Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal skin pigmentation

  1. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  2. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  3. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  4. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  5. Continuous illumination through larval development suppresses dopamine synthesis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, causing activation of α-MSH synthesis in the pituitary and abnormal metamorphic skin pigmentation in flounder.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kae; Washio, Youhei; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2012-04-01

    In order to better understand the endocrine aberrations related to abnormal metamorphic pigmentation that appear in flounder larvae reared in tanks, this study examined the effects of continuous 24-h illumination (LL) through larval development on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-1 (th1), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), α-melanophore-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), which are known to participate in the control of background adaptation of body color. We observed two conspicuous deviations in the endocrine system under LL when compared with natural light conditions (LD). First, LL severely suppressed th1 expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the anterior diencephalon, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Second, pomc and α-MSH expression in the pars intermedia melanotrophs was enhanced by LL. Skin color was paler under LL than LD before metamorphic pigmentation, and abnormal metamorphic pigmentation occurred at a higher ratio in LL. We therefore hypothesize that continuous LL inhibited dopamine synthesis in the SCN, which resulted in up-regulation of pomc mRNA expression in the melanotrophs. In spite of the up-regulation of pomc in the melanotrophs, larval skin was adjusted to be pale by MCH which was not affected by LL. Accumulation of α-MSH in the melanotrophs is caused by uncoupling of α-MSH synthesis and secretion due to inhibitory role of MCH on α-MSH secretion, which results in abnormal metamorphic pigmentation by affecting differentiation of adult-type melanophores. Our data demonstrate that continuous illumination at the post-embryonic stage has negative effects on the neuroendocrine system and pituitary in flounder.

  6. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  7. Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Myers, Joan

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information about the difference in the presentation of eczema in darkly pigmented skin compared to children with fair or white skin. This article describes the possible challenges of diagnosing eczema in children with darkly pigmented skin. The physiological difference in darkly pigmented skin compared with fair or white skin is explored, and how eczema may be manifested and identified in darkly pigmented skin. The author uses the term darkly pigmented skin to describe children of black Caribbean, African or Asian descent.

  8. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs (such as minocycline and birth control pills) Endocrine diseases such as Addison disease Hemochromatosis (iron overload) Sun exposure Pregnancy Causes of hypopigmentation include: Skin inflammation Certain fungal ...

  9. Dispelling myths concerning pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, V; Russo, T; Giacomel, J; Lallas, A; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2016-06-01

    The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015. The remaining discussed were selected on the basis of the existing literature and our personal experience. In order to explore these misconceptions, the following are the seven most salient questions that require investigation: (i) Is it dangerous to excise moles?; (ii) Is it dangerous to traumatize moles?; (iii) Are plantar moles worrisome?; (iv) Is it necessary to selectively apply sunscreen to moles?; (v) Is it inadvisable to partially biopsy a melanoma?; (vi) Do moles turn into melanoma?; and (vii) Is it necessary to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanomas and for atypical Spitz naevi? Myths are ubiquitous, being prevalent in dermatological practice, with many of them concerning pigmented skin lesions. By encouraging critical analysis by patients and medical practitioners, the birth and perpetuation of myths can potentially be minimized, for the ultimate benefit of patients. This requires a scientific approach to be rigorously applied to dermatology, with critical questioning of unsubstantiated hypotheses including those emanating from the mass media as well as from respected sources. PMID:26840917

  10. Pigmented skin patches without scleroderma as a predominant clinical symptom revealing systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Darrigade, A S; Vedie, A L; Gauthier, C; Cario-André, M; Taieb, A; Truchetet, M E; Constans, J; Seneschal, J

    2016-06-01

    Skin induration remains the major clinical symptom of systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease with potentially life-threatening visceral involvement. However, skin induration can be absent in some patients, making the diagnosis difficult to confirm and leading to delay in management. Skin pigmentation abnormalities have been reported in patients with SSc, and can be important to recognize for diagnosis. We report two patients who developed hyperpigmented skin patches without any sign of scleroderma, as a major clinical skin symptom of incipient SSc. PMID:27171356

  11. BASIS FOR ENHANCED BARRIER FUNCTION OF PIGMENTED SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Santiago, Juan Luis; Celli, Anna; Zhong, Lily; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Roelandt, Truus; Hupe, Melanie; Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Crumrine, Debra; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Trullas, Carles; Sun, Richard; Wakefield, Joan S.; Wei, Maria L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans with darkly-pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison to humans with lightly-pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly-pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly-pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly-pigmented levels. In SKH1 (non-pigmented) vs. SKH2/J (pigmented) hairless mice, we evaluated how a pigment-dependent reduction in pH could influence epidermal barrier function. Permeability barrier homeostasis is enhanced in SKH2/J vs. SKH1 mice, correlating with a reduced pH in the lower SC that co-localizes with the extrusion of melanin granules. Darkly-pigmented human epidermis also shows substantial melanin extrusion in the outer epidermis. Both acute barrier disruption and topical basic pH challenges accelerate re-acidification of SKH2/J (but not SKH1) SC, while inducing melanin extrusion. SKH2/J mice also display enhanced expression of the SC acidifying enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2f (sPLA2f). Enhanced barrier function of SKH2/J mice could be attributed to enhanced activity of two acidic pH-dependent, ceramide-generating enzymes, β-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase, leading to accelerated maturation of SC lamellar bilayers. Finally, organotypic cultures of darkly-pigmented-bearing human keratinocytes display enhanced barrier function in comparison to lightly-pigmented cultures. Together, these results suggest that the superior barrier function of pigmented epidermis can be largely attributed to the pH-lowering impact of melanin persistence/extrusion and enhanced sPLA2f expression. PMID:24732399

  12. Copy number variants and rasopathies: germline KRAS duplication in a patient with syndrome including pigmentation abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Bilan, Frédéric; Cavé, Hélène; Verloes, Alain; Vidaud, Michel; Vidaud, Dominique; Pasmant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    RAS/MAPK pathway germline mutations were described in Rasopathies, a class of rare genetic syndromes combining facial abnormalities, heart defects, short stature, skin and genital abnormalities, and mental retardation. The majority of the mutations identified in the Rasopathies are point mutations which increase RAS/MAPK pathway signaling. Duplications encompassing RAS/MAPK pathway genes (PTPN11, RAF1, MEK2, or SHOC2) were more rarely described. Here we report, a syndromic familial case of a 12p duplication encompassing the dosage sensitive gene KRAS, whose phenotype overlapped with rasopathies. The patient was referred because of a history of mild learning disabilities, small size, facial dysmorphy, and pigmentation abnormalities (café-au-lait and achromic spots, and axillar lentigines). This phenotype was reminiscent of rasopathies. No mutation was identified in the most common genes associated with Noonan, cardio-facio-cutaneous, Legius, and Costello syndromes, as well as neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient constitutional DNA exhibited a ~10.5 Mb duplication at 12p, including the KRAS gene. The index case's mother carried the same chromosome abnormality and also showed development delay with short stature, and numerous café-au-lait spots. Duplication of the KRAS gene may participate in the propositus phenotype, in particular of the specific pigmentation abnormalities. Array-CGH or some other assessment of gene/exon CNVs of RAS/MAPK pathway genes should be considered in the evaluation of individuals with rasopathies. PMID:27450488

  13. Enhancing skin radiance through the use of effect pigments.

    PubMed

    Funk, David; Kovarovic, Brandon; Uzunian, Gabriel; Litchauer, Jill; Daley-Bowles, Tricia; Hubschmitt, Amber

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the radiance contribution from formulating various pearlescent effect pigments into a skin cream was modeled using gloss map histograms created from digital photographs of clinical panelists. CIELab color data from the various pearlescent effect pigments applied to simulated skin tone drawdown cards was first collected to screen experimental candidates and to help select the concentration of pigment used in the formula. Optical microscopy was used to develop a simple coverage model to control for the differences in particle size and density of the effect pigments. In the subsequent in vivo study, panelists applied a weighed amount of cream containing various pearlescent effect pigments to the face and high-resolution digital photography images were collected on each panelist for image analysis. Gloss map histograms were developed through the software analysis of gray-scale images, which were used to describe the gloss, whiteness, and/or radiance contribution of each pearlescent effect pigment. The resulting gloss map histograms shared identifiable characteristics useful for statistical analysis and description. This methodology could serve as a novel way to investigate and describe the visual impact and benefit of formulating effect pigments in cosmetic creams intended for application on the skin.

  14. Salt and Pepper Pigmentation - Skin Manifestation of Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraju, D; Prakash, G; Yoganandh, T; Subramanian, S R; Ramkumar, S

    2015-09-01

    A 50 year old male presented with progressive difficulty in swallowing both liquid and solid food with no history of Raynaud's phenomenon. A general examination revealed skin changes in the form of thickening, hyperpigmentation and tightening of skin of fingers, hand, forearm and legs. The patient had painless skin induration over the legs, forearm and hand. Salt and pepper pigmentation was seen on the upper back (Figure 1a), over mastoid process (Figure 1b) and the concha of pinna (Figure 1c). Anti-Scl 70 was positive. Anti-centromere antibodies were negative. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) revealed very severe restrictive lung disease. Barium swallow study was normal. Despite being advised to undergo oesophageal manometry test in view of dysphagia, patient was not willing for the same. Diagnosis of systemic sclerosis was made. Systemic sclerosis is a disease in which extensive fibrosis, vascular alterations and autoantibodies against various cellular antigens being the principal features with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Skin pigmentation changes among other features of skin involvement include a salt-and-pepper appearance due to diffuse hyperpigmentation with sparing of the perifollicular areas. This may be due to the richer capillary network that may warm the perifollicular skin and preserve melanogenesis producing the perifollicular pigment retention in systemic sclerosis.1,2 Both cellular and humoral immune factors in combination with external factors such as trauma or inflammation may trigger the destruction of melanocytes.3 Moreover, various physical factors like temperature changes as well as genetic, hormonal factors may influence pigment formation. Such changes in pigmentation is also seen during repigmentation around hair follicles in vitiligo. Clinically, both vitiligo and depigmented lesions of systemic sclerosis present as chalk-white macules with well-defined borders. However, mucosal involvement is commonly seen in vitiligo while depigmented

  15. Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George

    2010-01-01

    Human skin pigmentation is the product of two clines produced by natural selection to adjust levels of constitutive pigmentation to levels of UV radiation (UVR). One cline was generated by high UVR near the equator and led to the evolution of dark, photoprotective, eumelanin-rich pigmentation. The other was produced by the requirement for UVB photons to sustain cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in low-UVB environments, and resulted in the evolution of depigmented skin. As hominins dispersed outside of the tropics, they experienced different intensities and seasonal mixtures of UVA and UVB. Extreme UVA throughout the year and two equinoctial peaks of UVB prevail within the tropics. Under these conditions, the primary selective pressure was to protect folate by maintaining dark pigmentation. Photolysis of folate and its main serum form of 5-methylhydrofolate is caused by UVR and by reactive oxygen species generated by UVA. Competition for folate between the needs for cell division, DNA repair, and melanogenesis is severe under stressful, high-UVR conditions and is exacerbated by dietary insufficiency. Outside of tropical latitudes, UVB levels are generally low and peak only once during the year. The populations exhibiting maximally depigmented skin are those inhabiting environments with the lowest annual and summer peak levels of UVB. Development of facultative pigmentation (tanning) was important to populations settling between roughly 23° and 46° , where levels of UVB varied strongly according to season. Depigmented and tannable skin evolved numerous times in hominin evolution via independent genetic pathways under positive selection. PMID:20445093

  16. Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2004-01-01

    The chromatic characteristics of skin color arise from the interactions of light (primarily absorption and scattering) with the epidermis and the dermis. The primary light absorbers in skin are hemoglobin and melanin. Most of scattering is attributed to collagen fibers and in pigmented skin to melanosomes. Traditionally skin redness is considered to arise due to locally elevated concentrations of hemoglobin, whereas skin pigmentation is attributed to melanin. In this study we attempt to understand better the contributions of these chromophores to the perceived skin color using spectral analysis of skin color reactions induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or pressure. In the first experiment 12 individuals with skin phototypes III-IV were irradiated on the back using a solar simulator with doses ranging from 0.7 to 3 MED. The skin reactions were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 after irradiation. Evaluations included diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and clinical assessment of the erythema and the pigment reaction. Apparent concentrations of melanin, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin were calculated from the absorption spectra. In the second experiment the levels of deoxy-hemoglobin of the volar forearm of ten volunteers were selectively altered by either application of a pressure cuff or by topical application of 3% H(2)O(2). Changes in skin color appearance were documented by photography, colorimetry, and DRS. In the UV exposure experiment all reactions were dose dependent. Oxy-hemoglobin values increased to a maximum on day 1, correlating well with the clinical evaluation of erythema, and then decreased exponentially to base line. Melanin showed a significant increase on day 7 and remained relatively constant for the next 3 weeks, correlating well with the clinical evaluation of pigmentation (tanning). Deoxy-hemoglobin increased slightly on day 1 and remained elevated for the next 2 weeks. Thus, deoxy-hemoglobin correlated moderately with the clinical erythema

  17. Modifying skin pigmentation – approaches through intrinsic biochemistry and exogenous agents

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Michaela; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    Rates of skin cancer continue to increase despite the improved use of traditional sunscreens to minimize damage from ultraviolet radiation. The public perception of tanned skin as being healthy and desirable, combined with the rising demand for treatments to repair irregular skin pigmentation and the desire to increase or decrease constitutive skin pigmentation, arouses great interest pharmaceutically as well as cosmeceutically. This review discusses the intrinsic biochemistry of pigmentation, details mechanisms that lead to increased or decreased skin pigmentation, and summarizes established and potential hyper- and hypo-pigmenting agents and their modes of action. PMID:19578486

  18. SKIN AS A LIVING COLORING BOOK: HOW EPITHELIAL CELLS CREATE PATTERNS OF PIGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J.; Brissette, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types — pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a “picture,” a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and “color in” the picture. PMID:25104547

  19. Skin as a living coloring book: how epithelial cells create patterns of pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J; Brissette, Janice L

    2014-11-01

    The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types - pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a 'picture,' a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and 'color in' the picture.

  20. Optothermal skin pigment spectral depth profiling using an OPO laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Guo, Xinxin; Notingher, Ioan; Cowen, Anna J.; O'Driscoll, Don; Imhof, Robert E.

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a research program to quantify the factors that determine the visual appearance of human skin. We use in-vivo opto-thermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) with a tunable OPO laser (400 - 590 nm) to measure spectrally resolved pigment depth profiles. Radiation in this wavelength range is only weakly absorbed by stratum corneum and epidermis, but strongly absorbed by sub-surface pigments, mainly melanin and haemoglobin. These produce characteristic delayed thermal wave (DTW) signals, detected using a high speed Mercury Cadmium Telluride detector sensitive in the wavelength range 6 - 13 microns. The measured intensity-time profiles yield the desired concentration depth profiles through either model-based non-linear least-squares analysis or model-independent inverse analysis. Results on melanin and haemoglobin distributions within normal, tape stripped and wash-damaged skin are presented.

  1. Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Costin, Gertrude-E; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-04-01

    All organisms, from simple invertebrates to complex human beings, exist in different colors and patterns, which arise from the unique distribution of pigments throughout the body. Pigmentation is highly heritable, being regulated by genetic, environmental, and endocrine factors that modulate the amount, type, and distribution of melanins in the skin, hair, and eyes. In addition to its roles in camouflage, heat regulation, and cosmetic variation, melanin protects against UV radiation and thus is an important defense system in human skin against harmful factors. Being the largest organ of the body that is always under the influence of internal and external factors, the skin often reacts to those agents by modifying the constitutive pigmentation pattern. The focus of this review is to provide an updated overview of important physiological and biological factors that increase pigmentation and the mechanisms by which they do so. We consider endocrine factors that induce temporary (e.g., during pregnancy) or permanent (e.g., during aging) changes in skin color, environmental factors (e.g., UV), certain drugs, and chemical compounds, etc. Understanding the mechanisms by which different factors and compounds induce melanogenesis is of great interest pharmaceutically (as therapy for pigmentary diseases) and cosmeceutically (e.g., to design tanning products with potential to reduce skin cancer risk). PMID:17242160

  2. Application of principal component analysis to multispectral imaging data for evaluation of pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Lihacova, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive and fast primary diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions is required due to frequent incidence of skin cancer - melanoma. Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical multi-spectral images (31 melanomas and 94 nonmalignant pigmented lesions) in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm by means of PCA resulted in 87 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity for separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  3. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available.

  4. [Normal and abnormal human skin color: from research to esthetics].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2009-10-01

    Skin color is controlled by pigmentary genes that regulate constitutive skin pigmentation and by environmental factors, the most obvious of them being solar U.V. At this time, more than 130 distinct pigmentary genes are known. They affect embryogenesis and survival of the melanocyte system, mélanosome biogenesis, melanogenesis, mélanosome transport and transfer, eumelanins/pheomelanins ratio and epidermal mélanosome turn-over and elimination. The pigmentary disorders of the skin are common and represent an important part of dermatologist activity. They concern at the same time the general dermatology and the aesthetic dermatology.

  5. Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of μa and μs' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that μa ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and μs' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

  6. A multimodal assessment of melanin and melanocyte activity in abnormally pigmented hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Travis, Taryn E; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Jordan, Marion H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Using a validated swine model of human scar formation, hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples were examined for their histological and optical properties to help elucidate the mechanisms and characteristics of dyspigmentation. Full-thickness wounds were created on the flanks of red Duroc pigs and allowed to heal. Biopsies from areas of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, and uninjured tissue were fixed and embedded for histological examination using Azure B and primary antibodies to S100B, HMB45, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was then used to examine the optical properties of scars. Hyperpigmentation was first noticeable in healing wounds around weeks 2 to 3, gradually becoming darker. There was no significant difference in S100B staining for the presence of melanocytes between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples. Azure B staining of melanin was significantly greater in histological sections from hyperpigmented areas than in sections from both uninjured skin and hypopigmented scar (P < .0001). There was significantly greater staining for α-MSH in hyperpigmented samples compared with hypopigmented samples (P = .0121), and HMB45 staining was positive for melanocytes in hyperpigmented scar. SFDI at a wavelength of 632 nm resulted in an absorption coefficient map correlating with visibly hyperpigmented areas of scars. In a red Duroc model of hypertrophic scar formation, melanocyte number is similar in hyperpigmented and hypopigmented tissues. Hyperpigmented tissues, however, show a greater amount of melanin and α-MSH, along with immunohistochemical evidence of stimulated melanocytes. These observations encourage further investigation of melanocyte stimulation and the inflammatory environment within a wound that may influence melanocyte activity. Additionally, SFDI can be used to identify areas of melanin content in mature, pigmented scars, which may lead to its usefulness in wounds at earlier

  7. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Alfonso; Quartulli, Marco; Murace, Raffaele; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Manganaro, Mario; Guerra, Oscar; Bizzi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis). This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR). PMID:24281070

  8. Facultative skin pigmentation in caucasians: an objective biological indicator of lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation?

    PubMed

    Lock-Andersen, J; Knudstorp, N D; Wulf, H C

    1998-05-01

    To investigate age and gender trends in facultative and constitutive skin pigmentation we measured skin pigmentation non-invasively and objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 653 caucasians (336 females and 317 males; mean age 38 years, range 0-85) who were not using artificial tanning devices. In all subjects, measurements were performed in the late winter and pre-spring period at five sites exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation: the forehead, the upper chest, the upper back and the lateral and medial aspects of the upper arm, and in UV-unexposed buttock skin. Constitutive pigmentation at the buttocks was highest in the first years of life and then decreased substantially during the first two decades of life (P < 0.01). After the age of 25 years, buttock pigmentation remained at a constant level (P = 0.20). There was no gender difference in constitutive pigmentation. Facultative skin pigmentation increased with age for all the measured sites with the highest levels found at the lateral aspect of the upper arm. Based on observations in this study we propose the idea of a 'sun exposure index' (SEI) for individuals, based on objective measurements of skin pigmentation. The SEI is calculated as the increase in facultative pigmentation above the constitutive level and is expressed as a percentage of the constitutive level. The SEI appeared to be related to cumulative lifetime UV exposure and may be used in epidemiological research as an objective estimate of UV exposure at different body sites in caucasians.

  9. Shining Light on Skin Pigmentation: The Darker and the Brighter Side of Effects of UV Radiation†

    PubMed Central

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provide protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on a) the mechanisms of involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and b) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as ‘epidermal melanin unit’, that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the non-ionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. PMID:22404235

  10. Skin Pigmentation and Pigmentary Disorders: Focus on Epidermal/Dermal Cross-Talk.

    PubMed

    Bastonini, Emanuela; Kovacs, Daniela; Picardo, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis. Many autocrine/paracrine secreted factors and cell adhesion mechanisms involving both epidermal and dermal constituents determine constitutive skin pigmentation and, whenever deregulated, the occurrence of pigmentary disorders. In particular, an increased expression of such mediators and their specific receptors frequently lead to hyperpigmentary conditions, such as in melasma and in solar lentigo, whereas a defect in their expression/release is related to hypopigmented disorders, as seen in vitiligo. All these interactions underline the relevant role of pigmentation on human evolution and biology. PMID:27274625

  11. Skin Pigmentation and Pigmentary Disorders: Focus on Epidermal/Dermal Cross-Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bastonini, Emanuela; Kovacs, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis. Many autocrine/paracrine secreted factors and cell adhesion mechanisms involving both epidermal and dermal constituents determine constitutive skin pigmentation and, whenever deregulated, the occurrence of pigmentary disorders. In particular, an increased expression of such mediators and their specific receptors frequently lead to hyperpigmentary conditions, such as in melasma and in solar lentigo, whereas a defect in their expression/release is related to hypopigmented disorders, as seen in vitiligo. All these interactions underline the relevant role of pigmentation on human evolution and biology. PMID:27274625

  12. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-03-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  13. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-11-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  14. Enhancement of International Dermatologists’ Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsy Decisions Following Dermoscopy with Subsequent Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farberg, Aaron S.; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection and subsequent management of melanoma are critical for patient survival. New technologies have been developed to augment clinician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions. Objective: To determine how information provided by a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis device affects the biopsy decisions of international dermatologists following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented skin lesion evaluation. Methods: Participants at a dermoscopy conference in Vienna, Austria, were shown 12 clinical and dermoscopic images of pigmented skin lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low-grade dysplastic nevi) previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing high-resolution dermoscopy images, and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information. Results: Data were analyzed from a total of 70 international dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity was 58 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 59 percent post-dermoscopy (D), but 74 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participant specificity was 56 percent (C) decreasing to 51 percent (D), but increasing to 61 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 57 percent (C) decreasing to 54 percent (D), but increasing to 67 percent for dermatologists after integrating the multispectral digital skin lesion analysis data into the biopsy decision. The overall number of lesions biopsied increased from 50 percent (C) to 53 percent (D), rising to 54 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Decisions to biopsy melanocytic lesions were more sensitive and specific when multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided with no significant increase in the number of biopsies recommended. Providing multispectral digital skin lesion analysis

  15. Enhancement of International Dermatologists’ Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsy Decisions Following Dermoscopy with Subsequent Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farberg, Aaron S.; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection and subsequent management of melanoma are critical for patient survival. New technologies have been developed to augment clinician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions. Objective: To determine how information provided by a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis device affects the biopsy decisions of international dermatologists following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented skin lesion evaluation. Methods: Participants at a dermoscopy conference in Vienna, Austria, were shown 12 clinical and dermoscopic images of pigmented skin lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low-grade dysplastic nevi) previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing high-resolution dermoscopy images, and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information. Results: Data were analyzed from a total of 70 international dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity was 58 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 59 percent post-dermoscopy (D), but 74 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participant specificity was 56 percent (C) decreasing to 51 percent (D), but increasing to 61 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 57 percent (C) decreasing to 54 percent (D), but increasing to 67 percent for dermatologists after integrating the multispectral digital skin lesion analysis data into the biopsy decision. The overall number of lesions biopsied increased from 50 percent (C) to 53 percent (D), rising to 54 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Decisions to biopsy melanocytic lesions were more sensitive and specific when multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided with no significant increase in the number of biopsies recommended. Providing multispectral digital skin lesion analysis

  16. Pigmented spots in the wool-bearing skin on white merino sheep induced by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Forrest, J W; Fleet, M R

    1986-01-01

    Black-grey pigmented skin spots, some of which contained pigmented wool fibres, were observed in a flock of 8.5-year-old white Merino ewes. The spots were concentrated along the backline and increased in number following shearing, suggesting exposure to sunlight to be of importance in the development of these non-congenital pigmented skin spots in genetically white Merino sheep. To test the effect of ultraviolet light, white Merino sheep, ranging in age from 3 to 8 years, had a closely clipped midside area of wool-bearing skin irradiated on each of 28 consecutive days. Pigmented skin spots developed in 6 of the 16 white Merino sheep irradiated. Spots first appeared after 10 days of irradiation, the number subsequently increasing with time, and two skin spots were found to contain sparse numbers of black-grey pigmented wool fibres. Histological examination showed both the naturally occurring and irradiation-induced pigmented skin spots resulted from an increase in both number and activity of melanocytes localized along the epidermal-dermal border of the epidermis. With time, the melanocytes were observed to have entered, to varying depths, the outer-root sheath of follicles still producing white wool fibres. These ultraviolet-light-induced changes to epidermal melanocytes in white Merino sheep presumably occur due to alterations within the local tissue environment in which the melanocytes lie.

  17. The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity (Carney complex): imaging findings with clinical and pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Courcoutsakis, Nikos A; Tatsi, Christina; Patronas, Nicholas J; Lee, Chiy-Chia Richard; Prassopoulos, Panos K; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2013-02-01

    The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity, or Carney complex (CNC), is a familial multiple endocrine neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome. CNC is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is genetically heterogeneous. Its features overlap those of McCune-Albright syndrome and other multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of the syndrome, followed by multicentric heart myxomas, which occur at a young age and are the lethal component of the disease. Myxomas may also occur on the skin (eyelid, external ear canal and nipple) and the breast. Breast myxomas, when present, are multiple and bilateral among female CNC patients, an entity which is also described as "breast-myxomatosis" and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. Affected CNC patients often have tumours of two or more endocrine glands, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), an adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-independent cause of Cushing's syndrome, growth hormone (GH)-secreting and prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas, thyroid adenomas or carcinomas, testicular neoplasms (large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumours [LCCSCT]) and ovarian lesions (cysts and cancinomas). Additional infrequent but characteristic manifestations of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas (PMS), breast ductal adenomas (DAs) with tubular features, and osteochondromyxomas or "Carney bone tumour". Teaching Points • Almost 60 % of the known CNC kindreds have a germline inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene. • Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of CNC, followed by heart myxomas. • Indicative imaging signs of PPNAD are contour abnormality and hypodense spots within the gland. • Two breast tumours may present in CNC: myxoid fibroadenomas (breast myxomatosis) and ductal adenomas. • Additional findings of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas

  18. Decrease in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase is related to skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Mitsuo; Murakami, Yuhko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru

    2012-03-01

    Skin pigmentation is caused by various physical and chemical factors. It might also be influenced by changes in the physiological function of skin with aging. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase is an enzyme related to the mitochondrial electron transport system and plays a key role in cellular energy production. It has been reported that the functional decrease in this system causes Parkinson's disease. Another study reports that the amount of NADH dehydrogenase in heart and skeletal muscle decreases with aging. A similar decrease in the skin would probably affect its physiological function. However, no reports have examined the age-related change in levels of NADH dehydrogenase in human skin. In this study, we investigated this change and its effect on skin pigmentation using cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The mRNA expression of NDUFA1, NDUFB7, and NDUFS2, subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, and its activity were significantly decreased in late passage keratinocytes compared to early passage cells. Conversely, the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha and endothelin 1, was increased in late passage cells. On the other hand, the inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase upregulated the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines. Moreover, the level of NDUFB7 mRNA was lower in pigmented than in nonpigmented regions of skin in vivo. These results suggest the decrease in NADH dehydrogenase with aging to be involved in skin pigmentation.

  19. Abnormal aquaporin-3 protein expression in hyperproliferative skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kristen E; Bollag, Roni J; Fussell, Nicole; By, Charya; Sheehan, Daniel J; Bollag, Wendy B

    2011-10-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and psoriasis represent common hyperproliferative skin disorders, with approximately one million new NMSC diagnoses each year in the United States alone and a psoriasis prevalence of about 2% worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the glycerol channel, aquaporin-3 (AQP3) and the enzyme phospholipase D2 (PLD2) interact functionally in epidermal keratinocytes of the skin to inhibit their proliferation. However, others have suggested that AQP3 is pro-proliferative in keratinocytes and is upregulated in the NMSC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To evaluate the AQP3/PLD2 signaling module in skin diseases, we determined their levels in SCC, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and psoriasis as compared to normal epidermis. Skin biopsies with the appropriate diagnoses (10 normal, 5 SCC, 13 BCC and 10 plaque psoriasis samples) were obtained from the pathology archives and examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies recognizing AQP3 and PLD2. In normal epidermis AQP3, an integral membrane protein, was localized mainly to the plasma membrane and PLD2 to the cell periphery, particularly in suprabasal layers. In BCC, AQP3 and PLD2 levels were reduced as compared to the normal-appearing overlying epidermis. In SCC, AQP3 staining was "patchy," with areas of reduced AQP3 immunoreactivity exhibiting positivity for Ki67, a marker of proliferation. PLD2 staining was unchanged in SCC. In psoriasis, AQP3 staining was usually observed in the cytoplasm rather than in the membrane. Also, in the majority of psoriatic samples, PLD2 showed weak immunoreactivity or aberrant localization. These results suggest that abnormalities in the AQP3/PLD2 signaling module correlate with hyperproliferation in psoriasis and the NMSCs. PMID:21400035

  20. Estimation of Fractal Dimension in Differential Diagnosis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aralica, Gorana; Milošević, Danko; Konjevoda, Paško; Seiwerth, Sven; Štambuk, Nikola

    Medical differential diagnosis is a method of identifying the presence of a particular entity (disease) within a set of multiple possible alternatives. The significant problem in dermatology and pathology is the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions, especially of dysplastic nevi. Malignant melanoma is the most malignant skin neoplasma, with increasing incidence in various parts of the world. It is hoped that the methods of quantitative pathology, i.e. morphometry, can help objectification of the diagnostic process, since early discovery of melanoma results in 10-year survival rate of 90%. The aim of the study was to use fractal dimension calculated from the perimeter-area relation of the cell nuclei as a tool for the differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. We analyzed hemalaun-eosin stained pathohistological slides of pigmented skin lesions: intradermal naevi (n = 45), dysplastic naevi (n = 47), and malignant melanoma (n = 50). It was found that fractal dimension of malignant melanoma cell nuclei differs significantly from the intradermal and dysplastic naevi (p ≤ 0. 001, Steel-Dwass Multiple Comparison Test). Additionaly, ROC analysis confirmed the value of fractal dimension based evaluation. It is suggested that the estimation of fractal dimension from the perimeter-area relation of the cell nuclei may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter in the medical differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions.

  1. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine, a novel niacinamide derivative, retains high antioxidant activity and inhibits skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Su Min; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Lee, Jin Won; Kim, Myung Kyoo; Lee, Kye Jong; Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Joo Dong; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2011-11-01

    We synthesized a novel derivative of a well-known skin-lightening compound niacinamide, N-nicotinoyl dopamine (NND). NND did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. However, NND retains high antioxidant activity without affecting viability of cells. In a reconstructed skin model, topical applications of 0.05% and 0.1% NND induced skin lightening and decreased melanin production without affecting the viability and morphology of melanocytes and overall tissue histology. Moreover, no evidence for skin irritation or sensitization was observed when 0.1% NND emulsion was applied onto the skin of 52 volunteers. The effect of NND on skin lightening was further revealed by pigmented spot analyses of human clinical trial. Overall, NND treatment may be a useful trial for skin lightening and treating pigmentary disorders.

  2. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-01-01

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1–2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins. PMID:24573849

  3. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-04-22

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1-2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins.

  4. Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism.

    PubMed

    Onojafe, Ighovie F; Adams, David R; Simeonov, Dimitre R; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M; Sergeev, Yuri V; Dolinska, Monika B; Alur, Ramakrishna P; Brilliant, Murray H; Gahl, William A; Brooks, Brian P

    2011-10-01

    Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

  5. The relationship of immediate pigment darkening to minimal erythemal dose, skin type, and eye color.

    PubMed

    Agin, P P; Desrochers, D L; Sayre, R M

    1985-10-01

    Immediate pigment darkening (IPD) was recorded in over 1,300 volunteers participating in routine sun protection factor (SPF) testing. Medical history obtained included skin type, hair color, eye color, sunburn sensitivity, tanning ability, and current medications. The presence of IPD and the energy needed to produce it were recorded immediately following exposure to a filtered 2500 W xenon are solar simulator. Minimal erythemal dose (MED) values were recorded 16-24 hours post-exposure. The average MED was lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. The IPD dose was also lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. However, the average IPD dose was greater than the MED for skin type I and lower than the MED for skin type IV. For skin types II and III, the average IPD dose and MED were almost equivalent. For skin type I, 64% required equivalent or greater energy to produce IPD than their MED, and 30% showed no IPD at energy levels sufficient to produce erythema, whereas all skin type IV's had a measurable IPD response. For volunteers of skin type II and III showing no measurable IPD, the predominant eye color was blue or green (74%). Sunscreen usage altered the IPD response for all 4 skin types.

  6. Key Regulatory Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Pigmentation as Demonstrated Using a Reconstructed Skin Model: Impact of Photo-Aging

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  7. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  8. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  9. Pigment pattern and depth-of-invasion analysis of skin lesions for malignant melanoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Kini, Prashanth

    1990-07-01

    A clinical instrument called a "Nevoscope" is used to image skin-lesions. The lesion is transilluminated by a fiber-optic annular ring light source that directs light into the skin area surrounding the lesion and thus forming a virtual source just beneath the lesion. Mirrors uniformly spaced around the lesion and tilted at various angles, provide orthographic projections of the skin lesion. Additional views are obtained by rotating the mirror assembly. These multiple views are used in a direct 3-D reconstruction of the lesion to estimate its depth of penetration. A pigment pattern analysis is performed on the direct view. This includes both color and texture segmentation. In this paper, we present preliminary results of our 3-D reconstruction and pigment pattern analyses of some lesions.

  10. [Pigmented nevus and preventive surgery of skin melanoma].

    PubMed

    Halaĭchuk, I I

    2002-07-01

    Modern clinical views on the role of nevus in occurrence of melanoma were enlighted. The main positions of diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm of preventive surgery of the skin melanoma were substantiated. Methods of surgical interventions, variants of morphological conclusions and tactic of treatment after the operation performance were suggested. Particular role of oncologist and pathomorphologist in establishing of diagnosis and choice of correct tactic of treatment was underlined.

  11. Use of multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate skin pigmentation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancik, Yuri; Favre, Amandine; Loy, Chong Jin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    There is a growing body of literature showing the usefulness of multiphoton tomography (MPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in situ characterization of skin constituents and the ensuing development of noninvasive diagnostic tools against skin diseases. Melanin and pigmentation-associated skin cancers constitute some of the major applications. We show that MPT and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be used to measure changes in cutaneous melanin concentration and that these can be related to the visible skin color. Melanin in the skin of African, Indian, Caucasian, and Asian volunteers is detected on the basis of its emission wavelength and fluorescence lifetimes in solution and in a melanocyte-keratinocyte cell culture. Fluorescence intensity is used to characterize the melanin content and distribution as a function of skin type and depth into the skin (stratum granulosum and stratum basale). The measured fluorescence intensities in given skin types agree with melanin amounts reported by others using biopsies. Our results suggest that spatial distribution of melanin in skin can be studied using MPT and fluorescence lifetime imaging, but further studies are needed to ascertain that the method can resolve melanin amount in smaller depth intervals.

