PubMed

    Adamson, J; Burke, J; Grobstein, P

    1984-10-01

    The ipsilateral oculotectal projection in the frog is a topographic mapping of the binocular part of the visual field of one eye on the ipsilateral tectal lobe. The underlying neuronal circuitry consists of the topographic, crossed retinotectal projection and an intertectal pathway which relays information from a given point in one tectal lobe to the visually corresponding point in the other. During optic nerve regeneration, there is a period when the terminals of retinotectal afferents are found at abnormal locations in the opposite tectal lobe. Whether they form functional synapses at this time is not known. If so, one would expect to observe correlated abnormalities in the ipsilateral oculotectal projection. To determine whether such abnormalities exist, we have made parallel electrophysiological studies of the recovery of the retinotectal and ipsilateral oculotectal projections following crush of one optic nerve. The earliest stage of recovery was characterized by a lack of significant topographic order in the retinotectal projection and by the absence of a physiologically observable ipsilateral projection. Within a short time, the retinotectal projection became topographically organized and a similarly organized ipsilateral projection appeared. While topographic, the retinotectal projection at intermediate times was abnormal in that the multiunit receptive fields recorded at individual tectal loci were greatly enlarged. Multiunit receptive fields were similarly enlarged in the ipsilateral projection. In addition, some ipsilateral fields included areas of visual space not normally represented in the projection. The abnormalities in both projections subsequently disappeared over the same time course. Throughout recovery there was a high correlation between multiunit receptive field sizes in the contralateral tectal lobe and those at visually corresponding points in the ipsilateral tectal lobe. Enlarged multiunit receptive fields in the contralateral tectal lobe

  12. Human striatal recordings reveal abnormal discharge of projection neurons in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arun; Mewes, Klaus; Gross, Robert E; DeLong, Mahlon R; Obeso, José A; Papa, Stella M

    2016-08-23

    Circuitry models of Parkinson's disease (PD) are based on striatal dopamine loss and aberrant striatal inputs into the basal ganglia network. However, extrastriatal mechanisms have increasingly been the focus of attention, whereas the status of striatal discharges in the parkinsonian human brain remains conjectural. We now report the activity pattern of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) in patients with PD undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery, compared with patients with essential tremor (ET) and isolated dystonia (ID). The SPN activity in ET was very low (2.1 ± 0.1 Hz) and reminiscent of that found in normal animals. In contrast, SPNs in PD fired at much higher frequency (30.2 ± 1.2 Hz) and with abundant spike bursts. The difference between PD and ET was reproduced between 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated and normal nonhuman primates. The SPN activity was also increased in ID, but to a lower level compared with the hyperactivity observed in PD. These results provide direct evidence that the striatum contributes significantly altered signals to the network in patients with PD. PMID:27503874

  13. The LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" - Situation-based learning in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Van den Stock, Etienne; Nauerth, Annette

    2010-07-01

    E-learning will play an important role in the training portfolio of students in higher and vocational education. Within the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI action programme transnational pilot projects were funded by the European Union, which aimed to improve the usage and quality of e-learning tools in education and professional training. The overall aim of the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" was to create new didactical and technical e-learning tools for Europe-wide use in nursing education. Based on a new situation-oriented learning approach, nursing teachers enrolled in the project were instructed to adapt, develop and implement e- and blended learning units. According to the training contents nursing modules were developed by teachers from partner institutions, implemented in the project centers and evaluated by students. The user-package "e-learning-assistant" as a product of the project includes two teacher training units, the authoring tool "synapse" to create situation-based e-learning units, a student's learning platform containing blended learning modules in nursing and an open sourced web-based communication centre.

  14. Nuclear kinesis, neurite sprouting and abnormal axonal projections of cone photoreceptors in the aged and AMD-afflicted human retina.

    PubMed

    Pow, David V; Sullivan, Robert K P

    2007-05-01

    Tissues often respond to damage by recapitulating developmental programs. We have investigated whether anatomical signs of developmental recapitulation are evident in cone photoreceptors of the aged and AMD-afflicted human retina. Radial migration of cell nuclei mediated by microtubules is a characteristic feature of cells in the developing retina. Similarly, neurite outgrowth is a feature of developing neurons. We have examined whether nuclear kinesis and neurite outgrowth from cone photoreceptors is evident. Calbindin-positive cone photoreceptor nuclei are normally positioned as a single layer of somata at the outer border of the outer nuclear layer. In AMD-afflicted retinae, many nuclei are translocated, with some somata abutting the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and others outside the outer limiting membrane whilst many nuclei are present at intermediate levels. The axonal processes of many cones were also aberrant, displaying tortuous pathways as they projected to the OPL, with occasional evidence for bifurcation at points where the axon changed direction. We suggest that tangential extension of collateral neurites and the rapid retraction of the original process may give rise to the tortuous axonal projections observed. Since microtubules are key mediators of both neurite extension and nuclear kinesis we examined expression of microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) which is an important regulator of neurite extension. The strong expression of MAP2 observed in those cells with aberrant morphologies supports the notion that abnormal microtubule-mediated remodelling events are present in the AMD retina and to a lesser extent in normal aged retinas, allowing cone photoreceptors to recapitulate two key features of development.

  15. Experiential and Cooperative Learning: Using a Situation Analysis Project in Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Caroline; Huser, Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a semester-long experiential-learning project for introductory marketing students. The project requires an analysis of a product category, competition, and consumer base to support a new product proposal. The purpose is to (a) put into practice the concepts and definitions taught in an introductory marketing…

  16. Industrially-Situated Project-Based Learning: A Study of Feedback and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbuena, Debra M.

    2013-01-01

    The Virtual Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Process Development Project provides the context for the two areas of the research presented in this dissertation. The first area, generally referred to as feedback in this dissertation, focuses on student learning and the interactions of students and instructors that take place in the project,…

  17. Current Situation of the Educational Project on Disaster Prevention in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-P.; Chen, Y.-A.; Hsu, T.-H.

    2011-09-01

    The Taiwan government has invested much effort in developing and promoting disaster relief and prevention by following out many research projects after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. "Experiment and Development Project on Implementation and Introspection of Disaster Prevention Education" is one of the most important among these projects. This project includes five major areas such as, 1) "operation and supporting mechanism build-up"; 2) "curriculum development and popularization experiment"; 3) "teachers' training programs on disaster prevention education"; 4) "promotion and popularization of experiment and e-learning"; and 5) "establishment of evaluation system". Furthermore, The Ministry of Education has promoted actively for the participation of local government since 2007. Depending upon the requirements and characteristics of different areas, different projects are set up and some involved the teachers and students senior high schools and event under to participate. Through this project, most primary and secondary schools in Taiwan have participated the evacuation training during the large earthquake in the campus and have developed the disaster prevention project for their selves. These implementations are still of the early stage, most of the schools still lack experience and need to be more relevant for disaster prevention and relief exercises. In the future more executive powers and supports from the Ministry of Education and from the local government works will largely help the schools and general public at all levels to reduce the occurrence of disaster events on campus.

  18. Student Performance Requirements: Employment Situations. Continuation Education System Development Project. Technical Report 1.4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Leon; Dolan, Marylyn A.

    Over a four year period, the Continuation Education System Development Project will develop a practical instructional system capable of continuous identification and efficient response to the critical instructional needs of individual continuation high school students, or those who drop out or are pushed out, in La Puente, California. The first…

  19. Student Performance Requirements: Other Educational Situations. Continuation Education System Development Project. Technical Report 1.3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Leon; Dolan, Marylyn A.

    Over a four year period, the Continuation Education System Development Project will develop a practical instructional system capable of continuous identification and efficient response to the critical instructional needs of individual continuation high school students, or those who drop out or are pushed out, in La Puente, California. The first…

  20. Planning in context: A situated view of children's management of science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Susan Katharine

    This study investigated children's collaborative planning of a complex, long-term software design project. Using sociocultural methods, it examined over time the development of design teams' planning negotiations and tools to document the coconstruction of cultural frameworks to organize teams' shared understanding of what and how to plan. Results indicated that student teams developed frameworks to address a set of common planning functions that included design planning, project metaplanning (things such as division of labor or sharing of computer resources) and team collaboration management planning. There were also some between-team variations in planning frameworks, within a bandwidth of options. Teams engaged in opportunistic planning, which reflected shifts in strategies in response to new circumstances over time. Team members with past design project experience ("oldtimers") demonstrated the transfer of their planning framework to the current design task, and they supported the developing participation of "newcomers." Teams constructed physical tools (e.g. planning boards) that acted as visual representations of teams' planning frameworks, and inscriptions of team thinking. The assigned functions of the tools also shifted over time with changing project circumstances. The discussion reexamines current approaches to the study of planning and discusses their educational implications.

  1. An analysis of the situation and current trends in the management of construction projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, G.

    1994-12-31

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) there is a more to switch from reliance on rules to an expanded reliance on market forces, as evidenced by the facilities recharge program. This paper moves beyond the market/rule debate to argue that new approaches to project management are required. Managers at all levels in the LANL face contending demands as they are caught between immediate concerns and long term consequences, keeping track of the big picture and looking after the details. Management techniques appropriate for simple certain projects will be of limited value on complex uncertain projects built on tight schedules--no matter how market and rules are balanced in the larger organization. Thus the degree of complexity, uncertainty, and duration, should shape the choice of project management approaches. Single dimension simple buzz word solutions will do little good and may cause harm. This report reviews current situation and efforts underway to improve performance are reviewed. These efforts are shown to be useful but incomplete as significant improvement will both require altering and expanding how managers and the management system respond to contending demands.

  2. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  4. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  5. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  6. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  7. A Two-Year Participatory Intervention Project with Owners to Reduce Lameness and Limb Abnormalities in Working Horses in Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Reix, Christine E.; Dikshit, Amit K.; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M. A.; Banerjee, Anindo; Burn, Charlotte C.; Pritchard, Joy C.; Whay, Helen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Participatory methods are increasingly used in international human development, but scientific evaluation of their efficacy versus a control group is rare. Working horses support families in impoverished communities. Lameness and limb abnormalities are highly prevalent in these animals and a cause for welfare concern. We aimed to stimulate and evaluate improvements in lameness and limb abnormalities in horses whose owners took part in a 2-year participatory intervention project to reduce lameness (PI) versus a control group (C) in Jaipur, India. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 439 owners of 862 horses participated in the study. PI group owners from 21 communities were encouraged to meet regularly to discuss management and work practices influencing lameness and poor welfare and to track their own progress in improving these. Lameness examinations (41 parameters) were conducted at the start of the study (Baseline), and after 1 year and 2 years. Results were compared with control horses from a further 21 communities outside the intervention. Of the 149 horses assessed on all three occasions, PI horses showed significantly (P<0.05) greater improvement than C horses in 20 parameters, most notably overall lameness score, measures of sole pain and range of movement on limb flexion. Control horses showed slight but significantly greater improvements in four parameters, including frog quality in fore and hindlimbs. Conclusions/Significance This participatory intervention succeeded in improving lameness and some limb abnormalities in working horses, by encouraging changes in management and work practices which were feasible within owners’ socioeconomic and environmental constraints. Demonstration of the potentially sustainable improvements achieved here should encourage further development of participatory intervention approaches to benefit humans and animals in other contexts. PMID:25898014

  8. Use of an Authentic, Industrially Situated Virtual Laboratory Project to Address Engineering Design and Scientific Inquiry in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbuena, Debra M.; Kirsch, F. Adam; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended for engineering educators, high school curriculum designers, and high school teachers interested in integrating authentic, project-based learning experiences into their classes. These types of projects may appear complex, but have many advantages. We characterize the successful implementation of one such project, the…

  9. Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

  10. Toward Autonomy in Love and Work: Situating the Film "Yo, tambien" within the Political Project of Disability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This essay looks at the representation of disability in the recent Spanish film "Yo, tambien" through the lens of disability studies, understood as a political project. The film's portrayal of a character who is, like the actor who plays him, Europe's first university graduate with Down syndrome, is unique. Moreover, "Yo, tambien" provides the…

  11. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  12. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  13. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  14. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  19. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  2. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  3. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  4. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  5. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  6. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  7. Baseline health situation of communities affected by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao PDR and indicators for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, Tobias E; Sayasone, Somphou; Krieger, Gary R; Kaul, Surinder; Sananikhom, Pany; Tanner, Marcel; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jurg

    2008-06-01

    Hydroelectric projects offer opportunities for infrastructure development and economic growth; yet, if not well designed, implemented and operated, they have the potential to negatively affect the health and well-being of local and distant downstream communities. Remote rural populations are particularly vulnerable to the sudden influx of men, materials and money, and associated population mixing that accompany project construction phases. Two large-scale baseline health surveys, carried out in 2001/2002 in two communities that were affected by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao PDR, were analysed. For the population to be resettled on the Nakai plateau it was observed that access to clean water and basic sanitation facilities was lacking. Faecal examinations revealed a high infection prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (67.7%), but relatively low prevalences for hookworm (9.7%), Taenia spp. (4.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.4%), Trichuris trichiura (3.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.4%) and Opisthorchis viverrini (0.9%). For the population in the Xe Bang Fai downstream area, rapid diagnostic tests for malaria carried out in the rainy season found a prevalence below 1%, which might be explained by the complete coverage of households with insecticide-treated nets (99.8%). Anthropometric measurements in both populations suggest that wasting, stunting and underweight in under 5-year-old children were moderate to high; 15.9-17.5%, 40.4-55.7% and 35.8-55.7%, respectively. One out of six individuals aged above 14 years were malnourished, most likely as a result of early childhood wasting. Moderate anaemia, assessed by age- and sex-specific haemoglobin levels, was present in 43.8% (Nakai) and 54.9% of the individuals examined (Xe Bang Fai). Several indicators were extracted that can be utilised for monitoring changes in health, well-being and equity, as the project is implemented and operated.

  8. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  9. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  10. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  12. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  13. Toward autonomy in love and work: situating the film "Yo, también" within the political project of disability studies.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This essay looks at the representation of disability in the recent Spanish film "Yo, también" through the lens of disability studies, understood as a political project. The film's portrayal of a character who is, like the actor who plays him, Europe's first university graduate with Down syndrome, is unique. Moreover, "Yo, también" provides the opportunity to assess the state of the struggle for rights for persons with disabilities both in the film's narrative arc and also in the wider Spanish (and global) society. Among other sources, specific articles of the United Nations's recent Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities are incorporated into the essay. Both essay and film coincide in emphasizing the need to grant disabled populations greater autonomy in the spheres of love and work.

  14. [Current situation and the role of department of clinical laboratory medicine on the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for risk of thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki; Ohana, Noboru

    2013-12-01

    Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, large quantities of radionuclides have leaked from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant into the surrounding environment. Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project, including thyroid ultrasound examinations to screen for thyroid cancer, covering approximately 360,000 residents aged 0 to 18 years at the time of the nuclear accident. Doctors and medical technicians in the Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine of Fukushima Medical University Hospital are participating in this program as administrators, examiners, and instructors. In the first preliminary survey from October, 2011 to March, 2012 for residents in highly contaminated areas, A2 judgment, defined as cysts of < or = 20.0 mm or nodules < or = 5.0 mm in diameter, and B judgment, defined as cysts or nodules larger than A2 were found in 35.8% and 0.5%, respectively. In second preliminary survey until March, 2013, A2 and B judgments were identified in 44.6% and 0.7% of residents in intermediately contaminated areas. A secondary examination for young residents who were judged as B or C identified 28 cases of malignancy or suspected malignancy. The radiation dose, age at diagnosis, diameters and tissue characteristics of the thyroid cancer suggest that the thyroid cancer found in Fukushima had already occurred before the earthquake. Since this project should be continued for several decades, we would like to ask for your support and cooperation over the long term.

  15. Sizing Up the Situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  16. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  17. Tuberculosis situation among tribal population of Car Nicobar, India, 15 years after intensive tuberculosis control project and implementation of a national tuberculosis programme.

    PubMed Central

    Murhekar, M. V.; Kolappan, C.; Gopi, P. G.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Sehgal, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the tuberculosis (TB) situation in the tribal community of Car Nicobar island 15 years after the national TB programme was implemented in this area after an intensive phase of TB control in 1986. METHODS: The entire population of Car Nicobar was enumerated through a house-to-house survey. Children aged <14 years were tuberculin tested and read for reaction sizes. Individuals aged >15 years were asked about the presence of chest symptoms (cough, chest pain, and unexplained fever for two weeks or longer and haemoptysis), and sputum samples were collected from patients with chest symptoms. Sputum samples were examined for presence of acid-fast bacilli. FINDINGS: Among the 4,543 children enumerated, 4,351 (95.8%) were tuberculin tested and read. Of the 981 children without bacille Calmette-Guerin scars, 161 (16.4%) were infected with TB. A total of 77 cases who were smear-positive for TB were detected from among 10,570 people aged >15 years; the observed smear-positive case prevalence was 728.5 per 100,000. The standardized prevalence of TB infection, annual risk of TB infection, and prevalence of cases smear-positive for TB were 17.0%, 2.5%, and 735.3 per 100,000, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TB infection and smear-positive cases of TB increased significantly between 1986 and 2002. Such escalation took place despite the implementation of the national TB programme on this island, which was preceded by a set of special anti-TB measures that resulted in sputum conversion in a substantially large proportion of the smear-positive cases prevalent in the community. The most likely reason for the increase seems to be the absence of a district TB programme with enough efficiency to sustain the gains made from the one-time initial phase of special anti-TB measures. High risk of transmission of TB infection currently observed on this island calls for a drastic and sustained improvement in TB control measures. PMID:15640919

  18. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  19. [Good preconditions for a cooperation between physicians and psychosocial professionals in prenatal diagnostic counselling--empirical results referring to the initial situation of a model project].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Rita; Riehl-Emde, Astrid

    2007-02-01

    In a model project, the cooperation between physicians and psychosocial professionals is supported in order to improve the quality of counselling in prenatal diagnostics (PND). For this purpose, interprofessional quality circles (IQZ) had been established in six different places in Germany and were accompanied scientifically. By means of a questionnaire, data on self-perception and the perception of the respective other group, the cooperation practice and various attitudes in the context of PND had been collected. Sociodemographic characteristics of the participants and structural features of counselling had been described, characteristics of attitudes towards PND and of the therapeutic relationship had been examined by means of MANOVA or non-parametrically on the item level. The results show that notwithstanding a high willingness a cooperation between physicians and psychosocial professionals rarely takes place. Although the counselling offers of the two professional groups would complement each other, differences in the attitudes towards PND, most of all considering the relevance of medical pre-findings performing an invasive PND, depend on the gender of the professional. It is recommended to include these results into the future IQZs, and to stimulate the participants to consider the complementary attitude of the other professional/gender group in the interest of a common counselling concept.

  20. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  1. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  2. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  3. Abnormal shyness in children.

    PubMed

    Asendorpf, J B

    1993-10-01

    Recent nonclinical studies of children who do not often interact with their peers have identified at least three different kinds of solitude: temperamental shyness, social-evaluative shyness, and unsociability. These kinds of solitude can be clearly distinguished from social nonacceptance. The evidence for the different faces of children's solitude and their situational, age, and cultural specificity is reviewed, and potential implications for clinical child psychology are discussed. Clinical practitioners can profit from a recognition of the multifaceted nature of solitude in childhood. PMID:8245133

  4. [The general practitioner and abnormal liver function tests].

    PubMed

    Hallez, R

    1997-09-01

    In case of abnormal liver function tests, it's necessary to distinguish different situations, starting from this first data. We will successively consider: the high and moderate acute increases of aminotransferase, the chronic increases of aminotransferase, the isolated cholestase picture and the isolated increases of gamma GT or of bilirubine. We will finish with a partial survey about drug-induced liver diseases.

  5. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life.

  6. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  7. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  8. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  10. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  11. [Neural network detection of abnormalities in fed-batch fermentation].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Feng; Yuan, Jing-Qi

    2005-01-01

    During fermentation, it is often difficult to detect the abnormalities, for example, caused by contamination on-line. Instead, the faults were detected usually by off-line laboratory analysis or other ways, which in most cases, is too late to remedy the situation. In this paper, a simple three-layers BP network was used for the early prediction of the amount of product, based on the difference in prediction errors between normal and abnormal charges and other accessorial information, such as profit function and pH value. In addition, three indications characteristic to abnormal charge are incorporated in practical operation. The prediction for Cephalosporin C Fed-batch Fermentation in a Chinese pharmaceutical factory was studied in details as an example and the result shows the abnormal charge can be discovered early successfully using the method. PMID:15859337

  12. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  13. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  14. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  15. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  16. The Rhetorical Situation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garret, Mary; Xiao, Xiaosui

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and redefines a concept known as the "rhetorical situation" through an examination of the political discourse of China during the 19th-century Opium Wars. Arrives at three alterations to the "rhetorical situation" concerning the role of the audience, the role of the culture's discourse tradition, and the interactive and organic nature of…

  17. Situation Report--Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in Colombia are presented in this situation report. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion, economy, communication/education, medical/social welfare, and…

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  19. Dispelling myths about coagulation abnormalities in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Thachil, Jecko

    2014-06-01

    The clotting screen is an 'integral' part of the routine blood tests in most medical wards. It is likely that only with the increasing requests for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time are abnormal results noted. Interpretation of these results requires good understanding of the coagulation system and problems with the laboratory analysis. Due to variable understanding of this complex system, many misconceptions have arisen in relation to the clinical effects expected from abnormal clotting screens. Some of these are discussed with considerations of appropriate management in those situations.

  20. [Accumulation of abnormal psychosocial circumstances in juvenile delinquents with modified legal culpability].

    PubMed

    Brettel, Hauke; Poustka, Fritz

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate specific influence on the exclupation according the medical-legal certificate approved by the courts decision. 34 culpable young offenders have been compared with 40 young delinquents who have disorders of penal responsibility according to socio-demographic, anamnestic and diagnostic variables. A significant difference between the two compared groups was found in the associated, abnormal psychosocial situations. Those delinquents who were exculpated displayed more than three times higher scores in the abnormal psychosocial axis five of ICD-10 than among the non-exculpated group. The influence of actual abnormal psychosocial situations on a substantial general psychic vulnerability is discussed.

  1. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  2. Effects of abnormal excitation on the dynamics of spiral waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Yi, Deng; Xue-Liang, Zhang; Jing-Yu, Dai

    2016-01-01

    The effect of physiological and pathological abnormal excitation of a myocyte on the spiral waves is investigated based on the cellular automaton model. When the excitability of the medium is high enough, the physiological abnormal excitation causes the spiral wave to meander irregularly and slowly. When the excitability of the medium is low enough, the physiological abnormal excitation leads to a new stable spiral wave. On the other hand, the pathological abnormal excitation destroys the spiral wave and results in the spatiotemporal chaos, which agrees with the clinical conclusion that the early after depolarization is the pro-arrhythmic mechanism of some anti-arrhythmic drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are analyzed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11365003 and 11165004).

  3. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Zafarani, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  4. Amateur Astronomy in Armenia: Current Situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buniatyan, Rouben; Melikyan, Gagik

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the current situation about the amateur astronomy in Armenia and briefly outlines the activities of "Goodricke John" amateur astronomers NGO in 2013 and 2014. Particular attention is paid to the project supported by Ministry of Education for organization of open classes on astronomy and practical stargazing exercises in schools. Similarly, the report highlights the projects developed with and funded by the RA Ministry of Defense, which enabled organization of stargazing exercises in several military units in Armenia in August 2014.

  5. Personalizing situation awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Linn Marks; Powell, James E; Roman, Jorge R; Martinez, Mark L B; Mane, Ketan K

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  6. Situational theory of leadership.

    PubMed

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  7. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  8. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  9. Residual risk for cytogenetic abnormalities after prenatal diagnosis by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Homer, Jeanne; Bhatt, Sucheta; Huang, Bing; Thangavelu, Maya

    2003-07-01

    Results from conventional cytogenetic studies on 21 609 amniotic fluid specimens were analyzed retrospectively to determine the residual risk for a cytogenetic abnormality if interphase FISH, capable of only detecting aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y, was performed and did not reveal an abnormality. Detection rates (the probability of detecting a cytogenetic abnormality when an abnormality is present) and residual risks (the likelihood of a cytogenetic abnormality, in view of normal interphase FISH results) were calculated for the four major clinical indications for prenatal diagnosis (advanced maternal age, abnormal maternal serum screen indicating increased risk for trisomy 18 or trisomy 21, abnormal maternal serum screen indicating increased risk for neural tube defects and ultrasound abnormality). Differences in detection rates were observed to depend on clinical indication and presence or absence of ultrasound abnormalities. The detection rate ranged from 18.2 to 82.6% depending on the clinical indication. The detection rates of abnormalities significant to the pregnancy being evaluated (i.e. abnormalities excluding familial balanced rearrangements and familial markers) were between 28.6 and 86.4%. The presence of ultrasound abnormalities increased the detection rate from 72.2 to 92.5% for advanced maternal age and from 78.6 to 91.3% for abnormal maternal serum screen, indicating increased risk for trisomy 18 or trisomy 21. With regard to residual risk, the risk for a clinically significant abnormality decreased from 0.9-10.1%, prior to the interphase FISH assay, to a residual risk of 0.6-1.5% following a normal interphase FISH result in the 4 groups studied. Providing patients with detection rates and residual risks, most relevant to their situation (clinical indication and presence or absence of ultrasound abnormality) during counseling, could help them better understand the advantages and limitations of interphase FISH in their prenatal

  10. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  11. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  12. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  13. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  14. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  15. The Promise of Situated Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    1993-01-01

    Situated cognition, the concept that learning is integrally situated in everyday activity, enables more accurate understanding of adult learning. Authentic activity, involving situations requiring actual rather than simulated cognitive processes, may be a better basis for adult education. (SK)

  16. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  17. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  18. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  19. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  20. The refugee situation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D

    1985-01-01

    This statement by Dennis Gallagher, Director of the Refugee Policy Group, discusses the refugee situation in Thailand. Laotians have been entering Thailand in increasing numbers; some 86,000 Laotians are now in Thailand whereas there were 67,000 in November, 1983. The time is well past for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Thai government to initiate screening for new arrivals from Laos to determine whether or not they are refugees. The question needs to be examined as to what national interest and humanitarian obligation Thailand has to afford safe havens for refugees and others from Indochina. While the Thai government does not want the Khmer resistance to be crippled, it also must be concerned that providing the resistance with a base of operations of Thai territory could invite attack by the Vietnamese. Refugee resettlement alone has not and cannot resolve the refugee problem in Thailand; a more comprehensive approach is required. In areas where there is a substantial number of Indochinese who are unlikely to be resettled, projects need to be developed and funded that contribute to a more productive life for them and, preferably, for the broader region in which they reside. It is important that modification of policies occur within a comprehensive framework rather than on a piecemeal basis. Encouraging the Thais to accept supporting self-reliance projects will not happen if commitments to resettlement are not sustained. That the refugee situation in Thailand is complex and is constantly evolving argues for policies that permit more options for addressing it. PMID:12178936

  1. Situated clinical cognition.

    PubMed

    Timpka, T

    1995-10-01

    The features characterizing study of clinical cognition in situ are formulated as: Re-cognition of context, culture, history and affect. Socializing and phenomenalistic elements are again included in the research agenda. Interest for representations: an analysis level is reserved for the symbols, rules and images relevant to define in models of clinical cognition. De-emphasis on computer modeling: investigations focus on the 'functional systems' in which computers are involved. Rootedness in classical philosophical problems: issues concerning situated clinical cognition are connected to the width of available theoretical literature. Belief in interdisciplinary studies: productive interactions between the new and traditional disciplines is anticipated, implying that new shared methods have to be developed. When scientific perspectives are broadened, a new balance has to be found between the relevance of the subject of study and methodological rigor. The situated clinical cognition framework is to allow for moving between models, theories, and perspectives, as it does not presuppose a singular model of clinical thinking.

  2. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  3. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  4. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  5. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  6. Abnormal Cortex-Muscle Interactions in Subjects with X-linked Kallmann's Syndrome and Mirror Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, S. F.; Harrison, L. M.; Mayston, M. J.; Parekh, A.; James, L. M.; Stephens, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    X-linked Kallmann's (XKS) subjects, who display mirror movements, have abnormal corticospinal tracts which innervate motoneurons of the left and right distal muscles of the upper limb. The size of the abnormal ipsilateral projection is variable. We have used coherence and cumulant analysis between EEG and first dorsal interosseous muscle (1DI) EMG…

  7. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  8. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  9. Situated Analysis of Team Handball Players' Decisions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzen, Benoit; Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated-action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship…

  10. Cross-Situational Word Learning in the Right Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Upon hearing a novel word, language learners must identify its correct meaning from a diverse set of situationally relevant options. Such referential ambiguity could be reduced through "repetitive" exposure to the novel word across diverging learning situations, a learning mechanism referred to as "cross-situational learning."…

  11. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    PubMed

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  12. The situated nature of concepts.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Wenchi; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2006-01-01

    For decades the importance of background situations has been documented across all areas of cognition. Nevertheless, theories of concepts generally ignore background situations, focusing largely on bottom-up, stimulus-based processing. Furthermore, empirical research on concepts typically ignores background situations, not incorporating them into experimental designs. A selective review of relevant literatures demonstrates that concepts are not abstracted out of situations but instead are situated. Background situations constrain conceptual processing in many tasks (e.g., recall, recognition, categorization, lexical decision, color naming, property verification, property generation) across many areas of cognition (e.g., episodic memory, conceptual processing, visual object recognition, language comprehension). A taxonomy of situations is proposed in which grain size, meaningfulness, and tangibility distinguish the cumulative situations that structure cognition hierarchically.

  13. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  14. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  15. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  16. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  17. Instructional Design for Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the design of situated learning and the ecological psychology of situated cognition. Topics addressed include the teacher's role; teacher training; anchored instruction; transfer skills; the meaning of learning; apprenticeships; and the Jasper Series, a macrocontext designed to investigate the issues of situated learning. (46 references)…

  18. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  19. Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2009-05-12

    Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this framework, simulators implement the concepts that underlie knowledge, and situated conceptualizations capture patterns of multi-modal simulation associated with frequently experienced situations. A pattern completion inference mechanism uses current perception to activate situated conceptualizations that produce predictions via simulations on relevant modalities. Empirical findings from perception, action, working memory, conceptual processing, language and social cognition illustrate how this framework produces the extensive prediction that characterizes natural intelligence.

  20. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  1. Health, homeostasis, and the situation-specificity of normality.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Antoine C; Gagné-Julien, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Christopher Boorse's Biostatistical Theory of Health has been the main contender among naturalistic accounts of health for the last 40 years. Yet, a recent criticism of this theory, presented by Elselijn Kingma, identifies a dilemma resulting from the BST's conceptual linking of health and statistical typicality. Kingma argues that the BST either cannot accommodate the situation-specificity of many normal functions (e.g., digestion) or cannot account for many situation-specific diseases (e.g., mountain sickness). In this article, we expand upon with Daniel Hausman's response to Kingma's dilemma. We propose that recalling Boorse's specification that health is an intrinsic property of its bearers and explicating this intrinsic property in relation to the concept of homeostasis can illuminate how proponents of naturalistic accounts of health should deal with the situation-specificity of normal functions. We argue that beyond what Boorse and Hausman have delineated, the situation-specificity of normal function cannot be fully captured in a simple dichotomy between normal and abnormal environment or between relevant and irrelevant situations. By bringing homeostasis to the fore of the analysis of health, we set out a richer picture of what the various situations that affect living organisms' functional performance can be. Accordingly, we provide a broader classification of these various situations which, we contend, better accounts for the main intuitions that philosophers of medicine have sought to accommodate than previous naturalistic theories of health.

  2. Health, homeostasis, and the situation-specificity of normality.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Antoine C; Gagné-Julien, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Christopher Boorse's Biostatistical Theory of Health has been the main contender among naturalistic accounts of health for the last 40 years. Yet, a recent criticism of this theory, presented by Elselijn Kingma, identifies a dilemma resulting from the BST's conceptual linking of health and statistical typicality. Kingma argues that the BST either cannot accommodate the situation-specificity of many normal functions (e.g., digestion) or cannot account for many situation-specific diseases (e.g., mountain sickness). In this article, we expand upon with Daniel Hausman's response to Kingma's dilemma. We propose that recalling Boorse's specification that health is an intrinsic property of its bearers and explicating this intrinsic property in relation to the concept of homeostasis can illuminate how proponents of naturalistic accounts of health should deal with the situation-specificity of normal functions. We argue that beyond what Boorse and Hausman have delineated, the situation-specificity of normal function cannot be fully captured in a simple dichotomy between normal and abnormal environment or between relevant and irrelevant situations. By bringing homeostasis to the fore of the analysis of health, we set out a richer picture of what the various situations that affect living organisms' functional performance can be. Accordingly, we provide a broader classification of these various situations which, we contend, better accounts for the main intuitions that philosophers of medicine have sought to accommodate than previous naturalistic theories of health. PMID:25604955

  3. Understanding situation awareness and its importance in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather; Harris, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-20

    Situation awareness describes an individual's perception, comprehension and subsequent projection of what is going on in the environment around them. The concept of situation awareness sits within the group of non-technical skills that include teamwork, communication and managing hierarchical lines of communication. The importance of non-technical skills has been recognised in safety-critical industries such as aviation, the military, nuclear, and oil and gas. However, health care has been slow to embrace the role of non-technical skills such as situation awareness in improving outcomes and minimising the risk of error. This article explores the concept of situation awareness and the cognitive processes involved in maintaining it. In addition, factors that lead to a loss of situation awareness and strategies to improve situation awareness are discussed. PMID:27097212

  4. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  5. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  6. Correlation between physical anomaly and behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Sanyal, Debasish; Roy, Krishna; Bhattacharyya, Sumita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The minor physical anomaly (MPA) is believed to reflect abnormal development of the CNS. The aim is to find incidence of MPA and its behavioral correlates in Down syndrome and to compare these findings with the other causes of intellectual disability and normal population. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty intellectually disabled people attending a tertiary care set-up and from various NGOs are included in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. MPA are assessed by using Modified Waldrop scale and behavioral abnormality by Diagnostic assessment scale for severely handicapped (DASH II scale). Results: The Down syndrome group had significantly more MPA than other two groups and most of the MPA is situated in the global head region. There is strong correlation (P < 0.001) between the various grouped items of Modified Waldrop scale. Depression subscale is correlated with anomalies in the hands (P < 0.001), feet and Waldrop total items (P < 0.005). Mania item of DASH II scale is related with anomalies around the eyes (P < 0.001). Self-injurious behavior and total Waldrop score is negatively correlated with global head. Conclusion: Down syndrome group has significantly more MPA and a pattern of correlation between MPA and behavioral abnormalities exists which necessitates a large-scale study. PMID:21559153

  7. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options. PMID:26458436

  8. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  9. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  10. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  11. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  12. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  13. Situated Cognition: Describing the Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    This paper presents an overview of the theory of situated cognition by providing its origin, a listing of its main principles and then discussing in detail the principles of, authentic learning environments, legitimate peripheral participation, and assessment. It also provides two examples of the application of situated cognition principles. The…

  14. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  15. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  16. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  17. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  18. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  19. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  20. COP 21 TD: towards a situational awareness knowledge portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Denis; Gauvin, Marlene; Woodliffe, Elizabeth

    2003-07-01

    Portals have become an effective means of enabling organizations to access, share and manage information and knowledge of pertinence to the organizations. Several military organizations are rapidly adopting the portal approach for information exchange and situational awareness in their command & control systems. The Canadian Common Operational Picture 21st Century Technology Demonstration (COP 21 TD) project is implementing a Situation Awareness Knowledge Portal to support the Joint Staff at the Strategic level. This portal will provide commanders and staff with an integrated access to heterogeneous sources of information, personalization capabilities in terms of information content and tools, collaboration services with other users and efficient presentation techniques to provide situation awareness.

  1. Design and test of a situation-augmented display for an unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance.

  2. The Language Situation in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Describes the current language situation in Tunisia while maintaining a historical perspective that is helpful in understanding how language-related changes have come about, and a prospective view that may illuminate future developments. (Author/VWL)

  3. [Red blood transfusion in palliative care situation].

    PubMed

    Velter, C; Montheil, V; Alexandre, J; Vinant, P; Goldwasser, F

    2016-09-01

    Anemia is frequent in oncology. We debate the decision-making process of erythrocyte transfusion in palliative care situation from a case report. A patient with a prostatic metastatic cancer was in palliative situation with asthenia and coronary symptom. We analyze, in this particular case that does not describe reality of normal practice, the decision-making process of erythrocyte transfusion. These transfusions were based, in this case, on the evaluation of oncology prognosis, the short-term vital threats, life project and clinical safety of the transfusion. The patient has received 5 erythrocyte transfusions in 4 months until a multidisciplinary meeting decided to stop transfusion because of poor prognostic situation and bad tolerance of the act. This patient could be a collegial model used to measure the reasonable nature of prescription depending on the purpose and the goal of the patient but does not allow generalization. Although there is low risk of erythrocyte shortage, it seems important to train doctors to reduce abusive transfusion and define transfusion thresholds. Different levels of erythrocyte transfusion security would raise the issue of management of several stocks. Erythrocyte transfusion in palliative care can be considered subject to prognostic information and the palliative aim of the transfusions, multidisciplinary decision-making, during short hospitalizations and with evaluation of the act and consequences for the patient. PMID:27562520

  4. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  5. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project's Response to the April 25, 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake: Rapid Measurements and Models for Science and Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Yue, H.; Polet, J.; Riel, B. V.; Liang, C.; Huang, M. H.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Moore, A. W.; Agram, P. S.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hua, H.; Liu, Z.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Manipon, G.

    2015-12-01

    On April 25, 2015, the M7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck Nepal and the city of Kathmandu. The quake caused a significant humanitarian crisis and killed more than 8,000 due to widespread building damage and triggered landslides throughout the region. This was the strongest earthquake to occur in the region since the 1934 Nepal-Bihar magnitude 8.0 quake caused more than 10,000 fatalities. In the days following the earthquake, the JPL/Caltech ARIA project produced coseismic GPS and SAR displacements, fault slip models, and damage assessments from SAR coherence change that were helpful in both understanding the event and in the response efforts. The ARIA project produced InSAR observations from two new SAR missions - JAXA's ALOS-2 and ESA's Sentinel 1a. The GPS coseismic displacements showed ~1.8 meters of southward motion and ~1.3 meters of uplift in Kathmandu. InSAR images of the displacement field and fault models show that the rupture extended 135 km southeast of the epicenter. The SAR imagery also confirmed that the fault slip did not extend to the surface, though localized offsets formed due to liquefaction. The GPS and SAR analysis has continued to image the large M7.3 aftershock and postseismic deformation. The damage assessments from coherence change were used by several organizations guiding the response effort, including the NGA, the World Bank, and OFDA/USAID. We will present imaging, modeling, and damage assessment results from the recent April 25, 2015 M7.8 earthquake in Nepal, and its largest aftershock, a M7.3 event on May 12, 2015. We also discuss how these data were used for understanding the event, guiding the response, and for educational outreach.

  6. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  7. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  9. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  11. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  12. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  13. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  14. Intelligent situation assessment and response aiding in flight emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, Eva; Corker, Kevin; Cramer, Nichael; Young, David; Baron, Sheldon

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based pilot aiding system which performs situation assessment and response aiding is described. The system uses a causal model of the flight domain to both simulate the effects of identified failures on flight and to derive responses during emergencies. The model represents information at two levels of abstraction: Boolean, which simply states whether a subsystem or aircraft component is normal or abnormal, and qualitative, which expresses the subsystem or component status as one of several qualitative values, such as increasing, decreasing, or stable.

  15. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  16. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  17. Ways of probing situated concepts.

    PubMed

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J

    2010-02-01

    Two ways of eliciting conceptual content have been to instruct participants to list the intrinsic properties that concept exemplars possess or to report any thoughts that come to mind about the concept. It has been argued that the open, unconstrained probe is better able to elicit the situational information that concepts contain. We evaluated this proposal in two experiments comparing the two probes with regard to the content that they yield for object concepts at the superordinate and basic levels. The results showed that the open probe was better able to elicit situated conceptual knowledge and point out differences in the representations of superordinate and basic concepts.