  12. UV exposure modulates hemidesmosome plasticity, contributing to long-term pigmentation in human skin.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sergio G; Valencia, Julio C; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Mahns, Andre; Kolbe, Ludger; Miller, Sharon A; Beer, Janusz Z; Zhang, Guofeng; Tuma, Pamela L; Hearing, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    Human skin colour, ie pigmentation, differs widely among individuals, as do their responses to various types of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and their risks of skin cancer. In some individuals, UV-induced pigmentation persists for months to years in a phenomenon termed long-lasting pigmentation (LLP). It is unclear whether LLP is an indicator of potential risk for skin cancer. LLP seems to have similar features to other forms of hyperpigmentation, eg solar lentigines or age spots, which are clinical markers of photodamage and risk factors for precancerous lesions. To investigate what UV-induced molecular changes may persist in individuals with LLP, clinical specimens from non-sunburn-inducing repeated UV exposures (UVA, UVB or UVA + UVB) at 4 months post-exposure (short-term LLP) were evaluated by microarray analysis and dataset mining. Validated targets were further evaluated in clinical specimens from six healthy individuals (three LLP+ and three LLP-) followed for more than 9 months (long-term LLP) who initially received a single sunburn-inducing UVA + UVB exposure. The results support a UV-induced hyperpigmentation model in which basal keratinocytes have an impaired ability to remove melanin that leads to a compensatory mechanism by neighbouring keratinocytes with increased proliferative capacity to maintain skin homeostasis. The attenuated expression of SOX7 and other hemidesmosomal components (integrin α6β4 and plectin) leads to increased melanosome uptake by keratinocytes and points to a spatial regulation within the epidermis. The reduced density of hemidesmosomes provides supporting evidence for plasticity at the epidermal-dermal junction. Altered hemidesmosome plasticity, and the sustained nature of LLP, may be mediated by the role of SOX7 in basal keratinocytes. The long-term sustained subtle changes detected are modest, but sufficient to create dramatic visual differences in skin colour. These results suggest that the hyperpigmentation phenomenon

  13. Molecular changes in skin pigmented lesions of the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus.

    PubMed

    Lerebours, Adélaïde; Chapman, Emma C; Sweet, Michael J; Heupel, Michelle R; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2016-09-01

    A high prevalence of skin pigmented lesions of 15% was recently reported in coral trout Plectropomus leopardus, a commercially important marine fish, inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef. Herein, fish were sampled at two offshore sites, characterised by high and low lesion prevalence. A transcriptomic approach using the suppressive subtractive hybridisation (SSH) method was used to analyse the differentially expressed genes between lesion and normal skin samples. Transcriptional changes of 14 genes were observed in lesion samples relative to normal skin samples. These targeted genes encoded for specific proteins which are involved in general cell function but also in different stages disrupted during the tumourigenesis process of other organisms, such as cell cycling, cell proliferation, skeletal organisation and cell migration. The results highlight transcripts that are associated with the lesion occurrence, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular aetiology of this coral trout skin disease. PMID:27521482

  14. Diagnostics of pigmented skin tumors based on laser-induced autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Borisova, E; Avramov, L; Troyanova, P; Pavlova, P

    2008-06-30

    Results of investigation of cutaneous benign and malignant pigmented lesions by laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are presented. The autofluorescence of human skin was excited by a 337-nm nitrogen laser. A broadband halogen lamp (400-900 nm) was used for diffuse reflectance measurements. A microspectrometer detected in vivo the fluorescence and reflectance signals from human skin. The main spectral features of benign (dermal nevi, compound nevi, dysplastic nevi) and malignant (melanoma) lesions are discussed. The combined usage of the fluorescence and reflectance spectral methods to determine the type of the lesion, which increases the total diagnostic accuracy, is compared with the usage of LIAFS or DRS only. We also applied colorimetric transformation of the reflectance spectra detected and received additional evaluation criteria for determination of type of the lesion under study. Spectra from healthy skin areas near the lesion were detected and changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra were revealed. The influence of the main skin pigments on the detected spectra is discussed and evaluation of possibilities for differentiation between malignant and benign lesions is performed based on their spectral properties. This research shows that the non-invasive and high-sensitive in vivo detection by means of appropriate light sources and detectors should be possible, related to the real-time determination of existing pathological conditions. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  15. Topical application of gamma-tocopherol derivative prevents UV-induced skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Yuka; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Yasuoka, Shingo; Fukui, Kohsuke; Takata, Jiro; Karube, Yoshiharu; Okamoto, Yuko; Asano, Shin; Katoh, Eiko; Tsuzuki, Toshi; Kobayashi, Shizuko

    2006-06-01

    We previously reported that a novel hydrophilic gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) derivative, gamma-tocopheryl-N,N-dimethylglycinate hydrochloride (gamma-TDMG) gets converted to the antioxidant gamma-Toc in skin. We also found that this derivative displayed greater bioavailability than gamma-Toc itself. In the present study, we determined whether gamma-TDMG could reduce UV-induced skin pigmentation in brownish guinea pigs. gamma-TDMG (0.1 or 0.5%) was topically applied to the skin before and after it was exposed to UVB plus UVA (3 times/week for 1 week), and then 10 times/week for 4 weeks thereafter. Treatment with 0.5% gamma-TDMG resulted in significant skin lightening (70% of the pigmentation of irradiated controls). We also found that melanin synthesis was dose-dependently inhibited by gamma-TDMG in murine B16 melanoma cells. When gamma-TDMG or kojic acid (250 microM) were added to homogenates of B16 melanoma cells, their tyrosinase activity was significantly inhibited by approximately 40% and 75%, respectively. Mushroom tyrosinase activity was significantly inhibited by 200 microM gamma-Toc and kojic acid, but not gamma-TDMG. When B16 cells were incubated with 250 microM gamma-TDMG for 24 or 48 h, their intracellular gamma-Toc concentrations rose over 100 fold to 10.5 and 11.2 nmol/10(6) cells, respectively, suggesting that gamma-TDMG was rapidly converted to gamma-Toc in these cells and that their reduced melanin synthesis may have been due to the activity of gamma-Toc. Our data further suggest that the topical application of gamma-TDMG may be efficacious in preventing photo-induced skin pigmentation in humans.

  16. Pigmented guinea pig skin irradiated with Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Morphologic and histologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, J.S.; Margolis, R.J.; Polla, L.L.; Watanabe, S.; Hruza, G.J.; Parrish, J.A.; Anderson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Q-switched ruby laser pulses cause selective damage to cutaneous pigmented cells. Repair of this selective damage has not been well described. Therefore, using epilated pigmented and albino guinea pig skin, we studied the acute injury and tissue repair caused by 40-ns, Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Gross observation and light and electron microscopy were performed. No specific changes were evident in the albino guinea pigs. In pigmented animals, with radiant exposures of 0.4 J/cm2 or greater, white spots confined to the 2.5-mm exposure sites developed immediately and faded over 20 minutes. Delayed depigmentation occurred at seven to ten days, followed by full repigmentation by four to eight weeks. Regrowing hairs in sites irradiated at and above 0.4 J/cm2 remained white for at least four months. Histologically, vacuolation of pigment-laden cells was seen immediately in the epidermis and the follicular epithelium at exposures of 0.3 J/cm2 and greater. Melanosomal disruption was seen immediately by electron microscopy at and above 0.3 J/cm2. Over the next seven days, epidermal necrosis was followed by regeneration of a depigmented epidermis. By four months, melanosomes and melanin pigmentation had returned; however, hair follicles remained depigmented and devoid of melanocytes. This study demonstrates that selective melanosomal disruption caused by Q-switched ruby laser pulses leads to transient cutaneous depigmentation and persistent follicular depigmentation. Potential exists for selective treatment of pigmented epidermal and dermal lesions with this modality.

  17. Autosomal-recessive SASH1 variants associated with a new genodermatosis with pigmentation defects, palmoplantar keratoderma and skin carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Courcet, Jean- Benoît; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Duplomb, Laurence; Tajir, Mariam; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Gigot, Nadège; Marle, Nathalie; Aral, Bernard; Duffourd, Yannis; Sarasin, Alain; Naim, Valeria; Courcet-Degrolard, Emilie; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie- Hélène; Martin, Laurent; Abrid, Jamal Eddin; Thauvin, Christel; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Vabres, Pierre; Faivre, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain-containing protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the tumorigenesis of a spectrum of solid cancers. Heterozygous SASH1 variants are known to cause autosomal-dominant dyschromatosis. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous Moroccan family with two affected siblings presenting an unclassified phenotype associating an abnormal pigmentation pattern (hypo- and hyperpigmented macules of the trunk and face and areas of reticular hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the extremities), alopecia, palmoplantar keratoderma, ungueal dystrophy and recurrent spinocellular carcinoma. We identified a homozygous variant in SASH1 (c.1849G>A; p.Glu617Lys) in both affected individuals. Wound-healing assay showed that the patient's fibroblasts were better able than control fibroblasts to migrate. Following the identification of SASH1 heterozygous variants in dyschromatosis, we used reverse phenotyping to show that autosomal-recessive variants of this gene could be responsible for an overlapping but more complex phenotype that affected skin appendages. SASH1 should be added to the list of genes responsible for autosomal-dominant and -recessive genodermatosis, with no phenotype in heterozygous patients in the recessive form, and to the list of genes responsible for a predisposition to skin cancer. PMID:25315659

  18. Effects of low-level laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and radiofrequency on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), electroacupuncture (EA), and radiofrequency (RF), which are used in physical therapy, on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces were investigated to provide basic data for skin interventions. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult females were assigned to either an LLLT group (n=10), an EA group (n=10), or an RF group (n=10). The intervention was performed in two 15-minute sessions per week for six weeks. Subjects’ skin tone and pigmentation were observed before and after the intervention. [Results] The EA group showed significant reductions in pigmentation in the left and right eye rims, as well as in the left cheek. The RF group showed significant post-intervention reductions in pigmentation under the left eye, as well as in the left and right eye rims and the left cheek. The LLLT group showed significant increases in skin tone in the forehead and both eye rims. The RF group showed significant increases in skin tone under both eyes. [Conclusion] The application of LLLT, EA, and RF had positive effects on pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces. PMID:27313340

  19. Effects of low-level laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and radiofrequency on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] In this study, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), electroacupuncture (EA), and radiofrequency (RF), which are used in physical therapy, on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women's faces were investigated to provide basic data for skin interventions. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult females were assigned to either an LLLT group (n=10), an EA group (n=10), or an RF group (n=10). The intervention was performed in two 15-minute sessions per week for six weeks. Subjects' skin tone and pigmentation were observed before and after the intervention. [Results] The EA group showed significant reductions in pigmentation in the left and right eye rims, as well as in the left cheek. The RF group showed significant post-intervention reductions in pigmentation under the left eye, as well as in the left and right eye rims and the left cheek. The LLLT group showed significant increases in skin tone in the forehead and both eye rims. The RF group showed significant increases in skin tone under both eyes. [Conclusion] The application of LLLT, EA, and RF had positive effects on pigmentation and skin tone of adult women's faces. PMID:27313340

  20. A new total body scanning system for automatic change detection in multiple pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin; Quintana, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The detection of newly appearing and changing pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) is essential for timely diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Total body skin examination (TBSE) procedures, currently practiced for this purpose, can be extremely time-consuming for patients with numerous lesions. In addition, these procedures are prone to subjectivity when selecting PSLs for baseline image comparison, increasing the risk of missing a developing cancer. To address this issue, we propose a new photogrammetry-based total body scanning system allowing for skin surface image acquisition using cross-polarized light. Equipped with 21 high-resolution cameras and a turntable, this scanner automatically acquires a set of overlapping images, covering 85%-90% of the patient's skin surface. These images are used for the automated mapping of PSLs and their change estimation between explorations. The maps produced relate images of individual lesions with their locations on the patient's body, solving the body-to-image and image-to-image correspondence problem in TBSEs. Currently, the scanner is limited to patients with sparse body hair and, for a complete skin examination, the scalp, palms, soles and inner arms should be photographed manually. The initial tests of the scanner showed that it can be successfully applied for automated mapping and temporal monitoring of multiple lesions: PSLs relevant for follow-up were repeatedly mapped in several explorations. Moreover, during the baseline image comparison, all lesions with artificially induced changes were correctly identified as "evolved." PMID:25222947

  1. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Reported “Color” and Quantitative Measures of Skin Pigmentation in Brazilian Admixed Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tailce K. M.; Fonseca, Rômulo M. C.; de França, Nanci M.; Parra, Esteban J.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2011-01-01

    A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported “color”, but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to “color” is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported “color”, according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported “color” and skin pigmentation, self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three “color” groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the “color” categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different “color”, and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker “color” category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported “color”, such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with

  2. Sex steroids regulate skin pigmentation through nonclassical membrane-bound receptors

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Christopher A; Duperret, Elizabeth K; Zhang, Junqian; Sadeghi, Rochelle; Dahal, Ankit; O'Brien, Kevin Tyler; Cookson, Rosa; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Ridky, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    The association between pregnancy and altered cutaneous pigmentation has been documented for over two millennia, suggesting that sex hormones play a role in regulating epidermal melanocyte (MC) homeostasis. Here we show that physiologic estrogen (17β-estradiol) and progesterone reciprocally regulate melanin synthesis. This is intriguing given that we also show that normal primary human MCs lack classical estrogen or progesterone receptors (ER or PR). Utilizing both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we establish that sex steroid effects on human pigment synthesis are mediated by the membrane-bound, steroid hormone receptors G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7). Activity of these receptors was activated or inhibited by synthetic estrogen or progesterone analogs that do not bind to ER or PR. As safe and effective treatment options for skin pigmentation disorders are limited, these specific GPER and PAQR7 ligands may represent a novel class of therapeutics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15104.001 PMID:27115344

  3. Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Uvdal, Per; Gren, Johan A; Dyke, Gareth; Schultz, Bo Pagh; Shawkey, Matthew D; Barnes, Kenneth R; Polcyn, Michael J

    2014-02-27

    Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptive colouration serves critical functions ranging from inconspicuous camouflage to ostentatious sexual display, and can provide important information about the environment and biology of a particular organism. The most ubiquitous and abundant pigment, melanin, also has a diverse range of non-visual roles, including thermoregulation in ectotherms. However, little is known about the functional evolution of this important biochrome through deep time, owing to our limited ability to unambiguously identify traces of it in the fossil record. Here we present direct chemical evidence of pigmentation in fossilized skin, from three distantly related marine reptiles: a leatherback turtle, a mosasaur and an ichthyosaur. We demonstrate that dark traces of soft tissue in these fossils are dominated by molecularly preserved eumelanin, in intimate association with fossilized melanosomes. In addition, we suggest that contrary to the countershading of many pelagic animals, at least some ichthyosaurs were uniformly dark-coloured in life. Our analyses expand current knowledge of pigmentation in fossil integument beyond that of feathers, allowing for the reconstruction of colour over much greater ranges of extinct taxa and anatomy. In turn, our results provide evidence of convergent melanism in three disparate lineages of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Based on extant marine analogues, we propose that the benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis are likely to have contributed to this melanisation, with the former having implications for the ability of each group to exploit cold environments.

  4. Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Uvdal, Per; Gren, Johan A; Dyke, Gareth; Schultz, Bo Pagh; Shawkey, Matthew D; Barnes, Kenneth R; Polcyn, Michael J

    2014-02-27

    Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptive colouration serves critical functions ranging from inconspicuous camouflage to ostentatious sexual display, and can provide important information about the environment and biology of a particular organism. The most ubiquitous and abundant pigment, melanin, also has a diverse range of non-visual roles, including thermoregulation in ectotherms. However, little is known about the functional evolution of this important biochrome through deep time, owing to our limited ability to unambiguously identify traces of it in the fossil record. Here we present direct chemical evidence of pigmentation in fossilized skin, from three distantly related marine reptiles: a leatherback turtle, a mosasaur and an ichthyosaur. We demonstrate that dark traces of soft tissue in these fossils are dominated by molecularly preserved eumelanin, in intimate association with fossilized melanosomes. In addition, we suggest that contrary to the countershading of many pelagic animals, at least some ichthyosaurs were uniformly dark-coloured in life. Our analyses expand current knowledge of pigmentation in fossil integument beyond that of feathers, allowing for the reconstruction of colour over much greater ranges of extinct taxa and anatomy. In turn, our results provide evidence of convergent melanism in three disparate lineages of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Based on extant marine analogues, we propose that the benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis are likely to have contributed to this melanisation, with the former having implications for the ability of each group to exploit cold environments. PMID:24402224

  5. How animals get their skin patterns: fish pigment pattern as a live Turing wave.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeru; Iwashita, Motoko; Yamaguchi, Motoomi

    2009-01-01

    It is more than fifty years since Alan Turing first presented the reaction-diffusion (RD) model, to account for the mechanism of biological pattern formation. In the paper entitled "The chemical basis of morphogenesis", Turing concluded that spatial patterns autonomously made in the embryo are generated as the stationary wave of the chemical (cellular) reactions. Although this novel idea was paid little attention by experimental biologists, recent experimental data are suggesting that the RD mechanism really functions in some of the course of animal development. Among the phenomena in which involvement of the RD mechanism is suspected, the striped pigment pattern of zebrafish has been highlighted as an ideal model system for the following reasons: the stationary wave made by the RD mechanism stays alive and can be observed only in the fish skin; and in zebrafish, we can utilize genomic information and molecular genetic techniques to clarify the molecular basis of pattern formation. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the study of zebrafish pigment pattern formation that is uncovering how the RD wave is made and maintained in the skin.

  6. How animals get their skin patterns: fish pigment pattern as a live Turing wave.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shigeru; Iwashita, Motoko; Yamaguchi, Motoomi

    2009-01-01

    It is more than fifty years since Alan Turing first presented the reaction-diffusion (RD) model, to account for the mechanism of biological pattern formation. In the paper entitled "The chemical basis of morphogenesis", Turing concluded that spatial patterns autonomously made in the embryo are generated as the stationary wave of the chemical (cellular) reactions. Although this novel idea was paid little attention by experimental biologists, recent experimental data are suggesting that the RD mechanism really functions in some of the course of animal development. Among the phenomena in which involvement of the RD mechanism is suspected, the striped pigment pattern of zebrafish has been highlighted as an ideal model system for the following reasons: the stationary wave made by the RD mechanism stays alive and can be observed only in the fish skin; and in zebrafish, we can utilize genomic information and molecular genetic techniques to clarify the molecular basis of pattern formation. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the study of zebrafish pigment pattern formation that is uncovering how the RD wave is made and maintained in the skin. PMID:19557690

  7. Possible contributions of skin pigmentation and vitamin D in a polyfactorial model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Tanner, Susan; Kimlin, Michael G

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a polyfactorial and polygenetic disorder that involves biological and psychological sub-mechanisms that differentially involve depression, seasonality, circadian rhythms, retinal sensitivity, iris pigmentation, sleep factors, and the neurotransmitters involved with these systems. Within the framework of the polyfactorial conceptualization of SAD, we review the possible contributions of vitamin D3 with respect to the aforementioned sub-mechanisms. We hypothesize that rather than functioning primarily as a proximal or direct sub-mechanism in the etiology of SAD, vitamin D likely functions in a more foundational and regulative role in potentiating the sub-mechanisms associated with the depressive and seasonality factors. There are several reasons for this position: 1. vitamin D levels fluctuate in the body seasonally, with a lag, in direct relation to seasonally-available sunlight; 2. lower vitamin D levels have been observed in depressed patients (as well as in patients with other psychiatric disorders) compared to controls; 3. vitamin D levels in the central nervous system affect the production of both serotonin and dopamine; and 4. vitamin D and vitamin D responsive elements are found throughout the midbrain regions and are especially concentrated in the hypothalamus, a region that encompasses the circadian timing systems and much of its neural circuitry. We also consider the variable of skin pigmentation as this may affect levels of vitamin D in the body. We hypothesize that people with darker skin pigmentation may experience greater risks for lower vitamin D levels that, especially following their migration to regions of higher latitude, could contribute to the emergence of SAD and other psychiatric and physical health problems.

  8. The effects of topical and oral L-selenomethionine on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Burke, K E; Combs, G F; Gross, E G; Bhuyan, K C; Abu-Libdeh, H

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether oral and/or topical selenium (Se) supplementation can reduce the incidence of acute and/or chronic damage to the skin (i.e., sunburn and pigmentation and/or skin cancer, respectively) induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in mice. Groups of 38 BALB:c female mice or 16 Skh:2 hairless pigmented mice were treated with 1) lotion vehicle, 2) 0.02% L-selenomethionine (SeMet) lotion, or 3) vehicle and 1.5 ppm SeMet in the drinking water. Within each group, 30 BALB:c mice or 12 Skh:2 mice were given UV irradiation (Westinghouse FS 40 bulbs) three times per week in doses of 0.575 and 0.24 J/cm2, respectively. The animals' weights and food intakes and the Se concentrations of skin and liver were measured. Skin biopsies were taken from the backs and abdomens of all animals to evaluate the relative amounts of Se and the damage by UV irradiation. Skin pigmentation was scored, and the total number of clinically detectable skin tumors per animal was counted weekly. Results showed that the skin Se concentrations in areas of application of the lotion containing SeMet were greater than those of animals given comparable oral doses, while the Se concentrations of untreated skin and liver were similar to those of animals receiving oral Se. Mice treated with Se showed no signs of toxicity and had significantly less skin damage by UV irradiation, as indicated by reduced inflammation and pigmentation and by later onset and lesser incidence of skin cancer.

  9. Optical properties of mice skin for optical therapy relevant wavelengths: influence of gender and pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, C. P.; Deana, A. M.; Silva, D. F. T.; França, C. M.; Yoshimura, T. M.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Red and near-infrared light have been widely employed in optical therapies. Skin is the most common optical barrier in non-invasive techniques and in many cases it is the target tissue itself. Consequently, to optimize the outcomes brought by lightbased therapies, the optical properties of skin tissue must be very well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the dorsal skin optical properties of albino (BALB/c) and pigmented (C57BL/6) mice using the Kubelka-Munk photon transport model. We evaluated samples from male and female young mice of both strains. Analysis was performed for wavelengths at 630, 660, 780, 810 and 905 nm due to their prevalent use in optical therapies, such as low-level light (or laser) and photodynamic therapies. Spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse transmittance and reflectance were performed using a single integrating sphere coupled to a proper spectrophotometer. Statistic analysis was made by two-way ANOVA, with Tukey as post-test and Levenne and Shapiro-Wilks as pre-tests. Statistical significance was considered when p<0.05. Our results show only a slight transmittance increment (<10 %) as wavelengths are increased from 630 to 905 nm, and no statistical significance was observed. Albino male mice present reduced transmittance levels for all wavelengths. The organization and abundance of skin composing tissues significantly influence its scattering optical properties although absorption remains constant. We conclude that factors such as subcutaneous adiposity and connective tissue structure can have statistically significant influence on mice skin optical properties and these factors have relevant variations among different gender and strains.

  10. Sensations of skin infestation linked to abnormal frontolimbic brain reactivity and differences in self-representation.

    PubMed

    Eccles, J A; Garfinkel, S N; Harrison, N A; Ward, J; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P; Critchley, H D

    2015-10-01

    Some patients experience skin sensations of infestation and contamination that are elusive to proximate dermatological explanation. We undertook a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain to demonstrate, for the first time, that central processing of infestation-relevant stimuli is altered in patients with such abnormal skin sensations. We show differences in neural activity within amygdala, insula, middle temporal lobe and frontal cortices. Patients also demonstrated altered measures of self-representation, with poorer sensitivity to internal bodily (interoceptive) signals and greater susceptibility to take on an illusion of body ownership: the rubber hand illusion. Together, these findings highlight a potential model for the maintenance of abnormal skin sensations, encompassing heightened threat processing within amygdala, increased salience of skin representations within insula and compromised prefrontal capacity for self-regulation and appraisal.

  11. Sensations of skin infestation linked to abnormal frontolimbic brain reactivity and differences in self-representation.

    PubMed

    Eccles, J A; Garfinkel, S N; Harrison, N A; Ward, J; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P; Critchley, H D

    2015-10-01

    Some patients experience skin sensations of infestation and contamination that are elusive to proximate dermatological explanation. We undertook a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain to demonstrate, for the first time, that central processing of infestation-relevant stimuli is altered in patients with such abnormal skin sensations. We show differences in neural activity within amygdala, insula, middle temporal lobe and frontal cortices. Patients also demonstrated altered measures of self-representation, with poorer sensitivity to internal bodily (interoceptive) signals and greater susceptibility to take on an illusion of body ownership: the rubber hand illusion. Together, these findings highlight a potential model for the maintenance of abnormal skin sensations, encompassing heightened threat processing within amygdala, increased salience of skin representations within insula and compromised prefrontal capacity for self-regulation and appraisal. PMID:26260311

  12. DOSE-RESPONSE FOR UV-INDUCED IMMUNE SUPPRESSION IN PEOPLE OF COLOR: DIFFERENCES BASED ON ERYTHEMAL REACTIVITY RATHER THAN SKIN PIGMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to suppress immune responses in human subjects. The purpose of this study was to develop dose responses across a broad range of skin pigmentation in order to facilitate risk assessment. UVR was administered using FS 20 bulbs. Skin pigmentation...

  13. Analytical Characteristics of a Noninvasive Gene Expression Assay for Pigmented Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zuxu; Allen, Talisha; Oakley, Margaret; Samons, Carol; Garrison, Darryl; Jansen, Burkhard

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported clinical performance of a novel noninvasive and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based molecular diagnostic assay (the pigmented lesion assay; PLA) that differentiates primary cutaneous melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesions through two target gene signatures, LINC00518 (LINC) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). This study focuses on analytical characterization of this PLA, including qPCR specificity and sensitivity, optimization of RNA input in qPCR to achieve a desired diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and analytical performance (repeatability and reproducibility) of this two-gene PLA. All target qPCRs demonstrated a good specificity (100%) and sensitivity (with a limit of detection of 1-2 copies), which allows reliable detection of gene expression changes of LINC and PRAME between melanomas and nonmelanomas. Through normalizing RNA input in qPCR, we converted the traditional gene expression analyses to a binomial detection of gene transcripts (i.e., detected or not detected). By combining the binomial qPCR results of the two genes, an improved diagnostic sensitivity (raised from 52%- 65% to 71% at 1 pg of total RNA input, and to 91% at 3 pg of total RNA input) was achieved. This two-gene PLA demonstrates a high repeatability and reproducibility (coefficient of variation <3%) and all required analytical performance characteristics for the commercial processing of clinical samples. PMID:27505074

  14. Clinical application of versapulse laser in the treatment of skin pigmentation diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Li; Yuan, Wai-Hua; Yuan, Wei-Wei; Fu, Qiang

    1998-11-01

    387 cases of various skin pigmentous diseases were treated by Versapulse 'C' laser in our department Versapulse 'C' laser consist of 4 kinds of laser with wavelength of VP532nm, Q532nrn, Q755nm, Q1064nm. The vascular lesions, prot wine strain, cherry angioma, strawberry nevus, perckles, solar lentigines, melasma and junctional moles were treated by VP532 or Q532 laser; the nevus of Ota and tattoo were treated by Q755 or Q1064 laser. Satisfactory results were obtained in this paper, we also discussed the therapeutic and the main points of varying diseases with varying laser of wavelength, the use of FMLA anesthesia, controlled cold therapy an the physical protection to laser.

  15. The influence of stromal cells on the pigmentation of tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Thomas; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Klar, Agnieszka S; Widmer, Daniel S; Pontiggia, Luca; Weber, Andreas D; Weber, Daniel M; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2015-03-01

    It has been shown in vitro that melanocyte proliferation and function in palmoplantar skin is regulated by mesenchymal factors derived from fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated in vivo the influence of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in human tissue-engineered skin substitutes reconstructed from palmar- and nonpalmoplantar-derived fibroblasts. Tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal analogs based on collagen type I hydrogels were populated with either human palmar or nonpalmoplantar fibroblasts and seeded with human nonpalmoplantar-derived melanocytes and keratinocytes. These skin substitutes were transplanted onto full-thickness skin wounds of immunoincompetent rats. Four weeks after transplantation the development of skin color was measured and grafts were excised and analyzed with regard to epidermal characteristics, in particular melanocyte number and function. Skin substitutes containing palmar-derived fibroblasts in comparison to nonpalmoplantar-derived fibroblasts showed (a) a significantly lighter pigmentation; (b) a reduced amount of epidermal melanin granules; and (c) a distinct melanosome expression. However, the number of melanocytes in the basal layer remained similar in both transplantation groups. These findings demonstrate that human palmar fibroblasts regulate the function of melanocytes in human pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes after transplantation, whereas the number of melanocytes remains constant. This underscores the influence of site-specific stromal cells and their importance when constructing skin substitutes for clinical application. PMID:25300246

  16. The Influence of Stromal Cells on the Pigmentation of Tissue-Engineered Dermo-Epidermal Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Biedermann, Thomas; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Klar, Agnieszka S.; Widmer, Daniel S.; Pontiggia, Luca; Weber, Andreas D.; Weber, Daniel M.; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown in vitro that melanocyte proliferation and function in palmoplantar skin is regulated by mesenchymal factors derived from fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated in vivo the influence of mesenchymal–epithelial interactions in human tissue-engineered skin substitutes reconstructed from palmar- and nonpalmoplantar-derived fibroblasts. Tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal analogs based on collagen type I hydrogels were populated with either human palmar or nonpalmoplantar fibroblasts and seeded with human nonpalmoplantar-derived melanocytes and keratinocytes. These skin substitutes were transplanted onto full-thickness skin wounds of immunoincompetent rats. Four weeks after transplantation the development of skin color was measured and grafts were excised and analyzed with regard to epidermal characteristics, in particular melanocyte number and function. Skin substitutes containing palmar-derived fibroblasts in comparison to nonpalmoplantar-derived fibroblasts showed (a) a significantly lighter pigmentation; (b) a reduced amount of epidermal melanin granules; and (c) a distinct melanosome expression. However, the number of melanocytes in the basal layer remained similar in both transplantation groups. These findings demonstrate that human palmar fibroblasts regulate the function of melanocytes in human pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes after transplantation, whereas the number of melanocytes remains constant. This underscores the influence of site-specific stromal cells and their importance when constructing skin substitutes for clinical application. PMID:25300246

  17. Near infrared spectroscopy evaluation of bladder function: the impact of skin pigmentation on detection of physiologic change during voiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Stothers, Lynn; Molavi, Behnam; Mutabazi, Sharif; Mukisa, Ronald; Macnab, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Background: Prior research indicates the epidermal pigment layer of human skin (Melanin) has a significant absorption coefficient in the near infra-red (NIR) region; hence attenuation of light in vivo is a potential confounder for NIR spectroscopy (NIRS). A NIRS method developed for transcutaneous evaluation of bladder function is being investigated as a means of improving the burden of bladder disease in sub-Saharan Africa. This required development of a simple wireless NIRS device suitable for use as a screening tool in patients with pigmented skin where the NIR light emitted would penetrate through the epidermal pigment layer and return in sufficient quantity to provide effective monitoring. Methods: Two healthy subjects, one with pigmented skin and one with fair skin, were monitored as they voided spontaneously using the prototype transcutaneous NIRS device positioned over the bladder. The device was a self-contained wireless unit with light emitting diodes (wavelengths 760 and 850 nanometres) and interoptode distance of 4cm. The raw optical data were transmitted to a laptop where graphs of chromophore change were generated with proprietary software and compared between the subjects and with prior data from asymptomatic subjects. Results: Serial monitoring was successful in both subjects. Voiding volumes varied between 350 and 380 cc. In each subject the patterns of chromophore change, trend and magnitude of change were similar and matched the physiologic increase in total and oxygenated hemoglobin recognized to occur in normal bladder contraction during voiding. Conclusions: Skin pigmentation does not compromise the ability of transcutaneous NIRS to interrogate physiologic change in the bladder during bladder contraction in healthy subjects.

  18. A Novel Locus for Ectodermal Dysplasia of Hair, Nail and Skin Pigmentation Anomalies Maps to Chromosome 18p11.32-p11.31

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Rabia; Ansar, Muhammad; Mattheisen, Manuel; Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Ghazanfar; Ahmad, Wasim; Betz, Regina C.

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large heterogeneous group of inherited disorders exhibiting abnormalities in ectodermally derived appendages such as hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. EDs associated with reticulated pigmentation phenotype are rare entities for which the genetic basis and pathophysiology are not well characterized. The present study describes a five generation consanguineous Pakistani family segregating an autosomal recessive form of a novel type of ectodermal dysplasia. The affected members present with sparse and woolly hair, severe nail dystrophy and reticulate skin pigmentation. After exclusion of known gene loci related with other skin disorders, genome-wide linkage analysis was performed using Illumina HumanOmniExpress beadchip SNP arrays. We linked this form of ED to human chromosome 18p11.32-p11.31 flanked by the SNPs rs9284390 (0.113Mb) and rs4797100 (3.14 Mb). A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.3 was obtained with several markers along the disease interval. The linkage interval of 3.03 Mb encompassed seventeen functional genes. However, sequence analysis of all these genes did not discover any potentially disease causing-variants. The identification of this novel locus provides additional information regarding the mapping of a rare form of ED. Further research, such as the use of whole-genome sequencing, would be expected to reveal any pathogenic mutation within the disease locus. PMID:26115030

  19. Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Yi, Dingrong; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan

    2010-02-01

    Pressure ulcers have been identified as a public health concern by the US government through the Healthy People 2010 initiative and the National Quality Forum (NQF). Currently, no tools are available to assist clinicians in erythema, i.e. the early stage pressure ulcer detection. The results from our previous research (supported by NIH grant) indicate that erythema in different skin tones can be identified using a set of wavelengths 540, 577, 650 and 970nm. This paper will report our recent work which is developing a handheld, point-of-care, clinicallyviable and affordable, real time multispectral imager to detect erythema in persons with darkly pigmented skin. Instead of using traditional filters, e.g. filter wheels, generalized Lyot filter, electrical tunable filter or the methods of dispersing light, e.g. optic-acoustic crystal, a novel custom filter mosaic has been successfully designed and fabricated using lithography and vacuum multi layer film technologies. The filter has been integrated with CMOS and CCD sensors. The filter incorporates four or more different wavelengths within the visual to nearinfrared range each having a narrow bandwidth of 30nm or less. Single wavelength area is chosen as 20.8μx 20.8μ. The filter can be deposited on regular optical glass as substrate or directly on a CMOS and CCD imaging sensor. This design permits a multi-spectral image to be acquired in a single exposure, thereby providing overwhelming convenience in multi spectral imaging acquisition.

  20. Genetic Ancestry, Skin Reflectance and Pigmentation Genotypes in Association with Serum Vitamin D Metabolite Balance

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robin Taylor; Roff, Alanna N.; Dai, P. Jenny; Fortugno, Tracey; Douds, Jonathan; Chen, Gang; Grove, Gary L.; Nikiforova, Sheila Ongeri; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Frudakis, Tony; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Demers, Laurence M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Canfield, Victor A.; Cheng, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) among individuals with African ancestry is attributed primarily to skin pigmentation. However, the influence of genetic polymorphisms controlling for skin melanin content has not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated differences in non-summer serum vitamin D metabolites according to self-reported race, genetic ancestry, skin reflectance and key pigmentation genes (SLC45A2 and SLC24A5). Materials and Methods Healthy individuals reporting at least half African American or half European American heritage were frequency matched to one another on age (+/− 2 years) and sex. 176 autosomal ancestry informative markers were used to estimate genetic ancestry. Melanin index was measured by reflectance spectrometry. Serum vitamin D metabolites (25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2 and 24,25(OH)2D3) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry. Percent 24,25(OH)2D3 was calculated as a percent of the parent metabolite (25(OH)D3). Stepwise and backward selection regression models were used to identify leading covariates. Results Fifty African Americans and 50 European Americans participated in the study. Compared with SLC24A5 111Thr homozygotes, individuals with the SLC24A5 111Thr/Ala and 111Ala/Ala genotypes had respectively lower levels of 25(OH)D3 (23.0 and 23.8 nmol/L lower, p-dominant=0.007), and percent 24,25(OH)2D3 (4.1 and 5.2 percent lower, p-dominant=0.003), controlling for tanning bed use, vitamin D/fish oil supplement intake, race/ethnicity, and genetic ancestry. Results were similar with melanin index adjustment, and were not confounded by glucocorticoid, oral contraceptive, or statin use. Conclusions The SLC24A5 111Ala allele was associated with lower serum vitamin 25(OH)D3 and lower percent 24,25(OH)2D3, independently from melanin index and West African genetic ancestry. PMID:23525585

  1. The genetics of skin, hair, and eye color variation and its relevance to forensic pigmentation predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes.

  2. The genetics of skin, hair, and eye color variation and its relevance to forensic pigmentation predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes. PMID:26227136

  3. PSO-based methods for medical image registration and change assessment of pigmented skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Zook, Matthew; Balint, Michael

    2011-03-01

    There are various scientific and technological areas in which it is imperative to rapidly detect and quantify changes in imagery over time. In fields such as earth remote sensing, aerospace systems, and medical imaging, searching for timedependent, regional changes across deformable topographies is complicated by varying camera acquisition geometries, lighting environments, background clutter conditions, and occlusion. Under these constantly-fluctuating conditions, the use of standard, rigid-body registration approaches often fail to provide sufficient fidelity to overlay image scenes together. This is problematic because incorrect assessments of the underlying changes of high-level topography can result in systematic errors in the quantification and classification of interested areas. For example, in the current naked-eye detection strategies of melanoma, a dermatologist often uses static morphological attributes to identify suspicious skin lesions for biopsy. This approach does not incorporate temporal changes which suggest malignant degeneration. By performing the co-registration of time-separated skin imagery, a dermatologist may more effectively detect and identify early morphological changes in pigmented lesions; enabling the physician to detect cancers at an earlier stage resulting in decreased morbidity and mortality. This paper describes an image processing system which will be used to detect changes in the characteristics of skin lesions over time. The proposed system consists of three main functional elements: 1.) coarse alignment of timesequenced imagery, 2.) refined alignment of local skin topographies, and 3.) assessment of local changes in lesion size. During the coarse alignment process, various approaches can be used to obtain a rough alignment, including: 1.) a manual landmark/intensity-based registration method1, and 2.) several flavors of autonomous optical matched filter methods2. These procedures result in the rough alignment of a patient

  4. Reduction of facial pigmentation of melasma by topical lignin peroxidase: A novel fast-acting skin-lightening agent

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, SHAO-MIN; SUN, NAN; LIU, HUI-XIAN; NIU, YUE-QING; WU, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) as a skin-lightening agent in patients with melasma. A self-controlled clinical study was performed in 31 women who had melasma on both sides of the face. This study involved 8 weeks of a full-face product treatment. The skin color was measured at days 0, 7, 28 and 56 using a chromameter on the forehead and cheeks. Standardized digital photographic images of each side of the face of all subjects were captured by a complexion analysis system. Clinical scores of the pigmentation were determined by two dermatologists. After using the LIP whitening lotion for 7 days, the luminance (L*) values of the melasma and the normal skin were significantly increased from baseline. The L* values continued to increase at days 28 and 56. The melasma area severity index (MASI) score was statistically decreased after 28 days of treatment. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. LIP whitening lotion was able to eliminate the skin pigmentation after 7 days of treatment, and provides a completely innovative approach to rapid skin lightening. The LIP whitening lotion exhibited good compatibility and was well tolerated. PMID:25574195

  5. Tattooing of skin results in transportation and light-induced decomposition of tattoo pigments--a first quantification in vivo using a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Engel, Eva; Vasold, Rudolf; Santarelli, Francesco; Maisch, Tim; Gopee, Neera V; Howard, Paul C; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people are tattooed with inks that contain azo pigments. The pigments contained in tattoo inks are manufactured for other uses with no established history of safe use in humans and are injected into the skin at high densities (2.5 mg/cm(2)). Tattoo pigments disseminate after tattooing throughout the human body and although some may photodecompose at the injection site by solar or laser light exposure, the extent of transport or photodecomposition under in vivo conditions remains currently unknown. We investigated the transport and photodecomposition of the widely used tattoo Pigment Red 22 (PR 22) following tattooing into SKH-1 mice. The pigment was extracted quantitatively at different times after tattooing. One day after tattooing, the pigment concentration was 186 microg/cm(2) skin. After 42 days, the amount of PR 22 in the skin has decreased by about 32% of the initial value. Exposure of the tattooed skin, 42 days after tattooing, to laser light reduced the amount of PR 22 by about 51% as compared to skin not exposed to laser light. A part of this reduction is as a result of photodecomposition of PR 22 as shown by the detection of corresponding hazardous aromatic amines. Irradiation with solar radiation simulator for 32 days caused a pigment reduction of about 60% and we again assume pigment decomposition in the skin. This study is the first quantitative estimate of the amount of tattoo pigments transported from the skin into the body or decomposed by solar or laser radiation. PMID:19703227

  6. Inhibition of skin pigmentation by an extract of Lepidium apetalum and its possible implication in IL-6 mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunjung; Ahn, Soomi; Lee, Byeong G; Chang, Ihseop; Hwang, Jae S

    2005-12-01

    The development of effective skin-lightening agents is an increasingly important area of research aimed at the treatment of hyperpigmentation induced by UV irradiation or by medical conditions such as melasma, postinflammatory melanoderma and solar lentigo. Although some inhibit tyrosinase, identifying and understanding the mechanisms of action of other agents is an important goal if more effective pigmentation inhibitors are to be developed. We present here that an extract of Lepidium apetalum (ELA) decreased UV-induced skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs and melanogenesis of HM3KO human melanoma cells. Interestingly, ELA did not reduce melanogenesis in HM3KO cells unless they were co-cultivated in keratinocyte-conditioned medium prepared by culturing keratinocytes with ELA. Under these conditions, ELA decreased tyrosinase mRNA and protein expression as well as melanin content via an ELA-mediated increase in keratinocyte IL-6 production which in turn was shown to decrease in the expression Mitf, a transcription factor implicated in tyrosinase gene expression and melanocyte differentiation. The results reveal that ELA may be an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation caused by UV irradiation or by pigmented skin disorders through a mechanism involving IL-6-mediated downregulation of Mitf rather than a direct inhibition of tyrosinase activity.

  7. Skin-lightening effect of a polyphenol extract from Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit on UV-induced pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Takayuki; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the physiological functions of polyphenols from acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit, the effects on melanogenesis were studied. The crude polyphenol concentrated extract from acerola (C-AP) was used to examine the skin-lightening effect on brownish guinea pigs which had been subjected to controlled UVB irradiation. The results show that C-AP significantly lightened the UVB-irradiated skin pigmentation. Furthermore, treatment with C-AP reduced the content of melanin in B16 melanoma cells, suggesting that the in vivo skin-lightening effect of C-AP was due to the suppression of melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes. In addition, we found that C-AP could effectively inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity, the main constituents responsible for this effect being thought to be such anthocyanins as cyanidin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside (C3R) and pelargonidin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside (P3R). This result indicates that the skin-lightening effect of C-AP can be partly attributed to the suppression of melanogenesis through the inhibition of tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. An oral ingestion of C-AP may therefore be efficacious for reducing UVB-induced hyper-pigmentation by inhibiting the tyrosinase in melanocytes.

  8. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  9. Human skin model containing melanocytes: essential role of keratinocyte growth factor for constitutive pigmentation-functional response to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Pouradier, Florence; Sextius, Peggy; Condom, Elodie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2012-12-01

    To study human skin pigmentation in a physiological in vitro model, we developed a pigmented reconstructed skin reproducing the three-dimensional architecture of the melanocyte environment and the interactions of melanocyte with its cellular partners, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts. Co-seeding melanocytes and keratinocytes onto a fibroblast-populated collagen matrix led to a correct integration of melanocytes within the epidermal basal layer, but melanocytes remained amelanotic even after supplementation with promelanogenic factors. Interestingly, normalization of keratinocyte differentiation using keratinocyte growth factor instead of epidermal growth factor finally allowed an active pigmentary system to develop, as shown by the expression of key melanogenic markers, the production, and transfer of melanosome-containing melanin into keratinocytes. Various degrees of constitutive pigmentation were reproduced using melanocytes from different skin phenotypes. Furthermore, induction of pigmentation was achieved by treatment with known propigmenting molecules, αMSH and forskolin, thus demonstrating the functionality of the pigmentary system. This pigmented full-thickness skin model therefore represents a highly relevant tool to study the role of cell-cell, cell-matrix, and mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the control of skin pigmentation.

  10. Human Pigmentation, Cutaneous Vitamin D Synthesis and Evolution: Variants of Genes (SNPs) Involved in Skin Pigmentation Are Associated with 25(OH)D Serum Concentration.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, Willi; Saternus, Roman; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Kleber, Marcus; März, Winfried; Reichrath, Sandra; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with higher risk for and unfavourable outcome of many diseases. Limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25(OH)D concentration. In a cohort of the LURIC study (n=2974, median 25(OH)D concentration 15.5 ng/ml), we tested the hypothesis that variants (SNPs, n=244) of several genes (n=15) involved in different aspects of skin pigmentation, including melanosomal biogenesis (ATP7A, DTNBP1, BLOC1S5, PLDN, PMEL), melanosomal transport within melanocytes (RAB27A, MYO5A, MLPH); or various melanocyte signaling pathways (MC1R, MITF, PAX3, SOX10, DKK1, RACK1, CNR1) are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels. Eleven SNPs located in 6 genes were associated (p<0.05) with low or high serum 25(OH)D levels, 3 out of these 11 SNPs reached the aimed significance level after correction for multiple comparisons (FDR). In the linear regression model adjusted for sex, body mass index (BMI), year of birth and month of blood sample rs7565264 (MLPH), rs10932949 (PAX3), and rs9328451 (BLOC1S5) showed a significant association with 25(OH)D. The combined impact on variation of 25(OH)D serum levels (coefficient of determination (R(2))) for the 11 SNPs was 1.6% and for the 3 SNPs after FDR 0.3%. In Cox Regression we identified rs2292881 (MLPH) as having a significant association (advantage) with overall survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis did not show any significant impact of individual SNPs on overall survival. In conclusion, these results shed new light on the role of sunlight, skin pigmentation and vitamin D for human evolution. PMID:26977047

  11. Human Pigmentation, Cutaneous Vitamin D Synthesis and Evolution: Variants of Genes (SNPs) Involved in Skin Pigmentation Are Associated with 25(OH)D Serum Concentration.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, Willi; Saternus, Roman; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Kleber, Marcus; März, Winfried; Reichrath, Sandra; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with higher risk for and unfavourable outcome of many diseases. Limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25(OH)D concentration. In a cohort of the LURIC study (n=2974, median 25(OH)D concentration 15.5 ng/ml), we tested the hypothesis that variants (SNPs, n=244) of several genes (n=15) involved in different aspects of skin pigmentation, including melanosomal biogenesis (ATP7A, DTNBP1, BLOC1S5, PLDN, PMEL), melanosomal transport within melanocytes (RAB27A, MYO5A, MLPH); or various melanocyte signaling pathways (MC1R, MITF, PAX3, SOX10, DKK1, RACK1, CNR1) are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels. Eleven SNPs located in 6 genes were associated (p<0.05) with low or high serum 25(OH)D levels, 3 out of these 11 SNPs reached the aimed significance level after correction for multiple comparisons (FDR). In the linear regression model adjusted for sex, body mass index (BMI), year of birth and month of blood sample rs7565264 (MLPH), rs10932949 (PAX3), and rs9328451 (BLOC1S5) showed a significant association with 25(OH)D. The combined impact on variation of 25(OH)D serum levels (coefficient of determination (R(2))) for the 11 SNPs was 1.6% and for the 3 SNPs after FDR 0.3%. In Cox Regression we identified rs2292881 (MLPH) as having a significant association (advantage) with overall survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis did not show any significant impact of individual SNPs on overall survival. In conclusion, these results shed new light on the role of sunlight, skin pigmentation and vitamin D for human evolution.

  12. Effects of topical and oral vitamin E on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation in Skh:2 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Burke, K E; Clive, J; Combs, G F; Commisso, J; Keen, C L; Nakamura, R M

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates whether supplementation with topical RRR-alpha-tocopherol (Eol), topical RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, and oral RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate can reduce the incidence of acute and chronic damage to the skin (i.e., sunburn and pigmentation and skin cancer, respectively) induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to mice. Groups of twenty Skh:2 female hairless pigmented mice were treated with 1) lotion vehicle, 2) 5% Eol lotion, 3) 5% topical RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate lotion, or 4) lotion vehicle and oral RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Within each group, 15 mice were exposed to 0.24 J/cm2 of UV-B radiation three times per week. The animals' weights and food intakes were monitored, and the vitamin E concentrations of skin, liver, and adipose tissue were measured to determine whether the topical Eol resulted in significant tissue levels. Skin pigmentation was scored, and the total number of clinically detectable skin tumors per animal was counted weekly. Results showed that the skin concentrations of Eol, as well as levels in the adipose tissue, were increased after topical application. Mice treated with each form of vitamin E showed no signs of toxicity and had significantly less acute and chronic skin damage induced by UV irradiation, as indicated by reduced inflammation and pigmentation and by later onset and lesser incidence of skin cancer.

  13. Optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection by frequency analysis of skin speckle patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bishitz, Yael; Ozana, Nisan; Schwarz, Ariel; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach of realizing a safe, simple, and inexpensive sensor applicable to pigmented lesions detection. The approach is based on temporal tracking of back-reflected secondary speckle patterns generated while illuminating the affected area with a laser and applying periodic pressure to the surface via a controlled vibration source. When applied to pigmented lesions, the technique is superior to visual examination in avoiding many false positives and resultant unnecessary biopsies. Applying a series of different vibration frequencies at the examined tissue and analyzing the 2-D time varying speckle patterns in response to the applied periodic pressure creates a unique signature for each and different pigmented lesion. Analyzing these signatures is the first step toward detection of malignant melanoma. In this paper we present preliminary experiments that show the validity of the developed sensor for the classification of pigmented lesions. PMID:27231603

  14. Negative Predictive Value of Pigmented Lesion Evaluation by Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis in a Community Practice Setting

    PubMed Central

    Rigel, Darrell S.; Kollmann, Emily; Swenson, Nicole; Tucker, Natalie; Nestor, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the high negative predictive value of a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis that has been previously found in an academic-based trial would be similar in a community-based setting with its expected different distribution of pigmented lesions. Design: Data were collected from patients undergoing routine skin examinations over a one-year period at a community-based practice in Florida. All lesions that were selected for biopsy to rule out melanoma were also imaged with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis prior to biopsy. Histopathological diagnoses and multispectral digital skin lesion analysis results were reviewed and compared with findings from a prior primarily academic center-based multispectral digital skin lesion analysis trial. Setting/participants: Community-based clinical setting in Florida. Measurements: Negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: One hundred thirty-seven consecutive lesions were selected for biopsy and also analyzed via multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. All 21 cases with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis “Low Disorganization” readings were all histologically benign (100% negative predictive value, 95% lower confidence boundary = 96.9%). The negative predictive value and the sensitivity were not significantly different than what was found in the prior academic-based multispectral digital skin lesion analysis trial. Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis also correctly identified all high-risk lesions, which were subsequently confirmed via histology to be one invasive melanoma and 15 moderately dysplastic nevi (100% sensitivity). Specificity with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis was significantly higher than reported in the academic-based multispectral digital skin lesion analysis trial (18% vs. 10%, p=0.02). Conclusion: Because of the high negative predictive value achieved by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis, lesions with readings

  15. Efficacy of topical treatment of pigmentation skin disorders with plant hydroquinone glucosides as assessed by quantitative color analysis.

    PubMed

    Clarys, P; Barel, A

    1998-06-01

    Hydroquinone is a well known reagent used in the treatment of pigmentation disorders. The instability of the quinones and the required active concentration make topical treatment rather difficult. We tested the efficacy of an ascorbate-phytohydroquinone complex that inhibits the synthesis of melanin and promotes the degradation of the existing melanin. Lentigo senile lesions were evaluated before and after 1 month of treatment. Objective skin color evaluation was performed instrumentally. After one month of treatment, a clear depigmentation of the macules was measured. None of the volunteers reported any side effects from the prolonged treatment with the hydroquinone containing product. PMID:9675352

  16. The niacin skin flush abnormality in schizophrenia: a quantitative dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Messamore, Erik; Hoffman, William F; Janowsky, Aaron

    2003-08-01

    Niacin dilates cutaneous blood vessels, resulting in a pronounced skin flush in most people. The flush response to niacin is attenuated in schizophrenia, but the quantification and physiological mechanism of this abnormality have not been described in detail. It is not clear whether the mechanism involves changes in the pharmacological sensitivity to niacin, or whether there is a reduced ability of the vasculature to dilate adequately in subjects with schizophrenia. We address this question in the present study by characterizing the dose-response relationship between topically applied alpha-methylnicotinate (AMN) and cutaneous blood flow changes, which were quantified by laser Doppler flowmetry. The dose-response curve was shifted to the right in subjects with schizophrenia. The EC(50) value of AMN was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group (mean: 1.66 mM; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.65 mM) as compared to the control group (mean: 0.38 mM; 95% confidence interval: 0.263-0.547 mM). The blood flow responses to higher AMN doses were lower in the schizophrenics; however, there was no statistically significant difference in the extrapolated maximal blood flow response value (F(max)) between the two groups. The results suggest that the skin flush abnormality in schizophrenia primarily reflects reduced pharmacological sensitivity to niacin rather than an inadequate cutaneous vasodilatory response to the stimulus. Since vasodilatation in response to niacin requires the release of prostaglandins, the data from this study suggest that schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in enzymes, receptors, or signal transduction mechanisms that affect the synthesis, release, or response to vasodilatory prostaglandins.

  17. Association of cervical artery dissection with connective tissue abnormalities in skin and arteries.

    PubMed

    Brandt, T; Morcher, M; Hausser, I

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) often occur in otherwise healthy individuals without known risk factors for stroke and frequently develop spontaneously without relevant trauma. An underlying arteriopathy leading to a so-called 'weakness of the vessel wall' and predisposing certain individuals to dissection has often been postulated. Therefore, the morphology of connective tissue, a main component of vessel wall and environment, was investigated in carotids and skin. While the overall morphology of dermal connective tissue is normal, about half of patients with sCAD show mild ultrastructural connective tissue alterations. These ultrastructural morphological aberrations can be designated either as 'Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) III-like', resembling mild findings in patients with the hypermobility type of EDS (EDS III); or coined 'EDS IV-like' with collagen fibers containing fibrils with highly variable diameters resembling mild findings in vascular EDS; or the abnormalities are restricted to the elastic fibers (with fragmentation and minicalcifications) without significant alterations in the morphology of the collagen fibrils. These findings had some similarity with the morphology found in heterozygous carriers of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. A grading scale according to the severity of the findings has been introduced. Similar connective tissue abnormalities were detected in some first-degree relatives of patients with sCAD showing hereditary at least in a subgroup. They can serve as a phenotypic marker for further genetic studies in patients with sCAD and large families to possibly identify the underlying basic molecular defect(s). Very few of patients (<5%) with sCAD and connective tissue abnormalities have clinical manifestations of skin, joint, or skeletal abnormalities of a defined heritable connective tissue disorder. In specimens of arterial walls of carotid, aortic, and renal arteries of patients with sCAD, pronounced systemic, histopathological

  18. Flat pigmented macules on sun-damaged skin of the head/neck: junctional nevus, atypical lentiginous nevus, or melanoma in situ?

    PubMed

    Zalaudek, Iris; Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Moscarella, Elvira; Guitera, Pascale; Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The clinical recognition of lentigo maligna (LM) in the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin can be challenging, because it shares many clinical features with other pigmented macules that commonly arise on sun-damaged skin. These include solar lentigo, flat seborrheic keratosis, and pigmented actinic keratosis, but almost never "nevus." The reason nevus is not included in the differential diagnosis of LM can be explained by the fact that the stereotypical appearance of a facial nevus differs remarkably from that of an LM. Facial nevi in adults are usually nodular, dome-shaped, well-defined, and hypopigmented (i.e., intradermal nevus of the Miescher type), whereas LM typically appears as a flat, ill-defined, and pigmented macule. Although this concept based on clinical observations sounds reasonable, clinicians apply it often only unconsciously and accept a given histopathologic diagnosis of a "junctional or lentiginous nevus" of a flat pigmented facial macule without the necessary criticism about its clinicopathologic validity.

  19. Is pigment patterning in fish skin determined by the Turing mechanism?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kondo, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    More than half a century ago, Alan Turing postulated that pigment patterns may arise from a mechanism that could be mathematically modeled based on the diffusion of two substances that interact with each other. Over the past 15 years, the molecular and genetic tools to verify this prediction have become available. Here, we review experimental studies aimed at identifying the mechanism underlying pigment pattern formation in zebrafish. Extensive molecular genetic studies in this model organism have revealed the interactions between the pigment cells that are responsible for the patterns. The mechanism discovered is substantially different from that predicted by the mathematical model, but it retains the property of 'local activation and long-range inhibition', a necessary condition for Turing pattern formation. Although some of the molecular details of pattern formation remain to be elucidated, current evidence confirms that the underlying mechanism is mathematically equivalent to the Turing mechanism.

  20. Is pigment patterning in fish skin determined by the Turing mechanism?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kondo, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    More than half a century ago, Alan Turing postulated that pigment patterns may arise from a mechanism that could be mathematically modeled based on the diffusion of two substances that interact with each other. Over the past 15 years, the molecular and genetic tools to verify this prediction have become available. Here, we review experimental studies aimed at identifying the mechanism underlying pigment pattern formation in zebrafish. Extensive molecular genetic studies in this model organism have revealed the interactions between the pigment cells that are responsible for the patterns. The mechanism discovered is substantially different from that predicted by the mathematical model, but it retains the property of 'local activation and long-range inhibition', a necessary condition for Turing pattern formation. Although some of the molecular details of pattern formation remain to be elucidated, current evidence confirms that the underlying mechanism is mathematically equivalent to the Turing mechanism. PMID:25544713

  1. Effect of dietary carotenoids on vitamin A status and skin pigmentation in false tomato frogs (Dyscophus guineti).

    PubMed

    Brenes-Soto, Andrea; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    Several species in captivity develop nutritional diseases including vitamin A deficiency; cases of this disease have been documented in amphibians, which may be linked to an insectivorous diet lacking in vitamin A or carotenoids. Adults and young of Dyscophus guineti were fed three diets over 9 weeks to evaluate effects on carotenoids and vitamin A status and skin pigmentation. Feeder crickets were either supplemented with soy oil (control, CON), soy oil enriched with β-carotene (BC) or mixed carotenoids (MIX) by direct injection of known dosages. Vitamin A from feeder crickets (measured as retinol) was higher in insects supplemented with both BC and MIX; (P=0.0001) and plasma retinol concentrations were significantly higher in frogs fed MIX (P<0.02). Results suggest that both false tomato frogs and feeder crickets could receive some provitamin A activity through consumption of diets supplemented with β-carotene, and xanthophylls like lutein and zeaxanthin. Pigmentation was evaluated weekly through the use of visual color charts, as well as quantitatively using a hand-held spectrophotometer. MIX diets had a significant effect on skin color values (P<0.0001), as well as on lightness (P=0.0005) and hue (P=0.0022). Results indicated that frogs fed with BC changed to yellower colors, and frogs fed with MIX changed to oranger colors. Visual color chart observations also scored significantly different between CON and MIX diets (P<0.05); the animals fed MIX also appeared oranger according to the qualitative observations. Dietary supplements with carotenoids resulted in color changes and higher circulating retinol concentrations in false tomato frogs. These pigments may provide provitamin A activity in diets, thus may support improved nutrition and health of captive-fed insectivorous amphibians.

  2. Inhibitory effects of resveratrol on melanin synthesis in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation in Guinea pig skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek Hwan; Seo, Jae Ok; Baek, So-Hyeon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound found in various natural products such as grapes and berries and possesses anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-aging properties. Recently, it has been reported that resveratrol inhibits α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone signaling, viability, and migration in melanoma cells. However, these effects have not been confirmed in vivo, specifically brownish guinea pigs. To evaluate the potential of resveratrol as a regulator of melanin for hyperpigmentation therapy, the influence of resveratrol on pigmentation was investigated by ultraviolet B-induced hyperpigmentation in brownish guinea pig skin. We found that resveratrol reduced the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanoma cells. Furthermore, topical application of resveratrol was demonstrated to significantly decrease hyperpigmentation on ultraviolet B-stimulated guinea pig skin in vivo. Based on our histological data, resveratrol inhibits melanin synthesis via a reduction in tyrosinase-related protein 2 among the melanogenic enzymes. This study is the first to provide evidence supporting resveratrol as a depigmentation agent, along with further clinical investigation of resveratrol in ultraviolet B-induced skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and skin photoaging.

  3. Abnormal skin, limb and craniofacial morphogenesis in mice deficient for interferon regulatory factor 6 (Irf6)

    PubMed Central

    Ingraham, Christopher R; Kinoshita, Akira; Kondo, Shinji; Yang, Baoli; Sajan, Samin; Trout, Kurt J; Malik, Margaret I; Dunnwald, Martine; Goudy, Stephen L; Lovett, Michael; Murray, Jeffrey C; Schutte, Brian C

    2007-01-01

    Transcription factor paralogs may share a common role in staged or overlapping expression in specific tissues, as in the Hox family. In other cases, family members have distinct roles in a range of embryologic, differentiation or response pathways (as in the Tbx and Pax families). For the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, mice deficient in Irf1, Irf2, Irf3, Irf4, Irf5, Irf7, Irf8 or Irf9 have defects in the immune response but show no embryologic abnormalities1–7. Mice deficient for Irf6 have not been reported, but in humans, mutations in IRF6 cause two mendelian orofacial clefting syndromes8–10, and genetic variation in IRF6 confers risk for isolated cleft lip and palate11–15. Here we report that mice deficient for Irf6 have abnormal skin, limb and craniofacial development. Histological and gene expression analyses indicate that the primary defect is in keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation. This study describes a new role for an IRF family member in epidermal development. PMID:17041601

  4. The skin-lightening effects of artocarpin on UVB-induced pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Sakai, Kokki; Takeda, Norio; Nagahata, Tetsuji

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the prenylated flavonol artocarpin from the heartwood of Artocarpus incisus on ultraviolet (UV)-induced hyperpigmentation of guinea pig skin. An efficient lightening effect was observed following topical application of artocarpin to UV-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skins of brownish guinea pigs.

  5. A primer on pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G

    2015-01-01

    There is at least a temporary loss of skin pigmentation with all but first-degree burns. Commonly, pigment changes persist for months, and sometimes, permanent changes in skin color add to the ultimate change in appearance that commonly affects burn patients. There are many different treatment modalities for the treatment of pigment changes, but most of them have little scientific basis and often lead to disappointing results. The purpose of this review is to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms of skin pigmentation, mechanisms of repigmentation after burns, treatment options for dealing with pigmentation changes, and advice for dealing with the sun after burn injury. PMID:25501768

  6. A primer on pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G

    2015-01-01

    There is at least a temporary loss of skin pigmentation with all but first-degree burns. Commonly, pigment changes persist for months, and sometimes, permanent changes in skin color add to the ultimate change in appearance that commonly affects burn patients. There are many different treatment modalities for the treatment of pigment changes, but most of them have little scientific basis and often lead to disappointing results. The purpose of this review is to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms of skin pigmentation, mechanisms of repigmentation after burns, treatment options for dealing with pigmentation changes, and advice for dealing with the sun after burn injury.

  7. Functional analysis of keratinocytes in skin color using a human skin substitute model composed of cells derived from different skin pigmentation types.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Hachiya, Akira; Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Visscher, Marty O; Boissy, Raymond E

    2007-09-01

    Skin color is one of the most distinct features in the human race. To assess the mechanisms of skin color variation, human skin substitutes (HSS) were constructed by grafting mixtures of cultured keratinocytes and melanocytes from a combination of donor skin types, together with light skin derived fibroblasts, into chambers inserted onto the back skin of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The resulting complexion coloration of the HSS was relatively darker and lighter when dark and light skin derived keratinocytes, respectively, were combined with melanocytes derived from either light or dark skin. The melanin content in the epidermis and the maturation stage of melanosomes in basal keratinocytes were significantly increased in the HSS composed of dark compared to light skin derived keratinocytes. In addition, the ratio of individual/clustered melanosomes in recipient keratinocytes was increased in the former as opposed to the latter HSS. The genetic expression of endothelin-1, proopiomelanocortin, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, GP100, and MART1 were increased in HSS composed of dark vs. light skin derived keratinocytes. These data suggest that our HSS is a promising melanogenic model that demonstrates the role of the keratinocyte in regulating in part both melanogenesis and distribution of transferred melanosomes.

  8. Correlation Between the Evaluation of Pigmented Lesions by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device and the Clinical and Histological Features of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rigel, Darrell S.; Ferris, Laura; Sober, Arthur; Tucker, Natalie; Cockerell, Clay J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To correlate Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis classifier scores with histopathological severity of pigmented lesions and clinical features of melanoma. Design: Classifier scores were computed for 1,632 skin lesions. Dermatologists evaluated the same lesions for Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Color variegation, Diameter >6mm, Evolution, Patient’s Concern, Regression, and/or “Ugly Duckling” sign. Classifier scores were correlated to the number of clinical risk features and for six histopathological severity levels of pigmented lesions. Measurements: Average classifier score, Welch’s t-test, and chi-square analysis. Results: Melanomas had higher mean classifier scores (3.5) than high-grade dysplastic nevi (2.7, p=0.002), low-grade dysplastic nevi (1.7, p<0.0001), non-dysplastic nevi (1.6, p<0.0001), and benign non-melanocytic lesions (2.0, p<0.0001). Classifier score and the number of clinical risk characteristics directly correlated (Pearson coefficient 0.32, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Correlation of classifier scores to clinical and histological melanoma features supports the effectiveness of Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis in assessing the risk of pigmented lesions requiring biopsy. Optimizing outcomes of dermatologist decisions to biopsy suspicious pigmented lesions may be enhanced utilizing Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis. PMID:27354886

  9. The Impact of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis on German Dermatologist Decisions to Biopsy Atypical Pigmented Lesions with Clinical Characteristics of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Richard R.; Hauschild, Axel; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis on German dermatologist biopsy decisions of atypical pigmented skin lesions. Design: Participants were shown high-resolution clinical images of 12 atypical pigmented skin lesions previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images and high-resolution dermoscopy images and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information. Setting/participants: Forty-one dermatologists at a skin cancer conference in Germany in September 2014. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, percent biopsying all melanomas, and overall biopsy rates. Results: Sensitivity for the detection of melanoma following clinical evaluation was 64 percent. After receipt of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information, sensitivity decreased nonsignificantly to 62 percent. Specificity with clinical evaluation was 57 percent and increased to 73 percent using multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Overall biopsy accuracy increased from 60 percent with clinical evaluation to 68 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. The percentage of low-grade dysplastic nevi chosen for biopsy decreased from 43 percent after clinical evaluation to 27 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Finally, the overall percentage of lesions biopsied decreased from 52 percent with clinical evaluation to 42 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis can be used reliably to detect melanoma as well as clinical evaluation. Dermatologists can confidently use multispectral digital skin lesion analysis to significantly improve specificity and reduce their overall number of biopsies while increasing overall diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26557216

  10. Human skin responses to UV radiation: pigment in the upper epidermis protects against DNA damage in the lower epidermis and facilitates apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Zmudzka, Barbara Z; Kornhauser, Andrija; Miller, Sharon A; Tadokoro, Taketsugu; Berens, Werner; Beer, Janusz Z; Hearing, Vincent J

    2006-07-01

    Melanin plays an important role in protecting the skin against UV radiation, and melanomas and basal/squamous cell carcinomas occur more frequently in individuals with fair/light skin. We previously reported that levels of melanin correlate inversely with amounts of DNA damage induced by UV in normal human skin of different racial/ethnic groups. We have now separately examined DNA damage in the upper and lower epidermal layers in various types of skin before and after exposure to UV and have measured subsequent apoptosis and phosphorylation of p53. The results show that two major mechanisms underlie the increased photocarcinogenesis in fair/light skin. First, UV-induced DNA damage in the lower epidermis (including keratinocyte stem cells and melanocytes) is more effectively prevented in darker skin, suggesting that the pigmented epidermis is an efficient UV filter. Second, UV-induced apoptosis is significantly greater in darker skin, which suggests that UV-damaged cells may be removed more efficiently in pigmented epidermis. The combination of decreased DNA damage and more efficient removal of UV-damaged cells may play a critical role in the decreased photocarcinogenesis seen in individuals with darker skin.

  11. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  12. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine inhibits skin pigmentation by suppressing of melanosome transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a niacinamide derivative, N-Nicotinoyl dopamine (NND) on melanogenesis. NND inhibits melanosome transfer in a normal human melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture system and through phagocytic ability without affecting viability of cells while it did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In addition, safety of NND was verified through performing neural stem cell morphology assay. Our findings indicate that NND may potentially be used for cosmetic industry for improvement of skin whitening and therapies related with several skin disorders, and the effect of NND may be acquired via reduction of melanosome transfer.

  13. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine inhibits skin pigmentation by suppressing of melanosome transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a niacinamide derivative, N-Nicotinoyl dopamine (NND) on melanogenesis. NND inhibits melanosome transfer in a normal human melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture system and through phagocytic ability without affecting viability of cells while it did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In addition, safety of NND was verified through performing neural stem cell morphology assay. Our findings indicate that NND may potentially be used for cosmetic industry for improvement of skin whitening and therapies related with several skin disorders, and the effect of NND may be acquired via reduction of melanosome transfer. PMID:26597116

  14. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies the Skin Color Genes IRF4, MC1R, ASIP, and BNC2 Influencing Facial Pigmented Spots.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie C; Hamer, Merel A; Gunn, David A; Deelen, Joris; Lall, Jaspal S; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P Eline; Kayser, Manfred; Liu, Fan; Nijsten, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Facial pigmented spots are a common skin aging feature, but genetic predisposition has yet to be thoroughly investigated. We conducted a genome-wide association study for pigmented spots in 2,844 Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study (mean age: 66.9±8.0 years; 47% male). Using semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution digital facial photographs, facial pigmented spots were quantified as the percentage of affected skin area (mean women: 2.0% ±0.9, men: 0.9% ±0.6). We identified genome-wide significant association with pigmented spots at three genetic loci: IRF4 (rs12203592, P=1.8 × 10(-27)), MC1R (compound heterozygosity score, P=2.3 × 10(-24)), and RALY/ASIP (rs6059655, P=1.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, after adjustment for the other three top-associated loci the BNC2 locus demonstrated significant association (rs62543565, P=2.3 × 10(-8)). The association signals observed at all four loci were successfully replicated (P<0.05) in an independent Dutch cohort (Leiden Longevity Study n=599). Although the four genes have previously been associated with skin color variation and skin cancer risk, all association signals remained highly significant (P<2 × 10(-8)) when conditioning the association analyses on skin color. We conclude that genetic variations in IRF4, MC1R, RALY/ASIP, and BNC2 contribute to the acquired amount of facial pigmented spots during aging, through pathways independent of the basal melanin production.

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies the Skin Color Genes IRF4, MC1R, ASIP, and BNC2 Influencing Facial Pigmented Spots.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie C; Hamer, Merel A; Gunn, David A; Deelen, Joris; Lall, Jaspal S; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P Eline; Kayser, Manfred; Liu, Fan; Nijsten, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Facial pigmented spots are a common skin aging feature, but genetic predisposition has yet to be thoroughly investigated. We conducted a genome-wide association study for pigmented spots in 2,844 Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study (mean age: 66.9±8.0 years; 47% male). Using semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution digital facial photographs, facial pigmented spots were quantified as the percentage of affected skin area (mean women: 2.0% ±0.9, men: 0.9% ±0.6). We identified genome-wide significant association with pigmented spots at three genetic loci: IRF4 (rs12203592, P=1.8 × 10(-27)), MC1R (compound heterozygosity score, P=2.3 × 10(-24)), and RALY/ASIP (rs6059655, P=1.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, after adjustment for the other three top-associated loci the BNC2 locus demonstrated significant association (rs62543565, P=2.3 × 10(-8)). The association signals observed at all four loci were successfully replicated (P<0.05) in an independent Dutch cohort (Leiden Longevity Study n=599). Although the four genes have previously been associated with skin color variation and skin cancer risk, all association signals remained highly significant (P<2 × 10(-8)) when conditioning the association analyses on skin color. We conclude that genetic variations in IRF4, MC1R, RALY/ASIP, and BNC2 contribute to the acquired amount of facial pigmented spots during aging, through pathways independent of the basal melanin production. PMID:25705849

  16. Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms.

    PubMed

    Lualdi, M; Colombo, A; Carrara, M; Scienza, L; Tomatis, S; Marchesini, R

    2006-12-01

    Different technological tools have been developed to aid in the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, including cameras working with conventional RGB colour systems, epiluminescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using visible and near infrared wavelengths. All the different procedures should provide in an objective and reproducible fashion quantitative measurements of the colour and shape features of a given skin mole. At present, many devices have been introduced in experimental stages for clinical diagnosis, mainly used to provide to the clinicians an objective, computer-assisted second opinion. As for any diagnostic instruments, optical devices should also be subjected to a dedicated quality assurance protocol in order to evaluate the response repeatability of each device (intra-instrument agreement) and to check the accordance among the responses of different devices (inter-instrument agreement). The aim of this study was to design a quality assurance protocol for optical devices dedicated to image analysis of pigmented skin lesions and, in case, to detect cutaneous melanoma by using suitable tissue-like phantoms as standard references that enable testing of both hardware and software components. As an example, we report the results of intra-instrument and inter-instrument agreement when the protocol was applied on a series of 30 SpectroShade instruments, a novel optical device based on multi-spectral image analysis of colour and shape features of pigmented skin lesion.

  17. Pigment cell movement is not required for generation of Turing patterns in zebrafish skin

    PubMed Central

    Bullara, D.; De Decker, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is a model organism for pattern formation in vertebrates. Understanding what drives the formation of its coloured skin motifs could reveal pivotal to comprehend the mechanisms behind morphogenesis. The motifs look and behave like reaction–diffusion Turing patterns, but the nature of the underlying physico-chemical processes is very different, and the origin of the patterns is still unclear. Here we propose a minimal model for such pattern formation based on a regulatory mechanism deduced from experimental observations. This model is able to produce patterns with intrinsic wavelength, closely resembling the experimental ones. We mathematically prove that their origin is a Turing bifurcation occurring despite the absence of cell motion, through an effect that we call differential growth. This mechanism is qualitatively different from the reaction–diffusion originally proposed by Turing, although they both generate the short-range activation and the long-range inhibition required to form Turing patterns. PMID:25959141

  18. Pigment cell movement is not required for generation of Turing patterns in zebrafish skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullara, D.; de Decker, Y.

    2015-05-01

    The zebrafish is a model organism for pattern formation in vertebrates. Understanding what drives the formation of its coloured skin motifs could reveal pivotal to comprehend the mechanisms behind morphogenesis. The motifs look and behave like reaction-diffusion Turing patterns, but the nature of the underlying physico-chemical processes is very different, and the origin of the patterns is still unclear. Here we propose a minimal model for such pattern formation based on a regulatory mechanism deduced from experimental observations. This model is able to produce patterns with intrinsic wavelength, closely resembling the experimental ones. We mathematically prove that their origin is a Turing bifurcation occurring despite the absence of cell motion, through an effect that we call differential growth. This mechanism is qualitatively different from the reaction-diffusion originally proposed by Turing, although they both generate the short-range activation and the long-range inhibition required to form Turing patterns.

  19. Pathogenic Cx31 is un/misfolded to cause skin abnormality via a Fos/JunB-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chengyuan; Chen, Xiang; Chi, Jingwei; Yang, Dawei; Liu, Shu; Liu, Mujun; Pan, Qian; Fan, Jianbing; Wang, Danling; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in connexin-31 (Cx31) are associated with multiple human diseases, including familial erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV). The pathogenic mechanism of EKV-associated Cx31 mutants remains largely elusive. Here, we show that EKV-pathogenic Cx31 mutants are un/misfolded and temperature sensitive. In Drosophila, expression of pathogenic Cx31, but not wild-type Cx31, causes depigmentation and degeneration of ommatidia that are rescued by expression of either dBip or dHsp70. Ectopic expression of Cx31 in mouse skin results in skin abnormalities resembling human EKV. The affected tissues show remarkable disrupted gap junction formation and significant upregulation of chaperones Bip and Hsp70 as well as AP-1 proteins c-Fos and JunB, in addition to molecular signatures of skin diseases. Consistently, c-Fos, JunB, Bip and Hsp70 are strikingly higher in keratinocytes of EKV patients than their matched control individuals. Furthermore, a druggable AP-1 inhibitory small molecule suppresses skin phenotype and pathological abnormalities of transgenic Cx31 mice. The study suggests that Cx31 mutant proteins are un/misfolded to cause EKV likely via an AP-1-mediated mechanism and identifies a small molecule with therapeutic potential of the disease.

  20. Flat pigmented macules on sun-damaged skin of the head/neck: junctional nevus, atypical lentiginous nevus, or melanoma in situ?