  18. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  19. Learning for Transfer--A Theory of Situational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Down, Cathy

    An ongoing research project in Australia is focused on the concept of the transfer of competence across different working situations. It establishes a framework for learning that is student-centered and that integrates the concepts of activity theory, expansive learning, communities of practice, and multiple intelligences. Perceptions of those…

  20. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  1. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  2. Situating Knowledges as Coalition Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    In this essay Maureen Ford examines a selection of situated knowledges discourses in order to make explicit their attention to political effects. She contends, first, that the "epistemic public(s)" constituted through these discourses are multiple, interactive, performative, and layered, and further that they are explicitly political in ways that…

  3. The Language Situation in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura Garcia; Moore, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This monograph will cover the language situation in Mexico; a linguistically very complex country with 62 recognised indigenous languages, the "de facto" official language, Spanish, and some immigrant languages of lesser importance. Throughout the monograph, we will concentrate on three distinct challenges which we consider relevant for Mexican…

  4. The explosion at institute: modeling and analyzing the situation awareness factor.

    PubMed

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2014-12-01

    In 2008 a runaway chemical reaction caused an explosion at a methomyl unit in West Virginia, USA, killing two employees, injuring eight people, evacuating more than 40,000 residents adjacent to the facility, disrupting traffic on a nearby highway and causing significant business loss and interruption. Although the accident was formally investigated, the role of the situation awareness (SA) factor, i.e., a correct understanding of the situation, and appropriate models to maintain SA, remain unexplained. This paper extracts details of abnormal situations within the methomyl unit and models them into a situational network using dynamic Bayesian networks. A fuzzy logic system is used to resemble the operator's thinking when confronted with these abnormal situations. The combined situational network and fuzzy logic system make it possible for the operator to assess such situations dynamically to achieve accurate SA. The findings show that the proposed structure provides a useful graphical model that facilitates the inclusion of prior background knowledge and the updating of this knowledge when new information is available from monitoring systems. PMID:25247552

  5. The explosion at institute: modeling and analyzing the situation awareness factor.

    PubMed

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2014-12-01

    In 2008 a runaway chemical reaction caused an explosion at a methomyl unit in West Virginia, USA, killing two employees, injuring eight people, evacuating more than 40,000 residents adjacent to the facility, disrupting traffic on a nearby highway and causing significant business loss and interruption. Although the accident was formally investigated, the role of the situation awareness (SA) factor, i.e., a correct understanding of the situation, and appropriate models to maintain SA, remain unexplained. This paper extracts details of abnormal situations within the methomyl unit and models them into a situational network using dynamic Bayesian networks. A fuzzy logic system is used to resemble the operator's thinking when confronted with these abnormal situations. The combined situational network and fuzzy logic system make it possible for the operator to assess such situations dynamically to achieve accurate SA. The findings show that the proposed structure provides a useful graphical model that facilitates the inclusion of prior background knowledge and the updating of this knowledge when new information is available from monitoring systems.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  7. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  8. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  9. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  10. Increasing Space Situational Awareness for NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J. G. J.; Eggl, Siegfried; Thuillot, William

    2015-05-01

    Over the past years, Europe has strengthened its commitment to foster space situational awareness. Apart from the current efforts in tracking space weather, artificial satellites and space debris, Near Earth Asteroid threat assessment is a key task. NEOshield has been part of this European effort. We will give an overview over national projects and European programs with French participation such as PoDET, ESTERS, FRIPON, NEOShield, Gaia-FUN-SSO and Stardust. Future plans regarding Near Earth Object threat assessment and mitigation are described. The role of the IMCCE in this framework is discussed using the example of the post mitigation impact risk analyis of Gravity Tractor and Kinetic Impactor based asteroid deflection demonstration mission designs.

  11. Environmental situation in the Republic of Armenia

    SciTech Connect

    Sanasarian, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the environmental situation in Armenia with particular reference to (1) air, water, and soil pollution; (2) common and photochemical smog in the capital city, Yerevan, and other major cities; (3) household and industrial waste; (4) distribution of contaminated food imported from regions affected by the Chernobyl accident; (5) wasteful depletion of natural resources; (6) lack of a continuous monitoring of the environment and the public health; (7) absence of filtering equipment, and; (8) the extinction of plant and animal species. Armenia is currently living under an economic blockade which makes even elementary environmental protection projects such as water treatment difficult to accomplish. Even more important, the blockade may force the opening of the Armenian nuclear reactors at Medzamor leading to questions such as waste management. Medzamor was closed after the 1988 earthquake because it is located on a fault line.

  12. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.

    1999-01-01

    During the first year of this project, a taxonomy of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) was applied to the advanced commercial aircraft by categorizing actual modes of McDonald Douglas MD-11 autoflight system operation in terms of the taxonomy. As well, high LOAs included in the taxonomy (e.g., supervisory control) were modeled in the context of MD-11 autoflight systems through development of a virtual flight simulator. The flight simulator was an integration of a re-configurable simulator developed by the Georgia Institute Technology and new software prototypes of autoflight system modules found in the MD-11 cockpit. In addition to this work, a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) was developed for application to commercial piloting tasks. A software package was developed to deliver the SAGAT and was integrated with the virtual flight simulator.

  13. Situated learning in the practice placement.

    PubMed

    Cope, P; Cuthbertson, P; Stoddart, B

    2000-04-01

    Nurses who had just completed their training in Scotland were interviewed with regard to their experiences on placements. The nurses had either completed a traditional training course or came from the first cohort of the Project 2000 diploma level course. The interviews focused on the way in which the student nurses had learned in their practice placements. The results suggest that the placement is a complex social and cognitive experience in which there are elements of situated learning. Acceptance into the community of practice is important but this can be separated, conceptually at least, into a social acceptance which might be extended to any student and a professional acceptance which relies on the display of appropriate competence. The nurses described the way in which their mentors had interacted with them in terms which suggested that cognitive apprenticeship strategies had been used to further their learning in practice. It is concluded that, in view of the central importance of the placement for training nurses, explicit use of mentoring techniques derived from situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship might be beneficial.

  14. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  15. Laparoscopy for resolving Müllerian abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Motashaw, N D; Dastur, A; Vaidya, R A; Aloorkar, M

    1978-07-01

    One hundred thirty-five patients with various müllerian abnormalities underwent laparoscopy. At a glance the precise malformation was diagnosed correctly: 44 patients revealed a complete absence of the müllerian system; 35 were found to have a transverse ridge across the pelvis, the lateral ends of which were well developed; 33 patients had rudimentary uteri; 7, a median müllerian nodule; 5 belonged to the group with the testicular feminization syndrome; 4 were classified as having a bicornuate uterus; 3 had unicornuate uteri; and 3, septate uteri. One rare variety of müllerian abnormality is also described. Laparoscopy was found to be invaluable in the diagnosis of müllerian abnormalities.

  16. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  17. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  18. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  19. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  20. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  1. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  2. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  3. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  4. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  5. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  6. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  7. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  8. The visual perception of natural motion: abnormal task-related neural activity in DYT1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sako, Wataru; Fujita, Koji; Vo, An; Rucker, Janet C; Rizzo, John-Ross; Niethammer, Martin; Carbon, Maren; Bressman, Susan B; Uluğ, Aziz M; Eidelberg, David

    2015-12-01

    Although primary dystonia is defined by its characteristic motor manifestations, non-motor signs and symptoms have increasingly been recognized in this disorder. Recent neuroimaging studies have related the motor features of primary dystonia to connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways. It is not known, however, whether the non-motor manifestations of the disorder are associated with similar circuit abnormalities. To explore this possibility, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study primary dystonia and healthy volunteer subjects while they performed a motion perception task in which elliptical target trajectories were visually tracked on a computer screen. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of healthy subjects performing this task have revealed selective activation of motor regions during the perception of 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion (defined respectively as trajectories with kinematic properties that either comply with or violate the two-thirds power law of motion). Several regions with significant connectivity changes in primary dystonia were situated in proximity to normal motion perception pathways, suggesting that abnormalities of these circuits may also be present in this disorder. To determine whether activation responses to natural versus unnatural motion in primary dystonia differ from normal, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 10 DYT1 dystonia and 10 healthy control subjects at rest and during the perception of 'natural' and 'unnatural' motion. Both groups exhibited significant activation changes across perceptual conditions in the cerebellum, pons, and subthalamic nucleus. The two groups differed, however, in their responses to 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion in these regions. In healthy subjects, regional activation was greater during the perception of natural (versus unnatural) motion (P < 0.05). By contrast, in DYT1 dystonia subjects, activation was relatively greater

  9. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  10. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  11. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  12. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  13. The ELT situation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Cui, Xiangqun

    2008-04-01

    In the last ten years, Chinese astronomers proposed two optical and near-infrared Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) projects, one is 30m Chinese Future Giant Telescope (CFGT) the other is a 30m Ring Interferometric Telescope (RIT). The current status in the development of these two projects and their key technology research and progress are described in this paper. Both of the two plans are the preliminary projects of the National Astronomical Observatories (NAOC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and finance-supported from the NAOC. The National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) also gives supports to key technology researches of the projects (such as, adaptive optics and high-resolution imaging techniques). In the final part of this paper a brief description is given on the possibility of international cooperation in the development of Chinese ELT. A review is also presented of other two ground-based Extremely Large Projects (ELP), one is Five-hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), and the other is a challenging PANDA (The Prydz bay, Amery ice shelf and Dome A Observatories) project in Antarctica.

  14. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  15. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  16. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  17. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  18. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  19. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  20. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  1. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  2. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  3. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  4. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  5. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  6. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  7. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  8. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  9. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  10. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  11. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  12. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy.

  13. The HALI Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This article features The HALI Project and shares experiences that led to the first part of the project--Empowered Parents. This program taught parents how to first come to grips with the reality of their situation, then dream new, appropriate dreams for their children. From there it addressed understanding the ongoing emotional journey and how it…

  14. Projecting Personnel Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Philip T.

    Increased reliance on personnel services is placing school districts' business operations in a no-win situation. This report evaluates methods of student population projection in relation to teacher costs. Educational costs reflect personnel costs in light of a decrease in the number of pupils being served. Increased enrollment projections create…

  15. A traffic situation analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  16. Steps towards a situational ethic.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, P J

    1978-08-01

    The Australian Royal Commission on Human Relationships summarized the problems of adolescents and family planning by declaring there is a level of teenage sexual activity that cannot be ignored. Young single people have a low rate of effective contraception. Teenagers suffer a very high proportion of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. Placing the ethical questions in a contemporary social context enables society to face the issues in a practical, realistic fashion. Historically preserved traditions, like the taboo against premarital sex, are and will continue to be important in the bonding of families, individuals, and societies. A situational ethic applies to changes in the social fabric and addresses them. Society has changed from rural to urban, from agrarian to technological, from literacy to mass media, from superstitious knowledge of reproduction to scientific methods of birth control. The realities of change should be faced with a sense of ethics that is grounded in tradition and adjusted to the needs of the actual situation which is that too many teenagers have too many unwanted pregnancies. They can be helped.

  17. Uncertainty Reasoning for Service-Based Situational Awareness Information on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkel, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate situational assessment is key to any decision maker and especially crucial in military command and control, air traffic control, and complex system decision making. Endsley described three dependent levels of situational awareness, (1) perception, (2) understanding, and (3) projection. This research was focused on Endsley's…

  18. Situational Analysis and Mapping for Use in Education Research: A Reflexive Methodology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Outer, Birgit; Handley, Karen; Price, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In the quest for a better reflexive research practice and to respond to the challenge of expanding on an education research repertoire, the authors consider "situational analysis," proposed as a post-modern approach to grounded theory using maps. Originally situating their research projects within a social constructivist theoretical…

  19. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  20. Design Concept for Garbage Bin with Situation Awareness Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supattatham, Montri; Papasratorn, Borworn

    Many measures to prevent wide-spread of communicable diseases depends on embedded IT into objects found in public places. This makes it possible to have objects with awareness on surrounding environment, or having situation awareness. This paper presents design concept to add situation awareness features to automatic garbage bin. There are three design levels for including situation awareness features with garbage bin. From awareness goals, required features are identified. Perception, comprehension, and projection are then aligned with the required features, in order to have desired awareness. Automatic garbage bin is implemented using design specification from the proposed design concept. Result from convenience sampling survey reveals that users are satisfied with the implemented garbage bin.

  1. Understanding Behavior in Escalation Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staw, Barry M.; Ross, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    The escalation of commitment has been variously labeled the psychology of entrapment, the sunk cost effect, and the too-much-invested-to-quit syndrome. This article reviews the state of research and describes four major determinants: project; psychological; social; and organizational variables. A model is provided. (YP)

  2. Situated Assessment: Limitations and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreth, Melinda; Crawford, Mary Ann; Taylor, Marcy; Brockman, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    We present some key findings of a four-year, two-phase writing assessment project at Central Michigan University: Phase One (2002), a survey of faculty members (n=115) and subsequent focus groups (n=14) and Phase Two (2005), an evaluation of two samples of student writing (n=635 and 632). Major findings of Phase One reported here include the…

  3. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  6. Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

  7. Radiation exposure and chromosome abnormalities. Human cytogenetic studies at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, 1963-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, T.; Kohno, S.; Minamihisamatsu, M. )

    1990-03-01

    The results of human cytogenetic studies performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan for about 25 years are described. The studies were pursued primarily under two major projects: one involving people exposed to radiation under various conditions and the other involving patients with malignant diseases, especially leukemias. Whereas chromosome abnormalities in radiation-exposed people are excellent indicators of radiation exposure, their behavior in bone marrow provide useful information for a better understanding of chromosome abnormalities in leukemias and related disorders. The role of chromosome abnormalities in the genesis and development of leukemia and related disorders is considered, suggesting a view for future studies in this field.

  8. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  9. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  10. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  11. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities.
METHODS—The eyes of 17 unrelated individuals with TBMD were studied by slit-lamp, including biomicroscopic fundus examination with a 78 D lens, by direct ophthalmoscopy, and by fundal photographs. The findings were compared with those in patients with IgA glomerulonephritis or Alport syndrome, and in normals.
RESULTS—No patient with TBMD had a dot and fleck retinopathy or anterior lenticonus. A corneal dystrophy (n = 2) or pigmentation (n = 1), and retinal pigment epithelial clumping and maculopathy (n = 1) were noted. Corneal, lens, and retinal dots were found in five (29%), three (18%), and 16 (94%) patients, respectively, but these were also demonstrated in individuals with other renal diseases and in normal individuals.
CONCLUSIONS—The dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus typical of Alport syndrome do not occur in TBMD. The protein abnormality and genetic defect in TBMD are not known, but the lack of ocular lesions suggests that the abnormal protein in this disease is more sparsely distributed or less important in the basement membranes of the eye than of the kidney. Alternatively, the protein may be less affected by the mutations responsible for TBMD.

 PMID:9227202

  12. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  13. Unsupervised classification and visual representation of situations in surveillance videos using slow feature analysis for situation retrieval applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Today, video surveillance systems produce thousands of terabytes of data. This source of information can be very valuable, as it contains spatio-temporal information about abnormal, similar or periodic activities. However, a search for certain situations or activities in unstructured large-scale video footage can be exhausting or even pointless. Searching surveillance video footage is extremely difficult due to the apparent similarity of situations, especially for human observers. In order to keep this amount manageable and hence usable, this paper aims at clustering situations regarding their visual content as well as motion patterns. Besides standard image content descriptors like HOG, we present and investigate novel descriptors, called Franklets, which explicitly encode motion patterns for certain image regions. Slow feature analysis (SFA) will be performed for dimension reduction based on the temporal variance of the features. By reducing the dimension with SFA, a higher feature discrimination can be reached compared to standard PCA dimension reduction. The effects of dimension reduction via SFA will be investigated in this paper. Cluster results on real data from the Hamburg Harbour Anniversary 2014 will be presented with both, HOG feature descriptors and Franklets. Furthermore, we could show that by using SFA an improvement to standard PCA techniques could be achieved. Finally, an application to visual clustering with self-organizing maps will be introduced.

  14. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  15. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  16. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  17. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  18. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Randall, P L

    1983-03-01

    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  19. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  20. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  1. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  2. [The population situation in Africa].

    PubMed

    Li, Q L

    1981-07-01

    The population growth rate in Africa has been the highest in the world since 1970--about 2.7% annually. A lower mortality rate because of better health conditions, their tradition of early marriage and polygamy, and the predominantly agricultural economy are the main reasons. The lack of coordination of such rapid population growth with the slow economic development and backward industrial and agricultural conditions have caused a very serious unemployment problem and inhibit increases in the living standard. The vast areas of desert and equatorial forest are sparsely inhabited. The coastline, Nile delta, and the plateaus are the most densely populated areas of the world. The abnormally developed cities cause expansion of the urban population and serious problems in employment, housing, traffic, health, and education. Many leaders of African countries have begun to realize the seriousness of the rapid population growth, and a few have begun family planning programs. Most countries have no official policies concerning population control and a few even encourage population growth.

  3. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  4. Obstacles to Understanding Cognitions As Situated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, David; Whitson, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the current state of situated cognition theory. Points to underlying issues that remain to be clarified in order for the substantive differences between situative and cognitive approaches to be appreciated. (MMU)

  5. Diagnosing Educational Leadership Problems: A Situational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Philip E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses Situational Leadership Theory, a conceptual framework that can help managers improve their performance by varying their leadership style in various situations to fit the needs and capabilities of their subordinates. (JG)

  6. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Final Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin

    2013-01-01

    The Situational Awareness project is a comprehensive undertaking of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in an effort to produce technologies capable of defending the country’s energy sector infrastructure from cyber attack. INL has addressed this challenge through research and development of an interoperable suite of tools that safeguard critical energy sector infrastructure. The technologies in this project include the Sophia Tool, Mesh Mapper (MM) Tool, Intelligent Cyber Sensor (ICS) Tool, and Data Fusion Tool (DFT). Each is designed to function effectively on its own, or they can be integrated in a variety of customized configurations based on the end user’s risk profile and security needs.

  7. Managing Situation Awareness on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Connell, Linda (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Awareness is required of the plane, the path and the people, both now and in the future. The steps to situation awareness are to monitor and evaluate the current situation. Anticipate the future to stay ahead of the airplane and consider contingencies, having a plan for 'what if situations. Continually update and modify the plan and share it with all crew members.

  8. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software…

  9. Dimensions of Compliance-Gaining Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Michael J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested a seven-factor model of situation perception to develop a set of valid and reliable situation perception factors for use in compliance-gaining research. (Factors included personal benefits, intimacy, rights, resistance, dominance, situation apprehension, and relational consequences.) Found that the model fit the data well and was superior…

  10. Mathematical Situations of Play and Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Rose

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical situations of play and exploration introduced here have been developed as an empirical research instrument for the longitudinal study "erStMaL" (early Steps in Mathematics Learning). They are designed as situations that allow children and a guiding adult to construct situation-related knowledge in common dialogue…

  11. School and Situated Knowledge: Travel or Tourism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues related to situated cognition and learning, both in the classroom and in the world. Topics discussed include educational theories; the situated nature of knowledge; the perception of experts; and the role of technology in situated learning, including virtual reality, hypertext, and telecommunications. (26 references) (LRW)

  12. Environmental impact assessment of abnormal events: a follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Lee, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Impact analyses included in environmental assessments for a selected nuclear power plant, petroleum storage facility, crude oil pipeline, and geopressure well that have experienced operational, abnormal events are compared with the data quantifying the environmental impacts of the events. Comparisons of predicted vs actual impacts suggests that prediction of the types of events and associated impacts could be improved; in some instances, impacts have been underestimated. Analysis of abnormal events is especially important in environmental assessment documents addressing a technology that is novel or unique to a particular area. Incorporation of abnormal event impact analysis into project environmental monitoring and emergency response plans can help improve these plans and can help reduce the magnitude of environmental impacts resulting from said events.

  13. Differential diagnosis for bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Amogh N; Mohan, Suyash; Lath, Narayan; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia and thalamus are paired deep gray matter structures that may be involved by a wide variety of disease entities. The basal ganglia are highly metabolically active and are symmetrically affected in toxic poisoning, metabolic abnormalities, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Both the basal ganglia and thalamus may be affected by other systemic or metabolic disease, degenerative disease, and vascular conditions. Focal flavivirus infections, toxoplasmosis, and primary central nervous system lymphoma may also involve both deep gray matter structures. The thalamus is more typically affected alone by focal conditions than by systemic disease. Radiologists may detect bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus in different acute and chronic clinical situations, and although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for evaluation, the correct diagnosis can be made only by taking all relevant clinical and laboratory information into account. The neuroimaging diagnosis is influenced not only by detection of specific MR imaging features such as restricted diffusion and the presence of hemorrhage, but also by detection of abnormalities involving other parts of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and white matter. Judicious use of confirmatory neuroimaging investigations, especially diffusion-weighted imaging, MR angiography, MR venography, and MR spectroscopy during the same examination, may help improve characterization of these abnormalities and help narrow the differential diagnosis.