    PubMed

    Zalaudek, Iris; Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Moscarella, Elvira; Guitera, Pascale; Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The clinical recognition of lentigo maligna (LM) in the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin can be challenging, because it shares many clinical features with other pigmented macules that commonly arise on sun-damaged skin. These include solar lentigo, flat seborrheic keratosis, and pigmented actinic keratosis, but almost never "nevus." The reason nevus is not included in the differential diagnosis of LM can be explained by the fact that the stereotypical appearance of a facial nevus differs remarkably from that of an LM. Facial nevi in adults are usually nodular, dome-shaped, well-defined, and hypopigmented (i.e., intradermal nevus of the Miescher type), whereas LM typically appears as a flat, ill-defined, and pigmented macule. Although this concept based on clinical observations sounds reasonable, clinicians apply it often only unconsciously and accept a given histopathologic diagnosis of a "junctional or lentiginous nevus" of a flat pigmented facial macule without the necessary criticism about its clinicopathologic validity. PMID:24314381

  1. Prehistological evaluation of benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions with optical computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokolakis, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis; Krasagakis, Konstantin; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Favicchio, Rosy; Spiliopoulos, George; Giannikaki, Elpida; Ripoll, Jorge; Tosca, Androniki

    2012-06-01

    Discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions is a major issue in clinical dermatology. Assessment of the thickness of melanoma is critical for prognosis and treatment selection. We aimed to evaluate a novel optical computed tomography (optical-CT) system as a tool for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of melanocytic lesions and its ability to discriminate benign from malignant melanocytic lesions while simultaneously determining the thickness of invasive melanoma. Seventeen melanocytic lesions, one hemangioma, and normal skin were assessed immediately after their excision by optical-CT and subsequently underwent histopathological examination. Tomographic reconstructions were performed with a back-propagation algorithm calculating a 3-D map of the total attenuation coefficient (AC). There was a statistically significant difference between melanomas, dysplastic nevi, and non-dysplastic nevi, as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Median AC values were higher for melanomas compared with dysplastic and non-dysplastic nevi. No statistically significant difference was observed when thickness values obtained by optical-CT were compared with histological thickness using a Wilcoxon sighed rank test. Our results suggest that optical-CT can be important for the immediate prehistological evaluation of biopsies, assisting the physician for a rapid assessment of malignancy and of the thickness of a melanocytic lesion.

  2. Texture descriptors based on adaptive neighborhoods for classification of pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Castro, Víctor; Debayle, Johan; Wazaefi, Yanal; Rahim, Mehdi; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Fertil, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Different texture descriptors are proposed for the automatic classification of skin lesions from dermoscopic images. They are based on color texture analysis obtained from (1) color mathematical morphology (MM) and Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOMs) or (2) local binary patterns (LBPs), computed with the use of local adaptive neighborhoods of the image. Neither of these two approaches needs a previous segmentation process. In the first proposed descriptor, the adaptive neighborhoods are used as structuring elements to carry out adaptive MM operations which are further combined by using Kohonen SOM; this has been compared with a nonadaptive version. In the second one, the adaptive neighborhoods enable geometrical feature maps to be defined, from which LBP histograms are computed. This has also been compared with a classical LBP approach. A receiver operating characteristics analysis of the experimental results shows that the adaptive neighborhood-based LBP approach yields the best results. It outperforms the nonadaptive versions of the proposed descriptors and the dermatologists' visual predictions.

  3. Routine Clinical-Pathologic Correlation of Pigmented Skin Tumors Can Influence Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Lallas, Aimilios; Moscarella, Elvira; Lombardi, Mara; Raucci, Margherita; Pellacani, Giovanni; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of integrating clinical with pathologic information, to obtain a confident diagnosis for melanocytic tumors. However, all those studies were conducted retrospectively and no data are currently available about the role of a clinical-pathologic correlation approach on a daily basis in clinical practice. Aim of the Study In our study, we evaluated the impact of a routine clinical-pathologic correlation approach for difficult skin tumors seen over 3 years in a tertiary referral center. Results Interestingly, a re-appraisal was requested for 158 out of 2015 (7.7%) excised lesions because clinical-pathologic correlation was missing. Of note, in 0.6% of them (13 out of 2045) the first histologic diagnosis was revised in the light of clinical information that assisted the Pathologist to re-evaluate the histopathologic findings that might be bland or inconspicuous per se. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated that an integrated approach involving clinicians and pathologists allows improving management of selected patients by shifting from a simply disease-focused management (melanoma versus nevus) to a patient-centered approach. PMID:26325678

  4. Abnormal collagen I to III distribution in the skin of patients with incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Klinge, U; Si, Z Y; Zheng, H; Schumpelick, V; Bhardwaj, R S; Klosterhalfen, B

    2000-01-01

    The surgical mesh-free repair of incisional hernias has to face recurrence rates of up to 50%. Apart from technical faults this is probably due to collagen metabolic disorders, known to play an important role in the development of inguinal hernia. In particular an altered ratio of collagen types I and III with an increase in collagen type III has been claimed to reduce the mechanical strength of connective tissues. Therefore, we investigated the content of collagen types I and III in the skin of patients with incisional hernia (n = 7) and recurrent incisional hernia (n = 5) in comparison to controls with healthy skin (n = 7) and normal skin scar (n = 7) both by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of collagen I/III due to a concomitant increase in collagen III. The patients with incisional hernias and with recurrent incisional hernias showed a ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.1 and 0.8 +/- 0.1, respectively, whereas the controls exhibit a ratio of 2.1 +/- 0.2 in healthy skin and of 1.2 +/- 0.2 in normal skin scar, respectively. The decrease was highly significant (p < 0.01) between the patients with either primary or recurrent hernia and the controls or the normal scar, as well as between controls and normal scar, whereas there was not any significant difference between primary and recurrent hernia (p > 0.05). Our data for the first time confirmed that the presence of incisional hernia is accompanied by impaired collagen synthesis in the skin. The decreased tensile strength of collagen type III may play a key role in the development of incisional hernias. Furthermore, it might explain the high recurrence rates of hernia repair by simple closure, as a repetition of the primarily failing technique, and the improvement by the additional use of alloplastic material.

  5. Risk Factors in Patients with Venous Stasis-Related Skin Lesions without Major Abnormalities on Duplex Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Morikage, Noriyasu; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Samura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the risk factors for venous stasis-related skin lesions in the legs in patients without major abnormalities on duplex ultrasonography (DUS). Methods: Fifty patients (nine males and 41 females, age 27–93 years) with symptoms of C4 or greater according to the Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, Pathological (CEAP) classification, but having no abnormalities on DUS were reviewed for known risk factors for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) such as older age (>70 years), obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m2), short walking distance (<200 m/day), reduced ankle range of motion (<20°), and occupation requiring prolonged standing (>8h per day). Results: The risk factor was different between male and female patients; although all patients had at least one of the above risk factors, the most commonly found risk factor in male patients was occupation requiring prolonged standing (63%), while advanced age (78%) and limited walking distance (83%) were risk factors in female patients. Conclusions: Although male and female patients had different risk factors, insufficient walking seemed to be closely related to the development of venous stasis-related skin lesions. PMID:27738462

  6. Mechanisms of abnormal lamellar body secretion and the dysfunctional skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Peter M; Wakefield, Joan S

    2014-10-01

    I review how diverse inherited and acquired abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins converge to produce defective permeability barrier function and antimicrobial defense in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Although best known are mutations in filaggrin (FLG), mutations in other member of the fused S-100 family of proteins (ie, hornerin [hrn] and filaggrin 2 [flg-2]); the cornified envelope precursor (ie, SPRR3); mattrin, which is encoded by TMEM79 and regulates the assembly of lamellar bodies; SPINK5, which encodes the serine protease inhibitor lymphoepithelial Kazal-type trypsin inhibitor type 1; and the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein 4 have all been linked to AD. Yet these abnormalities often only predispose to AD; additional acquired stressors that further compromise barrier function, such as psychological stress, low ambient humidity, or high-pH surfactants, often are required to trigger disease. T(H)2 cytokines can also compromise barrier function by downregulating expression of multiple epidermal structural proteins, lipid synthetic enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides. All of these inherited and acquired abnormalities converge on the lamellar body secretory system, producing abnormalities in lipid composition, secretion, and/or extracellular lamellar membrane organization, as well as antimicrobial defense. Finally, I briefly review therapeutic options that address this new pathogenic paradigm.

  7. Mechanisms of abnormal lamellar body secretion and the dysfunctional skin barrier in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Wakefield, Joan

    2014-01-01

    We review here how diverse inherited and acquired abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins converge to produce defective permeability barrier function and antimicrobial defense in AD. Although best known are mutations in filaggrin (FLG), mutations in other member of the fused S-100 family of proteins (i.e., hornerin [hrn] and filaggrin 2 [flg-2]); the cornified envelope precursor (e.g., SPRR3); mattrin, encoded by Tmem79, which regulates the assembly of lamellar bodies; SPINK5, which encodes the serine protease inhibitor, LEKTI1; and the fatty acid transporter, FATP4, have all been linked to AD. Yet, these abnormalities often only predispose to AD; additional acquired stressors that further compromise barrier function; e.g., psychological stress, a low ambient humidity, or high pH surfactants, often are required to trigger disease. Th2 cytokines can also compromise barrier function by downregulating expression of multiple epidermal structural proteins, lipid synthetic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides. All of these inherited and acquired abnormalities converge on the lamellar body secretory system, producing abnormalities in lipid composition, secretion and/or extracellular lamellar membrane organization, as well as in antimicrobial defense. Finally, we briefly review therapeutic options that address this new pathogenic paradigm. PMID:25131691

  8. Inhibitory effect of 2-methyl-naphtho[1,2,3-de]quinolin-8-one on melanosome transport and skin pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong il; Lee, Ha Yeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol hwan; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles with specialized capabilities of melanin synthesis and movement mediated by the Rab27a-Melanophilin-MyosinVa protein complex. In this study, we found that 2-methyl-naphtho[1,2,3-de]quinolin-8-one (MNQO) induced melanosome aggregation around the nucleus in melan-a melanocytes and in melan-a melanocytes/SP-1 keratinocyte co-cultures without inducing toxicity or changing the melanin content. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses showed that MNQO decreased expression of the Rab27a, Melanophilin and MyosinVa proteins and mRNAs, respectively, in melan-a melanocytes. In a reconstituted human epidermis model, treatment with 0.001% MNQO reduced skin pigmentation. Also, MNQO reduced skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs induced by UVB irradiation. These results indicated that regulation of melanosome transport may serve as a good target for new skin depigmenting agents and MNQO itself could be a candidate. PMID:27381646

  9. Genetic admixture, self-reported ethnicity, self-estimated admixture, and skin pigmentation among Hispanics and Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Klimentidis, Yann C; Miller, Geoffrey F; Shriver, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between ethnicity and biology is of interest to anthropologists, biomedical scientists, and historians in understanding how human groups are constructed. Ethnic self-identification in recently admixed groups such as Hispanics, African Americans, and Native Americans (NA) is likely to be complex due to the heterogeneity in individual admixture proportions and social environments within these groups. This study examines the relationships between self-identified ethnicity, self-estimated admixture proportions, skin pigmentation, and genetic marker estimated admixture proportions. These measures were assessed using questionnaires, skin color measurements, and genotyping of a panel of 76 ancestry informative markers, among 170 Hispanics and NAs from New Mexico, a state known for its complex history of interactions between people of NA and European (EU) ancestry. Results reveal that NAs underestimate their degree of EU admixture, and that Hispanics underestimate their degree of NA admixture. Within Hispanics, genetic-marker estimated admixture is better predicted by forehead skin pigmentation than by self-estimated admixture. We also find that Hispanic individuals self-identified as "half-White, half Hispanic" and "Spanish" have lower levels of NA admixture than those self-identified as "Mexican" and "Mexican American." Such results highlight the interplay between culture and biology in how individuals identify and view themselves, and have implications for how ethnicity and disease risk are assessed in a medical setting. PMID:18951390

  10. A systems-biological study on the identification of safe and effective molecular targets for the reduction of ultraviolet B-induced skin pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Goh, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Junil; Choi, Tae-Jun; Kwang Lee, Hae; Joo Na, Yong; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the process of melanin synthesis through keratinocytes-melanocytes interaction, which is triggered by the damaging effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays. It is known that melanogenesis influences diverse cellular responses, including cell survival and apoptosis, via complex mechanisms of feedback and crosstalk. Therefore, an attempt to suppress melanin production by modulating the melanogenesis pathway may induce perturbations in the apoptotic balance of the cells in response to UVB irradiation, which results in various skin diseases such as melasma, vitiligo, and skin cancer. To identify such appropriate target strategies for the reduction of UVB-induced melanin synthesis, we reconstructed the melanogenesis signaling network and developed a Boolean network model. Mathematical simulations of the melanogenesis network model revealed that the inhibition of beta-catenin in the melanocytes effectively reduce melanin production while having minimal influence on the apoptotic balance of the cells. Exposing cells to a beta-catenin inhibitor decreased pigmentation but did not significantly change the B-cell Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 expression, a potent regulator of apoptotic balance. Thus, our systems analysis suggests that the inhibition of beta-catenin may be the most appropriate target strategy for the reduction of UVB-induced skin pigmentation. PMID:25980672

  11. Inhibitory effect of 2-methyl-naphtho[1,2,3-de]quinolin-8-one on melanosome transport and skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ha Yeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles with specialized capabilities of melanin synthesis and movement mediated by the Rab27a-Melanophilin-MyosinVa protein complex. In this study, we found that 2-methyl-naphtho[1,2,3-de]quinolin-8-one (MNQO) induced melanosome aggregation around the nucleus in melan-a melanocytes and in melan-a melanocytes/SP-1 keratinocyte co-cultures without inducing toxicity or changing the melanin content. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses showed that MNQO decreased expression of the Rab27a, Melanophilin and MyosinVa proteins and mRNAs, respectively, in melan-a melanocytes. In a reconstituted human epidermis model, treatment with 0.001% MNQO reduced skin pigmentation. Also, MNQO reduced skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs induced by UVB irradiation. These results indicated that regulation of melanosome transport may serve as a good target for new skin depigmenting agents and MNQO itself could be a candidate. PMID:27381646

  12. Correspondence between Pigmented Lesions Identified by Melanoma Patients Trained to Perform Partner-Assisted Skin Self-Examination and Dermatological Examination

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Robinson, June K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin-self examination (SSE) training interventions can increase understanding of melanoma early detection criteria and promote SSE. However, there remains a need to evaluate whether intervention participants can apply such early detection skills to accurately identify concerning, or potentially malignant, pigmented lesions during full body SSE. Methods We assessed SSE accuracy using data from a randomized control trial of a SSE skills training intervention designed to promote partner-assisted SSE among melanoma patients. In the trial, patient-partner pairs were administered the training intervention and performed monthly SSE to identify, evaluate, and track concerning pigmented skin lesions. Patients received a total body skin examination by a dermatologist approximately 4-months post-intervention. SSE accuracy was assessed as the correspondence between the specific concerning pigmented lesions identified by 274 study pairs during SSE with those identified during dermatological examination. We also examined whether lesions that were biopsied during the study were identified prior to biopsy during SSE. Results Approximately 3 in 4 of the concerning lesions identified by pairs during SSE were also identified during the dermatological exam. There were 81 biopsies performed during the study and pairs had identified 73% of the corresponding lesions during SSE. Of the 5 melanoma detected, 3 were identified during SSE. Conclusion Melanoma patients and partner taught to do SSE using an evidence-based program developed a high degree of correspondence with the study dermatologist in identifying concerning lesions. Impact This study provides novel evidence that supports the accuracy of full-body SSE for the patient identification of concerning lesions. PMID:26063475

  13. [Skin collagen abnormalities in a Japanese patient with extracranial internal carotid artery dissection followed by extracranial vertebral artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Sengoku, Renpei; Sato, Hironori; Honda, Hidehiko; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Ono, Seiitsu

    2006-02-01

    A 41-year-old man with hypertension and hyperlipidemia who complained of left hemiparesis after a temporal headache was admitted to our hospital. A cervical MRI with gadolinium enhancement revealed an intramural hematoma is compatible with right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. Two weeks later, he complained of sudden onset of pain in the right side of his neck. The right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection followed by the right extracranial vertebral artery dissection was diagnosed. Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (SCAD) is one of the causes of stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis of SCAD remains unknown. Minor trauma like an excessive sneeze, migraine, and connective tissue disorders such as fibromuscular dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are well-known as risk factors for SCAD. Pathologically skin collagen abnormalities have been seen in German patients with SCAD without clinical evidence for any specific connective tissue disorder. We examined the ultrastructural morphology of the Japanese patient's dermal connective tissue components by electron microscopy. The patient's collagen fibers contained fibrils with highly variable diameters, and there were other ultrastructural abnormalities, including flower-like fibrils and large-diameter composite fibrils. This is the first report of a case of ultrastructural abnormalities of dermal connective tissue in a Japanese patient with SCAD. PMID:16619839

  14. The SLC24 gene family of Na⁺/Ca²⁺-K⁺ exchangers: from sight and smell to memory consolidation and skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Schnetkamp, Paul P M

    2013-01-01

    Members of the SLC24 gene family encode K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCKX) that utilize both the inward Na(+) and outward K(+) gradients to extrude Ca(2+) from cells. There are five human SLC24 genes that play a role in biological process as diverse as vision in retinal rod and cone photoreceptors, olfaction, skin pigmentation and at least three of the five genes are also widely expressed in the brain. Here I review the functional, physiological and structural features of NCKX proteins that have emerged in the past few years.

  15. Abnormal Collagen Metabolism in Cultured Skin Fibroblasts from Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemann, H. Peter; Bayreuther, Klaus

    1984-08-01

    Total collagen synthesis is decreased by about 29% (P < 0.01) in skin fibroblasts established in vitro from male patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) as compared with that in normal male skin fibroblasts in vitro. The reduction in collagen synthesis is associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in collagen degradation in DMD fibroblasts. Correlated to these alterations in the metabolism of collagen, DMD fibroblasts express a significantly higher hydroxyproline/proline ratio (DMD: 1.36-1.45; P < 0.01) than do normal fibroblasts (controls: 0.86-0.89). The increased hydroxylation of proline residues of collagen (composed of type I and type III) could be the cause for the enhanced degradation of collagen in DMD fibroblasts.

  16. Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Wei, Ming-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2016-07-01

    Morphology and distribution of melanocytes are critical imaging information for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. However, how to image intratumoral melanocytes noninvasively in pigmented skin tumors is seldom investigated. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is shown to be enhanced by melanin, whereas high accuracy has been demonstrated using THG microscopy for in vivo differential diagnosis of nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors. It is thus desirable to investigate if label-free THG microscopy was capable to in vivo identify intratumoral melanocytes. In this study, histopathological correlations of label-free THG images with the immunohistochemical images stained with human melanoma black (HMB)-45 and cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) were made. The correlation results indicated that the intratumoral THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals were endogenously derived from melanocytes rather than Langerhans cells (LCs). The consistency between THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and HMB-45 melanocyte staining showed a kappa coefficient of 0.807, 84.6% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. In contrast, a kappa coefficient of -0.37, 21.7% sensitivity, and 30% specificity were noted between the THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and CD1a staining for LCs. Our study indicates the capability of noninvasive label-free THG microscopy to differentiate intratumoral melanocytes from LCs, which is not feasible in previous in vivo label-free clinical-imaging modalities.

  17. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  18. A systematic review of the influence of skin pigmentation on changes in the concentrations of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in plasma/serum following experimental UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fan; Lucas, Robyn; de Gruijl, Frank; Norval, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Defining whether skin pigmentation influences vitamin D photosynthesis is important for delivering accurate public health messages. Current evidence is contradictory. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature to examine the association between skin pigmentation and change in blood concentrations of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D following experimental UV irradiation. Twelve studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria: human study in vivo with non-diseased participants; controlled artificial UV radiation; vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D measured in serum or plasma; full text in English. In seven studies, vitamin D photosynthesis was reduced in dark-skinned compared with fairer-skinned individuals. In the remaining five studies, only one of which was published after 1990, there was no difference in vitamin D photosynthesis according to skin type. The disparities in these results may be due to small sample sizes and variations in study methodology, including the source, dose and frequency of UV irradiation, phototype classification, and analysis of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Of these, the spectrum emitted by the UV lamps may be significant. No study considered potential modifying factors, such as relevant genetic polymorphisms. On balance, we conclude that pigmented skin has less effective photoproduction of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The quantity of sun exposure needed for dark-skinned, compared with light-skinned, people to achieve vitamin D sufficiency remains uncertain.

  19. Pigmentary disorders in oriental skin.

    PubMed

    Jimbow, M; Jimbow, K

    1989-01-01

    Brown hyperpigmented disorders may be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes but melanin pigment is increased in the epidermis (eg, melasma), melanocytotic, in which melanocytes are increased (eg, café-au-lait macules), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation (eg, minocycline pigmentation). Blue hyperpigmented disorders may also be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes, but melanin pigment is present in the upper dermis (eg, gray/slate pigmentation in Riehl's melanosis), melanocytotic in which melanocytes are present in both the epidermis and dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in Nevus Ota and Mongolian spot), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation in which pigment is present in the deep dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in tattoos). Hypomelanosis (leukoderma) may be divided histopathologically into melanocytopenic disorders on which melanocytes are absent (eg, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome and vitiligo), melanopenic disorders in which melanocytes are present but melanin is reduced (eg, nevus depigmentosus and incontinentia pigmenti achromians), and nonmelanotic disorders in which melanin pigmentation is unaffected (nevus anemicus) and the pigmentary abnormality is caused by something other than melanin. There are numerous pigmentary disorders in the oriental skin, and some of them are either characteristic to or established in the orientals. Importantly, a number of congenital hypermelanotic and hypomelanotic diseases (eg, nevus depigmentosus, incontinentia pigmenti, and incontinentia pigmenti achromians, take a distribution following to the Blaschko's line.

  20. 55-week treatment of mice with the unani and ayurvedic medicine pomegranate flower ameliorates ageing-associated insulin resistance and skin abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwei; Rong, Xianglu; Um, Irene S I; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2012-01-01

    PPARs play a pivotal role in regulating lipid and glucose homeostasis and are involved in diverse biological activities in skin. Pomegranate flower (PGF, an antidiabetic therapy in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines) has been previously demonstrated to activate both PPARalpha/gamma. Here, we found that treatment of mice with the diet containing PGF powder over 55 weeks attenuated ageing-induced abnormal increases in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glucose concentrations during oral glucose tolerance test, and adipose insulin resistance index. The diet tended to decrease the excessive peri-ovary fat mass. It, however, increased the thinned subcutaneous fat thickness. In addition, the diet restored decreases in skin water content, epidermis thickness, and collagen density in corium. Thus, our results demonstrate that long-term treatment with the Unani and Ayurvedic therapy ameliorates ageing-induced insulin resistance, which is associated with reversal of ageing-induced fat redistribution. Further, PGF attenuates ageing-mediated undesirable skin abnormalities. PMID:22253646

  1. Exposure to acute electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone exposure range alters transiently skin homeostasis of a model of pigmented reconstructed epidermis.

    PubMed

    Simon, D; Daubos, A; Pain, C; Fitoussi, R; Vié, K; Taieb, A; de Benetti, L; Cario-André, M

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic radiations (EMR) produced by mobile phone concerns half the world's population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. In this study, we looked at the effects of mobile phone exposure (GSM basic, 900 MHz, SAR 2 mW g(-1) , 6 h) on a model of pigmented skin. We have analysed the expression and localization of various markers of keratinocyte and melanocyte differentiation 2, 6, 18 and 24 h after EMR exposure of reconstructed epidermis containing either only keratinocytes or a combination of keratinocytes and melanocytes grown on dead de-epidermized dermis, using histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. No changes were found in epidermal architecture, localization of epidermal markers, presence of apoptotic cells and the induction of p53 in both types of epidermis (with or without melanocytes) after exposure to EMR. In pigmented reconstructs, no change in the location and dendricity of melanocytes and in melanin transfer to neighbouring keratinocytes was detected after EMR exposure. Loricrin, cytokeratin 14 were significantly decreased at 6 h. The level of all markers increased at 24 h as compared to 6 h post-EMR exposure, associated with a significant decrease of the 20S proteasome activity. Our data indicate that exposure to 900 MHz frequency induces a transient alteration of epidermal homoeostasis, which may alter the protective capacity of the skin against external factors. Presence or absence of melanocytes did not modify the behaviour of reconstructs after EMR exposure.

  2. Cyclic Alopecia and Abnormal Epidermal Cornification in Zdhhc13-Deficient Mice Reveal the Importance of Palmitoylation in Hair and Skin Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shen, Li-Fen; Haddad, Amir N S; Song, I-Wen; Chen, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yen, Jeffrey J Y; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many biochemical pathways involved in hair and skin development have not been investigated. Here, we reported on the lesions and investigated the mechanism underlying hair and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice with a deficiency in DHHC13, a palmitoyl-acyl transferase encoded by Zdhhc13. Homozygous affected mice showed ragged and dilapidated cuticle of the hair shaft (CUH, a hair anchoring structure), poor hair anchoring ability, and premature hair loss at early telogen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in cyclic alopecia. Furthermore, the homozygous affected mice exhibited hyperproliferation of the epidermis, disturbed cornification, fragile cornified envelope (CE, a skin barrier structure), and impaired skin barrier function. Biochemical investigations revealed that cornifelin, which contains five palmitoylation sites at cysteine residues (C58, C59, C60, C95, and C101), was a specific substrate of DHHC13 and that it was absent in the CUH and CE structures of the affected mice. Furthermore, cornifelin levels were markedly reduced when two palmitoylated cysteines were replaced with serine (C95S and C101S). Taken together, our results suggest that DHHC13 is important for hair anchoring and skin barrier function and that cornifelin deficiency contributes to cyclic alopecia and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice.

  3. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  4. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  5. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  6. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can become melanoma. They make a brown pigment called melanin , which gives the skin its tan ... to the sun, melanocytes make more of the pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma ...

  7. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  8. Biology of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.

    1981-01-01

    The many factors involved in the normal pigmentation of human skin are highly complex involving anatomic, biochemical, and genetic aspects of melanocytes in the skin and the influence of UV light and various hormones on the melanocytes. It is probably more than just coincidence that the melanocytes, which are of neurogenic origin, are so responsive to several trophic hormones produced in the brain. Understanding of the various factors involved in the normal pigmentary process is crucial to explaining the many alterations and anomalies in human pigmentation.

  9. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  10. [Dermatology and skin color].

    PubMed

    Petit, Antoine

    2010-09-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for skin, hair and eye colours. Genetics and sun exposure are the two key factors that determine skin pigmentation. In dermatology, skin colours is significant, not only for semiology and diagnosis, but also for epidemiology and wounds healing.

  11. Clinical evaluation of the depigmenting effect of Glechoma Hederacea extract by topical treatment for 8 weeks on UV-induced pigmentation in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae Hyoun; Kang, Won Hyung; Lee, Jung Ok; Cho, Youn Ki; Park, Sang Kyu; Lee, Sang Keun; Cho, Han Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    UV is a major environmental factor inducing and worsening the symptoms of hyperpigmentation disorders such as freckles, melasma and solar lentigines. During UV-induced skin inflammatory reactions, pro-inflammatory mediators initiate the production of various paracrine melanogenic factors (α-MSH, SCF, ET-1, bFGF and NO) in keratinocytes. These paracrine factors activate melanin synthase in melanocytes through the paracrine network between melanocytes and keratinocytes. Glechoma hederacea (GH) is a herbal plant used in oriental medicine to treat inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory effects, through inhibition of NO synthesis (NOS) as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, have been reported. However, there has not yet been any report of a depigmenting effect. In this study of placebo-controlled, 8 week topical treatment with a 1% GH extract lotion on UV-induced pigmented spots in female Asian subjects, significant effects of anti-inflammation and depigmenting were proven. The depigmenting effect of GH seems to be related to inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and melanogenic paracrine factors from keratinocytes, rather than to direct inhibition of melanogenic activities in melanocytes.

  12. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  13. Analysis of gene expression dynamics revealed delayed and abnormal epidermal repair process in aged compared to young skin.

    PubMed

    Sextius, Peggy; Marionnet, Claire; Tacheau, Charlotte; Bon, François-Xavier; Bastien, Philippe; Mauviel, Alain; Bernard, Bruno A; Bernerd, Françoise; Dubertret, Louis

    2015-05-01

    With aging, epidermal homeostasis and barrier function are disrupted. In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptomic response of young skin epidermis after stratum corneum removal, and obtained a global kinetic view of the molecular processes involved in barrier function recovery. In the present study, the same analysis was performed in aged skin in order to better understand the defects which occur with aging. Thirty healthy male volunteers (67 ± 4 years old) were involved. Tape-strippings were carried out on the inner face of one forearm, the other unstripped forearm serving as control. At 2, 6, 18, 30 and 72 h after stripping, TEWL measurements were taken, and epidermis samples were collected. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using DermArray(®) cDNA microarrays. The results highlighted that barrier function recovery and overall kinetics of gene expression were delayed following stripping in aged skin. Indeed, the TEWL measurements showed that barrier recovery in the young group appeared to be dramatically significant during the overall kinetics, while there were no significant evolution in the aged group until 30 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that the number of modulated genes following tape stripping increased as a function of time and reached a peak at 6 h after tape stripping in young skin, while it was at 30 h in aged skin, showing that cellular activity linked to the repair process may be engaged earlier in young epidermis than in aged epidermis. A total of 370 genes were modulated in the young group. In the aged group, 382 genes were modulated, whose 184 were also modulated in the young group. Only eight genes that were modulated in both groups were significantly differently modulated. The characterization of these genes into 15 functional families helped to draw a scenario for the aging process affecting epidermal repair capacity. PMID:25740152

  14. Compound heterozygous desmoplakin mutations result in a phenotype with a combination of myocardial, skin, hair, and enamel abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, My G; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2010-04-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses.

  15. Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

  16. [Macular pigments].

    PubMed

    Canovas, Renata; Cypel, Marcela; Farah, Michel Eid; Belfort, Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update. PMID:20098912

  17. Latest insights into skin hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Bissett, Donald L

    2008-04-01

    Hyperpigmentary problems, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, solar lentigos, and melasma, occur widely in the human population and are thus of broad interest for control. On the basis of genomic and proteomic understanding of the melanocyte and melanogenesis, there are potentially hundreds of proteins and other effectors involved in pigmentation. This knowledge, although complex, should prove most useful in identifying specific abnormalities that lead to the hyperpigmentary problems. Also available are new laboratory screening methods and skin color measurement tools that are increasing the pace at which materials can be screened and evaluated clinically for their effectiveness. Combined with a clear consumer need for effective pigmentation control agents, advanced pigmentary system understanding and new research capabilities are setting the stage for future technological advancements.

  18. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  19. Penicillamine-induced elastosis perforans serpiginosa with abnormal "lumpy-bumpy" elastic fibers in lesional and non-lesional skin.

    PubMed

    Khatu, Swapna S; Dhurat, Rachita S; Nayak, Chitra S; Pereira, Rickson R; Kagne, Rucha B

    2011-01-01

    Four types of elastosis perforans serpiginosa (EPS) have been described in literature: 1) idiopathic EPS, 2) reactive perforating elastosis associated with connective tissue disorders, 3) in some instances of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), disease-specific calcified elastic tissue is extruded, producing a clinical picture indistinguishable from other types, may also be seen in patients undergoing hemodialysis and 4) EPS induced by long-term treatment with D-penicillamine is observed in patients suffering from Wilson's disease. Long term D-penicillamine therapy causes an alteration in the dermal elastic tissue. D-penicillamine induced EPS has a distinctive histopathologic feature - serrated appearance of elastic fibers due to perpendicular budding from their surface giving a "lumpy-bumpy" look. D-penicillamine induced elastic fiber alteration may not always manifest clinically as EPS. We report a case of D-penicillamine induced widespread alteration in skin elastic tissue with distinct histopathologic features.

  20. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  1. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin.

  2. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  3. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  4. Gain of 11q/cyclin D1 overexpression is an essential early step in skin cancer development and causes abnormal tissue organization and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Burnworth, B; Popp, S; Stark, H-J; Steinkraus, V; Bröcker, E B; Hartschuh, W; Birek, C; Boukamp, P

    2006-07-27

    Non-melanoma skin cancers, in particular keratoacanthomas (KAs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), have become highly frequent tumor types especially in immune-suppressed transplant patients. Nevertheless, little is known about essential genetic changes. As a paradigm of 'early' changes, that is, changes still compatible with tumor regression, we studied KAs by comparative genomic hybridization and show that gain of chromosome 11q is not only one of the most frequent aberration (8/18), but in four tumors also the only aberration. Furthermore, 11q gain correlated with amplification of the cyclin D1 locus (10/14), as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and overexpression of cyclin D1 protein (25/31), as detected by immunohistochemistry. For unraveling the functional consequence, we overexpressed cyclin D1 in HaCaT skin keratinocytes. These cells only gained little growth advantage in conventional and in organotypic co-cultures. However, although the control vector-transfected cells formed a well-stratified and orderly differentiated epidermis-like epithelium, they showed deregulation of tissue architecture with an altered localization of proliferation and impaired differentiation. The most severe phenotype was seen in a clone that additionally upregulated cdk4 and p21. These cells lacked terminal differentiation, exhibited a more autonomous growth in vitro and in vivo and even formed tumors in two injection sites with a growth pattern resembling that of human KAs. Thus, our results identify 11q13 gain/cyclin D1 overexpression as an important step in KA formation and point to a function that exceeds its known role in proliferation by disrupting tissue organization and thereby allowing abnormal growth.

  5. A closer look at evolution: Variants (SNPs) of genes involved in skin pigmentation, including EXOC2, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT, are associated with 25(OH)D serum concentration.

    PubMed

    Saternus, Roman; Pilz, Stefan; Gräber, Stefan; Kleber, Marcus; März, Winfried; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Caucasian population and is associated with increased incidence and unfavorable outcome of many diseases, including various types of cancer, infectious, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. Individual factors that predispose for a person's vitamin D status, such as skin type, have been identified, but limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. We have tested the hypothesis that variants of genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) involved in skin pigmentation are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels. Serum 25(OH)D and SNPs (n = 960) related to genes with relevance for skin pigmentation (tyrosinase [TYR], TYR-related protein 1 [TYRP1], dopachrome tautomerase [DCT], oculocutaneous albinism II [OCA2], two pore segment channel 2 [TPCN2], solute carrier family 24 A4 [SLC24A4], solute carrier family 45 A2 [SLC45A2], agouti signalling peptide [ASIP], cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor [ATF1], microphthalmia-associated transcription factor [MITF], proopiomelanocortin [POMC], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [PRKACB], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma [PRKACG], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR1A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR2A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit [PRKAR2B], tubulin beta-3 chain/melanocortin receptor 1 [TUBB3/MC1R], Cadherin-1 [CDH1], catenin beta 1 [CTNNB1], Endothelin 1 [EDN1], endothelin 3 [EDN3], endothelin receptor type B [EDNRB], fibroblast growth factor 2 [FGF2], KIT, KIT ligand [KITLG], nerve growth factor [NGF], interferon regulatory factor 4 [IRF4], exocyst complex component 2 [EXOC2], and tumor protein 53 [TP53]) were analyzed in a cohort of participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 2970). A total of 46 SNPs were associated (P <.05) with lower or higher serum 25(OH

  6. A closer look at evolution: Variants (SNPs) of genes involved in skin pigmentation, including EXOC2, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT, are associated with 25(OH)D serum concentration.

    PubMed

    Saternus, Roman; Pilz, Stefan; Gräber, Stefan; Kleber, Marcus; März, Winfried; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Caucasian population and is associated with increased incidence and unfavorable outcome of many diseases, including various types of cancer, infectious, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. Individual factors that predispose for a person's vitamin D status, such as skin type, have been identified, but limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. We have tested the hypothesis that variants of genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) involved in skin pigmentation are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels. Serum 25(OH)D and SNPs (n = 960) related to genes with relevance for skin pigmentation (tyrosinase [TYR], TYR-related protein 1 [TYRP1], dopachrome tautomerase [DCT], oculocutaneous albinism II [OCA2], two pore segment channel 2 [TPCN2], solute carrier family 24 A4 [SLC24A4], solute carrier family 45 A2 [SLC45A2], agouti signalling peptide [ASIP], cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor [ATF1], microphthalmia-associated transcription factor [MITF], proopiomelanocortin [POMC], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [PRKACB], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma [PRKACG], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR1A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR2A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit [PRKAR2B], tubulin beta-3 chain/melanocortin receptor 1 [TUBB3/MC1R], Cadherin-1 [CDH1], catenin beta 1 [CTNNB1], Endothelin 1 [EDN1], endothelin 3 [EDN3], endothelin receptor type B [EDNRB], fibroblast growth factor 2 [FGF2], KIT, KIT ligand [KITLG], nerve growth factor [NGF], interferon regulatory factor 4 [IRF4], exocyst complex component 2 [EXOC2], and tumor protein 53 [TP53]) were analyzed in a cohort of participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 2970). A total of 46 SNPs were associated (P <.05) with lower or higher serum 25(OH

  7. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  8. Pigment-based skin colour in the blue-footed booby: an honest signal of current condition used by females to adjust reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Torres, Roxana

    2006-09-01

    In monogamous species, the value of present reproduction is affected by the current condition of the mate, and females may use male ornaments to evaluate his condition and adjust their level of investment according. Many animals display colour in fleshy structures which may be accurate indicators of quality due to their potentially rapid response to changes in condition. Here we show that in the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, male foot colour is structurally (collagen arrays) and pigment based. In 48 h foot colour became duller when males were food deprived and brighter when they were re-fed with fresh fish. Variation of dietary carotenoids induced comparable changes in cell-mediated immune function and foot colour, suggesting that carotenoid-pigmentation reveals the immunological state of individuals. These results suggest that pigment-based foot colour is a rapid honest signal of current condition. In a second experiment, we found that rapid variation in male foot colour caused parallel variation in female reproductive investment. One day after the first egg was laid we captured the males and modified the foot colour of experimental males with a non-toxic and water resistant duller blue intensive make-up, mimicking males in low condition. Females decreased the size of their second eggs, relative to the second egg of control females, when the feet of their mates were experimentally duller. Since brood reduction in this species is related to size differences between brood mates at hatching, by laying lighter second eggs females are facilitating brood reduction. Our data indicate that blue-footed booby females are continuously evaluating their mates and can perform rapid adjustments of reproductive investment by using dynamic sexual traits. We suggest that this fine-tuned adjustment may be widespread in socially monogamous animals.