  14. CD19-positive acute myeloblastic leukemia with trisomy 21 as a sole acquired karyotypic abnormality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-feng; Cheng, Yi-zhi; Wang, Huan-ping; Chen, Zhi-mei; Lou, Ji-yu; Jin, Jie

    2009-11-01

    We report that a 63-year-old Chinese female had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) in which trisomy 21 (+21) was found as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The blasts were positive for myeloperoxidase, and the immunophenotype was positive for cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19), CD33, CD34, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DR. The chromosomal analysis of bone marrow showed 47,XX,+21[2]/46,XX[18]. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that three copies of AML1 were situated in separate chromosomes, and that t(8;21) was negative. The patient did not have any features of Down syndrome. A diagnosis of CD19-positive AML-M5 was established with trisomy 21 as a sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The patient did not respond well to chemotherapy and died three months after the diagnosis. This is the first reported case of CD19-positive AML with trisomy 21 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. The possible prognostic significance of the finding in AML with +21 as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality was discussed. PMID:19882758

  15. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons

    PubMed Central

    Rauthmann, John F.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2016-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks. PMID:26779068

  16. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  18. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  19. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  20. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  1. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  2. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  3. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  4. Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

    1978-01-01

    Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

  5. Index finger abnormalities in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Day, Ruth; Fryer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X linked recessive overgrowth disorder in which digital abnormalities are a well-described aspect of the phenotype. We report a case with marked index finger hypoplasia and a congenital abnormality of the proximal phalanx and review the literature detailing index finger abnormalities in this condition.

  6. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  7. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  8. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  9. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  10. Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Küpker, W; Demirel, C; Schöpper, B; Blasig, C; Sturm, R; Felberbaum, R; Bauer, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    1999-09-01

    One of the best discriminators for the fertilization potential of human spermatozoa is sperm morphology. The problem in the assessment of the sperm morphological characteristics is their pleiomorphism. Examination of spermatozoa with the light microscope can provide only limited information on their internal structure. More detailed examination of sperm structure using electron microscopy can reveal major, often unsuspected ultrastructural abnormalities. Results and cut-off values for sperm analysis depend on the criteria for normal morphology. World Health Organization recommendations provide a classification suitable for clinical practice. Clinically reliable cut-off limits for normal sperm morphology according to strict Tygerberg criteria were suggested to be 4% in in-vitro fertilization procedures. Patients with severe sperm head abnormalities have a lower chance of establishing successful pregnancies, even though fertilization may be achieved. The outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is not related to any of the standard semen parameters or to sperm morphology. Sperm decondensation defects and DNA anomalies may be underlying factors for the unrecognized derangements of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, regardless of sperm morphology. Centrosome dysfunction may also represent a class of sperm defects that cannot be overcome simply by the insertion of a spermatozoon into the ooplasm. In this article an overview on the composition and ultrastructure of spermatozoa is presented, while emphasizing sperm ultrastructural and sperm DNA anomalies and their effects on fertilization.

  11. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  13. Karyotypic abnormalities in tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, G.; Johansson, B.; Pandis, N.; Mandahl, N.; Bak-Jensen, E.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Mitelman, F.; Heim, S.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term cultures from 20 pancreatic tumours, three endocrine and 17 exocrine, were cytogenetically analysed. All three endocrine tumours had a normal chromosome complement. Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 13 of the 17 exocrine tumours: simple karyotypic changes were found in five carcinomas and numerous numerical and/or structural changes in eight. When the present findings and those previously reported by our group were viewed in conjunction, the most common numerical imbalances among the 22 karyotypically abnormal pancreatic carcinomas thus available for evaluation turned out to be, in order of falling frequency, -18, -Y, +20, +7, +11 and -12. Imbalances brought about by structural changes most frequently affected chromosomes 1 (losses in 1p but especially gains of 1q), 8 (in particular 8q gains but also 8p losses), and 17 (mostly 17q gain but also loss of 17p). Chromosomal bands 1p32, 1q10, 6q21, 7p22, 8p21, 8q11, 14p11, 15q10-11, and 17q11 were the most common breakpoint sites affected by the structural rearrangements. Abnormal karyotypes were detected more frequently in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas than in moderately and well differentiated tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494707

  14. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  15. A live infant with trisomy 14 mosaicism and nuclear abnormalities of the neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dallapiccola, B; Ferranti, G; Giannotti, A; Novelli, G; Pasquini, L; Porfirio, B

    1984-01-01

    Mosaic trisomy 14 is described in a patient with severe developmental retardation and congenital malformations. Together with a few previous reports, this case suggests the existence of a syndrome associated with this chromosome imbalance. Hitherto unrecognised manifestations of trisomy 14 mosaicism were, in our patient, abnormalities of the neutrophil nuclei, which consisted of multiple pedunculated or sessile projections, similar to those characteristically associated with trisomy 13 syndrome. Images PMID:6512839

  16. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  17. Nutrition situation in metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Florentino, R F; Villavieja, G M; Boquecosa, J P; Bacos, F F

    1992-01-01

    . There is therefore an "urban bias" of food supply to Metro Manila, that is, there is a much higher demand capacity for Metro Manila to draw food supply because of its higher income level and bigger population. The impact of this situation in terms of nutrition and food supply in the rural areas should be carefully examined so as not to put the rural areas in extreme disadvantage. FNRI nutrition surveys have shown that dietary energy inadequacy remains rampant in Metro Manila, while protein continues to be a marginal problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1342756

  18. [Setting up situated learning in vascular rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mathe, Nathalie; Lascoux, Léa; Puchault, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogical tool as well as a concept, situated learning describes the skills used in a situation in a given context, structuring the reflection, analysis and choice of nursing procedures, based on theoretical knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills. A vascular rehabilitation team has chosen to formalise two situations from among the most common care procedures carried out in the department: the changing of complex dressings and ensuring the personal hygiene and comfort of a dependent patient with skin wounds.

  19. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  20. Framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Jörn; Charoy, François; El Khoury, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, have shown several issues for the coordination of human activities in these dynamic situations. Contemporary tools for the coordination used in the disaster response, such as e-mail, Whiteboards or phones, only allow for unstructured coordination, which can cause coordination problems. Hence, we discuss about the current information systems for coordinating the activities in a structured manner and identify their weaknesses in the context of a process modelling effort conducted together with experienced disaster managers. Afterwards, we propose a framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations. The framework presented in this paper has been implemented as an extension to an open collaboration service. This shows how it can be used in the context of other tools required for disaster response management, such as maps, pictures or videos of the situation. The work described here is the foundation for enabling inter-organisational coordination of activities relevant in other domains, e.g. enterprise support processes, production processes or distributed software development projects. Furthermore, comments by disaster managers show that the concepts are relevant for their work. The expected impact is a more effective and efficient coordination of human activities in dynamic situations by structuring what needs to be coordinated.

  1. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  2. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  3. Residual gait abnormalities in surgically treated spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Shelokov, A; Haideri, N; Roach, J

    1993-11-01

    The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who had in situ fusion as adolescents for high-grade (IV, V) spondylolisthesis unresponsive to more conservative means. All patients achieved solid bony union; their pain was relieved; and hamstring spasm had resolved. The authors sought to determine whether crouch gait or any other abnormalities could be demonstrated in patients exhibiting clinical parameters of success. Each patient underwent gait analysis, radiographic analysis, and a physical examination. Four of seven patients demonstrated slight degrees of forward trunk lean during varying phases of gait accompanied by increased hip flexion. One patient demonstrated increased trunk extension accompanied by limited hip flexion. Two patients were essentially normal. The authors were unable to quantify residual crouch in these patients with solidly fused high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  4. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  5. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  6. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence.

  7. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. PMID:25590398

  8. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition. PMID:20152051

  9. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    1-2% of women has abnormal uterine development due to nonunification of the Müllerian ducts in the embryonal period. At the RWTH Aachen, in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics, between January and June 1987, we had searched systematically for maldevelopment of the uterus in 2299 echosonografies. In 13 cases we found maldevelopment of internal genital; 5 of these cases were diagnosed by an echosonografic routine-examination. The echografic criteria of the different grades of uterine malformations have been determined, systematized and discussed in relation to the symptoms. The most frequent malformations as uterus subseptus, uterus septus, uterus bicornis and uterus duplex are subject of a detailed discussion. This work demonstrates that echosonografic is a very efficient instrument to diagnose uterine malformations and gives us a very exact anatomic interpretation of malformations.

  10. Abnormal branch of the testicular artery.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, P Vijaya; Bhasin, Vishu; Kumar, Sushil

    2006-09-01

    We present a case report of an abnormal course and branching of the right testicular artery, which was uncovered during routine dissection of the abdomen in our first year medical class. It arose from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and immediately divided into two branches; one branch coursed inferiorly behind the inferior vena cava as the testicular artery proper, while the other branch passed behind the inferior vena cava and emerged on the anterior surface of the right kidney. After crossing the anterior surface of the kidney, it bifurcated into an ascending branch that went to the right suprarenal gland and a descending branch that ended in the posterior abdominal wall. The left testicular artery was normal in its course and distribution. This is a very rare variation.

  11. Is assisted reproduction associated with abnormal placentation?

    PubMed

    Joy, Jolly; Gannon, Caroline; McClure, Neil; Cooke, Inez

    2012-01-01

    Artificial reproductive technologies (ART) and conception following a period of untreated infertility (>1 year) are independently associated with increased pregnancy complications in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. It is unknown if placental dysfunction associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic histological discrepancies might explain some of these variances. Our aim was to compare the histopathology of placentae from singleton pregnancies belonging to 3 groups, as follows: conception as a result of ART; spontaneous conception (<1 year of trying); and conception following untreated infertility (>1 year). Pathological examination of placentae from singleton pregnancies of nonsmoking, age-matched primiparous women with no significant medical history and no known uterine congenital anomalies was performed by a single pathologist blinded to the groups. Features were compared using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. A total of 89 placental pathology reports were available (control  =  39, infertility  =  17, ART  =  33). The mean placental thickness was significantly higher in the ART group when compared to the spontaneous conception group (P  =  0.02). There were significantly more placental hematomas in the ART group (P  =  0.04) compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in rates of abnormal placental shapes or abnormal cord insertions. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of microscopic placental lesions, nor were there any statistically significant differences in the incidence of macroscopic and microscopic placental lesions between the infertility group and the other groups. Placentae of ART pregnancies show significantly increased thickness and a higher incidence of hematomas. Increased placental thickness has previously been linked to increased perinatal risk.

  12. Karyotypic abnormalities in myelofibrosis following polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Joris; Demory, Jean Loup; Caulier, Marie Thérèse; Agape, Philippe; Wetterwald, Marc; Bauters, Francis; Laï, Jean Luc

    2003-01-15

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by an increase of total red cell volume; in 10% to 15% of cases, bone marrow fibrosis complicates the course of the disease after several years, resulting in a hematologic picture mimicking myelofibrosis with myelocytic metaplasia (MMM). This condition is known as post polycythemic myelofibrosis (PPMF). Among 30 patients with PPMF followed in Northern France, 27 (90%) expressed one or two abnormal clones in myelocytic cell cultures. Of these, 19 (70%) had partial or complete trisomy 1q. This common anomaly either resulted from unbalanced translocations with acrocentric chromosomes, that is, 13, 14, and 15, or other chromosomes, that is, 1, 6, 7, 9, 16, 19, and Y, or from partial or total duplication of long arm of chromosome 1. A single patient had an isochromosome 1q leading to tetrasomy 1q. In all cases, a common trisomic region spanning 1q21 to 1q32 has been identified. Given that most patients had previously received chemotherapy or radio-phosphorus to control the polycythemic phase of their disease, this study illustrates the increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities after such treatments: 90% versus 50% in de novo MMM. Moreover, karyotype can be used to distinguish PPMF-where trisomy 1q is the main anomaly-from primary MMM where trisomy 1q is rare and deletions 13q or 20q are far more common. Whether trisomy 1q is or is not a secondary event remains a matter of debate, as well as the role of cytotoxic treatments. PMID:12645649

  13. Eye-Head Coordination Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Simon; Würmle, Othmar; Razavi, Nadja; Müri, René M.; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. Methodology/Principal Findings Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view). Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. Conclusions/Significance Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients with schizophrenia. PMID

  14. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  15. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  16. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System (WATRS). The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the WATRS corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  17. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Gulf of Mexico. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Gulf of Mexico to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  18. Oceanic Situational Awareness over the North Atlantic Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the oceanic domain. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the North Atlantic Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  19. Situating Cognition: Knowledge and Power in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    Although adult education as a field has shown interest in theories of situated cognition, it has misappropriated some of its central concepts. Proponents of situated cognition posit that learning is not something that happens in independent isolation, or just inside the head, but instead is shaped by the context, culture, and tools of the learning…

  20. Artificial Experience: Situation Awareness Training in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Janine E.

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-experimental research study developed and tested an education process to reduce and trap medication errors. The study was framed by Endsley's (1995a) model of situation awareness in dynamic decision making. Situation awareness improvement strategies were practiced during high-fidelity clinical simulations. Harmful medication errors occur…

  1. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  2. Situated Researcher Reflections and Professional Learning Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Some key theoretical aspects of the author's recently completed Doctor of Education thesis regarding teacher professional development were situativity theory, communities of practice and being a situated reflective practitioner. With the hard work now over, she comments on these aspects and their continuing relevance. She describes how she was…

  3. 36 CFR 800.12 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency situations. 800.12... HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.12 Emergency situations. (a) Agency procedures. The... into account during operations which respond to a disaster or emergency declared by the President,...

  4. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest…

  5. Situating Gendered Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to situate the concept of gendered learning in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the results of two closely related, qualitative studies of apprenticeship learning in two major industrial companies in Denmark. Findings: The paper finds that the creation of a situated-gendered…

  6. Gender categorization is abnormal in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christina D; Gaudrain, Etienne; Clarke, Jeanne N; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Free, Rolien H; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    In normal hearing (NH), the perception of the gender of a speaker is strongly affected by two anatomically related vocal characteristics: the fundamental frequency (F0), related to vocal pitch, and the vocal tract length (VTL), related to the height of the speaker. Previous studies on gender categorization in cochlear implant (CI) users found that performance was variable, with few CI users performing at the level of NH listeners. Data collected with recorded speech produced by multiple talkers suggests that CI users might rely more on F0 and less on VTL than NH listeners. However, because VTL cannot be accurately estimated from recordings, it is difficult to know how VTL contributes to gender categorization. In the present study, speech was synthesized to systematically vary F0, VTL, or both. Gender categorization was measured in CI users, as well as in NH participants listening to unprocessed (only synthesized) and vocoded (and synthesized) speech. Perceptual weights for F0 and VTL were derived from the performance data. With unprocessed speech, NH listeners used both cues (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 3.76, VTL = 5.56). With vocoded speech, NH listeners still made use of both cues but less efficiently (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 1.68, VTL = 0.63). CI users relied almost exclusively on F0 while VTL perception was profoundly impaired (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 6.88, VTL = 0.59). As a result, CI users' gender categorization was abnormal compared to NH listeners. Future CI signal processing should aim to improve the transmission of both F0 cues and VTL cues, as a normal gender categorization may benefit speech understanding in competing talker situations.

  7. Biomechanical abnormalities in musicians with occupational cramp/focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F R; Wagner, C; Hömberg, V

    1993-01-01

    Occupational factors and peripheral injuries are frequently implicated in the development of hand cramps and the syndrome of persistent manual incoordination among musicians and others most commonly given a diagnosis of focal limb dystonia. In an attempt to gain insight into the character and influence of risk factors in the evolution of this disorder, the authors conducted detailed evaluations of 33 individuals who responded to a questionnaire sent to university- and conservatory-level music schools in Germany in September 1989. Response was invited from any musician with complaints of impaired hand control. Of the 33 individuals accepted for evaluation, 18 were musicians who met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of occupational cramp/focal dystonia (OC/FD). Nineteen of the original 33 subjects underwent a quantitative biochemical assessment, comparing active and passive ranges of motion at all joints below the shoulder with those for cohorts of unimpaired musicians, matched for gender and musical instrument. Of the 19 tested biomechanically, 14 had OC/FD and the remaining five had either persistent pain or nonspecific movement idiosyncracies interfering with playing. Compared with the matched groups of normals, no consistent biomechanical abnormality was found in the non-OC/FD group; in the OC/FD group two thirds had marked limitation of passive and/or active abduction range between the central digits of both hands. Based on detailed training and performance histories in these subjects, the authors conclude that a specific biomechanical condition in the hand can interfere with certain high-speed digital movements required in musical instrument performance. Unintended muscle synergies, postures, and movement patterns can develop as attempts are made to increase the speed and fluency of such movements. As rehearsal is intensified, degraded movements are stabilized ("programmed"). In this situation, OC/FD appears to represent an aberrant outcome of normal motor

  8. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Serfass, David G; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed.

  9. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  10. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  11. Pathogenesis and management of abnormal puberty.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, N J

    1985-01-01

    In the prepubertal child, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis is functional and extremely sensitive to negative feedback inhibition by low circulating levels of sex steroids. This feedback system may be under the control of unknown CNS inhibitory mechanisms. Clinical signs of puberty are preceded by increased pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Gonadotropin secretion, particularly LH, increases in both sexes, especially during sleep, resulting in gonadal stimulation, secretion of sex steroids, and progressive physical maturation. When any phase of the H-P-G axis malfunctions, abnormal puberty can result. Abnormal puberty may be precocious or delayed. When puberty is precocious it may be isosexual or heterosexual, complete or partial, intermittent (unsustained), or progressive. True (central) precocious puberty is usually progressive, and hormonally reflective of normal puberty, although occurring at an earlier age, whereas intermittent or unsustained precocious puberty usually is associated with immature patterns of gonadotropin secretion, or with complete gonadotropin suppression as in precocious pseudopuberty (ovarian or adrenal tumors). Cranial axial tomography, gonadotropin response to GnRH, and pelvic ultrasound in girls are useful tools to aid in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. Intermittent, or unsustained, puberty in girls is usually self-limited, requiring no medical or surgical intervention. True progressive central precocity may now be managed with GnRH analogues, which effectively arrest pubertal changes as well as slow rapid linear growth and skeletal maturation. Although a maturation lag usually explains most patterns of delayed puberty, it is often challenging to exclude other conditions that may contribute to slow pubertal progression, such as chronic illness, excessive exercise, emotional stress, anorexia, or drug use. Elevated

  12. Gamma Frequency–Range Abnormalities to Auditory Stimulation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jun Soo; O’Donnell, Brian F.; Wallenstein, Gene V.; Greene, Robert W.; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Nestor, Paul G.; Hasselmo, Michael E.; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Basic science studies at the neuronal systems level have indicated that gamma-range (30–50 Hz) neural synchronization may be a key mechanism of information processing in neural networks, reflecting integration of various features of an object. Furthermore, gamma-range synchronization is thought to depend on the glutamatergically mediated interplay between excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory neurons utilizing g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which postmortem studies suggest may be abnormal in schizophrenia. We therefore tested whether auditory neural networks in patients with schizophrenia could support gamma-range synchronization. Methods Synchronization of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to different rates (20–40 Hz) of auditory stimulation was recorded from 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 sex-, age-, and handedness-matched control subjects. The EEG power at each stimulation frequency was compared between groups. The time course of the phase relationship between each stimulus and EEG peak was also evaluated for gamma-range (40 Hz) stimulation. Results Schizophrenic patients showed reduced EEG power at 40 Hz, but not at lower frequencies of stimulation. In addition, schizophrenic patients showed delayed onset of phase synchronization and delayed desynchronization to the click train. Conclusions These data provide new information on selective deficits in early-stage sensory processing in schizophrenia, a failure to support the entrainment of intrinsic gamma-frequency oscillators. The reduced EEG power at 40 Hz in schizophrenic patients may reflect a dysfunction of the recurrent inhibitory drive on auditory neural networks. PMID:10565499

  13. The impact of situational factors on health care preferences: exploring the prospect of situationally based segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1991-06-01

    Health care marketing research has examined the relationship between health care utilization and (1) client demographic characteristics and (2) service characteristics. The impact of situational factors on health care utilization has received limited attention. The authors find that the influence of situational factors in the health care market is substantial and suggest some preliminary situational segmentation strategies.

  14. Parental Discipline Behaviors, Subjective Parental Situation Perceptions and Objective Characteristics of Discipline Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerris, Jan R. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    In this attempt to explain parental discipline behaviors from an interactionist viewpoint that includes person and situation factors, the relationship of parental discipline behaviors to situation-specific feelings and cognitions and objective situational characteristics were examined. Data obtained from 300 families included (1) social…

  15. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  16. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.

  17. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  18. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  19. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  20. Liver abnormalities in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria; Crotti, Chiara; Selmi, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    The liver is a lymphoid organ involved in the immune response and in the maintenance of tolerance to self molecules, but it is also a target of autoimmune reactions, as observed in primary liver autoimmune diseases (AILD) such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Further, the liver is frequently involved in connective tissue diseases (CTD), most commonly in the form of liver function test biochemical changes with predominant cholestatic or hepatocellular patterns. CTD commonly affecting the liver include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholypid syndrome, primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, polimyositis, and anti-synthetase syndrome, while overlap syndromes between AILD and CTD may also be diagnosed. Although liver cirrhosis and failure are extremely rare in patients with CTD, unusual liver conditions such as nodular regenerative hyperplasia or Budd-Chiari syndrome have been reported with increasing frequency in patients with CTD. Acute or progressing liver involvement is generally related to viral hepatitis reactivation or to a concomitant AILD, so it appears to be fundamental to screen patients for HBV and HCV infection, in order to provide the ideal therapeutic regimen and avoid life-threatening reactivations. Finally, it is important to remember that the main cause of biochemical liver abnormalities in patients with CTD is a drug-induced alteration or coexisting viral hepatitis. The present article will provide a general overview of the liver involvement in CTD to allow rheumatologists to discriminate the most common clinical scenarios.

  1. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, François; Meuli, Reto

    2015-12-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. PMID:26255159

  2. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  3. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2006-12-01

    Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the captive chimpanzee population, little is known about the prevalence and etiology of heart disease in this species. We reviewed the physical exam records of 265 common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for electrocardiogram abnormalities. During the 24-mo period reviewed (August 2003 through August 2005), 34 animals were diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias consisting of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, mixed arrhythmias, and bradycardia. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was significantly higher in male animals, chimpanzees 20 to 39 y old, and those with structural heart disease. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was not significantly higher in animals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or chronic viral infections. During the retrospective period, 7 animals with cardiac arrhythmias died or were euthanized. Mortality was significantly higher in animals with ventricular arrhythmias compared with those without ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that in the common chimpanzee, age, male gender, and structural heart disease are risk factors for developing cardiac arrhythmias and that ventricular arrhythmias are risk factors for mortality. PMID:17219782

  4. Abnormal membrane sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J D; Lapey, A; Simopoulos, P; Bravo, E L

    1971-11-01

    We have documented the presence of abnormal sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome by measuring sodium concentration, sodium influx, and fractional sodium outflux in vitro in erythrocytes from normal subjects, two patients with Liddle's syndrome, and one patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Sodium influx and fractional sodium outflux, but not sodium concentration, were significantly increased in patients with Liddle's syndrome. Sodium outflux in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism did not differ significantly from normal. These alterations of sodium transport in erythrocytes from patients with Liddle's syndrome were not attributable to circulating levels of aldosterone, renin, angiotensin, or serum potassium. Furthermore, changes in aldosterone secretory rate and levels of circulating renin produced by varying dietary sodium intake, did not alter sodium influx or fractional sodium outflux in either patients with Liddle's syndrome or normal subjects. The response of fractional sodium outflux and sodium influx to ouabain, ethacrynic acid, and to changes in the cation composition of the incubation medium suggests that the increased sodium fluxes in Liddle's syndrome do not result solely from a quantitative increase in those components of sodium transport which occur in normal human erythrocytes. Instead, at least a portion of the increased erythrocyte sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome represents a component of sodium transport which does not occur in normal human erythrocytes.

  5. Nuclear abnormalities of marine fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Strunjak-Perovic, I; Topic Popovic, N; Coz-Rakovac, R; Jadan, M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (NA) including micronuclei (MN) in cultured and wild sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and wild mullet Mugil spp. Seasonal sampling was performed at seven locations along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The frequency of NA and MN was positively correlated to temperature (NA: P < 0.05, r = 0.11; MN P < 0.05, r = 0.10), and there was also a positive correlation between NA and MN frequency (P < 0.001, r = 0.43). The lowest NA and MN values for both fish species were recorded in spring, while the highest were recorded in autumn. Significantly higher frequency of NA was seen in D. labrax compared to Mugil spp., while MN frequency was low in both species and not significantly different. There was no significant difference in NA and MN frequency between cultured and wild D. labrax sampled in the same month, and there was no difference between wild Mugil spp. sampled near or far from fish farms. In view of sampling sites, the highest values were detected in fishes from the Limski Channel, the lowest from the Janjina location.

  6. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  7. Behavioral abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Mast, Benjamin; Litvan, Irene

    2013-12-30

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which, classically, patients present with postural instability and falls, parkinsonism, and slowing of vertical saccades. PSP patients typically have deficits in cognitive functioning, difficulties with most daily activities, and present with notable behavioral disturbances-particularly apathy, impulsivity, and irritability. Using data from 154 patients meeting criteria for clinically probable PSP, domain and total scores of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were examined and compared to demographics, disease severity, cognition, and motor features. Behavioral abnormalities were common in this cohort of PSP patients, with more than half experiencing apathy, depression, and sleeping problems, and approximately one third displaying agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and eating problems. Few clinical correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms were observed in this cohort. Given the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PSP, these patients are expected to be frequently seen by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals for symptom management and increased quality of life. Clinical trials are clearly needed to address the neuropsychiatric morbidity in these patients.

  8. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making.

  9. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  10. Situated learning in translation research training: academic research as a reflection of practice

    PubMed Central

    Risku, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master’s level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners. PMID:27499805

  11. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  12. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices. PMID:25028162

  13. Rhetorical Approaches to Crisis Communication: The Research, Development, and Validation of an Image Repair Situational Theory for Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelaar, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    In this project a product to aid educational leaders in the process of communicating in crisis situations is presented. The product was created and received a formative evaluation using an educational research and development methodology. Ultimately, an administrative training course that utilized an Image Repair Situational Theory was developed.…

  14. A streamlined software environment for situated skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

  15. Decision-making situations in health care.

    PubMed

    Murdach, A D

    1995-08-01

    Social workers in health care settings are constantly required to make clinical decisions about patient care and treatment. Although much attention has been devoted to the normative or ethical aspects of decision making in such settings, little attention has been given to the typical situational aspects of decisions social workers must make in health care. This article discusses four types of clinical decision situations--operational, strategic, authoritative, and crisis--and presents a model to assist in analyzing their components and requirements. Case vignettes drawn from practice experience illustrate each type of decision-making situation. The article concludes that knowledge of the situational aspects of practice decision making can be helpful to practitioners by enabling them to sort out courses of action and intervention.

  16. Electrochemical situation in corrosion-mechanical cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, L.N.; Kalinkov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the electrochemical situation in corrosion cracks is determined by the electromotive force of local galvanic cells at the crack tip and the polarization resistance of anodic processes.

  17. Abnormal humoral immune responses in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of bone marrow transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, S G; Pahwa, R N; Friedrich, W; O'Reilly, R J; Good, R A

    1982-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating recovery of humoral immunity in vitro after bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia and severe aplastic anemia. Hemolytic plaque assays were utilized to quantitate pokeweed mitogen-stimulated polyclonal immunoglobulin production and sheep erythrocyte antigen-specific antibody responses in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 patients beginning at 1 month, for variable periods up to a maximum of 4 years after marrow transplantation. Three phases were identified: an early period of primary B cell dysfunction with concomitant immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities--i.e., decreased helper and increased suppressor activities; an intermediate phase in which B cell dysfunction could be attributed in large measure to immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities; and a late phase of normal B and T lymphocyte functions. Patients with graft-versus-host disease differed from those without it in that they often did not manifest increased T cell suppressor activity in the early period, and they were noted to have prolonged and profound B and T cell abnormalities in the chronic phase of their disease. In selected patients, simultaneous assessment of ratios of Leu-2 to Leu-3 antigens on T cells by monoclonal antibodies and of immunoregulatory T cell functions revealed a correlation between the two only late in the post-transplant period. These studies provide an insight into the ontogeny of B cell function in the post-transplant period and indicate that in certain situations phenotypic alterations in T cell subsets cannot reliably be used to predict abnormalities in their function in recipients of marrow transplantation. Images PMID:6211673

  18. Abnormal treating pressures in MHF treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, W.L.; Fitch, J.L.

    1983-10-01

    Abnormal treating pressures are observed during massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) treatments in the Mesa Verde formation of the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Data from three widely separated wells and in several zones per well all show a pressure increase during MHF treatments which the authors call ''pressure growth''. This pressure growth is at least semi-permanent. The elevated instantaneous shut-in pressures do not return to initial values over periods of several days. The magnitude of this pressure growth is highly variable. When its value is less than about 2300 psi the MHF treatments are usually completed and results are obtained which are within normal expectations. When its value exceeds 2300 psi, sandout occurs and the fracture length estimated from production data is much less than that calculated using crack propagation models. Temperature logs indicate little or only modest vertical extension of the fractures above the perforations. These data, along with sandouts, point to a large increase in width of the fractures in response to pressure growth. One possible cause of pressure growth is fracture branching. A multiplicity of branches could produce a plastic-like effect. Laboratory measurements have ruled out plasticity as the cause. The stress-strain behavior of the rock is similar to that of rocks where no pressure growth occurs. Pressure growth seems to be dependent on both pumping rate and fluid viscosity. Thus, there is some hope for its mitigation through treatment design. Also, pressure growth appears to correlate negatively with pay zone quality. This suggests that the phenomenon can be exploited as a fluid diversion technique.

  19. Hematological abnormalities in severe anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Allison L; Gaudiani, Jennifer L; Statland, Barbara; Mehler, Philip S

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of hematologic abnormalities in adults with severe anorexia nervosa. We report the first major analysis of hematologic dysfunction in such patients. We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 53 men and women with severe anorexia nervosa, admitted between October 2008 and December 2010 for medical stabilization to our center, which has a national referral base. Patients were predominantly female (89 %), with a median age of 28 years (range 17-65), and were hospitalized for a median duration of 15 days (I.Q.R. 9-29). Nadir body mass index during hospitalization was markedly low at 12.4 kg/m(2) (range 8.4-15.7), and the mean discharge BMI was 13.8 kg/m(2) (range 10.2-16.8). 83 % of patients were anemic (hematocrit <37 %), with only 3 (6 %) having iron deficiency. 79 % were leukopenic (WBC < 4.5 k/μL), 29 % were neutropenic (ANC < 1.0 k/μL), 25 % were thrombocytopenic (platelets < 150 k/μL), and 17 % of patients developed thrombocytosis (platelets > 400 k/μL) during their hospitalization. Eighty-nine percent of patients had resolved their neutropenia by discharge. Marked hematologic deficiencies are often present in patients with severe anorexia nervosa, generally attributed to starvation-mediated gelatinous marrow transformation which resolves with proper nutritional rehabilitation. Improved provider awareness of this association may reduce unnecessary testing and costly treatment interventions.

  20. Myocardial bioenergetic abnormalities in experimental uremia

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758

  1. Automatic Semantic Priming Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal activation of semantic networks characterizes schizophrenia and can be studied using the N400 event-related potential (ERP). N400 is elicited by words that are not primed by the preceding context and provides a direct measure of the neural mechanisms underlying semantic priming. Semantic priming refers to facilitated semantic processing gained through pre-exposure to semantic context, which can happen automatically if the interval between the prime and target is very short. We predicted that (1) schizophrenia patients have overly inclusive semantic networks, reflected in a less negative than expected N400 to relatively unprimed words, and (2) schizophrenia patients are deficient in their use of semantic context, responding to primed words as if they were unprimed, reflected in a more negative than expected N400 to primed words. N400s were acquired from patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (n=26) and age-matched healthy comparison subjects (n=29) performing a picture-word verification (match vs. non-match) task. Word targets were presented 325ms after a picture prime, which either matched (CAMEL→”camel”), or did not match (In Category: CAMEL→”cow; Out Category: CAMEL→”candle”) the prime. N400 data suggest that both patients and controls are sensitive to the difference between primed and unprimed words, but patients are less sensitive than controls. Similarly, N400 data suggest that both groups were sensitive to the subtler difference between classes of unprimed words (In Category versus Out Category picture-word non-matches), but patients are less sensitive, especially those with prominent negative symptoms. PMID:19995582

  2. Arterial abnormalities of the shoulder in athletes.

    PubMed

    Nuber, G W; McCarthy, W J; Yao, J S; Schafer, M F; Suker, J R

    1990-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the shoulder may be misinterpreted as one of the more familiar shoulder abnormalities by a treating physician. We are reporting on 13 athletes who were found to have symptoms related to compression of the subclavian or axillary artery or their tributaries. Nine were amateur or professional baseball pitchers. Severe arm fatigue or finger ischemia, secondary to embolization, were presenting symptoms. Arm fatigue was noted in all pitchers. After complete history and physical examination, including auscultation for bruits in functional positions, all athletes were evaluated by noninvasive tests (Doppler and Duplex scanning). Arteriography was performed with positional testing, recreating overhead activity, and complete radiographic visualization of the dye to the digital arteries. Two patients were found to have subclavian artery aneurysm. The remaining athletes were found to have compression of the subclavian artery beneath the anterior scalene muscle (five patients), the axillary artery beneath the pectoralis minor (two patients), both arterial segments (two patients), and one was found to have arterial compromise at the level of the humeral head. Branch artery compression was also noted. One pitcher occluded the posterior circumflex humeral artery with embolization to the digit. The two patients with subclavian aneurysms underwent saphenous vein bypass with cervical rib resection. All of the other athletes except one underwent resection of a 2 to 3 cm segment of the anterior scalene muscle or pectoralis minor muscles. All returned to their previous level of activity except one patient who developed impingement type symptoms and required acromioplasty. He is currently undergoing rehabilitation. Proper recognition of vascular compromise in the upper extremity of athletes is essential to avoid the catastropic complications of arterial thrombosis.

  3. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  4. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  5. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  6. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormality: A Cause of Birth Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumridge, Diane

    Intended for parents and professionals, the book explains chromosome abnormalities in lay terms and discusses the relationship of specific conditions to birth defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are defined and factors in diagnosis and recurrence are discussed. Normal chromosome reproduction processes are covered while such numerical abnormalities…

  7. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Cancer.gov

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  8. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  9. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  10. Mental abnormality and criminality--an uncertain relationship.

    PubMed

    Prins, H

    1990-07-01

    Some aspects of the uncertain relationship between mental abnormality and criminality are considered. Comments are offered on the contextual framework for such a relationship, studies of penal and other populations and the relationship between some specific mental abnormalities and criminal behaviour. Some implications for management are identified.

  11. Clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with snake envenomation in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Amelia; Schoeman, Johan P; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Nagel, Salome S; Aroch, Itamar

    2011-09-01

    Envenomation of domestic animals by snakes occurs frequently in certain geographic areas. However, reports describing clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, therapeutic approaches, and outcomes are sparse. This review summarizes various snake families, venom types associated with harmful snakes, and the significant hematologic, hemostatic, and biochemical abnormalities associated with envenomation. Hematologic abnormalities include RBC membrane abnormalities, hemolysis, hemoconcentration, leukogram changes, and platelet abnormalities, specifically thrombocytopenia. Coagulopathies associated with snake envenomation are well described in human medicine, and many studies have demonstrated properties of venoms that lead to both procoagulation and anticoagulation. As expected, similar abnormalities have been described in domestic animals. Biochemical abnormalities are associated with the effects of venom on tissues such as liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, vascular endothelium, and kidney as well as effects on protein components and cholesterol. This comprehensive review of clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with envenomation and their relationships to characterized venom constituents should be useful both in the diagnosis and management of envenomation and should serve as a foundation for future research in this field.

  12. The management of abnormal haemostasis in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Retter, A; Barrett, N A

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology and management of haemostatic abnormalities in critical care patients are considered in this narrative review. The mechanisms of normal haemostasis and derangements that occur as a result of sepsis and organ dysfunction are discussed. Finally, the management of haemostatic abnormalities as they relate to critical care practice are considered, including the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

  13. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  14. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH will... section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard to pneumoconiosis will...

  15. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  16. Treating growth and TMJ abnormalities in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tanchyk, A

    1994-12-01

    Two case reports illustrate the orofacial aspects of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The disease can affect facial growth and cause TMJ abnormalities. Children may vary in the degree to which they are affected by JRA, and dentists should investigate JRA as a cause of these abnormalities or deformities.

  17. Stomatocytosis, abnormal platelets and pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G W; O'Brien, H; Morris, S A; Owen, J S; Lloyd, J K; Ames, J A

    1987-04-01

    A 13-yr-old girl with congenital haemolytic anaemia associated with pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia is described. The erythrocyte morphology showed 50-80% stomatocytes, but no abnormality of membrane lipid or protein composition or of cation transport was detected. The platelets were reduced in number, abnormally large and showed reduced adhesion. Successful treatment of the hypercholesterolaemia did not influence the stomatocytosis.

  18. Project CAD as of July 1978: CAD support project, situation in July 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesch, L.; Lang-Lendorff, G.; Rothenberg, R.; Stelzer, V.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and the requirements for program developments in past and future are described. The actual standard and the future aims of CAD programs are presented. The developed programs in: (1) civil engineering; (2) mechanical engineering; (3) chemical engineering/shipbuilding; (4) electrical engineering; and (5) general programs are discussed.

  19. Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder investigated with MRI and voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Allison C; Milham, Michael P; Bain, Earle E; Mah, Linda; Cannon, Dara M; Marrett, Sean; Zarate, Carlos A; Pine, Daniel S; Price, Joseph L; Drevets, Wayne C

    2006-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with abnormalities of brain structure. Specifically, in vivo volumetric MRI and/or post mortem studies of BD have reported abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampal subiculum and ventral striatum. These structures share anatomical connections with each other and form part of a "visceromotor" network modulating emotional behavior. Areas of the lateral orbital, superior temporal and posterior cingulate cortices project to this network, but morphometric abnormalities in these areas have not been established in BD. The current study assessed tissue volumes within these areas in BD using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). MRI images were obtained from 36 BD subjects and 65 healthy controls. To account for possible neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of psychotropic medications, BD subjects were divided into medicated and unmedicated groups. Images were segmented into tissue compartments, which were examined on a voxel-wise basis to determine the location and extent of morphometric changes. The GM was reduced in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and superior temporal gyrus of unmedicated BD subjects relative to medicated BD subjects and in the lateral orbital cortex of medicated BD subjects relative to controls. White matter (WM) was increased in the orbital and posterior cingulate cortices, which most likely reflected alterations in gyral morphology resulting from the reductions in the associated GM. The morphometric abnormalities in the posterior cingulate, superior temporal and lateral orbital cortices in BD support the hypothesis that the extended network of neuroanatomical structures subserving visceromotor regulation contains structural alterations in BD. Additionally, localization of morphometric abnormalities to areas known to exhibit increased metabolism in depression supports the hypothesis that repeated stress and elevated glucocorticoid

  20. Significance of abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 8 in chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Swarts, S J; Neff, J R; Johansson, S L; Nelson, M; Bridge, J A

    1998-04-01

    Tumor specific chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in several histologic subtypes of benign and malignant bone tumors. These anomalies have proven to be useful diagnostically. Characterization of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities also has provided direction for molecular investigations of pathogenetically important genes. Cytogenetic reports of chondroblastoma, a rare benign bone tumor, are few. Cytogenetic analysis of a benign and a malignant chondroblastoma in this study revealed the following abnormal chromosomal complements: 47,XY,+5,t(5;5)(p10;q10) and 45, XY,del(2)(p23),del(3)(q23q27),dup(8)(q12q21.), del(11) (q14q23), -13, add (17) (q25) x 2, respectively. Although a specific chromosomal abnormality has not yet emerged for chondroblastoma, abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 8 have been reported previously in this neoplasm, suggesting preferential involvement of these two chromosomes. PMID:9584382

  1. Mitochondrial abnormalities in dermatomyositis: characteristic pattern of neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Alhatou, Mohammed I; Sladky, John T; Bagasra, Omar; Glass, Jonathan D

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to evaluate mitochondrial abnormalities in perifascicular atrophic fibers in muscle biopsies from patients with dermatomyositis (DM). We localized cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) histochemically in muscle biopsies of 12 patients with DM, and 12 control patients with neurogenic atrophy. These two histochemical techniques were also combined on single tissue sections in order to accentuate any COX-negative fibers. Eleven out of 12 patients (91.6%) with DM showed histochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in perifascicular distribution. Similar abnormalities in histochemical staining were not seen in comparably sized myofibers that were atrophic due to denervation. It is concluded that abnormal SDH and COX histochemical activities in atrophic perifascicular fibers are characteristic of dermatomyositis. These abnormal staining characteristics could not be accounted for solely by myofiber atrophy, or by generalized abnormalities in histochemical staining.