  9. Pigment-based skin colour in the blue-footed booby: an honest signal of current condition used by females to adjust reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Torres, Roxana

    2006-09-01

    In monogamous species, the value of present reproduction is affected by the current condition of the mate, and females may use male ornaments to evaluate his condition and adjust their level of investment according. Many animals display colour in fleshy structures which may be accurate indicators of quality due to their potentially rapid response to changes in condition. Here we show that in the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, male foot colour is structurally (collagen arrays) and pigment based. In 48 h foot colour became duller when males were food deprived and brighter when they were re-fed with fresh fish. Variation of dietary carotenoids induced comparable changes in cell-mediated immune function and foot colour, suggesting that carotenoid-pigmentation reveals the immunological state of individuals. These results suggest that pigment-based foot colour is a rapid honest signal of current condition. In a second experiment, we found that rapid variation in male foot colour caused parallel variation in female reproductive investment. One day after the first egg was laid we captured the males and modified the foot colour of experimental males with a non-toxic and water resistant duller blue intensive make-up, mimicking males in low condition. Females decreased the size of their second eggs, relative to the second egg of control females, when the feet of their mates were experimentally duller. Since brood reduction in this species is related to size differences between brood mates at hatching, by laying lighter second eggs females are facilitating brood reduction. Our data indicate that blue-footed booby females are continuously evaluating their mates and can perform rapid adjustments of reproductive investment by using dynamic sexual traits. We suggest that this fine-tuned adjustment may be widespread in socially monogamous animals. PMID:16821015

  10. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... sun exposure with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against ... Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) Noncancerous skin ...

  11. Cosmetic tattoo pigment reaction.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCutaneous reactions to tattoos are most commonly granulomatous or lichenoid.PurposeWe describe a woman who developed a lymphocytic reaction following a cosmetic tattoo procedure with black dye. The reaction occurred not only at the site of the tattoos (eyebrows and eyelash lines), but also in non-tattooed skin (bilateral malar cheeks).Methods and MaterialsWe reviewed PubMed for the following terms: cosmetic, dye, granuloma, granulomatous, lichenoid, lymphocytic, perivascular, pigment, pseudolymphoma, reaction, and tattoo. We also reviewed papers containing these terms and their references.ResultsHistopathologic examination of the left eyebrow and left cheek punch biopsies showed predominantly a perivascular lymphocytic reaction secondary to exogenous tattoo pigment.ConclusionsPerivascular lymphocytic reaction is an uncommonly described complication of tattooing. Our patient had an atypical presentation since she had no prior tattoos, became symptomatic only a few days after the procedure, reacted to black dye, and involved skin both within and outside the confines of the tattoos. Her symptoms and lesions resolved after treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. PMID:27617722

  12. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Results Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

  13. Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

  14. Laugier-hunziker syndrome: a rare cause of oral and acral pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Silonie; Sachdeva, Shabina; Kapoor, Pranav

    2011-01-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is an acquired, benign pigmentary skin condition involving oral cavity including lower lip in the form of brown black macules 1-5 mm in size, frequently associated with longitudinal melanonychia. There is no underlying systemic abnormality or malignant predisposition associated with LHS, and therefore the prognosis is good. Important differential diagnoses include Peutz Jeghers syndrome and Addison's disease among other causes of oral and acral pigmentation. Treatment is sought mainly for cosmetic reasons and Q-switched Nd-Yag laser/ Q-switched alexandrite therapy and cryosurgery have been tried with varying success.

  15. Intra-Articular Pigmentation of Synovium: An Unusual Cause

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Steven; Liew, Sue M

    2016-01-01

    An unusual grayish brown discoloration of the synovium was found during a knee arthroscopy of a 72-year-old man. He also had similar pigmentation affecting the skin on the legs, arms, hands, and face. It was found he had been taking 400 mg of amiodarone hydrochloride daily for last 7 years. Amiodarone is known to cause a slate grey pigmentation of skin and cornea, but we believe this is the first report of amiodarone-induced pigmentation of the synovium. The arthroscopist should be aware of the possibility of drug-related synovial pigmentation and include this in differential diagnosis. PMID:27583118

  16. Intra-Articular Pigmentation of Synovium: An Unusual Cause.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shobhit; Hamilton, Steven; Liew, Sue M

    2016-09-01

    An unusual grayish brown discoloration of the synovium was found during a knee arthroscopy of a 72-year-old man. He also had similar pigmentation affecting the skin on the legs, arms, hands, and face. It was found he had been taking 400 mg of amiodarone hydrochloride daily for last 7 years. Amiodarone is known to cause a slate grey pigmentation of skin and cornea, but we believe this is the first report of amiodarone-induced pigmentation of the synovium. The arthroscopist should be aware of the possibility of drug-related synovial pigmentation and include this in differential diagnosis. PMID:27583118

  17. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states.

  18. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  19. Sun’s effect on skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer) layer are cells that contain the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which ... to sunlight causes the skin to produce more melanin and to darken. The tan fades as these ...

  20. A new autosomal recessive non-progressive congenital cerebellar ataxia associated with mental retardation, optic atrophy, and skin abnormalities (CAMOS) maps to chromosome 15q24-q26 in a large consanguineous Lebanese Druze Family.

    PubMed

    Delague, Valérie; Bareil, Corinne; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Salem, Nabiha; Chouery, Eliane; Loiselet, Jacques; Mégarbané, André; Claustres, Mireille

    2002-03-01

    Congenital cerebellar ataxias are a heterogeneous group of non-progressive disorders characterized by hypotonia and developmental delay followed by the appearance of ataxia, and often associated with dysarthria, mental retardation, and atrophy of the cerebellum. We report the mapping of a disease gene in a large inbred Lebanese Druze family, with five cases of a new form of non-progressive autosomal recessive congenital ataxia associated with optic atrophy, severe mental retardation, and structural skin abnormalities, to a 3.6-cM interval on chromosome 15q24-15q26.

  1. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma.

  2. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease. PMID:21845737

  3. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease.

  4. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  5. Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM.

  6. Synergistic interactions between XPC and p53 mutations in double-mutant mice: neural tube abnormalities and accelerated UV radiation-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheo, D L; Meira, L B; Hammer, R E; Burns, D K; Doughty, A T; Friedberg, E C

    1996-12-01

    The significance of DNA repair to human health has been well documented by studies on xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients, who suffer a dramatically increased risk of cancer in sun-exposed areas of their skin [1,2]. This autosomal recessive disorder has been directly associated with a defect in nucleotide excision-repair (NER) [1,2]. Like human XP individuals, mice carrying homozygous mutations in XP genes manifest a predisposition to skin carcinogenesis following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation [3-5]. Recent studies have suggested that, in addition to roles in apoptosis [6] and cell-cycle checkpoint control [7] in response to DNA damage, p53 protein may modulate NER [8]. Mutations in the p53 gene have been observed in 50% of all human tumors [9] and have been implicated in both the early [10] and late [11] stages of skin cancer. To examine the consequences of a combined deficiency of the XPC and the p53 proteins in mice, we generated double-mutant animals. We document a spectrum of neural tube defects in XPC p53 mutant embryos. Additionally, we show that, following exposure to UV-B radiation, XPC p53 mutant mice have more severe solar keratosis and suffer accelerated skin cancer compared with XPC mutant mice that are wild-type with respect to p53. PMID:8994835

  7. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  8. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  9. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  10. Quantification method for the appearance of melanin pigmentation using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Nobutoshi; Okiyama, Natsuko; Okaguchi, Saya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Hori, Kimihiko; Miyake, Yoichi

    2005-04-01

    In the cosmetics industry, skin color is very important because skin color gives a direct impression of the face. In particular, many people suffer from melanin pigmentation such as liver spots and freckles. However, it is very difficult to evaluate melanin pigmentation using conventional colorimetric values because these values contain information on various skin chromophores simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to extract information of the chromophore of individual skins independently as density information. The isolation of the melanin component image based on independent component analysis (ICA) from a single skin image was reported in 2003. However, this technique has not developed a quantification method for melanin pigmentation. This paper introduces a quantification method based on the ICA of a skin color image to isolate melanin pigmentation. The image acquisition system we used consists of commercially available equipment such as digital cameras and lighting sources with polarized light. The images taken were analyzed using ICA to extract the melanin component images, and Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) filter was applied to extract the pigmented area. As a result, for skin images including those showing melanin pigmentation and acne, the method worked well. Finally, the total amount of extracted area had a strong correspondence to the subjective rating values for the appearance of pigmentation. Further analysis is needed to recognize the appearance of pigmentation concerning the size of the pigmented area and its spatial gradation.

  11. The Timing of Pigmentation Lightening in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Beleza, Sandra; Santos, António M.; McEvoy, Brian; Alves, Isabel; Martinho, Cláudia; Cameron, Emily; Shriver, Mark D.; Parra, Esteban J.; Rocha, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The inverse correlation between skin pigmentation and latitude observed in human populations is thought to have been shaped by selective pressures favoring lighter skin to facilitate vitamin D synthesis in regions far from the equator. Several candidate genes for skin pigmentation have been shown to exhibit patterns of polymorphism that overlap the geospatial variation in skin color. However, little work has focused on estimating the time frame over which skin pigmentation has changed and on the intensity of selection acting on different pigmentation genes. To provide a temporal framework for the evolution of lighter pigmentation, we used forward Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a rejection sampling algorithm to estimate the time of onset of selective sweeps and selection coefficients at four genes associated with this trait in Europeans: KITLG, TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2. Using compound haplotype systems consisting of rapidly evolving microsatellites linked to one single-nucleotide polymorphism in each gene, we estimate that the onset of the sweep shared by Europeans and East Asians at KITLG occurred approximately 30,000 years ago, after the out-of-Africa migration, whereas the selective sweeps for the European-specific alleles at TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 started much later, within the last 11,000–19,000 years, well after the first migrations of modern humans into Europe. We suggest that these patterns were influenced by recent increases in size of human populations, which favored the accumulation of advantageous variants at different loci. PMID:22923467

  12. Overview of plant pigments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  13. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Escobar, Iliana E.; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  14. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-05-01

    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists.

  15. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Shabnam; Prendiville, Kevin John; Martinez, Eladio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia. Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam. Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2–3 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months. Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia. PMID:27625966

  16. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy of vitiligo skin in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Richer, Vincent; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Zandi, Soodabeh; Kollias, Nikiforos; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence signals depend on the intensity of the exciting light, the absorption properties of the constituent molecules, and the efficiency with which the absorbed photons are converted to fluorescence emission. The optical features and appearance of vitiligo have been explained primarily on the basis of reduced epidermal pigmentation, which results in abnormal white patches on the skin. The objective of this study is to explore the fluorescence properties of vitiligo and its adjacent normal skin using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Thirty five (35) volunteers with vitiligo were acquired using a double-grating spectrofluorometer with excitation and emission wavelengths of 260-450 nm and 300-700 nm respectively. As expected, the most pronounced difference between the spectra obtained from vitiligo lesions compared to normally pigmented skin was that the overall fluorescence was much higher in vitiligo; these differences increased at shorter wavelengths, thus matching the characteristic spectral absorption of epidermal melanin. When comparing the fluorescence spectra from vitiligo to normal skin we detected three distinct spectral bands centered at 280nm, 310nm, and 335nm. The 280nm band may possibly be related to inflammation, whereas the 335 nm band may arise from collagen or keratin cross links. The source of the 310 nm band is uncertain; it is interesting to note its proximity to the 311 nm UV lamps used for vitiligo phototherapy. These differences are accounted for not only by changes in epidermal pigment content, but also by other optically active cutaneous biomolecules.

  17. Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for Realistic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

  18. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    SciTech Connect

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M.

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  19. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  1. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  2. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  3. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  4. Hyperpigmentation of the skin associated with minocycline therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, G.; Sparano, B.M.; Iatropoulos, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Skin biopsy specimens and discolored fingernails from minocycline-treated patients were examined by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Both hyperpigmented and adjacent normally pigmented skin samples contained pigment-laden macrophages in the dermis, although these cells were more numerous in the hyperpigmented skin samples. Elemental analysis showed that both pigment deposits and stratum corneum of hyperpigmented skin samples contained iron and calcium. Discolored areas of fingernails from a minocycline-treated patient also contained iron and calcium. Both skin and nail discoloration were possibly due to the presence of an iron chelate of minocycline and/or quinoid derivatives of minocycline. The presence of iron-containing pigment in normal as well as hyperpigmented skin may have predisposed to formation of minocycline-associated pigment in these patients.

  5. Keloid, pigmented (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissue that follow skin injuries. Keloids may appear after such minor trauma as ear piercing. Dark-skinned individuals tend to form keloids more readily than lighter skinned individuals. These patches ...

  6. Dermatoscopic features of pigmented and non-pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiladze, N; Shulaia, T; Bulinska, A; Abrahamovych, L

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, which accounts for about 75% of all skin cancers, its early diagnosis is crucial for proper treatment. In recent years, an increasingly important role in the early and differential diagnosis of skin tumors plays dermatoscopy, making possible to improve the diagnosis of pigmented and nonpigmented skin lesions, especially in the early stages of development. The aim of this work is to study the dermatoscopic criteria for pigmented and nonpigmented BCC using the algorithm of H. Kittler. Were studied 78 cases of different clinical types of BCC, diagnosis was based on clinical and dermatoscopic picture with further confirmation by cytology. The obtained data show that for pigmented BCC are characteristic five major signs of dermatoscopy - lines, dots, clods, circles and pseudopodia, whereas for non-pigmented form - pattern of blood vessels and, as an additional feature, structureless areas. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific dermoscopic hallmarks regarding different categories of BCC and sensitivity of these dermatoscopic features. PMID:25693214

  7. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04543.001 PMID:25513726

  8. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. PMID:25513726

  9. Pigmentation in basal cell carcinoma involves enhanced endothelin-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng-Che E; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Cheng, Chiu-Min; Yu, Chia-Li; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2005-07-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignant skin tumor. In Asian patients, marked pigmentation in BCC lesions is often observed. Recently, endothelins (ETs) have been implicated to participate in the pigmentation process of BCC. Therefore, we set out to investigate the involvement of ET in the pigmentation process of BCC and the potential regulators in the pigmentation pathway. We explored the effects of an established BCC cell line on melanocytes. The growth factor profiles of BCC culture supernatant and effects of supernatant on melanocytes were documented. Potential regulators involved in the pigmentation pathway were also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of pigmented and non-pigmented BCC specimens was performed to confirm our in vitro findings. Our results showed that BCC supernatant contained significant amount of ET-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and nerve growth factor. Furthermore, BCC supernatant stimulated melanin formation of cultured melanocytes. Addition of ET-receptor antagonist abrogated the melanogenic effect of BCC supernatant on melanocytes. Introduction of UVB irradiation decreased the ET-1 secretion by BCC cells. Immunohistochemical staining of the pigmented facial BCC specimens showed prominent expression of ET-1 on pigmented BCC, while the non-pigmented facial BCC specimens showed little ET-1 reactivity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) staining showed little expression on BCC specimens, regardless of pigmentation status. In summary, our results indicate that enhanced ET-1 expression in pigmented BCC plays an important role in the hyperpigmentation of this tumor. Moreover, this enhanced ET-1 cascade showed little correlation with UV irradiation and TNF-alpha expression in our study.

  10. Epidermal gene expression and ethnic pigmentation variations among individuals of Asian, European and African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lanlan; Coelho, Sergio G; Ebsen, Dominik; Smuda, Christoph; Mahns, Andre; Miller, Sharon A; Beer, Janusz Z; Kolbe, Ludger; Hearing, Vincent J

    2014-10-01

    Differences in visible skin pigmentation give rise to the wide variation of skin colours seen in racial/ethnic populations. Skin pigmentation is important not only from cosmetic and psychological points of view, but more importantly because of its implications for the risk of all types of skin cancers, on photoaging, etc. Despite differences in those parameters in Caucasian and Asian skin types, they are remarkably similar in their production and distribution of melanins, and the mechanism(s) underlying their different characteristics have remained obscure. In this study, we used microarray analysis of skin suction blisters to investigate molecular differences underlying the determination of pigmentation in various skin types, and we used immunohistochemistry to validate the expression patterns of several interesting targets that were identified. Intriguingly, Caucasian and Asian skins had highly similar gene expression patterns that differed significantly from the pattern of African skin. The results of this study suggest the dynamic interactions of different types of cells in human skin that regulate its pigmentation, reveal that the known pigmentation genes have a limited contribution and uncover a new array of genes, including NINL and S100A4, that might be involved in that regulation.

  11. Effect of epidermal pigmentation on selective vascular effects of pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, O.T.; Kerschmann, R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of epidermal pigmentation on the threshold exposure dose for inducing purpura with a tunable dye laser at 577 nm, 1.5 microseconds pulse duration, was studied in 21 human volunteers with varied genetically determined amounts of melanin. More laser energy was required to produce purpura as constitutive skin pigmentation increased. Histology showed that, in lighter skin, the laser threshold dose produced the most specific vascular injury with no disruption of surrounding structures. In more pigmented skin, damage occurred in the epidermal basal layer and very few changes were seen in blood vessels below.

  12. Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.

    PubMed

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

  13. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  14. UV signaling pathways within the skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongxiang; Weng, Qing Yu; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of UVR on the skin include tanning, carcinogenesis, immunomodulation, and synthesis of vitamin D, among others. Melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphisms correlate with skin pigmentation, UV sensitivity, and skin cancer risk. This article reviews pathways through which UVR induces cutaneous stress and the pigmentation response. Modulators of the UV tanning pathway include sunscreen agents, MC1R activators, adenylate cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase 4D3 inhibitors, T oligos, and MITF regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors. UVR, as one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens, represents both a challenge and enormous opportunity in skin cancer prevention. PMID:24759085

  15. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  16. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  17. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. PMID:26944494

  18. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation.

  19. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation in a child with citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chu-Li; Hu, Yun-Feng; Song, Yuan-Zong

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation (IEMP) is a rare dermatological disorder with generally unclear etiology and pathogenesis. A 5½-year-old girl was referred to hospital with a 10 month history of brown skin rashes. In early infancy, citrin deficiency had been diagnosed with the SLC25A13 genotype c.851_854del4/c.998G > A, but all clinical and laboratory abnormalities recovered following the introduction of a lactose-free and medium-chain triglyceride-enriched formula. Physical examination at referral indicated symmetric, multiple and non-scaly brown macules on the neck, trunk, buttocks and proximal parts of the extremities. Histopathology indicated epidermal basal layer hyperpigmentation with an irregular distribution, along with a large number of melanophages in the upper dermis. The diagnosis of IEMP was thus made. Within 2 years of follow up, the rashes disappeared spontaneously and gradually. To our knowledge, this is the first description of IEMP in a patient with silent citrin deficiency. PMID:27389718

  20. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  1. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  2. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25310406

  3. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies.

  4. Chemical analysis of constitutive pigmentation of human epidermis reveals constant eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio.

    PubMed

    Del Bino, Sandra; Ito, Shosuke; Sok, Juliette; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Bastien, Philippe; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Bernerd, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    The skin constitutive pigmentation is given by the amount of melanin pigment, its relative composition (eu/pheomelanin) and distribution within the epidermis, and is largely responsible for the sensitivity to UV exposure. Nevertheless, a precise knowledge of melanins in human skin is lacking. We characterized the melanin content of human breast skin samples with variable pigmentations rigorously classified through the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) by image analysis, spectrophotometry after solubilization with Soluene-350 and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after chemical degradation. ITA and total melanin content were found correlated, ITA and PTCA (degradation product of DHICA melanin), and TTCA (degradation product of benzothiazole-type pheomelanin) as well but not 4-AHP (degradation product of benzothiazine-type pheomelanin). Results revealed that human epidermis comprises approximately 74% of eumelanin and 26% pheomelanin, regardless of the degree of pigmentation. They also confirm the low content of photoprotective eumelanin among lighter skins thereby explaining the higher sensitivity toward UV exposure. PMID:26285058

  5. Chemical analysis of constitutive pigmentation of human epidermis reveals constant eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio.

    PubMed

    Del Bino, Sandra; Ito, Shosuke; Sok, Juliette; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Bastien, Philippe; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Bernerd, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    The skin constitutive pigmentation is given by the amount of melanin pigment, its relative composition (eu/pheomelanin) and distribution within the epidermis, and is largely responsible for the sensitivity to UV exposure. Nevertheless, a precise knowledge of melanins in human skin is lacking. We characterized the melanin content of human breast skin samples with variable pigmentations rigorously classified through the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) by image analysis, spectrophotometry after solubilization with Soluene-350 and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after chemical degradation. ITA and total melanin content were found correlated, ITA and PTCA (degradation product of DHICA melanin), and TTCA (degradation product of benzothiazole-type pheomelanin) as well but not 4-AHP (degradation product of benzothiazine-type pheomelanin). Results revealed that human epidermis comprises approximately 74% of eumelanin and 26% pheomelanin, regardless of the degree of pigmentation. They also confirm the low content of photoprotective eumelanin among lighter skins thereby explaining the higher sensitivity toward UV exposure.

  6. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  7. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  8. Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2007-01-01

    Skin lightening preparations are widely used in dermatology by persons of all Fitzpatrick skin types. Fitzpatrick skin types I-III require local pigment lightening for the treatment of hormonally induced melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne and trauma. Fitzpatrick skin types IV and darker have an even greater need for skin lightening for social reasons, as well as pigmentary changes that occur around the eyes, in the intertriginous areas, following dermatitis, or with acne and trauma. The gold standard dermatologic agent for skin lightening was hydroquinone, until regulatory agencies in Japan, Europe, and most recently in the United States questioned the safety of this substance. This has encouraged research into alternative agents to inhibit skin pigmentation such as retinoids, mequinol, azelaic acid, arbutin, kojic acid, aleosin, licorice extract, ascorbic acid, soy proteins, and N-acetyl glucosamine. The efficacy and safety of each of these ingredients is examined as possible topical alternatives to hydroquinone. PMID:18045355

  9. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  10. Embryological pigment epithelial dystrophies.

    PubMed

    François, J

    1976-01-01

    The embryological pigment epithelial dystrophies may be due, although rather rarely, to chemical factors, such as antibiotics and thalidomide, to ionizing radiation and to infectious factors, syphilis or viral infections, such as mumps, measles, varicella, or cytomegalovirus. The most frequent and the most typical dystrophy is, nevertheless, the rubella epitheliopathy with its widespread scattered black pigment deposits, found predominantly in the posterior pole, and its unaffected visual functions. The macular dystrophy associated with deaf-mutism is also often due to a maternal rubella infection.

  11. Folate in skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Williams, J D; Jacobson, Elaine L; Kim, H; Kim, M; Jacobson, M K

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention.

  12. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  13. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation.

  14. Retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium forms early in development and subsequently remains dormant, undergoing minimal proliferation throughout normal life. Retinal pigment epithelium proliferation, however, can be activated in disease states or by removing retinal pigment epithelial cells into culture. We review the conditions that control retinal pigment epithelial proliferation in culture, in animal models and in human disease and interpret retinal pigment epithelium proliferation in context of the recently discovered retinal pigment epithelium stem cell that is responsible for most in vitro retinal pigment epithelial proliferation. Retinal pigment epithelial proliferation-mediated wound repair that occurs in selected macular diseases is contrasted with retinal pigment epithelial proliferation-mediated fibroblastic scar formation that underlies proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We discuss the role of retinal pigment epithelial proliferation in age-related macular degeneration which is reparative in some cases and destructive in others. Macular retinal pigment epithelium wound repair and regression of choroidal neovascularization are more pronounced in younger than older patients. We discuss the possibility that the limited retinal pigment epithelial proliferation and latent wound repair in older age-related macular degeneration patients can be stimulated to promote disease regression in age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26041390

  15. A golden age of human pigmentation genetics.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Richard A

    2006-09-01

    The zebrafish golden mutation is characterized by the production of small and irregular-shaped melanin granules, resulting in a lightening of the pigmented lateral stripes of the animal. The recent positional cloning and localization of the golden gene, combined with genotype-phenotype correlations of alleles of its human orthologue (SLC24A5) in African-American and African-Caribbean populations, provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of human skin colour. SLC24A5 promotes melanin deposition through maturation of the melanosome, highlighting the importance of ion-exchange in the function of this organelle.

  16. Skin tears: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2008-07-01

    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  17. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T.M.; Krebs, Mark P.; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B.; Charette, Jeremy R.; Letteboer, Stef J.; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W.; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Boon, Camiel J.F.; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P.; Peachey, Neal S.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Nishina, Patsy M.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here, we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the α-catenin 1 (CTNNA1) gene in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice revealed increased cell shedding and large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, suggests that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity, and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  18. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma--comparing the diagnostic methods of SIAscopy and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Terstappen, Karin; Larkö, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Pigmented basal cell carcinomas can be difficult to distinguish clinically from melanoma. Dermoscopy has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of the two tumour types. SIAscopy (Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis) is a fairly new technique of imaging pigmented skin lesions that has been presented previously as a useful tool in diagnosing melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SIAscopy can be useful in diagnosing pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Twenty-one pigmented basal cell carcinomas were analysed, comparing dermoscopic and SIAscopic findings. The results, in this limited setting, show that SIAscopy has no advantages over dermoscopy when diagnosing pigmented basal cell carcinomas. On the contrary, pigmented basal cell carcinomas show, in SIAscopy, similar features to those previously reported for melanoma.

  19. Effect of wavelength on cutaneous pigment using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, K.A.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.; Tan, O.T.

    1989-05-01

    Several reports have been published over the last two decades describing the successful removal of benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe au lait macules' nevi, nevus of Ota, and lentigo maligna by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO/sub 2/ (10,600 nm). Laser treatment has been applied to lesions with a range of pigment depths from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to the nevus of Ota in the reticular dermis. Widely divergent laser parameters of wavelength, pulse duration, energy density, and spotsizes have been used, but the laser parameters used to treat this range of lesions have been arbitrary, with little effort focused on defining optimal laser parameters for removal of each type. In this study, miniature black pig skin was exposed to five wavelengths (504, 590, 694, 720, and 750 nm) covering the absorption spectrum of melanin. At each wavelength, a range of energy densities was examined. Skin biopsies taken from laser-exposed sites were examined histologically in an attempt to establish whether optimal laser parameters exist for destroying pigment cells in skin. Of the five wavelengths examined, 504 nm produced the most pigment specific injury; this specificity being maintained even at the highest energy density of 7.0 J/cm2. Thus, for the destruction of melanin-containing cells in the epidermal compartment, 504 nm wavelength appears optimal.

  20. Photooxidations in pigmented Blepharisma.

    PubMed

    GIESE, A C; ZEUTHEN, E

    1949-03-20

    1. Blepharisma undulans, a protozoan with a reddish pigment, shows increased oxygen consumption under the influence of light. 2. If the light intensity is high, the animals are killed during a burst of oxygen consumption. 3. If the blepharismas are first bleached by exposure to light of low intensity they show only slightly increased oxygen consumption under the influence of light and they are not killed. 4. A preparation in which the animals are killed by heat still shows the increase in oxygen consumption on illumination with brilliant light. The supernatant solution does so as well, as does an alcohol extract of the dye. 5. The conclusion is drawn that the blepharismas are killed during photooxidation of the pigment, but the mechanism of action is not clear. Several possibilities are considered in the discussion.

  1. Skin Hyperpigmentation in Indian Population: Insights and Best Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nouveau, Stephanie; Agrawal, Divya; Kohli, Malavika; Bernerd, Francoise; Misra, Namita; Nayak, Chitra Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders. Preventive strategies for photoprotection and treatment modalities including topical and other medical approaches have been adopted by dermatologists to mitigate these disorders. This review article outlines the current knowledge on pigmentation disorders including pathophysiology, molecular profiling, and therapeutic options with a special focus on the Indian population. PMID:27688436

  2. Skin Hyperpigmentation in Indian Population: Insights and Best Practice.

    PubMed

    Nouveau, Stephanie; Agrawal, Divya; Kohli, Malavika; Bernerd, Francoise; Misra, Namita; Nayak, Chitra Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders. Preventive strategies for photoprotection and treatment modalities including topical and other medical approaches have been adopted by dermatologists to mitigate these disorders. This review article outlines the current knowledge on pigmentation disorders including pathophysiology, molecular profiling, and therapeutic options with a special focus on the Indian population. PMID:27688436

  3. Skin Hyperpigmentation in Indian Population: Insights and Best Practice.

    PubMed

    Nouveau, Stephanie; Agrawal, Divya; Kohli, Malavika; Bernerd, Francoise; Misra, Namita; Nayak, Chitra Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders. Preventive strategies for photoprotection and treatment modalities including topical and other medical approaches have been adopted by dermatologists to mitigate these disorders. This review article outlines the current knowledge on pigmentation disorders including pathophysiology, molecular profiling, and therapeutic options with a special focus on the Indian population.

  4. Skin Hyperpigmentation in Indian Population: Insights and Best Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nouveau, Stephanie; Agrawal, Divya; Kohli, Malavika; Bernerd, Francoise; Misra, Namita; Nayak, Chitra Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders. Preventive strategies for photoprotection and treatment modalities including topical and other medical approaches have been adopted by dermatologists to mitigate these disorders. This review article outlines the current knowledge on pigmentation disorders including pathophysiology, molecular profiling, and therapeutic options with a special focus on the Indian population.

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on erythema and pigmentation: a review.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Almutawa, Fahad; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on cutaneous erythema, immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning are affected by a variety of factors. Some of these factors include the depth of cutaneous penetration of the specific wavelength, the individual skin type, and the absorption spectra of the different chromophores in the skin. UVB is an effective spectrum to induce erythema, which is followed by delayed tanning. UVA induces immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning. At high doses, UVA (primarily UVA2) can also induce erythema in individuals with skin types I-II. Visible light has been shown to induce erythema and a tanning response in dark skin, but not in fair skinned individuals. Infrared radiation produces erythema, which is probably a thermal effect. In this article we reviewed the available literature on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on the skin in regards to erythema and pigmentation. Much remains to be learned on the cutaneous effects of visible light and infrared radiation.

  6. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    The overall aim of this Ph.D. project was to clarify what the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type represents with regard to the skin's reaction to UVR. Fitzpatrick skin type is used as an expression of the constitutive UV-sensitivity. It has been used for guiding dose-levels in phototherapy and is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The subjective Fitzpatrick skin type and the measured skin type PPF (pigment protection factor, calculated based on a skin reflectance measurement, predicts the UV-dose (SED) to give 1 MED) were investigated parallelly in relation to the clinically determined dose to erythema (MED) and/or pigmentation (MMD) to determine which one related best. PPF is an established method for assessing UV-sensitivity by predicting SED to MED. UV-dose to MED and/or MMD was determined after single UV-exposure to Solar Simulator on nates (n= 84) and after single and multiple (5, 6 or 12) UV-exposures (n = 24-62) on the back to four UV-sources (nUVB, Solar, bUVA and UVA1). SED to MMD was also related to wavelength. MED was only determined after a single and four UV-exposures to narrowband UVB (nUVB) and Solar Simulator (Solar). Volunteers with a broad range of constitutive pigmentation (skin types I-V) were included. Equal MMD doses (predetermined after a single UV-exposure) were used at the multiple exposures. The absolute increase in pigmentation after 6 and 12 UV-exposures, where steady-state pigmentation was reached, was independent of skin type and therefore could not enter into the calculations. But it proved that the MMD determinations after single exposure were correct and could be used at multiple UV-exposures. In contrary to what we expected, our results indicate that people may refer to the constitutive pigmentation, when they reply to the question of Fitzpatrick skin type. This applied to both erythema and pigmentation response as both dose to MED and MMD showed a better correlation to nates than to the back. As expected, our results from the

  7. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one group with 0.6 wt% thermochromic pigment. Half of the surface of each specimen was covered with an aluminium foil. All of the specimens were exposed to UV radiation in 6 hour cycles over 46 days. In between the UV exposures, half of the specimens were stored in darkness, at room temperature, and the other half was stored in an incubator, at a humidity of 97% and a temperature of +37℃. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer and registered according to the CIELAB L*a*b* color model system. The changes in L*, a* and b* values during artificial aging were statistically analyzed by using paired samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. P-values <.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS The UV exposure resulted in visually noticeable and statistically significant color changes in the L*, a* and b* values in both of the test groups containing thermochromic pigment. Storage in the incubator lead to statistically significant color changes in the a* and b* values of the specimens containing thermochromic pigment, compared to those stored at room temperature. CONCLUSION The specimens containing thermochromic pigment were very sensitive to UV radiation, and the thermochromic pigment is not suitable, as such, to be used in maxillofacial prostheses. PMID:23755330

  8. Delayed induction of pigmented spots on UVB-irradiated hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Naganumaa, M; Yagi, E; Fukuda, M

    2001-01-01

    Human skin exposed to solar radiation for a long time subsequently develops pigmented spots, which are named solar lentigines. Since no animal model of this process is currently available, we attempted to induce similar spots in pigmented hairless mice. The mice were irradiated at 38 or 94 mJ/cm(2) three times/week for various periods of time (1-8 weeks) under an ultraviolet light source (Toshiba FL-SE; UVB). Skin pigmentation of irradiated mice was visually observed and skin color was determined with a colorimeter for 78 weeks. Uniform pigmentation was induced, but persisted only during exposure, disappearing completely within 2 weeks after cessation of exposure. At about 28 weeks after the first exposure, pigmented spots suddenly began to appear. These pigmented spots were less than 2 mm in diameter and light brown in color. The length of the latent period until appearance and the extent of development of these spots were dependent on the exposure period. Histological examination revealed increased numbers of active melanocytes and melanin granules in the affected epidermis. These pigmented spots closely resemble solar lentigines in humans, and the mice should be useful as an animal model of solar lentigines.

  9. Barrier Requirements as the Evolutionary “Driver” of Epidermal Pigmentation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    ELIAS, PETER M.; MENON, GOPINATHAN; WETZEL, BRUCE K.; WILLIAMS, JOHN (JACK) W.

    2011-01-01

    Current explanations for the development of epidermal pigmentation during human evolution are not tenable as stand-alone hypotheses. Accordingly, we assessed instead whether xeric- and UV-B-induced stress to the epidermal permeability barrier, critical to survival in a terrestrial environment, could have “driven” the development of epidermal pigmentation. (1) Megadroughts prevailed in central Africa when hominids expanded into open savannahs [≈1.5–0.8 million years ago], resulting in sustained exposure to both extreme aridity and erythemogenic UV-B, correlating with genetic evidence that pigment developed ≈1.2 million years ago. (2) Pigmented skin is endowed with enhanced permeability barrier function, stratum corneum integrity/cohesion, and a reduced susceptibility to infections. The enhanced function of pigmented skin can be attributed to the lower pH of the outer epidermis, likely due to the persistence of (more-acidic) melanosomes into the outer epidermis, as well as the conservation of genes associated with eumelanin synthesis and melanosome acidification (e.g., TYR, OCA2 [p protein], SLC24A5, SLC45A2, MATP) in pigmented populations. Five keratinocyte-derived signals (stem cell factor⇒KIT; FOXn1⇒FGF2; IL-1α, NGF, and p53) are potential candidates to have stimulated the sequential development of epidermal pigmentation in response to stress to the barrier. We summarize evidence here that epidermal interfollicular pigmentation in early hominids likely evolved in response to stress to the permeability barrier. PMID:20209486

  10. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  12. Black-pigmented sputum

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Mosquera-Martínez, Joaquín; Martínez-Torre, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Black-pigmented sputum, also called “melanoptysis,” is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis). The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc.) or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established. PMID:24648674

  13. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  14. The Protective Role of Melanin Against UV Damage in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Michaela; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Human skin is repeatedly exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that influences the function and survival of many cell types and is regarded as the main causative factor in the induction of skin cancer. It has been traditionally believed that skin pigmentation is the most important photoprotective factor, since melanin, besides functioning as a broadband UV absorbent, has antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. Besides, many epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence for skin cancer in individuals with darker skin compared to those with fair skin. Skin pigmentation is of great cultural and cosmetic importance, yet the role of melanin in photoprotection is still controversial. This article outlines the major acute and chronic effects of UV radiation on human skin, the properties of melanin, the regulation of pigmentation and its effect on skin cancer prevention. PMID:18435612

  15. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  16. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  17. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  18. Snapshot RGB mapping of skin melanin and hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Oshina, Ilze

    2015-05-01

    The concept of snapshot red-green-blue (RGB) multispectral imaging was applied for skin chromophore mapping. Three monochromatic spectral images have been extracted from a single RGB image dataset at simultaneous illumination of skin by 473-, 532-, and 659-nm laser lines. The spectral images were further transformed into distribution maps of skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, related to pigmented and vascular skin malformations. The performance and clinical potential of the proposed technique are discussed.

  19. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

  20. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  1. Nonphotosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Cockell, Charles S; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data.

  2. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  3. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  4. The effects of bergapten and sunlight on cutaneous pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Levine, N; Don, S; Owens, C; Rogers, D T; Kligman, A M; Forlot, P

    1989-09-01

    The effects of bergapten-containing preparations in sunlight-induced skin pigmentation were evaluated. Oil and lotion vehicles with bergapten/UV-B sunscreen or sunscreen alone were applied to the backs of subjects twice weekly for 4 weeks and the subjects were exposed to gradually increasing doses of midday sunlight. The degree of skin darkening was assessed by clinical examination, reflectometry, and light microscopy of skin biopsy specimens. At 5 weeks, 1 week after the last sunlight exposure, the sites treated with either the bergapten/UV-B sunscreen lotion or the lotion vehicle were significantly darker than the sites treated with the sunscreen lotions without bergapten. Oil preparations produced less clearcut results, possibly because of a less potent sunscreen or because the bergapten did not leave the vehicle and absorb into the epidermis. In type I skin, the bergapten/sunscreen and the oil vehicle alone produced the same amount of tanning; both yielded more tanning than the sunscreen in oil by clinical examination. The findings were not confirmed by reflectometry or by light microscopy. Thus, we conclude that bergapten added to a UV-B sunscreen lotion preparation can increase skin pigmentation over the sunscreen alone when one is exposed to sunlight. The bergapten/UV-B sunscreen combination is a potentially useful product since one can develop a psoralen and UV-A-induced tan while being protected from UV-B-induced sunburn by the UV-B sunscreen incorporated into the formulation.

  5. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly. PMID:27281924

  6. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly.