  2. Widespread Epigenetic Abnormalities Suggest a Broad DNA Methylation Erasure Defect in Abnormal Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Kimberly; Yang, Allen; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. Methodology/Principal Finding We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. Conclusions This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line. PMID:18074014

  3. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  4. Escape from an effortful situation1

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. Keith

    1968-01-01

    This experiment investigated the tendency to escape from a situation requiring effortful responding. Five human subjects responded in a situation where the response mechanism required 20-lb force to operate; responses were reinforced according to a variable-interval schedule. A subject escaped from this situation by emitting a vocal response which produced a 60-sec “easy period”. During the easy period the reinforcement contingency was switched to a response mechanism requiring 1 lb to operate. It was found that: (1) Escape responding could be conditioned and maintained by producing the easy period; the easy period did not maintain escape responding when the force requirement in the normal situation was equated with it. (2) The rate of escape responding was a function of the magnitude of the force normally required. (3) When easy periods were scheduled after fixed ratios, pausing from the end of the previous easy period to the first escape response was noted. It was concluded that a situation requiring high-force responding is a negative reinforcer. The pattern of fixed-ratio responding suggests that this reinforcer produces typical schedule control in human subjects. PMID:5749186

  5. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Gibson, Bradley S; McNerney, M Windy

    2014-01-01

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. This suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  6. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2013-03-04

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  7. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    DOE PAGES

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2013-03-04

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefitmore » for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.« less

  8. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Gibson, Bradley S; McNerney, M Windy

    2014-01-01

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. This suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived. PMID:25588274

  9. Live ECG readings using Google Glass in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Roger; Salamin, Fanny; Jimenez Del Toro, Oscar Alfonso; Atzori, Manfredo; Muller, Henning; Widmer, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Most sudden cardiac problems require rapid treatment to preserve life. In this regard, electrocardiograms (ECG) shown on vital parameter monitoring systems help medical staff to detect problems. In some situations, such monitoring systems may display information in a less than convenient way for medical staff. For example, vital parameters are displayed on large screens outside the field of view of a surgeon during cardiac surgery. This may lead to losing time and to mistakes when problems occur during cardiac operations. In this paper we present a novel approach to display vital parameters such as the second derivative of the ECG rhythm and heart rate close to the field of view of a surgeon using Google Glass. As a preliminary assessment, we run an experimental study to verify the possibility for medical staff to identify abnormal ECG rhythms from Google Glass. This study compares 6 ECG rhythms readings from a 13.3 inch laptop screen and from the prism of Google Glass. Seven medical residents in internal medicine participated in the study. The preliminary results show that there is no difference between identifying these 6 ECG rhythms from the laptop screen versus Google Glass. Both allow close to perfect identification of the 6 common ECG rhythms. This shows the potential of connected glasses such as Google Glass to be useful in selected medical applications.

  10. Metal levels in the liver, muscle, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi) with abnormal gonad.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R; Yeltekin, Aslı

    2014-06-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that Lake Van--the biggest soda lake in the world--is polluted due to an increasing population. Studies have shown abnormalities in the Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi), the sole fish species that inhabits the lake. Unlike the vitellogenic and mature oocytes in normal gonads, abnormal gonads show large amounts of connective tissue and young oocytes. In this study, metal levels (nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], iron [Fe], zinc [Zn], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], and manganese [Mn]) in the muscle, liver, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish with normal and abnormal gonads were assessed. Further, the metal contents in the wastewater from the wastewater treatment facility situated near Lake Van in Van City were assessed. All the metal levels, except that of Zn, were high in the Lake Van environment (P<0.05). The highest metal content in the tissues was for Fe, while the lowest level was for Co. The Pb level was found to be very high in both fish groups. Cd was not found in the tissues of both fish groups. The levels of Fe, Cu, Pb, and Mn were not significant in the tissues of both normal and abnormal fish groups. Zn level was significantly high in the livers and gonads of fish with abnormal gonads, and Co level was significantly high only in the livers (P<0.05). Consequently, high levels of Zn in the liver and gonads and high levels of Co in the liver may be factors causing the abnormal gonads in the Lake Van fish.

  11. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  12. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  13. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    PubMed

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs. PMID:25285384

  14. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    PubMed

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs.

  15. A Retrospective Study of Congenital Cardiac Abnormality Associated with Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Ucpunar, Hanifi; Sevencan, Ahmet; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Albayrak, Akif; Polat, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To identify the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients who had scoliosis and underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Overview of Literature Congenital and idiopathic scoliosis (IS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. We sought to establish and compare the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis (CS) who underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Methods Ninety consecutive scoliosis patients, who underwent surgical correction of scoliosis, were classified as CS (55 patients, 28 female [51%]) and IS (35 patients, 21 female [60%]). The complete data of the patients, including medical records, plain radiograph and transthoracic echocardiography were retrospectively assessed. Results We found that mitral valve prolapse was the most common cardiac abnormality in both patients with IS (nine patients, 26%) and CS (13 patients, 24%). Other congenital cardiac abnormalities were atrial septal aneurysm (23% of IS patients, 18% of CS patients), pulmonary insufficiency (20% of IS patients, 4% of CS patients), aortic insufficiency (17% of IS patients), atrial septal defect (11% of IS patients, 13% of CS patients), patent foramen ovale (15% of CS patients), dextrocardia (4% of CS patients), bicuspid aortic valve (3% of IS patients), aortic stenosis (2% of CS patients), ventricular septal defect (2% of CS patients), and cardiomyopathy (2% of CS patients). Conclusions We determined the increased incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities among patients with congenital and IS. Mitral valve prolapse appeared to be the most prevalent congenital cardiac abnormality in both groups. PMID:27114761

  16. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  17. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  18. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  19. MRI findings in throwing shoulders: abnormalities in professional handball players.

    PubMed

    Jost, Bernhard; Zumstein, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Shoulders of throwing athletes are highly stressed joints and likely to have more structural abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Prevalence and type of structural abnormalities, especially abnormalities of the rotator cuff tendons and the superolateral humeral head, and correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with symptoms and clinical tests, are not well known. Throwing and nonthrowing (symptomatic and asymptomatic) shoulders of 30 fully competitive professional handball players and 20 dominant shoulders of randomly selected volunteers were evaluated for comparison clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging. An average of seven abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings was observed in the throwing shoulders; more than in the nonthrowing and the control shoulders. Although 93% of the throwing shoulders had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings, only 37% were symptomatic. Partial rotator cuff tears and mainly superolateral osteochondral defects of the humeral head were identified as typical throwing lesions. Symptoms correlated poorly with abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans and findings from clinical tests. This suggests that the evaluation of an athlete's throwing shoulder should be done very thoroughly and should not be based mainly on abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  20. Dental and bone abnormalities in patients with familial polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Carl, W; Herrera, L

    1987-01-01

    Dental and bone abnormalities of the maxilla and mandible are present in approximately 80% of patients with familial polyposis coli. The dental abnormalities include impacted teeth (other than third molars), supernumerary teeth, congenitally missing teeth, fused roots of first and second molars, and unusually long and tapered roots of posterior teeth. The bone lesions consist mostly of osteomas, either isolated or in clusters, in the maxilla and mandible or of exostoses with lateral and/or lingual extensions. Since dental and bone abnormalities are already present early in life there is a strong suggestion that they may be used as diagnostic features in the recognition of familial polyposis coli.

  1. Atypical refsum disease with pipecolic acidemia and abnormal catalase distribution.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, M R; Jansen, G A; Verhoeven, N M; Mooyer, P A; Jakobs, C; Roels, F; Espeel, M; Fourmaintraux, A; Bellet, H; Wanders, R J; Saudubray, J M

    2000-01-01

    We describe an 18-year-old patient with psychomotor retardation and abnormally short metatarsi and metacarpals but no other signs of classic Refsum disease. Molecular analysis of the phytanoyl-coenzyme A hydroxylase gene revealed a homozygous deletion causing a frameshift. Surprisingly, L-pipecolic acid was elevated in plasma, and microscopy of the liver showed a reduced number of peroxisomes per cell and a larger average peroxisome size. These abnormal peroxisomes lacked catalase as did peroxisomes in fibroblasts of this patient. Such generalized peroxisomal abnormalities are not present in classic Refsum disease.

  2. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article. PMID:18568069

  3. Abnormal Trichuris trichiura eggs detected during an epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Iván; Kozek, Wieslaw J

    2007-09-01

    Abnormal eggs of Trichuris trichiura were found in the stools of one of the patients during a study on the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses among an institutionalized population. The abnormalities observed included great variation in shape, size, and color. Similar atypical whipworm eggs have been reported in patients after treatment with mebendazole, thiabendazole, tetracloroethylene, and dithiazanine. Apparently some anthelminthics have an effect on the reproductive system of female T. trichiura, resulting in production of abnormal eggs, which could lead to misdiagnosis of the infection, since they can be mistaken as eggs of other parasites or artifacts.

  4. GEO Satellite Solar Array Abnormality's Analysis and Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junyan; Yang, Yujie; Zhu, Weibo; Liu, Jingyong; Xu, Hui

    Solar array, converting sunlight into electricity, is one of the most important components in satellite energy subsystem. It is significant for in-orbit satellite safety that solar array and its subsidiaries work normally. An abnormal phenomenon that the output current of one solar array suddenly decreased happened in a GEO satellite. Combined with the structure of the solar array system and the trends of relevant parameters during the abnormality, the paper analyzed the possible reasons, and detected the root cause, and finally provided an emergency treatment for this kind of abnormality.

  5. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Abnormal Electrocardiograms After Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; Julayanont, Parunyou; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Kim, Jongyeol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities occur frequently but are often underrecognized after strokes. Acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in some particular area of brain can disrupt central autonomic control of the heart, precipitating cardiac arrhythmias, ECG abnormalities, myocardial injury and sometimes sudden death. Identification of high-risk patients after acute stroke is important to arrange appropriate cardiac monitoring and effective management of arrhythmias, and to prevent cardiac morbidity and mortality. More studies are needed to better clarify pathogenesis, localization of areas associated with arrhythmias and practical management of arrhythmias and abnormal ECGs after acute stroke.

  6. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  7. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

  8. Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaji, Masahiro; Valentin, Francisco I.; Artoun, Narbeh; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Sohal, Manohar; Schultz, Richard; McEligot, Donald M.

    2015-12-21

    The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.

  9. Measurement of ECG abnormalities and cardiovascular risk classification: a cohort study of primary care patients in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Anne; Bots, Michiel L; Rutten, Frans H; den Ruijter, Hester M; Numans, Mattijs E; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background GPs need accurate tools for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. Abnormalities in resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) relate to increased CV risk. Aim To determine whether measurement of ECG abnormalities on top of established risk estimation (SCORE) improves CV risk classification in a primary care population. Design and setting A cohort study of patients enlisted with academic general practices in the Netherlands (the Utrecht Health Project [UHP]). Method Incident CV events were extracted from the GP records. MEANS algorithm was used to assess ECG abnormalities. Cox proportional hazards modelling was applied to relate ECG abnormalities to CV events. For a prediction model only with SCORE variables, and a model with SCORE+ECG abnormalities, the discriminative value (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC]) and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) were estimated. Results A total of 2370 participants aged 38–74 years were included, all eligible for CV risk assessment. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 172 CV events occurred. In 19% of the participants at least one ECG abnormality was found (Lausanne criteria). Presence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) and myocardial infarction (MI) were significantly related to CV events. The AUC of the SCORE risk factors was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.79). Addition of MI or AF resulted in an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI = 0.72 to 0.79) and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.72 to 0.79), respectively. The NRI with the addition of ECG abnormalities was small (MI 1.0%; 95% CI = −3.2% to 6.9%; AF 0.5%; 95% CI = −3.5% to 3.3%). Conclusion Performing a resting ECG in a primary care population does not seem to improve risk classification when SCORE information — age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio — is already available. PMID:25548311

  10. Delta Project Planning and Implementation in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutt, Ashok K.; Heal, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Describes a water management project in the Netherlands which is intended to protect the people, land, and property in the Delta Region from abnormally high floods. Presents background for initiation of the Delta Project and discusses problems encountered in the project to date. (Author/DB)

  11. Preschoolers' Social Information Processing and Early School Success: The Challenging Situations Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Way, Erin; Kalb, Sara C.; Warren-Khot, Heather K.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a larger longitudinal project on the assessment of preschoolers' social-emotional development, children's social information processing (SIP) responses to unambiguous hypothetical situations of peer provocation were assessed for 298 four-year-olds from Head Start and private childcare settings. Measurement focused on emotions…

  12. The Impact of Automated Cognitive Assistants on Situational Awareness in the Brigade Combat Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Carl E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the impact of automated cognitive assistants, specifically, the Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL), on situational awareness, efficiency and effectiveness of decision making in the brigade combat team. PAL was recently commissioned by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to enhance decision making with…

  13. An Assessment of the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Situation in the United States. Volume II: Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    An immediate assessment of the migrant and seasonal farmworker situation was conducted between August 1975 and January 1976. The assessment described the elements affecting these farmworkers; discussed current and projected changes in migration patterns; analyzed the effects of inflation and of changes in agricultural demand and production on…

  14. Situated Learning in an Educational Technology Course for Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kun; Lubin, Ian A.; Ge, Xun

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated a situated learning environment implemented in an educational technology course where pre-service teachers worked collaboratively on meaningful real-world projects, assuming the role of professional teachers. With a traditional learning environment as a critical frame of reference, we found that the students in…

  15. Training Situation Analysis: Conducting a Needs Analysis for Teams and New Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Jay; Fox, John; Malcolm, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    The United States Coast Guard uses training situation analysis (TSA) to develop quantified training requirements, collect training and non-training performance data, and overcome turf issues to focus on performance outcomes. Presents the 1947 MLB (Motor Lifeboat Project) as a case study. Outlines 11 steps in the TSA needs analysis for teams and…

  16. Novel collaboration and situational awareness environment for leaders and their support staff via self assembling software.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil; Bartholomew, John Warren

    2008-02-01

    This is the final report on the Sandia Fellow LDRD, project 117865, 08-0281. This presents an investigation of self-assembling software intended to create shared workspace environment to allow online collaboration and situational awareness for use by high level managers and their teams.

  17. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  18. The Situational Leadership Approach Effects on Employee Motivation in Multi-Generational Information Technology Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Thaddaeus

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the three generations comprising today's IT organizations to determine whether the Situational Leadership approach is effective in motivating this diverse work force to perform project-related tasks. Baby Boomer employees, Generation X employees, and Generation Y employees are the three generations actively employed in IT…

  19. The Sociolinguistic Situation of Bilingual Chicano Adolescents in a California Border Town.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.

    The goal of this study is to describe the sociolinguistic situation of a small group of bilingual Chicano adolescents residing in a California border town. This report is the first stage in a research project into the social dimensions of language use within the Chicano speech community, and the first phase of a cumulative research strategy in…

  20. What Will You Think of Me if I Drink with You? Situational Influences on Metaperceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Kevin J.; Michels, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    In a situation which simulated getting to know someone while waiting for a friend, students rated another before and after selecting a beer or a non-alcoholic beverage. Sex differences were found in metaperceptions (projected perceptions) but not in selection of beverage or perception of the other (N=118). (EMK)

  1. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Serfass, David G.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed. PMID:26566125

  2. Individual and Situational Influences on Men's Responses to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Tim; Yeater, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed multilevel modeling to evaluate individual and situational influences on men's responses to hypothetical dating and social situations. Three hundred and fifty college men completed measures assessing their propensity for sexual aggression and provided written responses to 10 written vignettes, each of which was followed by four…

  3. Harrisonburg, Virginia, a win-win-win situation

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    A unique opportunity for cooperation and community development exists in Harrisonburg, Virginia. James Madison University, located in Harrisonburg, is undergoing an aggressive growth plan of its academic base which also includes the physical expansion of its campus. The City of Harrisonburg is presently supplying steam to meet a portion of the heating needs of the existing James Madison campus from a city owned and operated resource recovery facility. In a cooperative effort, the City of Harrisonburg and James Madison University have negotiated an agreement for the city to provide all of the heating and cooling requirements of the new campus expansion. This is unique in that the university is essentially {open_quotes}outsourcing{close_quotes} its need for heating and cooling to the local municipality in order to avoid the capital expenditure of constructing its own facility. Also, the central plant is not required to conform to an existing situation; a central heating and cooling facility is being designed to meet the requirements of a yet-to-be-constructed customer enabling optimum designs to be incorporated by both parties. In another unique development, the local electrical power distributor, Harrisonburg Electric Commission, approached the city concerning the inclusion of cogeneration in the project thus further benefiting the community. Through the cooperation of these three entities, a unique alliance has been formed and a rare project has been birthed. This paper will focus on the project`s partnering relationships as well as a review of the plant design and construction process. Finally, the current status of the project will be addressed. The plant design includes 3,000 tons of chilled water capacity, an additional 70,000 lb/hr of steam capacity (in addition to the existing resource recovery facility) along with 2.5 MW of cogeneration capacity.

  4. The LPN-ADN articulation project.

    PubMed

    Perlich, L J; Hopkin, L A; Kalunian, K; LeGault, G; Fried, M

    1989-01-01

    Faced with a staffing situation where RN positions were needed but there were more LPN positions than were needed. Tucson Medical Center began an LPN-ADN articulation project to rectify the situation without resorting to layoffs. With the cooperation of a local junior college, LPNs are enrolled in ADN programs that provide a more flexible work/study situation. This article describes the program and the results thus far.

  5. Tamoxifen OK for Breast Cancer Patients without Uterine Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161118.html Tamoxifen OK for Breast Cancer Patients Without Uterine Abnormalities: Study Pretreatment ultrasounds may ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For most women, taking the breast cancer drug tamoxifen doesn't increase their risk of ...

  6. Social and Abnormal Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)

  7. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  8. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters.

  9. The effect of abnormal cell proportion on specimen classifier performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; White, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the results obtained from a cell classifier which is confronted with an abnormal/normal cell ratio which is different from the ratio assumed in the calibration of the classifier. False negative and false positive error rates are determined in advance for classifier operation, along with the necessary sample size in order to validate the predicted distributions. Changes are demonstrated to happen only regarding the false negative rate, where reductions in the abnormal cell rate below the expected rates would cause totally unreliable data. Substantial overproduction of abnormal cells would be quickly noticeable, while production rates beyond, but close to, the expected rates would only require more extensive sampling. Classifier systems for 10% proportions of abnormal cells are concluded to be possible, but difficulties are present with much lower rates

  10. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Goede, Joery; Hack, W W M; Pierik, F H

    2012-04-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  11. Influence of network topology on the abnormal phase order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinzuo; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Zonghua

    2008-12-01

    The abnormal phase order of coupled logistic maps, i.e., the ratio of two sequential "up phases" in the total iterations, can be characterized by the direction phase (Phys. Rev. Lett., 84 (2000) 2610). We here consider the case of coupled logistic maps on complex networks and study how the network topology influences the abnormal phase order. Our numerical simulations reveal that the critical point for the appearance of abnormal phase order increases with the coupling strength but decreases with the degree of heterogeneity of complex networks. Moreover, we find that unlike in the case of normal phase order, it is possible for the system to show a periodic window in the case of abnormal phase order, but only within an appropriate range of coupling strengths, and finally, that the heterogeneity can reduce the maximum number of the phase clusters in a given periodic window.