  7. The complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity.

    PubMed

    Carney, J A; Gordon, H; Carpenter, P C; Shenoy, B V; Go, V L

    1985-07-01

    Of 40 patients (16 males and 24 females), 29 had cardiac myxoma(s), 14 had skin pigmentation (lentigo and several types of nevi) which also commonly affected the lips, 6 had skin myxoma(s), and 12 had both pigmentation and myxoma(s); 18 had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (Cushing syndrome was present in 11); 10 had myxoid mammary fibroadenomas; 9 had testicular tumor(s) (large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor, Leydig cell tumor, or adrenocortical rest tumor, or a combination); and 4 had pituitary adenoma with gigantism or acromegaly. The maximum number of conditions present together was five, occurring in two patients; each of the remaining patients had at least two of the conditions. The overlap, in this sizeable number of patients, of various combinations of the same rare or very rare conditions unlikely to occur together by chance with any degree of frequency is striking evidence for a unique syndrome. The patients were young (mean age at diagnosis of the first component, 18 years). Pathologic involvement tended to be multicentric (heart and skin) and bilateral in paired organs (adrenal, breast, and testis). Thirteen patients (32%) are alive and well. Twelve patients are alive but with complications of cardiac myxoma (in 8), testicular tumors (in 2), residual Cushing syndrome (in 1), or bilateral pulmonary nodules (in 1). Twelve patients are dead: 9 of cardiac myxoma, 1 of intracranial (nonpituitary) tumor, and 2 postoperatively. The status of three is unknown. PMID:4010501

  8. Laser effects in nonpigmented versus pigmented tissues using FiberTomeTM, Nd:YAG, and KTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Wendy J.; Vari, Sandor G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Duffy, J. T.; Thomas, Reem; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Fry, Stephen M.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the FiberTomeTM (10, 20, 30 W), conventional Nd:YAG (10, 20, 30 W), and KTP (5, 10, 15 W) surgical laser systems, with respect to pigmented and nonpigmented tissues. The cutting width, cutting depth, and thermal damages were measured on the skin and liver of farmer pigs. The results show that there was no significant difference in the cutting width and depth, for nonpigmented versus pigmented tissues. KTP showed the most significant thermal damage reduction in pigmented tissue; 318 micrometers in nonpigmented vs 94 micrometers in pigmented tissue.

  9. Inflammation drives wound hyperpigmentation in zebrafish by recruiting pigment cells to sites of tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Mathieu; Feng, Yi; Jones, Rebecca A; Martin, Paul

    2013-03-01

    In humans, skin is the largest organ and serves as a barrier between our body and the outside world. Skin protects our internal organs from external pathogens and other contaminants, and melanocytes within the skin protect the body from damage by ultraviolet light. These same pigment cells also determine our skin colour and complexion. Skin wounding triggers a repair response that includes a robust recruitment of inflammatory cells, which function to kill invading microbes and clear away cell and matrix debris. Once at the wound site, these innate immune cells release a barrage of cytokines that direct the activities of other cells during the repair process. Tissue damage and repair also frequently lead to alterations in skin pigmentation, in particular to wound hyperpigmentation. In this study, we describe a model of wound hyperpigmentation in the translucent zebrafish larva, where we can live-image the recruitment of melanocytes and their precursors, melanoblasts, to the wound site. We show that these pigment cells are drawn in after the initial recruitment of innate immune cells and that the inflammatory response is essential for wound hyperpigmentation. This new model will allow us to uncover the molecular link between immune and pigment cells during tissue repair and to screen for potential therapeutics to dampen wound hyperpigmentation.

  10. The red-green visual pigment gene region in adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Aubourg, P; Feil, R; Guidoux, S; Kaplan, J C; Moser, H; Kahn, A; Mandel, J L

    1990-01-01

    Although recent data established that a specific very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase is defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), the ALD gene is still unidentified. The ALD locus has been mapped to Xq28, like the red and green color pigment genes. Abnormal color vision has been observed in 12 of 27 patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), a milder form of ALD. Furthermore, rearrangements of the color vision gene cluster were found in four of eight ALD kindreds. This led us to propose that a single DNA rearrangement could underlie both ALD and abnormal color vision in these patients. Study of 34 French ALD patients failed to reveal a higher than expected frequency of green/red visual pigment rearrangements 3' to the red/green color vision gene complex. The previous report of such rearrangements was based on small numbers and lack of knowledge that the frequency of "abnormal" color vision arrays on molecular analysis was twice as high as expected on the basis of the frequency of phenotypic color vision defects. The red/green color pigment (R/GCP) region was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in 14 of these patients, and we did not find any fragment size difference between the patients and normal individuals who have the same number of pigment genes. The R/GCP region was also analyzed in 29 French and seven North American ALD patients by using six genomic DNA probes, isolated from a cosmid walk, that flank the color vision genes. No deletions were found with probes that lie 3' of the green pigment genes. One of the eight previously reported ALD individuals has a long deletion 5' of the red pigment gene, a deletion causing blue cone monochromacy. This finding and the previous findings of a 45% frequency of phenotypic color vision defects in patients with AMN may suggest that the ALD/AMN gene lies 5' to the red pigment gene and that the frequent phenotypic color vision anomalies owe their origin to deleted DNA that includes regulatory genes for

  11. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  12. A case report of pigmented mammary Paget's disease mimicking nevus of the nipple.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyan; Umemura, Shinobu; Kumaki, Nobue; Izumi, Miki; Saito, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Akira; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese woman consulted our hospital for a pigmented lesion on her right nipple. Two years later, the lesion became enlarged, measuring 5 × 5 mm. It was dark brown, had an irregular shape and relatively clear borders. Incisional biopsy yielded a pathological diagnosis of junctional nevus of the skin. An additional 2 years later, a small mass developed under the right nipple area and core needle biopsy yielded a pathologic diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma. Partial resection of the right EC areas included the skin of the nipple and sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Histologically, the skin of the nipple demonstrated small clusters of pigmented carcinoma cells that were low molecular weight cytokeratin (CAM5.2) positive. Most of the carcinoma cells were small and did not have abundant cytoplasm, but nuclear enlargement and prominent nucleoli indicated malignancy, and the cytoplasm was pale compared with that of the surrounding squamous epithelial cells. Scattered dendritic melanocytes were identified by S-100 protein and HMB-45 immunohistochemically. In the upper dermis, carcinoma cells also involved the lactiferous ducts. A small focus of carcinoma cells that invaded the fat tissues did not contain melanin pigment. The final diagnosis was pigmented mammary Paget's disease. Pigmented lesions on the nipple should be carefully examined, because pigmented mammary Paget's disease sometimes mimics malignant melanoma or junctional nevus.

  13. Pigmented eccrine poroma: report of an atypical case with the use of dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fabiana Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Poromas are uncommon benign neoplasms originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands, mainly characterized by skin-colored or pink pa pules or nodules, usually on the extremities. Due to their rarity, the pigmented form clinical hypothesis is hardly ever suggested and psychopathology is fundamental. We report a case of pigmented eccrine poroma in the right palmer area, a location considered atypical. We stress the importance of dermoscopy as a method for diagnosis of poromas, especially in the differential diagnosis with other pigmented nodular-popular lesions. PMID:24173189

  14. Pigments, Parasites and Personalitiy: Towards a Unifying Role for Steroid Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Øverli, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or “animal personalities”. Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  15. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists. PMID:24815987

  16. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  17. Cutaneous pigmentation secondary to amiodarone therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, J.W.; Mendelson, D.S.; Fetter, B.F.; Ingram, P.; Gallagher, J.J.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an iodinated cardiac antiarrhythmic drug that causes a slate-gray discoloration of the sun-exposed skin and a yellow-brown stippling of the cornea. Histopathologically, biopsy specimens of aminodarone pigmentation sites disclose yellow-brown refractile granules in the reticular dermis. These granules were characterized by transmission electron microscopy as being concentrically arranged intralysosomal inclusions (''myelinlike'' bodies) in dermal endothelial cells and perivascular smooth-muscle cells. Electron probe x-ray analysis of these same inclusions disclosed definite peaks for iodine, evidence for the presence of amiodarone or a metabolite of the drug at these sites. Amiodarone, then, concentrates in lysosomes and causes an accumulation of lipids similar to what has been seen with other cationic amphiphilic compounds, such as the glycosphingolipid stored in Fabry's disease. Amiodarone must be recognized as a cause of a drug-induced lipid storage disease with cutaneous and corneal manifestations.

  18. Detection of a novel pigment network feature in reticulated black solar lentigo by high-resolution epiluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haas, Norbert; Hermes, Barbara; Henz, Beate M

    2002-06-01

    Epiluminescence light microscopy (ELM) of pigmented skin lesions has led to a catalog of pigment network (PN) features. The objective of this study was to determine whether high-resolution ELM detects additional pigment structures not seen with conventional ELM. Epiluminescence light microscopy was performed by placing the lens of a standard light microscope directly on the skin surface, with resulting enhanced optical resolution compared with ELM systems currently in general use. Eight reticulated black solar lentigines were studied. All lesions were viewed and analyzed using dermatoscopic criteria for the PN. In addition, they were all photographed, excised, and examined histologically. Two subtypes of black solar lentigines could be distinguished using generally accepted dermatoscopic criteria for the PN. Furthermore, a new pigment structure was detected, namely, pigment spots of equal color, shape, and size, which were regularly superimposed on and juxtaposed to the PN. Clinicopathologic correlation showed these spots to represent individual hyperpigmented corneocytes. Because such cells result from physiologic excessive pigment translocation via the epidermal melanocytic unit, we called them pigmented corneocytes. Pigmented corneocytes were seen in seven of eight black solar lentigines. The ELM technique presented here allows for more detailed analysis and classification of the PN components. Pigmented corneocytes are proposed as an additional dermatoscopic criterion.

  19. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue.

    PubMed

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-05

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

  20. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    PubMed Central

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin. PMID:26243473

  1. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue.

    PubMed

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin. PMID:26243473

  2. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin.

  3. Skin chromphore mapping by means of a modified video-microscope for skin malformation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, Amina; Rubins, Uldis; Lihacova, Ilze; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-09-01

    Many spectral imaging devices are commercially available and used to detect certain skin pathology; however an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analisys of skin. Multispectral device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. Possibilities to map skin chromophores using a modified low-cost digital video-microscope is discussed. It was adapted for an advanced skin microscopy and used for detailed spectral analysis of skin. The device comprises CMOS digital imaging sensor, four-colour LED illumination system and image acquisition optics. The main goal is to obtain a set of spectral images of the skin area of interest for further conversion into maps of the main skin chromophores.

  4. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  5. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam A; de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  6. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  7. The dark brown integumentary pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus). A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Barden, H; Koulish, S

    1983-01-01

    A histochemical analysis involving tinctorial and solubility tests was pursued in conjunction with electron microscopy for the purpose of identifying the dark brown epidermal pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus) as melanin and/or ommochrome. Histochemically, comparisons were made with other brown pigments located in the subcarapal epidermis of another crustacean, the fiddler crab (Uca pugilator), the dorsal skin of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), the liver and testis of a slider turtle (Chrysemys sp.) and the substantia nigra of human brain. The solubility properties of the pigment of the two crustacean invertebrates were in general similar to one another and markedly different from the pigment of the three vertebrates. Insolubility in appropriate solvents classified the vertebrate pigment as melanin. The invertebrate pigment, however, which was soluble in the ommochrome solvents, concentrated sulfuric and formic acids and 2-chloroethanol, remained insoluble in the ommochrome solvents, dilute aqueous and methanolic hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid. On the basis of these solubilities, an unequivocal classification of the invertebrate pigment as either melanin or ommochrome did not appear possible. The tinctorial and electron microscopic properties of the barnacle pigment were also equally ambiguous in regard to its specific classification.

  8. A pigmented calcifying odontogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Soames, J V

    1982-04-01

    A case of the pigmented variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst occurring in a 15-year-old West Indian girl is reported. Melanin pigment was widely distributed and appeared in greatest amount in cells exhibiting the appearance of stellate reticulum. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated large numbers of melanosomes in these cells but relatively few in epithelial ghost cells. The latter contained thick bundles of tonofilaments. Melanocytes were identified and two forms were distinguished, depending on their content of premelanosomes and fully melanized melanosomes.

  9. Two-photon absorption and transient photothermal imaging of pigments in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tong; Fu, Dan; Matthews, Thomas E.; Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.; Warren, Warren S.

    2008-02-01

    As a main pigment in skin tissues, melanin plays an important role in photo-protecting skin from UV radiation. However, melanogenesis may be altered due to disease or environmental factors; for example, sun exposure may cause damage and mutation of melanocytes and induce melanoma. Imaging pigmentation changes may provide invaluable information to catch the malignant transformation in its early stage and in turn improve the prognosis of patients. We have demonstrated previously that transmission mode, two-photon, one- or two-color absorption microscopy could provide remarkable contrast in imaging melanin in skin. In this report we demonstrate significantly improved sensitivity, so that we are now able to image in epi-mode (or back reflection) in two-photon absorption. This improvement makes possible for us to characterize the different types of pigmentation on the skin in vivo at virtually any location. Another finding is that we can also image transient photothermal dynamics due to the light absorption of melanin. By carefully choosing excitation and probe wavelengths, we might be able to image melanin in different structures under different micro-environments in skin, which could provide useful photochemical and photophysical insights in understanding how pigments are involved in photoprotection and photodamage of cells.

  10. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs. PMID:6681678

  11. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  12. Identification and hazard prediction of tattoo pigments by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Andree, Sarah; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The implementation of regulation for tattoo ink ingredients across Europe has generated the need for analytical methods suitable to identify prohibited compounds. Common challenges of this subject are the poor solubility and the lack of volatility for most pigments and polymers applied in tattoo inks. Here, we present pyrolysis coupled to online gas chromatography and electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) as quick and reliable tool for pigment identification using both purified pigments and tattoo ink formulations. Some 36 organic pigments frequently used in tattoo inks were subjected to py-GC/MS with the aim to establish a pyrogram library. To cross-validate pigment identification, 28 commercially available tattoo inks as well as 18 self-made pigment mixtures were analyzed. Pyrograms of inks and mixtures were evaluated by two different means to work out the most reliable and fastest strategy for an otherwise rather time-consuming data review. Using this approach, the declaration of tattoo pigments currently used on the market could be verified. The pyrolysis library presented here is also assumed suitable to predict decomposition patterns of pigments when affected by other degradation scenarios, such as sunlight exposure or laser irradiation. Thus, the consumers' risk associated with the exposure to toxicologically relevant substances that originate from pigment decomposition in the dermal layers of the skin can be assessed. Differentiation between more or less harmful pigments for this field of application now will become feasible. PMID:27209489

  13. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  14. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  15. Skin tears.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  16. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  17. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities.
METHODS—The eyes of 17 unrelated individuals with TBMD were studied by slit-lamp, including biomicroscopic fundus examination with a 78 D lens, by direct ophthalmoscopy, and by fundal photographs. The findings were compared with those in patients with IgA glomerulonephritis or Alport syndrome, and in normals.
RESULTS—No patient with TBMD had a dot and fleck retinopathy or anterior lenticonus. A corneal dystrophy (n = 2) or pigmentation (n = 1), and retinal pigment epithelial clumping and maculopathy (n = 1) were noted. Corneal, lens, and retinal dots were found in five (29%), three (18%), and 16 (94%) patients, respectively, but these were also demonstrated in individuals with other renal diseases and in normal individuals.
CONCLUSIONS—The dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus typical of Alport syndrome do not occur in TBMD. The protein abnormality and genetic defect in TBMD are not known, but the lack of ocular lesions suggests that the abnormal protein in this disease is more sparsely distributed or less important in the basement membranes of the eye than of the kidney. Alternatively, the protein may be less affected by the mutations responsible for TBMD.

 PMID:9227202

  18. Removal of dogs' gingival pigmentation with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of CO2 laser to remove physiologic pigmentation of gingiva. Dogs were chosen for this study because of their intense black pigmentation on the gingiva, similar to what can be found in human negroes and other dark- skinned races. Three specimens were irradiated at the left side of the buccal aspect of the gingiva, while for comparison the right side was used as a control. CO2 laser in a continuous mode applying 3 watt power was used (Xanar-20, USA). The portion to be irradiated was continuously irrigated with saline solution, to prevent tissue damage from the excessive heat generated. The handpiece device irradiated the target easily and fast, with no bleeding. All the pigmentation could be removed from the portion exposed to the laser beam. A 45th day follow up showed very little repigmentation just in one of the specimens. It could be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation can be an alternative to remove pigmentation of the gingiva for cosmetic purposes. The risk of repigmentation exists, so the patients should be aware of this inconvenience, sometimes demanding further irradiation.

  19. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  20. Proliferative and toxic effects of ultraviolet light and inflammation on epidermal pigment cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, J.J.; Ackles, A.E.; Traynor, F.F.

    1981-10-01

    The ear of the mouse is useful for studying the effects of ultraviolet light on epidermal pigment cells. The quantity of light penetrating into the skin causing an inflammatory response can be assessed easily by measuring with an engineering calipers the swelling of the ear. The inflammatory response of the ear exhibits a linear relationship to the dose of light delivered. We observed that doses of shortwave ultraviolet light which are noninflammatory when repeated at daily intervals induce moderate to severe inflammation. Small doses of psoralen and prolonged exposure to UVA (PUVA) were more inflammatory than larger amounts of psoralen and short exposure to light. Doses of shortwave ultraviolet light and PUVA which produce only a minimal inflammation of the skin stimulate the proliferation of epidermal melanocytes. In contrast, PUVA in doses sufficiently large to cause a marked inflammatory reaction in the skin seems injurious to pigment cells and kills them or causes only a minimal proliferative response. The inflammatory reaction itself does not seem to stimulate or inhibit the proliferation of melanocytes. Prostaglandins A, E, and F2 alpha have no effect on the proliferation of epidermal pigment cells. In contrast, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and allergic contact dermatitis increase the numerical density of pigment cells. Steroids may block the function of the enzyme tyrosinase. Our experiments indicate that pigment cells, like many other varieties of cells, are susceptible to injury and can be killed at least by large doses of PUVA.

  1. A novel phenotype associated with cutis laxa, abnormal fat distribution, cardiomyopathy and cataract.

    PubMed

    Van Asbeck, Ellyze; Wolthuis, David F G J; Mohamed, Miski; Wevers, Ron A; Korenke, Cristoph G; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Morava, Eva

    2014-04-01

    Cutis laxa (CL) is a connective tissue disorder, characterized by loose, inelastic, sagging skin. Both acquired and inherited (dominant, recessive, and X-linked) forms exist. Here, we describe a new phenotype, which overlaps with other known CL syndromes. Our patient has a unique combination of features in association with sagging, inelastic, wrinkled skin, including cataract, severe cardiomyopathy, abnormal fat distribution, improvement of skin-wrinkling with age, and white matter abnormalities but no significant histologic collagen or elastin abnormalities. Mutation analysis of known CL genes was negative. We suggest that our patient has a novel syndrome, with the main features of CL, intellectual disability, abnormal fat distribution, cardiomyopathy, and cataract.

  2. Knock-Down of Cathepsin D Affects the Retinal Pigment Epithelium, Impairs Swim-Bladder Ontogenesis and Causes Premature Death in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Follo, Carlo; Ozzano, Matteo; Mugoni, Vera; Castino, Roberta; Santoro, Massimo; Isidoro, Ciro

    2011-01-01

    The lysosomal aspartic protease Cathepsin D (CD) is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic organisms. CD activity is essential to accomplish the acid-dependent extensive or partial proteolysis of protein substrates within endosomal and lysosomal compartments therein delivered via endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagocytosis. CD may also act at physiological pH on small-size substrates in the cytosol and in the extracellular milieu. Mouse and fruit fly CD knock-out models have highlighted the multi-pathophysiological roles of CD in tissue homeostasis and organ development. Here we report the first phenotypic description of the lack of CD expression during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development obtained by morpholino-mediated knock-down of CD mRNA. Since the un-fertilized eggs were shown to be supplied with maternal CD mRNA, only a morpholino targeting a sequence containing the starting ATG codon was effective. The main phenotypic alterations produced by CD knock-down in zebrafish were: 1. abnormal development of the eye and of retinal pigment epithelium; 2. absence of the swim-bladder; 3. skin hyper-pigmentation; 4. reduced growth and premature death. Rescue experiments confirmed the involvement of CD in the developmental processes leading to these phenotypic alterations. Our findings add to the list of CD functions in organ development and patho-physiology in vertebrates. PMID:21747967

  3. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  4. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-Rabasco, Ana; De-Unamuno, Blanca; Martínez, Francisco; Febrer-Bosch, Isabel; Alegre-de-Miquel, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or microcornea, dermal aplasia and sclerocornea (MIDAS) syndrome is a rare X-linked-dominant disorder. We present a patient with agenesis of corpus callosum, ocular abnormalities, and multiple skin defects. The cytogenetic studies of the MLS critical region (Xp22.2) were normal, but a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern (85:15) was observed.

  5. Role of light in human skin color viariation.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, W C; Fitzpatrick, T B; Pathak, M A; Jimbow, K

    1975-11-01

    The major source of color in human skin derives from the presence within the epidermis of specialized melanin-bearing organelles, the melanosomes. Tanning of human skin on exposure to ultraviolet light results from increased amounts of melanin within the epidermis. Melanosomes synthesized by melanocytes are acquired by keratinocytes and transported within them to the epidermal surface. In some cases, the melanosomes are catobolized en route. New information indicates that the multicellular epidermal melanin unit (melanocyte and associated pool of keratinocytes) rather than the melanocyte alone is the focal point for the control of melanin metabolism within mammalian epidermis. Gross human skin color derives from the visual impact of the summed melanin pigmentation of the many epidermal melanin units. In theory, constitutive skin color in man designates the genetically-determined levels of melanin pigmentation developed in the absence of exposure to solar radiation or other environmental influences; facultative skin color or "tan" characterizes the increases in melanin pigmentation above the constitutive level induced by ultraviolet light. The details of genetic regulation of pigment metabolism within the epidermal melanin units are being clarified. In some mammals at least, the function of epidermal melanin units is significantly influenced by hormones which may be regulated by radiations received through the eyes. Based on an evolutionary history of the human family which exceeds ten million years, it is proposed that melanin pigmentation may have played a number of roles in human adaptions to changing biologic and physical environments.

  6. Assessment of skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wee, L K; Chong, T K; Quee, D K

    1997-01-01

    Ninety normal individuals were included in this study on skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation. Skin types were recorded using Fitzpatrick's classification, skin colours were measured using the Minolta Chromameter CR-300, and cutaneous responses to UV radiation were measured in terms of minimal erythema dose (MED) to UVA, UVB and the immediate pigment darkening dose to UVA (IPDDA). Skin colour measurements were taken from the right cheek to represent facultative skin colours, and from the buttock to represent constitutive skin colours. The colours measured were expressed by the L x a x b colour space. Skin types and some colour parameters (L and b from covered parts of body) correlated fairly well with the minimal erythema doses (MED) to UVA and UVB. Skin colour measurements are more objective than skin type assessment and could be better markers of photosensitivity. However, there is still considerable overlap in MEDs for persons with different skin colours, and further studies of these parameters are warranted. Our MEDs are higher than other reports on similar skin types and skin colours. This could be due to differences in methodology, genetic make-up or acclimatization from chronic sun exposure. This illustrates the importance of local controls for each institution dealing with photosensitive disorders.

  7. Artificial skin in perspective: concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Brohem, Carla A; Cardeal, Laura B da Silva; Tiago, Manoela; Soengas, María S; Barros, Silvia B de Moraes; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2011-02-01

    Skin, the largest organ of the human body, is organized into an elaborate layered structure consisting mainly of the outermost epidermis and the underlying dermis. A subcutaneous adipose-storing hypodermis layer and various appendages such as hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels are also present in the skin. These multiple components of the skin ensure survival by carrying out critical functions such as protection, thermoregulation, excretion, absorption, metabolic functions, sensation, evaporation management, and aesthetics. The study of how these biological functions are performed is critical to our understanding of basic skin biology such as regulation of pigmentation and wound repair. Impairment of any of these functions may lead to pathogenic alterations, including skin cancers. Therefore, the development of genetically controlled and well characterized skin models can have important implications, not only for scientists and physicians, but also for manufacturers, consumers, governing regulatory boards and animal welfare organizations. As cells making up human skin tissue grow within an organized three-dimensional (3D) matrix surrounded by neighboring cells, standard monolayer (2D) cell cultures do not recapitulate the physiological architecture of the skin. Several types of human skin recombinants, also called artificial skin, that provide this critical 3D structure have now been reconstructed in vitro. This review contemplates the use of these organotypic skin models in different applications, including substitutes to animal testing.

  8. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  9. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

  10. Carney complex: the complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, endocrine overactivity, and schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Carney, J A

    1995-06-01

    The complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, endocrine overactivity, and schwannomas (the Carney complex) is a multisystem tumorous disorder that is transmitted as a mendelian autosomal dominant trait. Approximately 150 affected patients are known worldwide. The myxomas, which tend to be multiple in the involved organ, affect the heart, skin and breast. Typical sites for the skin myxomas are the eyelids, external ear canal, and nipples. The lesions commonly recur after excision. The spotty skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi, but ephelides and junctional and compound nevi also occur. The lentigines are widespread and typically involve the centrofacial area, including the vermilion border of the lips, and the conjunctiva, especially the lacrimal caruncle and the conjunctival semilunar fold. One or more intraoral pigmented spots are seen occasionally. The blue nevi occur on the face, trunk, and limbs, but not the hands and feet. Endocrine overactivity includes Cushing's syndrome (caused by primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease), acromegaly (caused by growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma), and sexual precocity (caused by large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor). The schwannomas are a special histological type, featuring psammoma bodies and melanin. Most commonly, they affect the upper gastrointestinal tract and sympathetic nerve chains, but a few have occurred in the skin. The most serious component of the Carney complex is cardiac myxoma. Patients suspected of having the syndrome (and their primary relatives) should be examined for this neoplasm.

  11. Towards the limiting of health risks associated with tattooing: whitelists for tattoo pigments and preservatives.

    PubMed

    Blume, Annegret; Platzek, Thomas; Vieth, Bärbel; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The number of pigments that could potentially be used in tattoo inks is vast. However, pigments are generally not manufactured for the purpose of being injected into subepidermal layers of the skin. Assuming 100% bioavailability after injection means that pigments can be imminently hazardous to human health. Given the ever-increasing number of pigments being circulated on the market or through the internet, a 'negative list' ('black' list) containing pigments with known adverse effects will never be finalised. If incriminated, substances could easily be replaced by structurally similar pigments that might be even more deleterious to human health. Therefore, we and others suggest the establishment of a whitelist ('positive list') that would only contain pigments that had undergone a risk assessment specifically for their application into the dermis. Some of the problems associated with such a 'positive list' are discussed. Another important issue with regard to tattoo safety is related to the preservatives used in ink preparations. Notwithstanding the demand for sterile tattoo inks, a whitelist for these compounds would be beneficial. At present, many technical preservatives are being used, despite their known detrimental effects to human health. Criteria for the inclusion of preservatives in a 'positive list' are also discussed.

  12. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  13. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Alexandrov, Yuri; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using two photon microscopy (TPM) have been used to study tissue autofluorescence in ex vivo skin cancer samples. A commercially available system (DermaInspect®) was modified to collect fluorescence intensity and lifetimes in two spectral channels using time correlated single photon counting and depth-resolved steady state measurements of the fluorescence emission spectrum. Uniquely, image segmentation has been used to allow fluorescence lifetimes to be calculated for each cell. An analysis of lifetime values obtained from a range of pigmented and non-pigmented lesions will be presented.

  15. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways. PMID:25547597

  16. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  17. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  19. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials....

  4. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  5. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers. PMID:26569232

  6. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu

    2015-11-12

    In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers.

  7. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  8. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  9. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  10. 'Skin Trade': Genealogy of Anti-ageing 'Whiteness Therapy' in Colonial Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mire, Amina

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the emerging trend of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products represents a re-articulation of Western colonial concerns with environmental pollution and racial degeneracy into concern with gendered vulnerability. This emerging market is a multibillion dollar industry anchored in the USA, but expanding globally. Do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products purport to address the needs of those looking to fight the visible signs of ageing, often promising to remove hyper-pigmented age spots from women's skin, and replace it with ageless skin, free from pigmentation. In order to contextualize the investigation of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening practice and discourse, this article draws from the literature in colonial commodity culture, colonial tropical medicine, the contemporary anti-ageing discourse, and advertisements for anti-ageing skin-whitening products. First, it argues that the framing of the biomedicalization of ageing as a pigmentation problem caused by deteriorating environmental conditions and unhealthy lifestyle draws tacitly from European colonial concerns with the European body's susceptibility to tropical diseases, pigmentation disorders, and racial degeneration. Second, the article argues that the rise of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening commodities that promise to whiten, brighten, and purify the ageing skin of women and frames the visible signs of ageing in terms of pigmentation pathology. PMID:24817918

  11. Risk of Skin Cancer from Space Radiation. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu

    2003-01-01

    We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  13. Oily skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  14. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders.

  15. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers. PMID:27605912

  16. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers.

  17. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  18. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  20. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  1. Melatonin and human skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Kleszczynski, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W.

    2012-01-01

    Like the whole organism, skin follows the process of aging during life-time. Additional to internal factors, several environmental factors, such as solar radiation, considerably contribute to this process. While fundamental mechanisms regarding skin aging are known, new aspects of anti-aging agents such as melatonin are introduced. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the glandula pinealis that follows a circadian light-dependent rhythm of secretion. It has been experimentally implicated in skin functions such as hair cycling and fur pigmentation, and melatonin receptors are expressed in many skin cell types including normal and malignant keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. It possesses a wide range of endocrine properties as well as strong antioxidative activity. Regarding UV-induced solar damage, melatonin distinctly counteracts massive generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial and DNA damage. Thus, there is considerable evidence for melatonin to be an effective anti-skin aging compound, and its various properties in this context are described in this review. PMID:23467217

  2. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  3. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons. PMID:25674822

  4. Identifying Risk Factors Using a Skin Cancer Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Etzkorn, Jeremy Robert; Parikh, Rajiv Prakash; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Law, Kimberly; Davis, Ashley H.; Rawal, Bhupendra; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane L.; Rendina, Lois E.; Zager, Jonathan S.; Lien, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer continues to increase. To detect lesions at an earlier phase in their progression, skin cancer screening programs have been advocated by some. However, the effectiveness of skin cancer screening and the ideal population that these screenings should target have yet to be firmly established. This study details the relationship of a group of well-known risk factors with presumptive diagnoses in a large series of individuals self-referred for free skin cancer screening. Methods Data obtained during 2007 to 2010 from a descriptive cross-sectional study skin cancer screening program are presented. Participant history was recorded using standardized medical history forms prior to skin examination. Screeners conducted a skin examination varying from whole-body to limited areas (per participant preference) and recorded diagnoses. Diagnoses were assigned to the nonmelanoma cancer (NMC) or suspicious pigmented lesion group for analysis. Results A presumptive diagnosis of NMC was associated with male sex, age ≥ 50 years, personal history of skin cancer, lower skin phototype, increased sunscreen use, and increased chronic sun exposure (all P values ≤ .0001). After controlling for skin phototype, increased sunscreen use was not associated with a presumptive diagnosis of NMC (P = .96). Presumptive diagnosis of a suspicious pigmented lesion was associated with a reported history of “changing mole” (P < .0001) and negatively associated with age ≥ 50 years (P < .0001) and a personal history of skin cancer (P = .0119). Conclusions Several known risk factors for nonmelanoma skin cancer correlated with a presumptive diagnosis of NMC. The yield of presumptive atypical pigmented lesions was increased in participants aged < 50 years, supporting the notion that this population may benefit from screening. PMID:24077401

  5. Photoacoustic discrimination of vascular and pigmented lesions using classical and Bayesian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swearingen, Jennifer A.; Holan, Scott H.; Feldman, Mary M.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination of pigmented and vascular lesions in skin can be difficult due to factors such as size, subungual location, and the nature of lesions containing both melanin and vascularity. Misdiagnosis may lead to precancerous or cancerous lesions not receiving proper medical care. To aid in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of such pathologies, we develop a photoacoustic system to determine the nature of skin lesions in vivo. By irradiating skin with two laser wavelengths, 422 and 530 nm, we induce photoacoustic responses, and the relative response at these two wavelengths indicates whether the lesion is pigmented or vascular. This response is due to the distinct absorption spectrum of melanin and hemoglobin. In particular, pigmented lesions have ratios of photoacoustic amplitudes of approximately 1.4 to 1 at the two wavelengths, while vascular lesions have ratios of about 4.0 to 1. Furthermore, we consider two statistical methods for conducting classification of lesions: standard multivariate analysis classification techniques and a Bayesian-model-based approach. We study 15 human subjects with eight vascular and seven pigmented lesions. Using the classical method, we achieve a perfect classification rate, while the Bayesian approach has an error rate of 20%.

  6. Dermal Toxicity of Flake-Like α-Alumina Pigments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, HyunJeong; Jang, Seongwan; Lee, Sang-Geun; Park, Sungkyun; Park, Kang Hyun; Youn, BuHyun

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used nonferrous metals and an important industrial material, especially for automotive coatings. However, potential toxicity caused by aluminum in humans limits the used of this metal. α-alumina is the most stable form of aluminum in various phases. Although the results of studies evaluating the dermal toxicity of α-alumina remained unclear, this compound can still be used as a pigment in cosmetics for humans. In the current study, we further evaluated the dermal cytotoxic effects of α-alumina on human skin cells and an in vivo mouse model. We also measured the in vitro penetration profile of flake-like α-alumina in porcine skin and assessed the degree of cellular metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrated that treatment with flake-like α-alumina did not significantly affect cell viability up to 24 h. This compound was found to have a non-penetration profile based on a Franz modified diffusion cell assay. In addition, flake-like α-alumina was not found to induce dermal inflammation as assessed by histology of epidermal architecture, hyperplasia, and the expression of Interleukin-1β and Cyclooxygenase-2. Results of the cellular metabolic disorder assay indicated that flake-like α-alumina does not exert a direct effect on human skin cells. Taken together, our findings provided not only evidence that flake-like α-alumina may serve as a pearlescent pigment in cosmetics but also experimental basis utilizing α-alumina for human application. Our results also obviously provide new insight of the further toxicity study to aluminum based nanoparticles for skin. PMID:26353706

  7. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  8. Development of a forensic skin colour predictive test.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, Olalla; Phillips, Chris; Söchtig, Jens; Gomez-Tato, Antonio; Cruz, Raquel; Alvarez-Dios, José; de Cal, María Casares; Ruiz, Yarimar; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María V

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in skin colour prediction in the forensic field. However, a lack of consensus approaches for recording skin colour phenotype plus the complicating factors of epistatic effects, environmental influences such as exposure to the sun and unidentified genetic variants, present difficulties for the development of a forensic skin colour predictive test centred on the most strongly associated SNPs. Previous studies have analysed skin colour variation in single unadmixed population groups, including South Asians (Stokowski et al., 2007, Am. J. Hum. Genet, 81: 1119-32) and Europeans (Jacobs et al., 2013, Hum Genet. 132: 147-58). Nevertheless, a major challenge lies in the analysis of skin colour in admixed individuals, where co-ancestry proportions do not necessarily dictate any one person's skin colour. Our study sought to analyse genetic differences between African, European and admixed African-European subjects where direct spectrometric measurements and photographs of skin colour were made in parallel. We identified strong associations to skin colour variation in the subjects studied from a pigmentation SNP discovery panel of 59 markers and developed a forensic online classifier based on naïve Bayes analysis of the SNP profiles made. A skin colour predictive test is described using the ten most strongly associated SNPs in 8 genes linked to skin pigmentation variation. PMID:25082135

  9. New group of ceramic pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepanov, E.S.; Grum-Grzhimailo, O.S.; Belostotskaya, N.S.; Bibilashvili, M.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors assess the corrosion resistance, crystal structure, chemical composition and color properties of a variety of zircon-based materials used as pigments and protective coatings for ceramic tiles. The constituents of these materials include, apart from zircon, iron oxides, vanadium oxides, and the sulfides, selenides and tellurides of cadmium. The effects of these constituents on the structural behavior of the zirconium silicate are investigated.

  10. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  11. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  12. Carotenoid scarcity, synthetic pteridine pigments and the evolution of sexual coloration in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Grether, G F; Hudon, J; Endler, J A

    2001-06-22

    Carotenoid-based sexual coloration is the classic example of an honest signal of mate quality. Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments and ultimately depend on dietary sources. Thus, in carotenoid-poor environments, carotenoid coloration may be a direct indicator of foraging ability and an indirect indicator of health and vigour. Carotenoid coloration may also be affected, more directly, by parasites in some species. Carotenoids are not, however, the only conspicuous pigments available to animals. Pteridine pigments, with similar spectral properties, are displayed in the exoskeletons and wings of insects, the irides of birds and the skins of fishes, lizards and amphibians. Unlike carotenoids, pteridines are synthesized de novo by animals. We report that the orange spots that male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) display to females contain red pteridine pigments (drosopterins) in addition to carotenoids. We also examined the relationship between drosopterin production by males and carotenoid availability in the field. The results contrasted sharply with the hypothesis that males use drosopterins to compensate for carotenoid scarcity: males used more, not less, drosopterins in streams with higher carotenoid availability. The positive association between drosopterin use and carotenoid availability could reflect the costs of drosopterin synthesis or it could be a consequence of females preferring a particular pigment ratio or hue. Male guppies appear to use drosopterin pigments in a manner that dilutes, but does not eliminate, the indicator value of carotenoid coloration.

  13. Evaluation of the Relationship between Passive Smoking and Oral Pigmentation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hajifattahi, F.; Azarshab, M.; Haghgoo, R.; Lesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Melanin pigmentation in the oral mucosa occurs as a result of several reasons one of which is smoking. Cigarette smoke induces numerous side effects in the people who do not smoke, but are in the same environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of parental smoking on pigmentation of their children’s oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out as a historical cohort. Participants were 400 healthy children, 10 to 11 years old who did not use any drugs. The passive smoker group included 200 children who at least one member in their family was a smoker. The control group included 200 children who did not have a smoker in their family. Furthermore, two groups were matched in the point of view of skin color. The children in the two groups were examined and oral pigmentation was recorded. Finally, the results were analyzed by the chi- square test. Results: Pigmentation was seen in 150 children (75%) in the experimental group and 122 children (61%) in the control group (P<0.005). The relative risk of oral pigmentation for children who were exposed to passive smoking was 1.23. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, passive smoking can induce gingival pigmentation in children. PMID:21998785

  14. Long-term skin damage due to chemical weapon exposure.

    PubMed

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Davoudi, Seyed M; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Panahi, Yunes; Dowlati, Yahya

    2011-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide: SM), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917. Despite prohibition of its production and use by international conventions, it has been used in several conflicts. More than 100,000 soldiers and civilians were injured due to SM exposure during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The acute skin lesions consist of erythema, edema, and blisters. Skin xerosis and pruritus, pigmentation disorders, scars, and cherry angiomas are among the most common long-term skin lesions after contact with SM. Although SM is a well-known carcinogenic substance, skin cancers are rarely reported.

  15. Skin phototype: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Vittoria; Flori, Enrica; Picardo, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous phototype is considered mainly related to cutaneous pigmentation and to the eumelanin/pheomelanin ratio, which is mostly genetically determined by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) polymorphisms. However, data in literature indicate that, in addition to stimulation of eumelanin synthesis, the MC1R signalling activates antioxidant, DNA repair and survival pathways. New emerging aspects regarding photoprotection and skin phototypes are going beyond those features connected to the melanin content in the skin. Important new findings link the MC1R to nuclear receptors activation, shedding light on new extra-melanogenic effects dependent on the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) activity and new ways through which such functions are modulated. These evidences indicate that several factors including melanin play a part in defining the basis for individual sun sensitivity, suggesting that the cutaneous phototype represents a 'biochemical fingerprint'.

  16. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been ... Smoking increases your chance of problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help ...

  17. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  18. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  19. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  20. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  2. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  3. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  4. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  5. Changes in biophysical properties of the skin following radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Hou, Ming-Feng; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wei, Shu-Yi; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Chiang, Wenchang; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common adverse effect in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. However, the effects of radiotherapy on biophysical properties of the skin have rarely been investigated. In this prospective cohort study, we seek to determine the effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer on skin biophysical parameters. We measured various skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, pH, sebum level, pigmentation, and blood flow) in 144 breast cancer patients by non-invasive techniques before and after radiotherapy. The measurements were simultaneously performed on the irradiated breast and the corresponding contralateral unirradiated breast for comparison. Following radiotherapy, the irradiated breast showed a significant decrease in skin hydration, increase in skin pH, increase in pigmentation, and increase in cutaneous blood flow. The contralateral unirradiated breast showed a slight increase in pigmentation but no significant changes in any of the other biophysical parameters after radiotherapy. No significant associations were found between patient characteristics (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, type of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy) and changes in skin biophysical parameters following radiotherapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy for breast cancer induces measurable and significant changes in biophysical properties of the skin including hydration, pH, pigmentation, and blood flow. These findings give us a greater understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on skin physiology, and provide non-invasive and objective methods to assess radiation dermatitis.

  6. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  7. Skin biopsy: Biopsy issues in specific diseases.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M; Stratman, Erik J; Miller, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Misdiagnosis may result from biopsy site selection, technique, or choice of transport media. Important potential sources of error include false-negative direct immunofluorescence results based on poor site selection, uninformative biopsy specimens based on both site selection and technique, and spurious interpretations of pigmented lesions and nonmelanoma skin cancer based on biopsy technique. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article addresses common pitfalls involving site selection and biopsy technique in the diagnosis of bullous diseases, vasculitis, panniculitis, connective tissue diseases, drug eruptions, graft-versus-host disease, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, hair disorders, and neoplastic disorders. Understanding these potential pitfalls can result in improved diagnostic yield and patient outcomes.

  8. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  9. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. Y.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    Methods for estimating the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure, must consider the variability of skin doses at specific anatomical areas, and the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects from combined ionizing radiation and UV exposure. Using the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding, we estimate the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions. Our model projects that individual variations in the probability for increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold and that an excess cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color exposed to medium class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from galactic cosmic rays on Mars missions.

  10. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  11. Identification of the silkworm quail gene reveals a crucial role of a receptor guanylyl cyclase in larval pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Masashi; Kiuchi, Takashi; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Diverse color patterns on the integument of lepidopteran larvae play important roles in their survival through camouflage, mimicry, sexual signaling, and aposematism. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, many color pattern variations have been preserved in inbred strains making them a good model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie color pattern formation. In this study, we focused on the silkworm quail (q) mutant, which exhibits abnormalities in multiple pigment biosynthesis pathways. Positional cloning of the q gene revealed that disruption of a guanylyl cyclase gene, BmGC-I, is responsible for its abnormal pigmentation. In q mutants, we identified a 16-bp deletion in the BmGC-I transcript, resulting in the production of a premature stop codon. Knockout of the BmGC-I gene resulted in the q-like abnormal pigmentation, thereby demonstrating that the BmGC-I gene is involved in the pigment biosynthesis pathway in the integument. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that BmGC-I was strongly expressed in the fourth instar on day 2. Our results suggest that BmGC-I deficiency affects the pigment biosynthesis pathway, which supports the involvement of guanylyl cyclase in larval coloration.

  12. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  13. Management of pigmented gingiva in child patient: a new era to the pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Namdeoraoji Bahadure, Rakesh; Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-09-01

    Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200. PMID:25206222

  14. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200. PMID:25206222

  15. Management of pigmented gingiva in child patient: a new era to the pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Namdeoraoji Bahadure, Rakesh; Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-09-01

    Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200.

  16. Nothing but skin and bone

    PubMed Central

    Ross, F. Patrick; Christiano, Angela M.

    2006-01-01

    Skin and bone — what comes to mind at hearing this phrase? While certainly a metaphor for disease, it also defines two very different tissues, one a flexible and contiguous outer covering, the other a morphologically diverse hard tissue distributed at over 200 sites in the body. As the accompanying series of Reviews highlights, these tissues are indeed diverse, but there are also surprising similarities. Skin is the interface between the internal organs and the environment, and as such plays a crucial role in the body’s defense mechanism. The skin and its many appendages are responsible for functions as diverse as epidermal barrier and defense, immune surveillance, UV protection, thermoregulation, sweating, lubrication, pigmentation, the sensations of pain and touch, and, importantly, the protection of various stem cell niches in the skin. Bone serves a number of purposes: it provides protection for vital organs, a lever for locomotion, a reservoir for calcium, and the site of adult hematopoiesis. The tissue is composed of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and their individual precursors plus a complex mixture of mesenchymal, myeloid, and lymphoid cells in the marrow space. Finally, the endothelial microenvironment provides nutrition and is a conduit for the influx and emigration of cells that impact bone biology in several important ways. This Review series guides the reader through these various facets of 2 diverse, yet interdependent, tissues. PMID:16670754

  17. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  18. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

  19. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches.

  20. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  1. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  2. Iris pigmentation and behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A; Kagan, J

    1987-07-01

    Two independent investigations of the association between the temperamental dimensions of inhibition and lack of inhibition to the unfamiliar, on the one hand, and the degree of pigmentation of the iris, on the other, revealed a statistically significant relation in Caucasian children between behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar and blue irises and uninhibited behavior and brown irises. Several biochemical interpretations of this association were discussed and it was suggested that these behavioral styles might be influenced by biological factors that are partially marked by eye color in Caucasian populations.

  3. Abnormal skin barrier in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Schmuth, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Many recent studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Accordingly, current therapy has been largely directed towards ameliorating Th2-mediated inflammation and/or pruritus. We will review here emerging evidence that the inflammation in atopic dermatitis results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier and the therapeutic implications of this new paradigm. Recent findings Recent molecular genetic studies have shown a strong association between mutations in FILAGGRIN and atopic dermatitis, particularly in Northern Europeans. But additional acquired stressors to the barrier are required to initiate inflammation. Sustained hapten access through a defective barrier stimulates a Th1 → Th2 shift in immunophenotype, which in turn further aggravates the barrier. Secondary Staphylococcus aureus colonization not only amplifies inflammation but also further stresses the barrier in atopic dermatitis. Summary These results suggest a new ‘outside-to-inside, back to outside’ paradigm for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This new concept is providing impetus for the development of new categories of ‘barrier repair’ therapy. PMID:19550302

  4. Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Seo, InSeok; Liebel, Frank; Southall, Michael D; Kollias, Nikiforos; Ruvolo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Visible light (400-700 nm) lies outside of the spectral range of what photobiologists define as deleterious radiation and as a result few studies have studied the effects of visible light range of wavelengths on skin. This oversight is important considering that during outdoors activities skin is exposed to the full solar spectrum, including visible light, and to multiple exposures at different times and doses. Although the contribution of the UV component of sunlight to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology in terms of inflammation, and limited information is available regarding the role of visible light on pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visible light on the pro-pigmentation pathways and melanin formation in skin. Exposure to visible light in ex-vivo and clinical studies demonstrated an induction of pigmentation in skin by visible light. Results showed that a single exposure to visible light induced very little pigmentation whereas multiple exposures with visible light resulted in darker and sustained pigmentation. These findings have potential implications on the management of photo-aggravated pigmentary disorders, the proper use of sunscreens, and the treatment of depigmented lesions.

  5. Gene Expression Variations of Red—White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Min; Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Zhu, Bai-Han; Xu, Gui-Cai; Sun, Ming-Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer’s vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red—white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology. PMID:26370964

  6. Melanocyte Stem Cells as Potential Therapeutics in Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Fisher, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melanocytes produce pigment granules that color both skin and hair. In the hair follicles melanocytes are derived from stem cells (MelSC) that are present in hair bulges or sub-bulge regions and function as melanocyte reservoirs. Quiescence, maintenance, activation, and proliferation of MelSC are controlled by specific activities in the microenvironment that can influence the differentiation and regeneration of melanocytes. Therefore, understanding MelSC and their niche may lead to use of MelSC in new treatments for various pigmentation disorders. Areas covered We describe here pathophysiological mechanisms by which melanocyte defects lead to skin pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo and hair graying. The development, migration, and proliferation of melanocytes and factors involved in the survival, maintenance, and regeneration of MelSC are reviewed with regard to the biological roles and potential therapeutic applications in skin pigmentation diseases. Expert Opinion MelSC biology and niche factors have been studied mainly in murine experimental models. Human MelSC markers or methods to isolate them are much less well understood. Identification, isolation and culturing of human MelSC would represent a major step toward new biological therapeutic options for patients with recalcitrant pigmentary disorders or hair graying. By modulating the niche factors for MelSC it may one day be possible to control skin pigmentary disorders and prevent or reverse hair graying. PMID:25104310

  7. Children's Color Perception in Relation to Habitat and Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Powell, Gloria J.

    1981-01-01

    Developmental color perception of 278 four- and eight-year-old Black and White children in three societies was examined in relation to the theories that proximity to the equator and that fundus pigmentation (as measured by skin color) reduce shortwave (blue-green) in comparison to long-wave perception. (Author/MP)

  8. Facial Skin Lesions Dentists Should Know.

    PubMed

    Sibai, Louna; Kudsi, Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Facial skin lesions are common; patients may present with a.nodule, crack, ulcer or abnormal discoloration of the skin that is not normally present. Ideally, dentists should include face examination in their routine clinical examination. Any suspicious lesion should be referred to a dermatologist as an early diagnosis and treatment could be life-saving. This article will discuss the diagnosis and treatment of common lesions of the face.

  9. High-throughput, high-content screening for novel pigmentation regulators using a keratinocyte/melanocyte co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hee; Chen, Hongxiang; Kolev, Vihren; Aull, Katherine H; Jung, Inhee; Wang, Jun; Miyamoto, Shoko; Hosoi, Junichi; Mandinova, Anna; Fisher, David E

    2014-02-01

    Skin pigmentation is a complex process including melanogenesis within melanocytes and melanin transfer to the keratinocytes. To develop a comprehensive screening method for novel pigmentation regulators, we used immortalized melanocytes and keratinocytes in co-culture to screen large numbers of compounds. High-throughput screening plates were subjected to digital automated microscopy to quantify the pigmentation via brightfield microscopy. Compounds with pigment suppression were secondarily tested for their effects on expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and several pigment regulatory genes, and further validated in terms of non-toxicity to keratinocytes/melanocytes and dose-dependent activity. The results demonstrate a high-throughput, high-content screening approach, which is applicable to the analysis of large chemical libraries using a co-culture system. We identified candidate pigmentation inhibitors from 4000 screened compounds including zoxazolamine, 3-methoxycatechol and alpha-mangostin, which were also shown to modulate expression of MITF and several key pigmentation factors and are worthy of further evaluation for potential translation to clinical use.

  10. High Throughput, High Content Screening for Novel Pigmentation Regulators Using a Keratinocyte/Melanocyte Co-culture System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Chen, Hongxiang; Kolev, Vihren; Aull, Katherine H.; Jung, Inhee; Wang, Jun; Miyamoto, Shoko; Hosoi, Junichi; Mandinova, Anna; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is a complex process including melanogenesis within melanocytes and melanin transfer to the keratinocytes. To develop a comprehensive screening method for novel pigmentation regulators, we used immortalized melanocytes and keratinocytes in co-culture to screen large numbers of compounds. High-throughput screening plates were subjected to digital automated microscopy to quantify the pigmentation via brightfield microscopy. Compounds with pigment suppression were secondarily tested for their effects on expression of MITF and several pigment regulatory genes, and further validated in terms of non-toxicity to keratinocytes/melanocytes and dose dependent activity. The results demonstrate a high-throughput, high-content screening approach, which is applicable to the analysis of large chemical libraries using a co-culture system. We identified candidate pigmentation inhibitors from 4,000 screened compounds including zoxazolamine, 3-methoxycatechol, and alpha-mangostin, which were also shown to modulate expression of MITF and several key pigmentation factors, and are worthy of further evaluation for potential translation to clinical use. PMID:24438532

  11. The common occurrence of epistasis in the determination of human pigmentation and its impact on DNA-based pigmentation phenotype prediction.

    PubMed

    Pośpiech, Ewelina; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Maeda, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Skowron, Małgorzata; Kayser, Manfred; Branicki, Wojciech

    2014-07-01

    The role of epistatic effects in the determination of complex traits is often underlined but its significance in the prediction of pigmentation phenotypes has not been evaluated so far. The prediction of pigmentation from genetic data can be useful in forensic science to describe the physical appearance of an unknown offender, victim, or missing person who cannot be identified via conventional DNA profiling. Available forensic DNA prediction systems enable the reliable prediction of several eye and hair colour categories. However, there is still space for improvement. Here we verified the association of 38 candidate DNA polymorphisms from 13 genes and explored the extent to which interactions between them may be involved in human pigmentation and their impact on forensic DNA prediction in particular. The model-building set included 718 Polish samples and the model-verification set included 307 independent Polish samples and additional 72 samples from Japan. In total, 29 significant SNP-SNP interactions were found with 5 of them showing an effect on phenotype prediction. For predicting green eye colour, interactions between HERC2 rs12913832 and OCA2 rs1800407 as well as TYRP1 rs1408799 raised the prediction accuracy expressed by AUC from 0.667 to 0.697 and increased the prediction sensitivity by >3%. Interaction between MC1R 'R' variants and VDR rs731236 increased the sensitivity for light skin by >1% and by almost 3% for dark skin colour prediction. Interactions between VDR rs1544410 and TYR rs1042602 as well as between MC1R 'R' variants and HERC2 rs12913832 provided an increase in red/non-red hair prediction accuracy from an AUC of 0.902-0.930. Our results thus underline epistasis as a common phenomenon in human pigmentation genetics and demonstrate that considering SNP-SNP interactions in forensic DNA phenotyping has little impact on eye, hair and skin colour prediction.

  12. Role of Micronutrients in Skin Health and Function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the first line of defense for protecting our bodies against external perturbations, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, mechanical/chemical stress, and bacterial infection. Nutrition is one of many factors required for the maintenance of overall skin health. An impaired nutritional status alters the structural integrity and biological function of skin, resulting in an abnormal skin barrier. In particular, the importance of micronutrients (such as certain vitamins and minerals) for skin health has been highlighted in cell culture, animal, and clinical studies. These micronutrients are employed not only as active compounds in therapeutic agents for treating certain skin diseases, but also as ingredients in cosmetic products. Here, the author describes the barrier function of the skin and the general nutritional requirements for skin health. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential roles and current knowledge of selected micronutrients in skin health and function. PMID:25995818

  13. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  14. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  15. The spleen pigment cells in some amphibia.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Marina; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Poma, Mariangela; Ragusa, Marco; Sichel, Giovanni; Corsaro, Concetta

    2004-04-01

    It was demonstrated that the spleen pigment cells of Amphibia are macrophages: they show an ultrastructurally distinctive morphology, are able to phagocytose and react positively for non-specific esterases. These pigmented macrophages express mRNA for tyrosinase and also they show dopa oxidase activity; therefore they are able to synthesize melanins, as Kupffer cells do.

  16. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  18. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  19. A conserved aromatic residue regulating photosensitivity in short-wavelength sensitive cone visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Kuemmel, Colleen M; Sandberg, Megan N; Birge, Robert R; Knox, Barry E

    2013-07-30

    Visual pigments have a conserved phenylalanine in transmembrane helix 5 located near the β-ionone ring of the retinal chromophore. Site-directed mutants of this residue (F207) in a short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (VCOP) were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy to investigate its role in photosensitivity and formation of the light-activated state. The side chain is important for pigment formation: VCOP(F207A), VCOP(F207L), VCOP(F207M), and VCOP(F207W) substitutions all bound 11-cis-retinal and formed a stable visual pigment, while VCOP(F207V), VCOP(F207S), VCOP(F207T), and VCOP(F207Y) substitutions do not. The extinction coefficients of all pigments are close, ranging between 35800 and 45600 M⁻¹ cm⁻¹. Remarkably, the mutants exhibit an up to 5-fold reduction in photosensitivity and also abnormal photobleaching behavior. One mutant, VCOP(F207A), forms an isomeric composition of the retinal chromophore after illumination comparable to that of wild-type VCOP yet does not release the all-trans-retinal chromophore. These findings suggest that the conserved F207 residue is important for a normal photoactivation pathway, formation of the active conformation and the exit of all-trans-retinal from the chromophore-binding pocket. PMID:23808485

  20. [Association of skin problems with coat colour and white markings in three-year-old horses of the Franches-Montagnes breed].

    PubMed

    Federici, M; Gerber, V; Doherr, M G; Klopfenstein, S; Burger, D

    2015-07-01

    In the last 30 years the amount of white markings in the population of Franches-Montagnes horses (FM) has more than doubled which has led to some controversy, particularly in respect to the health of the horses. The objective of this study was to investigate if the coat colour and white markings have an impact on selected skin diseases and hoof horn abnormalities. To this purpose 974 three-year-old FM were subjected to a clinical examination during the field and station tests organized by the FM breeding association. In 16.9% of the horses, one or several equine sarcoids were detected, 15.2% of the horses showed clinical signs of pastern dermatitis, 1.1% of insect bite hypersensitivity and 18.0% of dermatitis of other aetiology. Abnormalities of the hoof horn were found in 20.1% of the horses. The prevalence of pastern dermatitis was 2.6 times higher in legs with white markings than in legs with pigmented skin (p <0.0001). The probability ofsuffering from sunburn and hoof horn of lesser quality was increased in animals with an elevated white marking index (WAI; p = 0.022 and p = 0.038), on the other hand, horses with sarcoids had a significantly lower WAI than sound horses (p = 0.038). Our study shows that FM horses with more pronounced white markings have an increased risk to suffer from pastern dermatitis, sunburns and hoof horn abnormalities. The coat colour was not associated with skin diseases.

  1. [Association of skin problems with coat colour and white markings in three-year-old horses of the Franches-Montagnes breed].

    PubMed

    Federici, M; Gerber, V; Doherr, M G; Klopfenstein, S; Burger, D

    2015-07-01

    In the last 30 years the amount of white markings in the population of Franches-Montagnes horses (FM) has more than doubled which has led to some controversy, particularly in respect to the health of the horses. The objective of this study was to investigate if the coat colour and white markings have an impact on selected skin diseases and hoof horn abnormalities. To this purpose 974 three-year-old FM were subjected to a clinical examination during the field and station tests organized by the FM breeding association. In 16.9% of the horses, one or several equine sarcoids were detected, 15.2% of the horses showed clinical signs of pastern dermatitis, 1.1% of insect bite hypersensitivity and 18.0% of dermatitis of other aetiology. Abnormalities of the hoof horn were found in 20.1% of the horses. The prevalence of pastern dermatitis was 2.6 times higher in legs with white markings than in legs with pigmented skin (p <0.0001). The probability ofsuffering from sunburn and hoof horn of lesser quality was increased in animals with an elevated white marking index (WAI; p = 0.022 and p = 0.038), on the other hand, horses with sarcoids had a significantly lower WAI than sound horses (p = 0.038). Our study shows that FM horses with more pronounced white markings have an increased risk to suffer from pastern dermatitis, sunburns and hoof horn abnormalities. The coat colour was not associated with skin diseases. PMID:26753358

  2. Coloration reflects skin pterin concentration in a red-tailed lizard.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, José J; Belliure, Josabel; Negro, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    When integumentary tissue pigments are contained in chromatophores, tissue color might not depend exclusively on the amount of pigment. Whether coloration does or does not reflect pigment concentration may be very significant for intraspecific communication, for example when pigment concentration provides fitness-related information. We studied the pigment responsible for the orange/red ventral tail coloring in a lacertid lizard species (Acanthodactylus erythrurus), and whether the color was related to skin pigment concentration. The pigment was identified as a pterin, a higher concentration of which resulted in darker, more red-saturated, redder (less orange) ventral tail skin color. The dorsal tail integument, even though it appears mostly gray to the naked eye, also contained pterins, and furthermore, the dorsal and ventral pterin concentrations were positively correlated. A possible explanation for these results is that pterins accumulate in the skin of the whole tail, even if only needed in the ventral part, but are concealed in the dorsal part. In this way, ventral orange/red coloration would accurately reflect pterin concentration, which provides the basis for a signaling function, while dorsal coloration would become less conspicuous as an anti-predatory mechanism.

  3. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

  4. The role of cytokines in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-10-01

    Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging.

  5. In vivo estimation of pigmentation in ultraviolet-exposed hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A B; Bech-Thomsen, N; Wulf, H C

    1995-02-01

    A new in vivo method of visual scoring of pigmentation in hairless hr/hr mice with a C3H/Tif background is described. The mice were placed under a bank of 6 Philips TL08 fluorescent ultraviolet A (UVA) tubes in a dark room, and the pigmentation of the skin was compared with a Kodak Gray Scale with 20 different shades from white to black. The radiation from the tubes changed both the color of the back of the mouse and the gray scale into purple hues. The purple color of the back of each mouse could then be classified as one of 20 shades on the gray scale. An experiment was conducted exposing 3 groups of 20 mice to different doses of UV radiation from Philips TL01 tubes. One group of 20 mice was not irradiated and served as control. The pigmentation of each mouse was scored by one investigator every 2-3 weeks. After a few weeks of exposure a clear distinction between the groups was seen. To evaluate the inter- and intrapersonal variation of the method, 30 mice with various degrees of pigmentation were scored independently and blindly by two investigators. This was done twice during the study with a few days' interval. No interpersonal difference was found, but one investigator scored differently the first and second time by only 0.5 points. The described method provides a reproducible in vivo method, with very good discrimination, for estimation of pigmentation in hairless mice. PMID:7654561

  6. Susceptibility Loci for Pigmentation and Melanoma in Relation to Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Michael; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Xuemei; Han, Jiali; Singleton, Andrew B.; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have a lower risk for most types of cancer except for melanoma, which has a modest positive association with PD. Pigmentation genes has been hypothesized to contribute to this association. We therefore examined whether genetic susceptibility loci for pigmentation or melanoma were associated with PD risk in two large independent datasets. In the Parkinson’s Genes and Environment (PAGE) Study, we examined 11 SNPs identified from previous GWAS studies of pigmentation or melanoma in relation to PD among 808 PD cases and 1,623 controls; further, we also examined the colors of hair, eye, or skin, and melanoma in relation to PD. In the International Parkinson’s Disease Genomic Consortium (IPDGC), we examined a broader selection of 360 pigmentation or melanoma GWAS SNPs in relation to PD among 5,333 PD cases and 12,019 controls. All participants were non-Hispanic Whites. As expected, in the PAGE study, most SNPs were associated with one or more pigmentation phenotypes. However, neither these SNPs nor pigmentation phenotypes were associated with PD risk after Bonferroni correction with the exception of rs4911414 at the ASIP gene (P=0.001). A total of 18 PD cases (2.2%) and 26 controls (1.6%) had a diagnosis of melanoma with an odds ratio of 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.7-2.4). In the IPDGC analysis, none of the 360 SNPs, including rs4911414, were associated with PD risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, we did not find significant associations between GWAS SNPs of pigmentation or melanoma and the risk for PD. PMID:24439955

  7. Susceptibility loci for pigmentation and melanoma in relation to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Gao, Jianjun; Nalls, Michael; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Xuemei; Han, Jiali; Singleton, Andrew B; Chen, Honglei

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have a lower risk for most types of cancer except for melanoma, which has a modest positive association with PD. Pigmentation genes have been hypothesized to contribute to this association. We therefore examined whether genetic susceptibility loci for pigmentation or melanoma was associated with PD risk in 2 large independent datasets. In the Parkinson's Genes and Environment (PAGE) study, we examined 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of pigmentation or melanoma in relation to PD among 808 PD cases and 1623 controls; furthermore, we also examined the colors of hair, eye, or skin and melanoma in relation to PD. In the International Parkinson's Disease Genomic Consortium (IPDGC), we examined a broader selection of 360 pigmentation or melanoma GWAS SNPs in relation to PD among 5,333 PD cases and 12,019 controls. All participants were non-Hispanic Whites. As expected, in the PAGE study, most SNPs were associated with 1 or more pigmentation phenotypes. However, neither these SNPs nor pigmentation phenotypes were associated with PD risk after Bonferroni correction with the exception of rs4911414 at the ASIP gene (p = .001). A total of 18 PD cases (2.2%) and 26 controls (1.6%) had a diagnosis of melanoma with an odds ratio of 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.7-2.4). In the IPDGC analysis, none of the 360 SNPs, including rs4911414, were associated with PD risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, we did not find significant associations between GWAS SNPs of pigmentation or melanoma and the risk for PD.

  8. Understanding metabolic pathways for skin anti-aging.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Rosemarie; Mullins, Lisa A; Jarrold, Bradley B

    2009-07-01

    Global gene expression profiling provides a useful means to identify key aspects of the skin aging process, and provides information to help develop new skin technologies. Important aspects of skin aging that can be addressed include skin hydration, barrier, matrix, pigmentation and antioxidant capacity. Human skin equivalent cultures allow topical application of test compounds, combinations and products to their stratum corneum surface and measurement of predictive biomarkers. Using this in vitro biomarker approach, it is possible to detect skin barrier enhancement in response to the compounds niacinamide and hexamidine, matrix effects to the peptides Pal-KT and Pal-KTTKS, and hydration and matrix responses to niacinamide and N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:19623777

  9. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  10. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  11. Melanocytes in the Skin – Comparative Whole Transcriptome Analysis of Main Skin Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Reemann, Paula; Reimann, Ene; Ilmjärv, Sten; Porosaar, Orm; Silm, Helgi; Jaks, Viljar; Vasar, Eero; Kingo, Külli; Kõks, Sulev

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes possess several functions besides a role in pigment synthesis, but detailed characteristics of the cells are still unclear. We used whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess differential gene expression of cultivated normal human melanocytes with respect to keratinocytes, fibroblasts and whole skin. The present results reveal cultivated melanocytes as highly proliferative cells with possible stem cell-like properties. The enhanced readiness to regenerate makes melanocytes the most vulnerable cells in the skin and explains their high risk of developing into malignant melanoma. PMID:25545474

  12. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  13. Structure of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  14. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  15. Eumelanin-driven production of molecular hydrogen: A novel element of skin defense?

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2, dihydrogen) has been recognized as a unique cell protectant. Dihydrogen protects tissues against oxidative injuries by selectively reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). It seems that melanin, natural pigment of skin and hair, might produce endogenous hydrogen. The protective role of skin melanin (eumelanin) could be due to its capacity for molecular hydrogen production. An effective pooling of dihydrogen by eumelanin should be considered as a novel element of skin defense system against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  16. Eumelanin-driven production of molecular hydrogen: A novel element of skin defense?

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2, dihydrogen) has been recognized as a unique cell protectant. Dihydrogen protects tissues against oxidative injuries by selectively reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). It seems that melanin, natural pigment of skin and hair, might produce endogenous hydrogen. The protective role of skin melanin (eumelanin) could be due to its capacity for molecular hydrogen production. An effective pooling of dihydrogen by eumelanin should be considered as a novel element of skin defense system against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:25920542

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Ultraviolet radiation directly induces pigment production by cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Gilchrest, B.A.

    1987-10-01

    In humans the major stimulus for cutaneous pigmentation is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about the mechanism underlying this response, in part because of the complexity of interactions in whole epidermis. Using a recently developed culture system, human melanocytes were exposed daily to a physiologic range of UVR doses from a solar simulator. Responses were determined 24 hours after the last exposure. There was a dose-related increase in melanin content per cell and uptake of /sup 14/C-DOPA, accompanied by growth inhibition. Cells from donors of different racial origin gave proportionately similar increases in melanin, although there were approximately tenfold differences in basal values. Light and electron microscopy revealed UVR-stimulated increases in dendricity as well as melanosome number and degree of melanization, analogous to the well-recognized melanocyte changes following sun exposure of intact skin. Similar responses were seen with Cloudman S91 melanoma cells, although this murine cell line required lower UVR dosages and fewer exposures for maximal stimulation. These data establish that UVR is capable of directly stimulating melanogenesis. Because cyclic AMP elevation has been associated in some settings with increased pigment production by cultured melanocytes, preliminary experiments were conducted to see if the effects of UVR were mediated by cAMP. Both alpha-MSH and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), as positive controls, caused a fourfold increase in cAMP level in human melanocytes and/or S91 cells, but following a dose of UVR sufficient to stimulate pigment production there was no change in cAMP level up to 4 hours after exposure. Thus, it appears that the UVR-induced melanogenesis is mediated by cAMP-independent mechanisms.

  20. Relationship between skin response to ultraviolet exposure and skin color type.

    PubMed

    Del Bino, S; Sok, J; Bessac, E; Bernerd, F

    2006-12-01

    Sun exposure is responsible for detrimental damage ranging from sunburn to photoaging and skin cancer. This damage is likely to be influenced by constitutive pigmentation. The relationship between ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity and skin color type was analyzed on 42 ex vivo skin samples objectively classified from light to dark skin, based on their values of individual typology angle (ITA) determined by colorimetric parameters. The biologically efficient dose (BED) was determined for each sample by quantifying sunburn cells after exposure to increasing doses of UV solar-simulated radiation. Typical UV-induced biologic markers, other than erythema, such as DNA damage, apoptosis and p53 accumulation, were analyzed. A statistically significant correlation was found between ITA and BED and, ITA and DNA damage. Interestingly, DNA lesions were distributed throughout the whole epidermal layers and the uppermost dermal cells in light, intermediate and tanned skin while they were restricted to suprabasal epidermal layers in brown or dark skin. Our data support, at the cellular level, the relationship between UV sensitivity and skin color type. They emphasize the impact of DNA damage accumulation in basal layer in relation to the prevalence of skin cancer.

  1. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  2. [Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the wrist. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Valer, A; Ramirez, G; Massons, J; Lopez, C

    1997-01-01

    The authors presented a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis of the wrist with extrinsic bony defects on opposing articular surfaces, seen after two recurrences following excision surgery. They performed a total synovectomy followed by curettage and autogenous bone grafting of the carpal and radiocubital bone lesions. Four years after the procedure, the patient-a woman aged 44-was symptom-free and there was no objectivable evidence of recurrence. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon, benign, chronic process that causes synovial proliferation. Its etiology is unknown. The majority of patients is young to middle-aged adults. Especially the knee but other joints are involved including the hip, ankle, wrist, hand, and foot. Both soft tissue and bone abnormalities occur in PVNS. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows a heterogenous synovial mass with intermediate and low signal intensity areas on T1 and T2-weighted images, consistent with hemosiderin deposition. Computed tomography defines clearly the extrinsic bone erosions and excavations, which usually exhibit a sclerotic margin, produced by intraosseous invasion of the expanding synovia. After excision recurrence is common, leading eventually to arthrodesis, arthroplasty and even radiation therapy. The etiology of PVNS is controversial. First approach is conservative surgical treatment with total synovectomy and curettage of the osteolytic foyers. Bone grafts are employed for filling the sites of osteolysis. The sensitivity of MRI permits early detection of the process and may obviate the need for radical management options in PVNS.

  3. Basis for the gain and subsequent dilution of epidermal pigmentation during human evolution: The barrier and metabolic conservation hypotheses revisited.

    PubMed

    Elias, Peter M; Williams, Mary L

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of human skin pigmentation must address both the initial evolution of intense epidermal pigmentation in hominins, and its subsequent dilution in modern humans. While many authorities believe that epidermal pigmentation evolved to protect against either ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation-induced mutagenesis or folic acid photolysis, we hypothesize that pigmentation augmented the epidermal barriers by shifting the UV-B dose-response curve from toxic to beneficial. Whereas erythemogenic UV-B doses produce apoptosis and cell death, suberythemogenic doses benefit permeability and antimicrobial function. Heavily melanized melanocytes acidify the outer epidermis and emit paracrine signals that augment barrier competence. Modern humans, residing in the cooler, wetter climes of south-central Europe and Asia, initially retained substantial pigmentation. While their outdoor lifestyles still permitted sufficient cutaneous vitamin D3 (VD3) synthesis, their marginal nutritional status, coupled with cold-induced caloric needs, selected for moderate pigment reductions that diverted limited nutritional resources towards more urgent priorities (=metabolic conservation). The further pigment-dilution that evolved as humans reached north-central Europe (i.e., northern France, Germany), likely facilitated cutaneous VD3 synthesis, while also supporting ongoing, nutritional requirements. But at still higher European latitudes where little UV-B breaches the atmosphere (i.e., present-day UK, Scandinavia, Baltic States), pigment dilution alone could not suffice. There, other nonpigment-related mutations evolved to facilitate VD3 production; for example, in the epidermal protein, filaggrin, resulting in reduced levels of its distal metabolite, trans-urocanic acid, a potent UV-B chromophore. Thus, changes in human pigmentation reflect a complex interplay between latitude, climate, diet, lifestyle, and shifting metabolic priorities. PMID:27324932

  4. Basis for the gain and subsequent dilution of epidermal pigmentation during human evolution: The barrier and metabolic conservation hypotheses revisited.

    PubMed

    Elias, Peter M; Williams, Mary L

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of human skin pigmentation must address both the initial evolution of intense epidermal pigmentation in hominins, and its subsequent dilution in modern humans. While many authorities believe that epidermal pigmentation evolved to protect against either ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation-induced mutagenesis or folic acid photolysis, we hypothesize that pigmentation augmented the epidermal barriers by shifting the UV-B dose-response curve from toxic to beneficial. Whereas erythemogenic UV-B doses produce apoptosis and cell death, suberythemogenic doses benefit permeability and antimicrobial function. Heavily melanized melanocytes acidify the outer epidermis and emit paracrine signals that augment barrier competence. Modern humans, residing in the cooler, wetter climes of south-central Europe and Asia, initially retained substantial pigmentation. While their outdoor lifestyles still permitted sufficient cutaneous vitamin D3 (VD3) synthesis, their marginal nutritional status, coupled with cold-induced caloric needs, selected for moderate pigment reductions that diverted limited nutritional resources towards more urgent priorities (=metabolic conservation). The further pigment-dilution that evolved as humans reached north-central Europe (i.e., northern France, Germany), likely facilitated cutaneous VD3 synthesis, while also supporting ongoing, nutritional requirements. But at still higher European latitudes where little UV-B breaches the atmosphere (i.e., present-day UK, Scandinavia, Baltic States), pigment dilution alone could not suffice. There, other nonpigment-related mutations evolved to facilitate VD3 production; for example, in the epidermal protein, filaggrin, resulting in reduced levels of its distal metabolite, trans-urocanic acid, a potent UV-B chromophore. Thus, changes in human pigmentation reflect a complex interplay between latitude, climate, diet, lifestyle, and shifting metabolic priorities.

  5. Ocular-side lateralization of adult-type chromatophore precursors: development of pigment asymmetry in metamorphosing flounder larvae.

    PubMed

    Washio, Youhei; Aritaki, Masato; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2013-05-01

    The adult-type chromatophores of flounder differentiate at metamorphosis in the skin of ocular side to establish asymmetric pigmentation. In young larva and before metamorphosis, adult-type melanophores that migrate to the ocular side during metamorphosis reside at the base of the dorsal fin as latent precursors. However, the migration route taken by these precursor cells and the mechanisms by which lateralization and asymmetric pigmentation develop on the ocular side are unknown. To further investigate this migration and lateralization, we used in situ hybridization with gch2 probe, a marker for melanoblasts and xanthoblasts (precursors of adult type chromatophores), to examine the distribution of chromatophore precursors in metamorphosing larvae. The gch2-positive precursors were present in the myoseptum as well as in the skin. This finding indicated that these precursors migrated from the dorsal part of the fin to the skin via the myoseptum. Additionally, there were much fewer gch2-positive cells in the myoseptum of the blind side than in the skin and myoseptum of the ocular side, and this finding indicated either that migration of the precursor cells into the myoseptum of blind side was inhibited or that the precursors were eliminated from the myoseptum of the blind side. Therefore, we propose that the signals responsible for development of asymmetric pigmentation in flounder reside not only in the skin but on a larger scale and in multiple tissues throughout the lateral half of the trunk.