  12. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  13. Chromosome abnormality incidence in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly.

    PubMed

    Gezer, C; Ekin, A; Ozeren, M; Taner, C E; Ozer, O; Koc, A; Bilgin, M; Gezer, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a marker of aneuploidy and warrants a detailed examination of fetal anatomy. Chromosomal abnormalities worsen the fetal and neonatal prognosis significantly and karyotyping of fetuses is critically important when accompanying anomalies are detected. Here, we report the genetic results of 140 fetuses with isolated and non-isolated VM detected during a second trimester ultrasound examination followed by invasive in utero diagnostic procedures for karyotyping. VM was diagnosed in seven (5%) fetuses with abnormal karyotype and the chromosomal abnormality incidence was higher in severe VM (6.8%) than mild (4.2%). Higher chromosomal abnormality rates were detected when VM was isolated (8.6%), rather than associated with any anomaly (3.8%). These results suggest that karyotype analysis should be offered to all patients with any degree of VM, regardless of its association with structural anomalies.

  14. Cardiac and other abnormalities in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Naeye, R. L.; Whalen, P.; Ryser, M.; Fisher, R.

    1976-01-01

    Many victims of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have abnormally heavy cardiac right ventricles. The degree of this abnormality is directly proportional to: a) the mass of muscle about small pulmonary arteries, b) the amount of brown fat retention about adrenal glands, and c) the presence of hepatic erythropoiesis. The pulmonary arterial abnormality is probably the result of chronic alveolar hypoventilation, while brown fat retention and hepatic erythropoiesis are likely consequences of chronic hypoxemia. These abnormalities are found in both SIDS victims who die with and those who die without mild respiratory tract infections. However, there are some differences between the two SIDS groups. Infected victims die at an older age and have smaller thymus glands and larger spleens; there is a greater proportion of males in the infected victims than in the noninfected victims. PMID:1247080

  15. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A.

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  16. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    MedlinePlus

    ... often in males. XLAG is characterized by abnormal brain development that results in the brain having a smooth ... for interneuron migration. In addition to impairing normal brain development, a lack of functional ARX protein disrupts cell ...

  17. Diverticular Disease of the Colon: Neuromuscular Function Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bernardini, Nunzia; Dore, Maria P

    2016-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a frequent finding in daily clinical practice. However, its pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown. This condition is likely the result of several concomitant factors occurring together to cause anatomic and functional abnormalities, leading as a result to the outpouching of the colonic mucosa. A pivotal role seems to be played by an abnormal colonic neuromuscular function, as shown repeatedly in these patients, and by an altered visceral perception. There is recent evidence that these abnormalities might be related to the derangement of the enteric innervation, to an abnormal distribution of mucosal neuropeptides, and to low-grade mucosal inflammation. The latter might be responsible for the development of visceral hypersensitivity, often causing abdominal pain in a subset of these patients. PMID:27622368

  18. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  19. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Goudis, Christos A; Konstantinidis, Athanasios K; Ntalas, Ioannis V; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-11-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is independently associated with an increased burden of cardiovascular disease. Besides coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF), specific electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias seem to have a significant impact on cardiovascular prognosis of COPD patients. Disturbances of heart rhythm include premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter (AFL), multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT), and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Of note, the identification of ECG abnormalities and the evaluation of the arrhythmic risk may have significant implications in the management and outcome of patients with COPD. This article provides a concise overview of the available data regarding ECG abnormalities and arrhythmias in these patients, including an elaborated description of the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanisms. The clinical impact and prognostic significance of ECG abnormalities and arrhythmias in COPD as well as the appropriate antiarrhythmic therapy and interventions in this setting are also discussed.

  20. The significance of ultrastructural abnormalities of human cilia.

    PubMed

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Makey, A R; Rawbone, R

    1981-12-01

    The electronmicroscopic structure of cilia was studied from the inferior turbinate of the nose in 22 adults, and in 84 biopsies from the bronchial tree of 40 adults. The incidence of compound cilia and abnormal microtubular structures was assessed. There were significant variations in the incidence of abnormalities in different parts of the airways and even within different areas of the same electronmicroscopic section. The focal nature of differences in structure of cilia indicate that abnormalities found in a single biopsy do not necessarily reflect a generalized change in the bronchial tree. Thus, such a finding should not be used as evidence that the abnormalities of cilia are the cause of decrease in mucociliary clearance or that they play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis and sinusitis.

  1. Sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic smokers.

    PubMed

    Selit, I; Basha, M; Maraee, A; El-Naby, S H; Nazeef, N; El-Mehrath, R; Mostafa, T

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) smokers. In all, 140 subjects were included and classified into fertile nonsmokers, fertile smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, assessment of sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities. The results showed that an increased percentage of abnormal sperm DNA and RNA was demonstrated in fertile smokers compared with fertile nonsmokers and in OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Increased percentage of severe, moderate sperm DNA and RNA damage was demonstrated in fertile heavy smokers compared with fertile light smokers and in OAT heavy smokers compared with OAT light smokers. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities that is accentuated in heavy smokers compared with light smokers.

  2. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

  3. Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conventional schooling too often ignores the influence of school culture on what is learned in school. Knowledge is situated, being in part a product of the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used; this is known as cognitive apprenticeship. Implications for understanding learning and teaching are discussed. (Author/BJV)

  4. Mathematical and Pedagogical Understanding as Situated Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousley, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    One mathematics lesson was planned by two Grade 2 teachers together. Their separate teaching of it was videotaped, and each teacher was interviewed before and after her lesson. The "same" lesson resulted in different sets of worthwhile learning outcomes. In this research report, the notion of situated cognition is used as a tool for analysis of…

  5. Experiences with the Situation Approach in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Jurgen

    This paper relates the experiences of an early childhood professor from the Freie University of Berlin on a trip through East Asia to provide advice and assistance on the situational approach to preschool education. Impressions of the sociopolitical and educational environment and needs of Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and…

  6. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  7. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  8. 20 CFR 404.1058 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special situations. 404.1058 Section 404.1058 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... basic pay (as defined by paragraph (3) of this section). (d) Payments to volunteers and...

  9. Evaluation in a Situated Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    1993-01-01

    Examines evaluation in a situated learning context. Topics discussed include a model for evaluation in a computer learning environment; portfolios, including written, electronic, and video formats; summary statistics; diagnosis; reflection and self-assessment; story construction or scenario design; learners as designers of instruction; and…

  10. Function of Infant Crying in Stranger Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Colleen S. W.; Jennings, Kay D.

    This study investigated infant crying as a form of communication, with fear considered only one of many possible motivating emotions. Crying, along with fretting and withdrawal, are the major ways infants have to indicate that they desire to change the present situation. Subjects were 91 white, middle class infants whose mothers wete their primary…

  11. [Situated learning for the construction of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Maury-Zing, Céline

    2012-11-01

    The way in which knowledge is learned is a key element at the heart of the learning system. Situated learning can help the trainer to guide the student in his or her learning in action. It encourages the student as well as the professional to question their way of and their desire for learning together.

  12. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  13. A Situated Model of Creative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that…

  14. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  15. A Teacher's Guide to Sticky Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truby, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Handling upset parents, unexpected kid behavior, and touchy school politics are some of the toughest parts of a teacher's job. As such, it never hurts to have an emergency plan or two tucked away and a few tried-and-true strategies one can count on. In this article, the author presents several sticky situations and corresponding solutions for…

  16. Situating the Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George E., II; Ketterer, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Social constructivist theory has advanced the notion that distance education is inferior, because effective learning is thought to require immersion in a cognitive apprenticeship under the guidance of a mentor. Effective learning is said to be situated in activity, context, and culture as a collaboration in a community of practice. Administrators…

  17. A Typology of Relapse Promoting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    Outcome data on smoking cessation has emphasized that most people have difficulty not in quitting smoking, but in maintaining cessation. An attempt was made to develop a more meaningful typology of relapse-promoting situations using a sample of 183 exsmokers who called a telephone hotline seeking help to stay away from cigarettes. Two higher order…

  18. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  19. Measuring Situational Interest in Academic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Durik, Amanda M.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Tauer, John M.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate scores on a new measure appropriate for assessing adolescents' situational interest (SI) across various academic settings. In Study 1 (n = 858), a self-report questionnaire was administered to undergraduates in introductory psychology. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported a three-factor…

  20. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  1. 48 CFR 5.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interest in potential R&D programs whenever market research does not produce a sufficient number of... PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Synopses of Proposed Contract Actions 5.205 Special situations. (a) Research and... subsequent solicitation. Advanced notices must be entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought”...

  2. The Role of the Situation in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroom, Victor H.; Jago, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of…

  3. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  4. 48 CFR 305.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... situations. (a) An OPDIV may issue an advance notice, entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought,” in... acquisition method, including whether a set-aside is possible. However, such a notice shall not be used solely... Sources Sought notice. The template for the notice is available on the ASFR/OGAPA/DA Internet Web...

  5. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  6. The Language Planning Situation in Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayambazinthu, Edrinnie

    1998-01-01

    Presents a detailed study of the language-planning situation in Malawi, exploring the historical and political processes, as well as current practices of language planning in the country. Discussion reconstructs and demonstrates how sociopolitical change has been perceived in Malawi and how this perception has translated into language planning in…

  7. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  8. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  9. Situated Learning in a Classroom Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitri, Eliza

    2004-01-01

    Situated thought and action are facilitated according to specific children, negotiated among classroom community members, and placed in a specific place and time. Through action research, the author worked for about a year with a group of 15 elementary school children between the ages of 7 and 10, during a Cub Scout program in Lefkosia, Cyprus.…

  10. Reading as Situated Language: A Sociocognitive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2001-01-01

    Situates reading within a broad perspective that integrates work on cognition, language, social interaction, society, and culture. Argues that reading and writing cannot be separated from speaking, listening, and interacting, on the one hand, or using language to think about and act on the world, on the other. Introduces "social languages" as a…

  11. [Drawing with children in situations of war].

    PubMed

    Dozio, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    In situations of conflict, children are subjected to or witness acts of violence and traumatic events. In the care systems put in place in this context, drawing is an effective means of enabling children to express their emotions and favours a process of restoration.

  12. 29 CFR 778.314 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special situations. 778.314 Section 778.314 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special...

  13. Evaluating Business School Undergraduates' Situation Analytical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ghee-Soon

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to test students' ability to analyze business situations was administered to 120 undergraduates. Level of study, achievement in business curriculum, and stress resilience were associated with test performance. Gender, age, family income, and high school results were not related to performance. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  14. Situated Learning in an Australian Surf Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The article examines learning and identity formation for young people in an Australian surf club. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning, it identifies how membership in the surf club from an early age involves highly significant and meaningful learning and identity formation, where learning is co-constructed with other members…

  15. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness.

  16. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness. PMID:25350360

  17. "Just Keep Going, Stay Together, and Sing OUT." Learning Byzantine Music in an Informal and Situated Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashier, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This project examines the communal process of music learning as it occurs in a Byzantine chant learning group at a Greek Orthodox Church. The goal of this project was to investigate the act of music making, as situated in a particular sociocultural context, in order to address the question: Through what processes do individuals share music…

  18. A Framework for Achieving Situational Awareness during Crisis based on Twitter Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Andrea; Tokarchuk, Laurissa; Middleton, Stuart; Chaves, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Decision Support Systems for Natural Crisis Management increasingly employ Web 2.0 and 3.0 technologies for future collaborative decision making, including the use of social networks like Twitter. However, human sensor data is not readily accessible and interpretable, since the texts are unstructured, noisy and available in various languages. The present work focusses on the detection of crisis events in a multilingual setting as part of the FP7-funded EU project TRIDEC and is motivated by the goal to establish a Tsunami warning system for the Mediterranean. It is integrated into a dynamic spatial-temporal decision making component with a command and control unit's graphical user interface that presents all relevant information to the human operator to support critical decision-support. To this end, a tool for the interactive visualization of geospatial data is implemented: All tweets with an exact timestamp or geo-location are monitored on the map in real-time so that the operator on duty can get an overall picture of the situation. Apart from the human sensor data, the seismic sensor data will appear also on the same screen. Signs of abnormal activity from twitter usage in social networks as well as in sensor networks devices can then be used to trigger official warning alerts according to the CAP message standard. Whenever a certain threshold of relevant tweets in a HASC region (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Code) is exceeded, the twitter activity in this administrative region will be shown on a map. We believe that the following functionalities are crucial for monitoring crisis, making use of text mining and network analysis techniques: Focussed crawling, trustworthyness analysis geo-parsing, and multilingual tweet classification. In the first step, the Twitter Streaming API accesses the social data, using an adaptive keyword list (focussed crawling). Then, tweets are filtered and aggregated to form counts for a certain time-span (e.g., an interval of

  19. Identifying regional cardiac abnormalities from myocardial strains using nontracking-based strain estimation and spatio-temporal tensor analysis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhen; Liu, Qingshan; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Axel, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Myocardial strain is a critical indicator of many cardiac diseases and dysfunctions. The goal of this paper is to extract and use the myocardial strain pattern from tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify and localize regional abnormal cardiac function in human subjects. In order to extract the myocardial strains from the tagged images, we developed a novel nontracking-based strain estimation method for tagged MRI. This method is based on the direct extraction of tag deformation, and therefore avoids some limitations of conventional displacement or tracking-based strain estimators. Based on the extracted spatio-temporal strain patterns, we have also developed a novel tensor-based classification framework that better conserves the spatio-temporal structure of the myocardial strain pattern than conventional vector-based classification algorithms. In addition, the tensor-based projection function keeps more of the information of the original feature space, so that abnormal tensors in the subspace can be back-projected to reveal the regional cardiac abnormality in a more physically meaningful way. We have tested our novel methods on 41 human image sequences, and achieved a classification rate of 87.80%. The regional abnormalities recovered from our algorithm agree well with the patient's pathology and clinical image interpretation, and provide a promising avenue for regional cardiac function analysis. PMID:21606022

  20. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  1. The anatomy and development of normal and abnormal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Diane E; Henderson, Deborah J; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is significant interest in the morphology of the coronary arteries, not least due to the increasingly well-recognised association between anomalous origin of the arteries and sudden cardiac death. Much has also been learnt over the last decade regarding the embryology of the arteries. In this review, therefore, we provide a brief introduction into the recent findings regarding their development. In particular, we emphasise that new evidence, derived using the developing murine heart, points to the arterial stems growing out from the adjacent sinuses of the aortic root, rather than the arteries growing in, as is currently assumed. As we show, the concept of outgrowth provides an excellent explanation for several of the abnormal arrangements encountered in the clinical setting. Before summarising these abnormal features, we draw attention to the need to describe the heart in an attitudinally appropriate manner, following the basic rule of human anatomy, rather than describing the cardiac components with the heart in the "Valentine" orientation. We then show how the major abnormalities involving the coronary arteries in humans can be summarised in terms of abnormal origin from the pulmonary circulation, abnormal aortic origin, or fistulous communications between the coronary arteries and the cardiac cavities. In the case of abnormal aortic origin, we highlight those malformations known to be associated with sudden cardiac death.

  2. Prognostic Impact of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhou, Huixing; Zhu, Wanqiu; Liu, Nian; Geng, Chuanying; Chen, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of specific cytogenetic abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (i-FISH) has become a routine procedure for prognostic stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) in 229 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was retrospectively analyzed. Results showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were adverse predictors of progression-free survival (PFS). Patients who carried these cytogenetic abnormalities were more likely to have more adverse biological parameters and lower response rate. Multivariate analysis showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were statistically independent predictors of PFS, whereas del (17p) was also adverse predictor of overall survival. Multiple coexisting cytogenetic abnormalities also had a negative correlation with PFS. Bortezomib-based therapy could improve the rate and depth of response in patients with t(4;14) translocation and 1q21 gain. Autologous stem cell transplantation could improve, but not overcome the adverse prognostic effect of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. These results demonstrate that MM patients with iFISH abnormalities, especially del (17p), are more likely to have a poor prognosis. PMID:27175647

  3. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies. PMID:24665210

  4. Abnormal Cerebral Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Lisa B.; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael; Pruetz, Jay D.; Detterich, Jon A.; Del Castillo, Sylvia; Nagasunder, Arabhi C.; Kim, Richard; Painter, Michael J.; Gilles, Floyd H.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Williams, Roberta G.; Blüml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abnormal cerebral microstructure has been documented in term neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) portending risk for injury and poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate diffuse cerebral microstructural abnormalities when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between microstructural abnormalities, white matter injury (e.g., punctate white matter lesions, pWMLs) and other clinical variables, including heart lesion. Material and Methods Using Tract-Based-Spatial-Statistics (TBSS), an unbiased, voxel-wise method for analyzing diffusion tensor imaging data, we compared 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Results Compared to term neonates without CHD, preterm neonates with CHD had microstructural abnormalities in widespread regions of the central white matter. However, 42% of the preterm CHD neonates had pWMLs. When neonates with pWMLs were excluded, microstructural abnormalities remained only in the splenium. Preterms with CHD had similar microstructure to preterms without CHD. Conclusion Diffuse microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD, strongly associated with pWMLs. Independently, regional vulnerability of the splenium, a structure associated with visual spatial function, was observed in all preterm CHD neonates. PMID:23703146

  5. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo.

  6. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  7. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  8. Abnormal strain changes of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The tenth Five-Year Project of China Earthquake Administration installed about 40 YRY-4 type high-resolution borehole strainmeters over the mainland China in order to enhance its capability of earthquake-forecasting attempt. The strainmeters are installed in rocks at a depth around 40m and resolve strain changes to the order of 10-11. Measurements are sampled every minute. There are four gauges horizontally placed, 45-degree apart, in an YRY-4 strainmeter, whose measurements are denoted as Si (i=1, 2, 3, 4) in our study. The similarity of the two curves of S1 +S3 and S2 +S4 of Guza recordings gives sufficient credit to the data. Among the sites, Guza is located the nearest (about 140km), from the epicentral area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Even months before the earthquake, it had already been noticed at Guza that the initially smooth curves had become badly interfered from time to time by minor steps or unsymmetrical pulses with periods of minutes~hours. The interferences were dominantly compressional and mostly on the order of 10-9. They were not corresponding to weather changes. Other sites are at least 300km away and did not observe such anomalies. A comparison of the interferences with the long-term and coseismic changes shows a good consistence in the sense of strain variety among them, which suggests a tectonic cause of the abnormal signals. High-passed data show obvious relevance of the abnormal signals to the Wenchuan quake in time. They became stronger as the great event approached, reached the highest at the main shock and diminishing while aftershocks have been dying away. We put forth an Overrun Rate Analysis (ORA) to give out a quantitative description of the interferences. The high-passed interferences can be depicted as positive or negative big values overrunning the normal level. Overrun Rate of Numbers, denoted as Ron, is defined as the total number of overrun points in one day, and Overrun Rate of Strength Ros the daily sum of amplitudes of

  9. A chromosomal translocation causing multiple abnormalities including open eyelids at birth and glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Mary H; Cacheiro, Nestor L; Rudofsky, Ulrich H; Montgomery, Jeffry C; Collins, Doris N; Flaherty, Lorraine A

    2002-08-01

    We have characterized the phenotype of a mouse with a t(2;13) reciprocal translocation induced by chlorambucil. It results in abnormal eyelid formation as well as a series of neurological, physiological, and immunological abnormalities. This mutant has been termed T(2;13)1Fla/+. T(2;13)1Fla/+ mice exhibit open eyelids at birth, a dilute coat color, hyperactivity, and occasional circling and stargazing activity. At 1-6 months, T(2;13)1Fla/+ mice show signs of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and die prematurely. Additionally, double-stranded DNA autoantibodies have been found in sera of T(2;13)1Fla/+ mice. Cytogenetic analysis situated the translocation breakpoint at the proximal end of Chromosome (chr) 2 at band A2, and on Chr 13 at band A4. The mutant phenotype completely correlated with the presence of the translocation. Additional genetic studies have mapped the mutation and translocation breakpoint to Chr 13 between D13Mit16 and D13Mit64, and to Chr 2 proximal to D2Mit5. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the position of this mutation/translocation on Chr 13 has been mapped to a region less than 1cM from D13Mit61. PMID:12226706

  10. 36 CFR 218.21 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a project or activity in the notification of the decision (see 36 CFR 220.5(g) and 220.7(d)). ... ability to accomplish project objectives directly related to resource protection or restoration. (c... proceed as follows: (1) Immediately after notification (see 36 CFR 220.7(d)) when the decision...

  11. 36 CFR 218.21 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a project or activity in the notification of the decision (see 36 CFR 220.5(g) and 220.7(d)). ... ability to accomplish project objectives directly related to resource protection or restoration. (c... proceed as follows: (1) Immediately after notification (see 36 CFR 220.7(d)) when the decision...

  12. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder situational awareness using tools and techniques of mobile computing. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802.11 network. Responders can also wirelessly share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of a particular emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercise at NASA Ames.

  13. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  14. A multi-phase network situational awareness cognitive task analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deborah A.; Wong, Pak C.; Moody, Sarah; Fink, Glenn A.

    2010-06-16

    Abstract The goal of our project is to create a set of next-generation cyber situational-awareness capabilities with applications to other domains in the long term. The objective is to improve the decision-making process to enable decision makers to choose better actions. To this end, we put extensive effort into making certain that we had feedback from network analysts and managers and understand what their genuine needs are. This article discusses the cognitive task-analysis methodology that we followed to acquire feedback from the analysts. This article also provides the details we acquired from the analysts on their processes, goals, concerns, the data and metadata that they analyze. Finally, we describe the generation of a novel task-flow diagram representing the activities of the target user base.

  15. Pleasure in decision-making situations

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana

    2002-01-01

    Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their

  16. Satellite situation report, volume 33, number 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Situation Report is a listing of those satellites (objects) currently in orbit and those which have previously orbited the Earth. Some objects are too small or too far from the Earth's surface to be detected; therefore, the Satellite Situation Report does not include all manmade objects orbiting the Earth. Generally, satellites are classified as follows: (1) Payloads may contain one or more functioning or nonfunctioning experiments. Usually only the owners of the satellites know if the experiments are functioning, and there is no one source which indicates the operational status of all payloads and/or experiments. Payloads are normally the first listed in the Satellite Situation Report, i.e., 1982 087A, unless there are multiple payloads for the launch. In which case, the first objects cataloged are usually all payloads, unless a subsequent payload is later identified after objects other than payloads have been cataloged. (2) Platforms are used to support a payload while it is being placed into orbit. A platform may remain in orbit long after its purpose is served, usually longer than rocket bodies. It is usually the first object identified in the Satellite Situation Report listing after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087B (when a platform is not used, the first object after the payload(s) is usually the rocket body). (3) Rocket bodies are used to place the payload and platform (if one is used) into orbit. Some launches may have more than one rocket body because of the payload weight or the type of orbit or experiment. Most rocket bodies decay within a short time after the payload (and platform) have achieved orbit. Rocket bodies are usually the third object listed in the Satellite Situation Report after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087C. (4) Debris in orbit occurs when parts (nose cone shrouds, lens or hatch covers) are separated from the payload, when rocket bodies or payloads disintegrate or explode, or when objects are placed into free space from manned

  17. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    Command researched and identified a course of action that has maximized operationally responsive space for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development and Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) to develop the operationally responsive spacelift capability for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. The LTS created and executed a space enterprise strategy to place small payloads (1500 pounds), at low cost (less than 28M to 30M per launch), repeatable and rapidly into 100 - 255 nautical miles orbits. In doing so, the squadron provides scalable launch support services including program management support, engineering support, payload integration, and post-test evaluation for space systems. The Air Force, through the SDTW/LTS, will continue to evolve as the spacelift execution arm for Space Situational Awareness by creating small, less-expensive, repeatable and operationally responsive space launch capability.

  18. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes

  19. Insular and caudate lesions release abnormal yawning in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Krestel, Heinz; Weisstanner, Christian; Hess, Christian W; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nirkko, Arto; Wiest, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal yawning is an underappreciated phenomenon in patients with ischemic stroke. We aimed at identifying frequently affected core regions in the supratentorial brain of stroke patients with abnormal yawning and contributing to the anatomical network concept of yawning control. Ten patients with acute anterior circulation stroke and ≥3 yawns/15 min without obvious cause were analyzed. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), symptom onset, period with abnormal yawning, blood oxygen saturation, glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) were assessed for all patients. MRI lesion maps were segmented on diffusion-weighted images, spatially normalized, and the extent of overlap between the different stroke patterns was determined. Correlations between the period with abnormal yawning and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the overlapping regions, total stroke volume, NIHSS and mRS were performed. Periods in which patients presented with episodes of abnormal yawning lasted on average for 58 h. Average GCS, NIHSS, and mRS scores were 12.6, 11.6, and 3.5, respectively. Clinical parameters were within normal limits. Ischemic brain lesions overlapped in nine out of ten patients: in seven patients in the insula and in seven in the caudate nucleus. The decrease of the ADC within the lesions correlated with the period with abnormal yawing (r = -0.76, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.02). The stroke lesion intensity of the common overlapping regions in the insula and the caudate nucleus correlates with the period with abnormal yawning. The insula might be the long sought-after brain region for serotonin-mediated yawning.

  20. Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

  1. Situation Awareness of Onboard System Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Thronesbery, Carroll; Hudson, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    We have developed intelligent agent software for onboard system autonomy. Our approach is to provide control agents that automate crew and vehicle systems, and operations assistants that aid humans in working with these autonomous systems. We use the 3 Tier control architecture to develop the control agent software that automates system reconfiguration and routine fault management. We use the Distributed Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) System to develop the operations assistants that provide human services, including situation summarization, event notification, activity management, and support for manual commanding of autonomous system. In this paper we describe how the operations assistants aid situation awareness of the autonomous control agents. We also describe our evaluation of the DCI System to support control engineers during a ground test at Johnson Space Center (JSC) of the Post Processing System (PPS) for regenerative water recovery.

  2. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part I).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this article, we review regulatory issues related to the approval of biosimilars, with a particular focus on the situation in the European Union. We will examine analytical characterization studies and special considerations for clinical trials with biosimilars, and also look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. Finally, we will review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  3. The role of the situation in leadership.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership.

  4. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  5. The role of the situation in leadership.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership. PMID:17209676

  6. Managing thyroid dysfunction in selected special situations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Managing thyroid dysfunction is simple at first glance, the idea is to bring hormone levels in the euthyroid range, treat with antithyroid drugs, radio-iodine or surgery if toxic and replace with thyroxine or T3 if hypothyroid. Complexities arise when there are coexisting conditions that affect the thyroid or are affected by thyroid dysfunction and this review will deal with the special situations that need care when correcting thyroid hormone levels. PMID:23379325

  7. Modifying Evaluations and Decisions in Risky Situations.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Antonio; Serra, Sara; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Megías, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to investigate the decision making process in risky situations. We studied how different types of feedback on risky driving behaviors modulate risk evaluation and risk-taking. For a set of risky traffic situations, participants had to make evaluative judgments (judge the situation as risky or not) and urgent decisions (brake or not). In Experiment 1, participants received feedback with and without negative emotional content when they made risky behaviors. In Experiment 2 we investigated the independent effects of feedback and negative emotional stimuli. The results showed three important findings: First, urgent decisions were faster [F(1, 92) = 6.76, p = .01] and more cautious [F(1, 92) = 17.16, p < .001] than evaluative judgments. These results suggest that evaluative judgments of risk and actual risk-taking may not always coincide, and that they seem to be controlled by two different processing systems as proposed by dual process theories. Second, feedback made participants' responses even faster [F(1, 111) = 71.53, p < .001], allowing greater risk sensitivity [F(1, 111) = 22.12, p < .001] and skewing towards more cautious responses [F(1, 111) = 14.09, p < .001]. Finally, emotional stimuli had an effect only when they were presented as feedback. The results of this research increase our understanding of the processes involved in risky driving behavior and suggest efficient ways to control risk taking through the use of feedback. PMID:27647040

  8. Does advanced driver training improve situational awareness?

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Kazi, Tara A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P

    2009-07-01

    Over 70 years of experiential evidence suggests that a specific form of advanced driver training, one based on an explicit system of car control, improves driver situation awareness (SA). Five experimental hypotheses are developed. They propose that advanced driving should increase the number of information elements in the driver's working memory, increase the interconnection between those elements, increase the amount of 'new' information in memory as well as the prominence of existing information, and that finally, it should stimulate behaviours that help drivers evolve better situations to be aware of. An approach to SA based on Neisser's perceptual cycle theory is anchored to a network based methodology. This is applied within the context of a longitudinal on-road study involving three groups of 25 drivers, all of whom were measured pre- and post-intervention. One experimental group was subject to advanced driver training and two further groups provided control for time and for being accompanied whilst driving. Empirical support is found for all five hypotheses. Advanced driving does improve driver SA but not necessarily in the way that existing situation focused, closed loop models of the concept might predict. PMID:18675387

  9. Modifying Evaluations and Decisions in Risky Situations.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Antonio; Serra, Sara; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Megías, Alberto

    2016-09-20

    The main aim of this research was to investigate the decision making process in risky situations. We studied how different types of feedback on risky driving behaviors modulate risk evaluation and risk-taking. For a set of risky traffic situations, participants had to make evaluative judgments (judge the situation as risky or not) and urgent decisions (brake or not). In Experiment 1, participants received feedback with and without negative emotional content when they made risky behaviors. In Experiment 2 we investigated the independent effects of feedback and negative emotional stimuli. The results showed three important findings: First, urgent decisions were faster [F(1, 92) = 6.76, p = .01] and more cautious [F(1, 92) = 17.16, p < .001] than evaluative judgments. These results suggest that evaluative judgments of risk and actual risk-taking may not always coincide, and that they seem to be controlled by two different processing systems as proposed by dual process theories. Second, feedback made participants' responses even faster [F(1, 111) = 71.53, p < .001], allowing greater risk sensitivity [F(1, 111) = 22.12, p < .001] and skewing towards more cautious responses [F(1, 111) = 14.09, p < .001]. Finally, emotional stimuli had an effect only when they were presented as feedback. The results of this research increase our understanding of the processes involved in risky driving behavior and suggest efficient ways to control risk taking through the use of feedback.

  10. [Materializing interdisciplinary outpatient management of complex situations].

    PubMed

    Perone, Nicolas; Filliettaz, Séverine Schusselé; Budan, Frédéric; Schaller, Philippe; Balavoine, Jean-François; Waldvogel, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Patient management is becoming increasingly complex, particularly because of the growing prevalence ofchronic diseases and ageing populations. The Swiss health care system is fragmented and struggles to coordinate care provided by professionals from multiple disciplines or working for different institutions. Models to improve health care of complex situations are available that particularly advocate a coordinated team approach. This article presents an action-research designed to empower health professionals to manage complex situations in outpatient settings by means of this type of approach. Health professionals - good practice leaders in the medical and nursing fields in the Geneva Canton (Switzerland) - explored complex management situations, as well as facilitating components and obstacles. A team approach is essential to manage all of the patient's issues, to take the patient's priorities into account, and to work on a joint care plan. The legitimate role of each member of this team is highlighted, together with new roles for existing practices: informing and motivating the patient, highlighting and supporting care givers, coordination by nurses. The creation of such teams, and implementation of these roles involve new processes, which require financing of coordination as well as development of new methods of interdisciplinary management, particularly novel information technology tools.

  11. A Project-Based Model for Professional Environmental Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Barry; Thomas, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The projects described in this article were designed to provide a real world situation akin to the work of environmental professionals. The projects were conducted with Australian students working on environmental issues in Vietnam. The projects demonstrated that multi-disciplinary teamwork fits well into environmental projects, and importantly…

  12. Natural toxins: risks, regulations and the analytical situation in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2004-03-01

    Natural toxins in food and feed are considered important food safety issues of growing concern, in particular mycotoxins, phycotoxins and plant toxins. Most scientific developments have occurred in the past few decades in the area of mycotoxins. Formal health risk assessments have been carried out by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Limits and regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed have been established in many countries, including practically all European countries. An array of (formally validated) analytical methods and (certified) reference materials have become available. Several European research projects, funded by the European Commission and supported by the European Standardization Committee, have significantly contributed to this development. Quantitative methods of analysis for mycotoxins often make use of immunoaffinity cleanup with liquid chromatographic or gas chromatographic separation techniques in combination with various types of detectors, including mass spectroscopy. For screening purposes (bio)sensor-based techniques are among the promising newcomers. For the phycotoxins the situation is less advanced. Formal risk assessments by authoritative international bodies have not been carried out. Methods of analysis, formally validated according to internationally harmonized protocols, are scarce and animal testing still plays a key role in official methodology. The development of the analytical methodology is partly hampered by the limited availability of certain reliable calibrants and reference materials, although this situation is gradually improving. New regulations in the European Union have increased the pressure to develop and validate chemical methods of analysis. Joint efforts in the European context are now directed towards significantly improving this situation, and techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy offer promise in this

  13. Abnormal folate metabolism in foetuses affected by neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dunlevy, Louisa P E; Chitty, Lyn S; Burren, Katie A; Doudney, Kit; Stojilkovic-Mikic, Taita; Stanier, Philip; Scott, Rosemary; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid supplementation can prevent many cases of neural tube defects (NTDs), whereas suboptimal maternal folate status is a risk factor, suggesting that folate metabolism is a key determinant of susceptibility to NTDs. Despite extensive genetic analysis of folate cycle enzymes, and quantification of metabolites in maternal blood, neither the protective mechanism nor the relationship between maternal folate status and susceptibility are understood in most cases. In order to investigate potential abnormalities in folate metabolism in the embryo itself, we derived primary fibroblastic cell lines from foetuses affected by NTDs and subjected them to the dU suppression test, a sensitive metabolic test of folate metabolism. Significantly, a subset of NTD cases exhibited low scores in this test, indicative of abnormalities in folate cycling that may be causally linked to the defect. Susceptibility to NTDs may be increased by suppression of the methylation cycle, which is interlinked with the folate cycle. However, reduced efficacy in the dU suppression test was not associated with altered abundance of the methylation cycle intermediates, s-adenosylmethionine and s-adenosylhomocysteine, suggesting that a methylation cycle defect is unlikely to be responsible for the observed abnormality of folate metabolism. Genotyping of samples for known polymorphisms in genes encoding folate-associated enzymes did not reveal any correlation between specific genotypes and the observed abnormalities in folate metabolism. These data suggest that as yet unrecognized genetic variants result in embryonic abnormalities of folate cycling that may be causally related to NTDs. PMID:17438019

  14. Abnormal EEG and calcification of the pineal gland in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Kay, S R

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies of the brain in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated a variety of structural abnormalities. We reported recently an association between pineal calcification (PC) and cortical and prefrontal cortical atrophy, and third ventricular size on CT scan in chronic schizophrenic patients. These findings indicate that in schizophrenia PC is associated with the morphological brain abnormalities associated with the disease. If PC is, indeed, related to organic cerebral pathology, then one would expect a higher prevalence of pineal gland pathology among patients with electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities by comparison to those with a normal EEG. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the prevalence of PC on CT scan in a sample of 52 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients (29 men, 23 women, mean age: 51.3 years SD = 9.1), of whom 10 (19.2%) had an abnormal EEG. The prevalence of PC in patients with EEG abnormalities was significantly greater by comparison to those with a normal EEG (90.0% vs. 54.8%, X2 = 4.24, p < .05). Since both groups did not differ on any of the historical and demographic data, and since PC was unrelated to neuroleptic exposure, these findings suggest that in schizophrenia PC may be related to the disease process and that it may be a marker of subcortical pathology. PMID:1342008

  15. Taste perception abnormalities after acute stroke in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kwon, Sun U; Kwon, Jee-Hyun

    2009-06-01

    The study aims to elucidate the characteristics of post-stroke taste dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Taste function in 120 consecutive postmenopausal women with acute (<7 days) stroke was compared with that of age-matched control subjects (n=109). The agents used were: sodium chloride for saltiness, sucrose for sweetness, glacial acetic acid for sourness and quinine hemisulfate for bitterness. Detection and recognition thresholds were performed by the three-stimulus drop technique. Taste threshold values beyond two standard deviations of normal were considered "abnormal". For postmenopausal women after acute stroke, abnormal detection thresholds for the ability to taste sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness were found in 33%, 21%, 35% and 30% of women, respectively, and abnormal recognition thresholds were found in 40%, 34%, 42% and 33% of women respectively. The taste dysfunction occurred ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally, and was not related to the side or location of the lesion. Large (>2 cm) lesions were more frequently associated with sweet and salty taste dysfunction than small lesions (p<0.05). Follow-up examination in 23 patients at 24 to 31 months (mean 27 months) after the initial evaluation showed that the taste abnormality persisted in 8 (35%) patients. Taste perception abnormalities are common and often persistent in stroke patients. The dysfunction can occur ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally. PMID:19297163

  16. Fibrillin abnormalities and prognosis in Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, T.; Furthmayr, H.; Francke, U.; Gasner, C.

    1995-08-28

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem autosomal-dominant disorder, is characterized by mutations of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene and by abnormal patterns of synthesis, secretion, and matrix deposition of the fibrillin protein. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of fibrillin protein abnormalities in the diagnosis of MFS, we studied dermal fibroblasts from 57 patients with classical MFS, 15 with equivocal MFS, 8 with single-organ manifestations, and 16 with other connective tissue disorders including homocystinuria and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism was identified in 70 samples that were classified into four different groups based on quantitation of fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition. Significant correlations were found for phenotypic features including arachnodactyly, striae distensae, cardiovascular manifestations, and fibrillin groups II and IV, which included 70% of the MFS patients. In addition, these two groups were associated with shortened {open_quotes}event-free{close_quotes} survival and more severe cardiovascular complications than groups I and III. The latter included most of the equivocal MFS/single manifestation patients with fibrillin abnormalities. Our results indicate that fibrillin defects at the protein level per se are not specific for MFS, but that the drastically reduced fibrillin deposition, caused by a dominant-negative effect of abnormal fibrillin molecules in individuals defined as groups II and IV, is of prognostic and possibly diagnostic significance. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lener, Marc S; Wong, Edmund; Tang, Cheuk Y; Byne, William; Goldstein, Kim E; Blair, Nicholas J; Haznedar, M Mehmet; New, Antonia S; Chemerinski, Eran; Chu, King-Wai; Rimsky, Liza S; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Hazlett, Erin A

    2015-01-01

    Prior diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies examining schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and schizophrenia, separately have shown that compared with healthy controls (HCs), patients show frontotemporal white matter (WM) abnormalities. This is the first DTI study to directly compare WM tract coherence with tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) across the schizophrenia spectrum in a large sample of demographically matched HCs (n = 55), medication-naive SPD patients (n = 49), and unmedicated/never-medicated schizophrenia patients (n = 22) to determine whether (a) frontal-striatal-temporal WM tract abnormalities in schizophrenia are similar to, or distinct from those observed in SPD; and (b) WM tract abnormalities are associated with clinical symptom severity indicating a common underlying pathology across the spectrum. Compared with both the HC and SPD groups, schizophrenia patients showed WM abnormalities, as indexed by lower FA in the temporal lobe (inferior longitudinal fasciculus) and cingulum regions. SPD patients showed lower FA in the corpus callosum genu compared with the HC group, but this regional abnormality was more widespread in schizophrenia patients. Across the schizophrenia spectrum, greater WM disruptions were associated with greater symptom severity. Overall, frontal-striatal-temporal WM dysconnectivity is attenuated in SPD compared with schizophrenia patients and may mitigate the emergence of psychosis.

  18. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  19. Improvement of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Hiroki; Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a new method for improving an existing abnormality detection system for person who soaks in a bathtub. As the number of aged people increases year by year in Japan, bathing accident of the aged is growing at a rapid rate, especially in-bathtub drowning accident. Therefore, prompt detection of bather's abnormality such as dizziness and fainting is important to prevent in-bathtub drowning. In order to detect bather's abnormality promptly, an abnormality detection system using seven ultrasonic sensors has been proposed. The system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection, to detect bather's different state from normal before an accident occurs, and improves a delay of detection considered to be a serious problem heretofore. There was however plenty of room for improvement. In order to improve detection rate of the system, we propose a new detection method in this paper. The method uses two ultrasonic sensors to beam bather's head and neck, and detects the head height and swing speed of the head. Experimental results are superior to the accuracy of the existing system, which enables us to detect bather's abnormality more accurately.

  20. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.