  6. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  7. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  8. Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

  9. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  10. Evaluation of skin vasomotor reflexes by using laser Doppler velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Low, P A; Neumann, C; Dyck, P J; Fealey, R D; Tuck, R R

    1983-09-01

    We used a laser Doppler velocimeter for measurement of skin blood flow in 63 healthy control subjects and in patients with dysautonomias. We measured vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp, standing, Valsalva maneuver, and cold stimulus. An abnormal profile was defined in terms of the percentage of abnormal test results, the results of individual tests, and the alterations in the shape of the recorded response. These measurements of vasomotor function may permit the diagnosis of focal abnormalities of peripheral nerve sympathetic failure. PMID:6310277

  11. Classification of infrared spectra from skin tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Crowson, A. Neil; Toole, John W. P.; Mantsch, Henry H.; Jackson, Michael

    2000-05-01

    The clinical differential diagnosis of skin tumors is an often-challenging task, to which the probing of skin with mid- and near-infrared (IR) light may be contributory. The development of objective methods for the analysis of IR spectra remains a major hurdle to developing clinically useful applications. The authors highlight different processing methods for IR spectra from skin biopsies and in-vivo skin tumors. Spectroscopic maps of biopsies of basal cell, squamous cell and melanocytic neoplasms were objectively grouped into distinct clusters that corresponded with tumor, epidermis, dermis, follicle and fat. Normal and abnormal skin components were located within maps using a search engine based upon linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In all instances, areas of tumor were distinct from normal tissue in biopsies. In-vivo, near-IR spectroscopy and LDA allowed discrimination between benign and malignant skin lesions with a high degree of accuracy. We conclude that IR spectroscopy has significant diagnostic promise in the skin cancer arena. The analytical methods described can now be used to create a powerful classification scheme in which to detect skin tumor cells within biopsied and living skin.

  12. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  13. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  14. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  15. Alkaptonuric ochronosis presenting as palmoplantar pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vijaikumar, M; Thappa, D M; Srikanth, S; Sethuraman, G; Nadarajan, S

    2000-06-01

    We describe a 37-year-old woman who presented with palmoplantar pigmentation, thickening and pitting of 4 years duration. Bluish pigmented patches were seen over the sclera of her eyes. Her lumbar spine showed typical calcification of the intervertebral discs. Addition of Benedict's reagent to a urine sample of the patient gave rise to greenish brown precipitate and brownish black supernatant. Alkalinization of urine turned it black. A biopsy of the palmar lesion demonstrated irregular breaking up, swelling and homogenization of collagen bundles in the reticular dermis. Yellow-brown (ochre coloured) pigment was seen lying within the collagen bundles and also freely in the deeper dermis confirming our clinical diagnosis of alkaptonuric ochronosis. To the best of our knowledge this is probably the second report of alkaptonuria presenting with palmoplantar pigmentation. PMID:10971492

  16. Pleiotropic effects of pigmentation genes in horses.

    PubMed

    Bellone, R R

    2010-12-01

    Horses are valued for the beauty and variety of colouration and coat patterning. To date, eleven different genes have been characterized that contribute to the variation observed in the horse. Unfortunately, mutations involving pigmentation often lead to deleterious effects in other systems, some of which have been described in the horse. This review focuses on six such pleiotropic effects or associations with pigmentation genes. These include neurological defects (lethal white foal syndrome and lavender foal syndrome), hearing defects, eye disorders (congenital stationary night blindness and multiple congenital ocular anomalies), as well as horse-specific melanoma. The pigmentation phenotype, disorder phenotype, mode of inheritance, genetic or genomic methods utilized to identify the genes involved and, if known, the causative mutations, molecular interactions and other susceptibility loci are discussed. As our understanding of pigmentation in the horse increases, through the use of novel genomic tools, we are likely to unravel yet unknown pleiotropic effects and determine additional interactions between previously discovered loci.

  17. Conservation of the chromatophore pigment response.

    PubMed

    Dukovcic, Stephanie R; Hutchison, Janine R; Trempy, Janine E

    2010-08-01

    Toxicant sensing technology has evolved to include biological sensors, such as cell-based biosensors, which rely on viable cells to convey a measurable physiological signal. Chromatophores are a class of pigment cells that have been investigated as cell-based biosensors. We report the characterization of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha melanophores and describe the melanophore pigment response to neurotransmitters in terms of pigment area occupied. Compared with the previously described model, Betta splendens erythrophores, O. tshawytscha melanophores responded similarly, indicating that pigment responses are biologically conserved between these two species. Additionally, melanophores responded to mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite, similar to B. splendens erythrophores, suggesting that melanophores can be used as detectors for environmental toxicants. This report highlights the potential of O. tshawytscha melanophores to be used as cell-based biosensors to address environmental toxicity, and warrants a continued investigation to strengthen this technology and its applications. PMID:20809546

  18. The effect of the anti-allergic agent avil on abnormal scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, J; Ramakrishnan, M; Habibullah, C M; Babu, M

    1999-05-01

    Abnormal wound healing in humans leads to the formation of hypertrophic scar and keloids. These abnormal scars accumulate excessive extracellular matrix proteins through increased synthesis as well as decreased degradation. In order to find a therapeutic control for scar formation, we investigated the effect of avil (pheniramine maleate) on fibroblasts cultured from abnormal scars in comparison to normal skin. We observed a decrease in the proliferation rate in cells from normal skin (39%), hypertrophic scar (44%), keloid (63%) and in DNA synthesis in cells from normal skin (50%), hypertrophic scar (55%) and keloid (63%) treated with 8 mM avil (72 h). The rate of decrease in collagen synthesis in normal skin (44%), hypertrophic scar (74%) and keloid fibroblast (73%) correlated with changes in DNA synthesis.

  19. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  20. Complete resolution of minocycline pigmentation following a single treatment with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional resurfacing in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Vangipuram, Ramya K; DeLozier, Whitney L; Geddes, Elizabeth; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Pigmentation secondary to minocycline ingestion is an uncommon adverse event affecting 3.7-14.8% of treated individuals for which few effective therapies are available. Three patterns of minocycline pigmentation have a characteristic clinical and histological appearance. The pigment composition in each variety is different and occurs at varying skin depths. Accordingly, a tailored approach according to the type of minocycline pigmentation is crucial for treatment success. The purpose of this intervention was to evaluate the efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation on the face. A patient with type I minocycline pigmentation was treated with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional photothermolysis followed immediately by 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and then observed clinically to determine the outcome of this modality. The patient was seen in clinic 1 month later following her single treatment session and 100% clearance of all blue facial pigment was observed. Non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser should be considered for treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation.

  1. Complete resolution of minocycline pigmentation following a single treatment with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional resurfacing in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Vangipuram, Ramya K; DeLozier, Whitney L; Geddes, Elizabeth; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Pigmentation secondary to minocycline ingestion is an uncommon adverse event affecting 3.7-14.8% of treated individuals for which few effective therapies are available. Three patterns of minocycline pigmentation have a characteristic clinical and histological appearance. The pigment composition in each variety is different and occurs at varying skin depths. Accordingly, a tailored approach according to the type of minocycline pigmentation is crucial for treatment success. The purpose of this intervention was to evaluate the efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation on the face. A patient with type I minocycline pigmentation was treated with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional photothermolysis followed immediately by 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and then observed clinically to determine the outcome of this modality. The patient was seen in clinic 1 month later following her single treatment session and 100% clearance of all blue facial pigment was observed. Non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser should be considered for treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation. PMID:26718463

  2. [Bacterial pigment prodigiosin and its genotoxic effects].

    PubMed

    Gur'ianov, I D; Karamova, N S; Iusupova, D V; Gnezdilov, O I; Koshkarova, L A

    2013-01-01

    The prodigiosin preparation was isolated and purified from Serratia marcescens ATCC 9986, using chromatographic methods. The analysis of the preparation by TLC, NMR-spectrometry and mass-spectrometry allowed to confirm the red pigment fraction as the prodigiosin and detect its purity. Originally, the specific features of the toxic and genotoxic effects of prodigiosin and the possibility of induction of mutations by pigment in the cells of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 (Ames test) and chromosome damage of mammalian erythroblasts have been determined.

  3. Skin Keratins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  4. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  5. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo: A Separate Entity or Hypertrophic Lichen Planus-like Reaction?

    PubMed

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as "lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia" or "hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction." Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  6. Zeo-pigment for traditional ceramic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, J.J.P.; Rodriguez, A.V.; Caraballo, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In the present work the possibility of using natural zeolites mixed with soluble salts for ceramic pigment elaboration (further named zeo-pigment) is studied. The mixture of zeolite with salts is thermally treated to produce the pigment, this procedure was followed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The obtained zeo-pigments were used to colour the porcelanized ceramic stoneware tiles at the experimental production. As it is known, it is possible to prepare a wide range of colours in these type of tiles by adding specific stains to the mixture of raw materials during grinding in the amount of 0.5 to 5 %, in this way any product called marbleized, mottled, granite, etc. ware is obtained. It is important to remember that when stains are added to the basic white body in order to produce one-color porcelanized ceramic stoneware, this does not involve great problems for the production. The physical properties of experimental produced ceramics, coloured by zeo-pigments, were studied according to European standard test. The present work is intended to be useful from the point of view of pollution prevention and waste minimization, regarding the utilization of soluble salts contained in some industrial wastes for the elaboration of ceramic pigments.

  7. FTIR study of primate color visual pigments

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kota; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    How do we distinguish colors? Humans possess three color pigments; red-, green-, and blue-sensitive proteins, which have maximum absorbance (λmax) at 560, 530, and 420 nm, respectively, and contribute to normal human trichromatic vision (RGB). Each color pigments consists of a different opsin protein bound to a common chromophore molecule, 11-cis-retinal, whereas different chromophore-protein interactions allow preferential absorption of different colors. However, detailed experimental structural data to explain the molecular basis of spectral tuning of color pigments are lacking, mainly because of the difficulty in sample preparation. We thus started structural studies of primate color visual pigments using low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which needs only 0.3 mg protein for a single measurement. Here we report the first structural data of monkey red- (MR) and green- (MG) sensitive pigments, in which the information about the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules is contained. Molecular mechanism of color discrimination between red and green pigments will be discussed based on the structural data by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:27493516

  8. Microspectrophotometry of Arthropod Visual Screening Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Strother, G. K.; Casella, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Absorption spectra of visual screening pigments obtained in vitro with a microspectrophotometer using frozen sections are given for the insects Musca domestica, Phormia regina, Libellula luctuosa, Apis mellifera (worker honeybee only), Drosophila melanogaster (wild type only) and the arachnids Lycosa baltimoriana and Lycosa miami. The spectral range covered is 260–700 nm for Lycosa and Drosophila and 310–700 nm for the remainder of the arthropods. A complete description of the instrumentation is given. For the flies, Phormia and Musca, light absorption by the yellow and red pigments is high from 310 to about 610 nm. This implies that for these insects there should be no wavelength shift in electroretinogram (ERG) results due to light leakage among neighboring ommatidia for this wavelength range. The same comment applies to Calliphora erythrocephala, which is known to have similar screening pigments. For some of the insects studied a close correspondence is noted between screening pigment absorption spectra and spectral sensitivity curves for individual photoreceptors, available in the literature. In some cases the screening pigment absorption spectra can be related to chemical extraction results, with the general observation that some of the in vitro absorption peaks are shifted to the red. The Lycosa, Apis, and Libellula dark red pigments absorb strongly over a wide spectral range and therefore prevent chemical identification. PMID:4623852

  9. FTIR study of primate color visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kota; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    How do we distinguish colors? Humans possess three color pigments; red-, green-, and blue-sensitive proteins, which have maximum absorbance (λmax) at 560, 530, and 420 nm, respectively, and contribute to normal human trichromatic vision (RGB). Each color pigments consists of a different opsin protein bound to a common chromophore molecule, 11-cis-retinal, whereas different chromophore-protein interactions allow preferential absorption of different colors. However, detailed experimental structural data to explain the molecular basis of spectral tuning of color pigments are lacking, mainly because of the difficulty in sample preparation. We thus started structural studies of primate color visual pigments using low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which needs only 0.3 mg protein for a single measurement. Here we report the first structural data of monkey red- (MR) and green- (MG) sensitive pigments, in which the information about the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules is contained. Molecular mechanism of color discrimination between red and green pigments will be discussed based on the structural data by FTIR spectroscopy.

  10. Dermatoscopy in inflammatory and infectious skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lacarrubba, F; Verzì, A E; Dinotta, F; Scavo, S; Micali, G

    2015-10-01

    Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows a rapid and magnified in vivo observation of the skin surface. By definition, it is performed with handheld devices (dermatoscopes) allowing X10 magnification. More expensive, computer-assisted digital systems (videodermatoscopes) may be equipped with lenses that ensure magnifications up to X1000; in this case the term videodermatoscopy is generally used. Dermatoscopy is mainly utilized for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions, and has increasing applications in dermatology. In this paper the use of dermatoscopy in a variety of inflammatory (psoriasis, lichen planus, pityriasis lichenoides, rosacea, lichen sclerosus, Darier's disease, pigmented purpuric dermatoses) and infectious (human papillomaviruses infections, molluscum contagiosum, tinea capitis, tinea nigra, scabies, head and pubic lice, tungiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and cutaneous larva migrans) cutaneous disorders will be analyzed. In these conditions, dermatoscopy may assist the clinical diagnosis, reducing the need of semi-invasive or invasive procedures such as skin scrapings and/or biopsy. Depending on the disease, the choice to use low or high magnifications may be crucial. Dermatoscopy may also be useful for prognostic evaluation and monitoring of response to treatment, representing an important and relatively simple aid in daily clinical practice. PMID:26333553

  11. New prodigiosin-like pigment from Alteromonas rubra.

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, N N; Gauthier, M J

    1979-01-01

    The red prodigiosin-like pigment from Alteromonas rubra was shown to be a mixture of prodigiosin (pigment 1) and a new cyclic isomer (pigment 2). The new structure was elucidated by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Careful examinations of the prodigiosins produced by Serratia marcescens, Vibrio psychoerythrus, and an unidentified red bacterium (LL-100-6) failed to disclose any of the new pigment, pigment 2. PMID:384909

  12. Photoprotective role of epidermal melanin granules against ultraviolet damage and DNA repair in guinea pig skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, T.; Kodama, K.; Matsumoto, J.; Takayama, S.

    1984-11-01

    We previously developed a quantitative autoradiographic technique with special forceps for measuring unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse skin after treatment with ultraviolet light in vivo. By this method, we investigated the relationship between the protective role of melanin and UV-induced DNA repair in black-and-white guinea pigs. Flat areas containing a sharp border between pigmented and unpigmented skin were selected. The skin of the selected areas was shaved and irradiated with short-wave UV (254 nm) or UV-AB (270 to 440 nm, emission peak at 312 nm) at various doses. Immediately after irradiation, the skin was clamped off with forceps, and an isotonic aqueous solution of (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine was injected s.c. into the clamped off portion. UDS was clearly demonstrated as silver grains in this portion of the skin after irradiation with 254 nm UV or UV-AB. Errors due to individual differences were avoided by comparing the intensities of UDS in basal cells from pigmented skin and unpigmented skin of the same animals. Unexpectedly, in groups of animals treated with 254 nm UV or UV-AB, no difference in UDS in pigmented and unpigmented skin was seen at any UV dose. These results suggested that epidermal melanin granules do not significantly protect DNA of basal cells against 254 nm UV or UV-AB irradiation. Results of a study on the effect of the wavelength of irradiation on the UDS response of albino guinea pigs are also reported.

  13. Noncontacting diffuse VIS-NIR spectroscopy of human skin for evaluation of skin type and time-dependent microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Fassler, Dieter; Zimmermann, Gabi; Liebold, Kristin; Wollina, Uwe

    2000-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the VIS-NIR range allow the objective determination of pigmentation, blood microcirculation and water content of human skin. Non- contacting in vivo measurements of the human skin of 50 volunteers reflect the clinical skin type well. Our correlation analysis yields that the red/infrared spectral range can be used for a determination of skin type. The observed strong spectral variations within the same group of skin type are likely based on the high biological variability of human skin and subjective clinically observed skin type. Therefore it can be useful to measure the full spectral range and to calculate a non-observed skin score with multivariate spectral methods. By multivariate analysis a correct classification of remittance spectra can be obtained. Time- depending spectral variations of dermal microcirculation can be measured at defined locations of the body, for instance the dynamics of oxygenation or blood volume in the skin of the fingertip. The cardial, pulmonal and vasomotoric waves of the micro- and macrocirculation are clearly visible at different wavelengths. The spectroscopic informations are important as an objective measure for the skin type evaluation, the penetration behavior of pharmaca, laser surgery, and therapy.

  14. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  15. Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, H.; Akhtar, N.; Ali, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

  16. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-06-13

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016.

  17. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016. PMID:27347898

  18. Wrinkled skin and fat pads in patients with ALG8-CDG: revisiting skin manifestations in congenital disorders of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Kouwenberg, Dorus; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Mohamed, Miski; Lefeber, Dirk J; Morava, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is the posttranslational coupling of sugar chains to proteins or lipids. Proper glycosylation is essential for normal protein structure, function, and trafficking. Mutations in the glycosylation pathway lead to a phenotypically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders, the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Some of these conditions, including PMM2-CDG, frequently present with recognizable skin abnormalities such as abnormal fat distribution, skin wrinkling, or peau d'orange, whereas others, such as COG7-CDG and ATP6V0A2-CDG, have been described in association with cutis laxa: wrinkled, inelastic, and sagging skin. Ichthyosis is also common in several types of CDG. ALG8-CDG is a severe disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, protein-losing enteropathy, neurologic and ophthalmologic problems, and developmental delay. We reviewed the clinical features in all nine previously reported patients diagnosed with ALG8-CDG with a special focus on their skin signs. Three of the nine patients had abnormal fat distribution and skin wrinkling. As the spectrum of CDG presenting with skin signs expands further, we suggest screening for CDG in all patients presenting with any type of central nervous involvement and wrinkled skin, cutis laxa, severe ichthyosis, or abnormal fat distribution. PMID:24555185

  19. Ultrastructural observations on experimentally produced melanin pigmentation of the corneal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, J. S.; Klintworth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    Melanin pigmentation of the corneal epithelium was induced in pigmented guinea pigs by the topical application of colchicine to their eyes or by corneal cauterization with silver nitrate. With colchicine the pigmentation was preceded by the development of an abnormal corneal epithelium in which numerous cells became arrested in cell division. The corneal melanosis resulted largely from the migration of melanocytes into the corneal epithelium from the normally pigmented contiguous conjunctiva and to a lesser extent from the presence of melanin granules within corneal epithelial cells. In both models a leukocytic and vascular invasion of the cornea proceded and accompanied the migration of melanocytes into the corneal epithelium. Electron microscopy disclosed cells with the same morphology as conjunctival melanocytes between the epithelial cells of the cornea. Mature melanin granules were also present within some squamous epithelial cells as individual granules or as clusters. The ultrastructural findings are viewed in relation to how melanin granules are transferred from melanocytes to epithelial cells. Evidence is presented which suggests that malanin granule transfer may follow the fusion of the membranes of the melanocytes and epithelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:970438

  20. The skin and hypercoagulable states.

    PubMed

    Thornsberry, Laura A; LoSicco, Kristen I; English, Joseph C

    2013-09-01

    Hypercoagulable states (HS) are inherited or acquired conditions that predispose an individual to venous and/or arterial thrombosis. The dermatologist can play a vital role in diagnosing a patient's HS by recognizing the associated cutaneous manifestations, such as purpura, purpura fulminans, livedo reticularis, livedo vasculopathy (atrophie blanche), anetoderma, chronic venous ulcers, and superficial venous thrombosis. The cutaneous manifestations of HS are generally nonspecific, but identification of an abnormal finding can warrant a further workup for an underlying thrombophilic disorder. This review will focus on the basic science of hemostasis, the evaluation of HS, the skin manifestations associated with hypercoagulability, and the use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in dermatology.

  1. Sweating in Systemic Abnormalities: Uremia and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Murota, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sweating disorders are sometimes observed in various systemic diseases that include genetic disorders, organ damage, metabolic impairment, autoimmune diseases, and neuropathic disorders. In these diseases, various symptoms such as autonomic failures, psychopathic disorders, abnormal skin innervation, and sweat gland dysfunction can interact with one another in diverse ways, resulting in impaired sweating. This review focuses on the influence of uremia (with or without hemodialysis) and diabetes mellitus on impaired sweating. Dialysis patients perspire less, but their sweat contains higher levels of uremic toxins than do healthy subjects. Neuropathic disorders in diabetes patients develop in relation to disease severity and can impair sweating. Physicians should consider the development of various problems, such as increased body temperature, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infection, due to decreased sweating, as they are often found in these systemic abnormalities. PMID:27584963

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  3. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  4. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  5. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  6. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  7. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  8. pH-Regulated Mechanisms Account for Pigment-Type Differences in Epidermal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Schurer, Nanna Y.; Shoo, Brenda A.; Celli, Anna; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Sirimanna, Ganga; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether pigment type determines differences in epidermal function, we studied stratum corneum (SC) pH, permeability barrier homeostasis, and SC integrity in three geographically disparate populations with pigment type I–II versus IV–V skin (Fitzpatrick I–VI scale). Type IV–V subjects showed: (i) lower surface pH (≈0.5 U); (ii) enhanced SC integrity (transepidermal water loss change with sequential tape strippings); and (iii) more rapid barrier recovery than type I–II subjects. Enhanced barrier function could be ascribed to increased epidermal lipid content, increased lamellar body production, and reduced acidity, leading to enhanced lipid processing. Compromised SC integrity in type I–II subjects could be ascribed to increased serine protease activity, resulting in accelerated desmoglein-1 (DSG-1)/corneodesmosome degradation. In contrast, DSG-1-positive CDs persisted in type IV–V subjects, but due to enhanced cathepsin-D activity, SC thickness did not increase. Adjustment of pH of type I–II SC to type IV–V levels improved epidermal function. Finally, dendrites from type IV–V melanocytes were more acidic than those from type I–II subjects, and they transfer more melanosomes to the SC, suggesting that melanosome secretion could contribute to the more acidic pH of type IV–V skin. These studies show marked pigment-type differences in epidermal structure and function that are pH driven. PMID:19177137

  9. pH-regulated mechanisms account for pigment-type differences in epidermal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Schurer, Nanna Y; Shoo, Brenda A; Celli, Anna; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Sirimanna, Ganga; Feingold, Kenneth R; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether pigment type determines differences in epidermal function, we studied stratum corneum (SC) pH, permeability barrier homeostasis, and SC integrity in three geographically disparate populations with pigment type I-II versus IV-V skin (Fitzpatrick I-VI scale). Type IV-V subjects showed: (i) lower surface pH (approximately 0.5 U); (ii) enhanced SC integrity (transepidermal water loss change with sequential tape strippings); and (iii) more rapid barrier recovery than type I-II subjects. Enhanced barrier function could be ascribed to increased epidermal lipid content, increased lamellar body production, and reduced acidity, leading to enhanced lipid processing. Compromised SC integrity in type I-II subjects could be ascribed to increased serine protease activity, resulting in accelerated desmoglein-1 (DSG-1)/corneodesmosome degradation. In contrast, DSG-1-positive CDs persisted in type IV-V subjects, but due to enhanced cathepsin-D activity, SC thickness did not increase. Adjustment of pH of type I-II SC to type IV-V levels improved epidermal function. Finally, dendrites from type IV-V melanocytes were more acidic than those from type I-II subjects, and they transfer more melanosomes to the SC, suggesting that melanosome secretion could contribute to the more acidic pH of type IV-V skin. These studies show marked pigment-type differences in epidermal structure and function that are pH driven.

  10. Interactions between zebrafish pigment cells responsible for the generation of Turing patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamasu, Akiko; Takahashi, Go; Kanbe, Akio; Kondo, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The reaction–diffusion system is one of the most studied nonlinear mechanisms that generate spatially periodic structures autonomous. On the basis of many mathematical studies using computer simulations, it is assumed that animal skin patterns are the most typical examples of the Turing pattern (stationary periodic pattern produced by the reaction–diffusion system). However, the mechanism underlying pattern formation remains unknown because the molecular or cellular basis of the phenomenon has yet to be identified. In this study, we identified the interaction network between the pigment cells of zebrafish, and showed that this interaction network possesses the properties necessary to form the Turing pattern. When the pigment cells in a restricted region were killed with laser treatment, new pigment cells developed to regenerate the striped pattern. We also found that the development and survival of the cells were influenced by the positioning of the surrounding cells. When melanophores and xanthophores were located at adjacent positions, these cells excluded one another. However, melanophores required a mass of xanthophores distributed in a more distant region for both differentiation and survival. Interestingly, the local effect of these cells is opposite to that of their effects long range. This relationship satisfies the necessary conditions required for stable pattern formation in the reaction–diffusion model. Simulation calculations for the deduced network generated wild-type pigment patterns as well as other mutant patterns. Our findings here allow further investigation of Turing pattern formation within the context of cell biology. PMID:19433782

  11. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential.

    PubMed

    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S; Bielenberg, Diane R; D'Amato, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases.

  12. Interactions between zebrafish pigment cells responsible for the generation of Turing patterns.

    PubMed

    Nakamasu, Akiko; Takahashi, Go; Kanbe, Akio; Kondo, Shigeru

    2009-05-26

    The reaction-diffusion system is one of the most studied nonlinear mechanisms that generate spatially periodic structures autonomous. On the basis of many mathematical studies using computer simulations, it is assumed that animal skin patterns are the most typical examples of the Turing pattern (stationary periodic pattern produced by the reaction-diffusion system). However, the mechanism underlying pattern formation remains unknown because the molecular or cellular basis of the phenomenon has yet to be identified. In this study, we identified the interaction network between the pigment cells of zebrafish, and showed that this interaction network possesses the properties necessary to form the Turing pattern. When the pigment cells in a restricted region were killed with laser treatment, new pigment cells developed to regenerate the striped pattern. We also found that the development and survival of the cells were influenced by the positioning of the surrounding cells. When melanophores and xanthophores were located at adjacent positions, these cells excluded one another. However, melanophores required a mass of xanthophores distributed in a more distant region for both differentiation and survival. Interestingly, the local effect of these cells is opposite to that of their effects long range. This relationship satisfies the necessary conditions required for stable pattern formation in the reaction-diffusion model. Simulation calculations for the deduced network generated wild-type pigment patterns as well as other mutant patterns. Our findings here allow further investigation of Turing pattern formation within the context of cell biology. PMID:19433782

  13. Inhibitory effect of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) on melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and on pigmentation in brown guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takashi; Ikeda, Katsumi; Saito, Morio

    2011-01-01

    The compounds present in rose hips exerting an inhibitory action against melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated by dividing an aqueous extract of rose hips (RE) into four fractions. The 50% ethanol eluate from a DIAION HP-20 column significantly reduced the production of melanin and was mainly composed of procyanidin glycosides. We also found that this 50% ethanol eluate reduced the intracellular tyrosinase activity and also had a direct inhibitory effect on tyrosinase obtained as a protein mixture from the melanoma cell lysate. We also investigated the effect of orally administering RE on skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs, and found that the pigmentation was inhibited together with the tyrosinase activity in the skin. These data collectively suggest that proanthocyanidins from RE inhibited melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and guinea pig skin, and could be useful as a skin-whitening agent when taken orally.

  14. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    PubMed

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  15. Pigmented pleomorphic adenoma, a novel melanin-pigmented benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yasunori; Satoh, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports a pleomorphic adenoma with grossly visible pigmentation resulting in the macroscopic appearance of melanotic lesion in a 33-year-old Japanese male. In addition to the characteristic histopathological features of a benign pleomorphic adenoma, variously formed and -sized cells, many of which were considered to be melanocytes, containing melanin pigment in their cytoplasm, were distributed in the epithelial component. In addition, melanin pigment was deposited in tumor cells of duct structures. Furthermore, condensed secretory substances with marked pigmentation were frequently seen in the tubular lumina. Perusal of the English language literature revealed only two cases of parenchymal pigmentation of salivary gland tumors: both were mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The possible histogenesis of melanocytes in the salivary gland lesions is discussed, though no firm conclusion could be drawn.

  16. Ultrastructure: effects of melanin pigment on target specificity using a pulsed dye laser (577 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, A.K.; Tan, O.T.; Boll, J.; Parrish, J.A.; Murphy, G.F.

    1987-06-01

    It has been shown recently that brief pulses of 577 nm radiation from the tunable dye laser are absorbed selectively by oxyhemoglobin. This absorption is associated with highly specific damage to superficial vascular plexus blood vessels in those with lightly pigmented (type I-II) skin. To determine whether pigmentary differences in the overlying epidermis influence this target specificity, we exposed both type I (fair) and type V (dark) normal human skin to varying radiant exposure doses over 1.5-microsecond pulse durations from the tunable dye laser at a wavelength of 577 nm. Using ultrastructural techniques, we found in type I skin that even clinical subthreshold laser exposures caused reproducible alterations of erythrocytes and adjacent dermal vascular endothelium without comparable damage to the overlying epidermis. In contrast, degenerated epidermal basal cells represented the predominant form of cellular damage after laser exposure of type V skin at comparable doses. We conclude that epidermal melanin and vascular hemoglobin are competing sites for 577 nm laser absorption and damage, and that the target specificity of the 577 nm tunable dye laser is therefore influenced by variations in epidermal pigmentation. This finding is relevant to the clinical application of the tunable dye laser in the ablative treatment of vascular lesions. We also found on ultrastructure that the presence of electron-lucent circular structures of approximately 800 A in diameter were observed only at and above clinical threshold doses in those with type I skin and at the highest dose of 2.75 J/cm2 in type V skin. It has been proposed that these structures might be heat-fixed molds of water vapor. Both this and ultrastructural changes of epidermal basal cells demonstrate mechanisms responsible for alteration of tissue after exposure to 577 nm, which are discussed.

  17. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R. L. N.; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G. K. R.; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  18. Potential natural sensitizers extracted from the skin of Canarium odontophyllum fruits for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andery; Kumara, N T R N; Tan, Ai Ling; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Chandrakanthi, R L N; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Ming, Lim Chee; Senadeera, G K R; Ekanayake, Piyasiri

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of use of dye extract from skin samples of a seasonal, indigenous fruit from Borneo, namely Canarium odontophyllum, in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are explored. Three main groups of flavonoid pigments are detected and these pigments exhibit different UV-vis absorption properties, and hence showing different light harvesting capabilities. When applied in DSSCs. The detected pigment constituents of the extract consist of aurone (maritimein), anthocyanidin (pelargonidin) and anthocyanidin (cyanidin derivatives). When tested in DSSC, the highest conversion efficiency of 1.43% is exhibited by cyanidin derivatives, and this is followed by conversion efficiencies of 0.51% and 0.79% for aurone and pelargonidin, respectively. It is shown that individual pigments, like cyanidin derivatives and pelargonidin, exhibit higher power conversion efficiency when compared to that of C.odontophyllum skin pigment mixture (with a conversion efficiency of only 0.68%). The results indicate a possibility of masking effects of the pigments when used as a mixture. The acidification of C.odontophyllum skin pigments with concentrated hydrochloric acid improves the conversion efficiency of the mixture from 0.68% to 0.99%. The discussion in this paper will draw data and observations from the variation in absorption and adsorption properties, the HOMO-LUMO levels, the energy band gaps and the functional group compositions of the detected flavonoids.

  19. Arsenic carcinogenesis in the skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2006-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is a world public health issue. Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers in lung, urinary bladder, kidney, liver and skin in a dose-response relationship. Oxidative stress, chromosomal abnormality and altered growth factors are possible modes of action in arsenic carcinogenesis. Arsenic tends to accumulate in the skin. Skin hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis have long been known to be the hallmark signs of chronic As exposure. There are significant associations between these dermatological lesions and risk of skin cancer. The most common arsenic-induced skin cancers are Bowen's disease (carcinoma in situ), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD) is able to transform into invasive BCC and SCC. Individuals with As-BD are considered for more aggressive cancer screening in the lung and urinary bladder. As-BD provides an excellent model for studying the early stages of chemical carcinogenesis in human beings. Arsenic exposure is associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and DNA aneuploidy in both cultured keratinocytes and As-BD lesions. These cellular abnormalities relate to the p53 dysfunction induced by arsenic. The characteristic clinical figures of arsenic-induced skin cancer are: (i) occurrence on sun-protected areas of the body; (ii) multiple and recrudescent lesions. Both As and UVB are able to induce skin cancer. Arsenic treatment enhances the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and clastogenicity of UV in mammalian cells. Both As and UVB induce apoptosis in keratinocytes by caspase-9 and caspase-8 signaling, respectively. Combined UVB and As treatments resulted in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects by stimulating both caspase pathways in the keratinocytes. UVB irradiation inhibited mutant p53 and ki-67 expression, as well as increased in the number of apoptotic cells in As-BD lesions which resulted in an

  20. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  1. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  2. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  3. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  4. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  5. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  6. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  7. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Infographics Children For Your Eyes Clothing Shade Sunscreen Sunburn Seal of Recommendation Are You at Risk? ... Defense The Mini Skin Cancer Prevention Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer ...

  8. Sensitive skin and rosacea: nosologic framework.

    PubMed

    Misery, L

    2011-11-01

    Flushing due to rosacea may be mistaken for sensitive skin, which can manifest as abnormal sensations during fairly acute reactions to a variety of triggers, many of which are shared by rosacea and sensitive skin. Nevertheless, the two conditions are clearly different. Rosacea is a vascular disease, worsens gradually over time, manifests as flares triggered chiefly by systemic factors, is largely confined to the facial and/or ocular regions, and responds to specific treatments. Sensitive skin, in contrast, is an epidermal cosmetic problem that runs a variable course, with diffuse skin involvement and flares triggered mainly by contact factors. The flares respond to specific cosmetics and are usually worsened by treatments for rosacea.

  9. Effects of visible light on the skin.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Bassel H; Hexsel, Camile L; Hamzavi, Iltefat H; Lim, Henry W

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation has vast and diverse effects on human skin. Although photobiologic studies of sunlight date back to Sir Isaac Newton in 1671, most available studies focus on the UV radiation part of the spectrum. The effects of visible light and infrared radiation have not been, until recently, clearly elucidated. The goal of this review is to highlight the effects of visible light on the skin. As a result of advances in the understanding of skin optics, and comprehensive studies regarding the absorption spectrum of endogenous and exogenous skin chromophores, various biologic effects have been shown to be exerted by visible light radiation including erythema, pigmentation, thermal damage and free radical production. It has also been shown that visible light can induce indirect DNA damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, a number of photodermatoses have an action spectrum in the visible light range, even though most of the currently available sunscreens offer, if any, weak protection against visible light. Conversely, because of its cutaneous biologic effects, visible light is used for the treatment of a variety of skin diseases and esthetic conditions in the form of lasers, intense pulsed light and photodynamic therapy.

  10. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

  11. Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Yuji; Iida, Toshii; Inomata, Shinji; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2005-05-01

    Abnormal follicular keratinization is involved in comedogenesis in acne vulgaris. We recently demonstrated that calcium influx into epidermal keratinocytes is associated with impaired skin barrier function and epidermal proliferation. Based on these results, we hypothesized that sebum components affect calcium dynamics in the keratinocyte and consequently induce abnormal keratinization. To test this idea, we first observed the effects of topical application of sebum components, triglycerides (triolein), saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitoleic acid) on hairless mouse skin. Neither triglyceride nor saturated fatty acids affected the skin surface morphology or epidermal proliferation. On the other hand, application of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, and palmitoleic acid induced scaly skin, abnormal keratinization, and epidermal hyperplasia. Application of triglycerides and saturated fatty acids on cultured human keratinocytes did not affect the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), whereas unsaturated fatty acids increased the [Ca(2+)](i) of the keratinocytes. Moreover, application of oleic acid on hairless mouse skin induced an abnormal calcium distribution in the epidermis. These results suggest that unsaturated fatty acids in sebum alter the calcium dynamics in epidermal keratinocytes and induce abnormal follicular keratinization.

  12. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  13. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features.

    PubMed

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-07-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features. PMID:27648386

  14. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features

    PubMed Central

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features. PMID:27648386

  15. On the evolution of the photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Evstigneev, V B

    1975-07-01

    During the course of terrestrial evolution, some organisms developed the capability of capturing and utilizing solar radiation. Colored compounds were undoubtedly incorporated within living forms from the earliest times, but during the transition from heterotrophic to a photoautotrophic metabolism only those pigments were selected that were components of the evolving photosynthetic apparatus and were able to catalyze reactions involving storage of light energy in chemical bonds. In this communication, some properties of tetrapyrroles with a closed porphyrin ring containing a metal ion in the center are discussed. These compounds are present in all principal contemporary photosynthetic pigments, and their synthesis has been demonstrated from simpler compounds under prebiotic conditions. It is probable that during intermediate stages in the evolution of photosynthesis, pigments with oxidizing potentials lower than that of chlorophyll were utilized to store light energy although they were not capable of removing electrons from water. The evolution and function of multiple forms of a given photosynthetic pigment in vivo are discussed. 'Accessory' pigments may be regarded as rudiments of the evolutionary development of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  16. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features

    PubMed Central

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features.

  17. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods. PMID:12200476

  18. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods.

  19. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  20. Investigations of biomimetic light energy harvesting pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Patten, P.G.; Donohoe, R.J.; Lindsey, J.S.; Bocian, D.F.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nature uses chlorophyll and other porphyrinic pigments to capture and transfer light energy as a preliminary step in photosynthesis. The design of synthetic assemblies of light harvesting and energy directing pigments has been explored through synthesis and characterization of porphyrin oligomers. In this project, pigment electronic and vibrational structures have been explored by electrochemistry and dynamic and static optical measurements. Transient absorption data reveal energy transfer between pigments with lifetimes on the order of 20--200 picoseconds, while Raman data reveal that the basic porphyrin core structure is unperturbed relative to the individual monomer units. These two findings, along with an extensive series of experiments on the oxidized oligomers, reveal that coupling between the pigments is fundamentally weak, but sufficient to allow facile energy transfer as the predominant excited state process. Modeling of the expected quantum yields for energy transfer within a variety of arrays was accomplished, thereby providing a tool to guide synthetic goals.