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Sample records for abnormal sleep patterns

  1. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  2. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  3. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  4. REM sleep abnormalities and psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, J A

    1994-01-01

    Since the 1950s, with the discovery of REM sleep and its relationship to dreaming, psychiatric sleep researchers have been interested in uncovering the complex relationship between disturbed sleep and psychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the alterations in REM sleep of relevance to psychiatry and indicates that continued developments in sleep research may assist in further understanding the neuropathophysiology of affective and other psychiatric illnesses. PMID:7803367

  5. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  6. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  7. Sleep and Cognitive Abnormalities in Acute Minor Thalamic Infarction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Cui, Linyang; Fu, Ying; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Du, Ning; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Zhijun; Song, Yijun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Xue, Rong

    2016-08-01

    In order to characterize sleep and the cognitive patterns in patients with acute minor thalamic infarction (AMTI), we enrolled 27 patients with AMTI and 12 matched healthy individuals. Questionnaires about sleep and cognition as well as polysomnography (PSG) were performed on days 14 and 90 post-stroke. Compared to healthy controls, in patients with AMTI, hyposomnia was more prevalent; sleep architecture was disrupted as indicated by decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency, and decreased non-rapid eye movement sleep stages 2 and 3; more sleep-related breathing disorders occurred; and cognitive functions were worse, especially memory. While sleep apnea and long-delay memory recovered to a large extent in the patients, other sleep and cognitive function deficit often persisted. Patients with AMTI are at an increased risk for hyposomnia, sleep structure disturbance, sleep apnea, and memory deficits. Although these abnormalities improved over time, the slow and incomplete improvement suggest that early management should be considered in these patients. PMID:27237578

  8. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = −0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  9. Sleep Patterns in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hering, Eli; Epstein, Rachel; Elroy, Sarit; Iancu, Daisy R.; Zelnik, Nathanel

    1999-01-01

    This study compared data on sleep disturbances of 22 autistic children obtained by questionnaires with data obtained with actigraphy. Questionnaire responses indicated that autistic children had an earlier morning awakening time and multiple and early night arousals; actigraphic monitoring, however, showed their sleep patterns were normal except…

  10. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  11. REM sleep abnormalities in severe athetoid cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Inoue, Y; Iwakawa, Y; Sasaki, H

    1990-01-01

    Various abnormalities of sleep have been reported in extrapyramidal diseases in adults. We have investigated the disturbances of REM sleep (SREM) in severe athetoid cerebral palsy (ACP) originating perinatally. Ten ACP patients, 5 males and 5 females ranging from 15 to 30 years old, were studied by means of all-night polygraphic examination. Three cases showed a marked decrease in rapid eye movements in SREM. Moreover, the tone of submental muscle in SREM was also disturbed in three. Regarding body movements during sleep, gross movements and twitch movements of the submental muscle were analyzed. In most of the patients, an abnormal distribution of body movements according to sleep stages was observed, the rate being significantly reduced in SREM. REMs, atonia and body movements are considered to be related to the brainstem function in animals. The results of the present study suggest that perinatal extrapyramidal diseases could also coincide with brainstem dysfunctions. PMID:2288380

  12. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Methods Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. Results During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Conclusions Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness. PMID:26241047

  13. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

  14. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph.

    PubMed

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m(2), and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  15. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph

    PubMed Central

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  16. Sleep patterns and obesity in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To highlight the recent findings on sleep–obesity associations in children. We focus on sleep duration, sleep timing and chronotype, and describe the potential mechanisms underlying sleep–obesity associations. Recent findings Poor sleep is increasingly common in children and associations between short sleep duration in early childhood and obesity are consistently found. Less is known about the infancy period, and the findings in adolescents are inconsistent. Sleep timing patterns may also contribute to obesity risk. Variable and shifted sleep schedules and evening chronotypes have recently been linked to adiposity in adults; less is known about children. Further, there is little understanding regarding the mechanisms of association. The timing of eating, dietary intake, obesogenic eating behaviors, and changes in appetite-regulating hormones have been identified as possible mechanisms for sleep–obesity associations and may be promising avenues for future research. Longitudinal and experimental work with children is needed to determine the nature of associations. Summary Beyond sleep duration, sleep timing patterns may contribute to obesity risk. Biological and behavioral processes have been proposed as mechanisms that may explain the association. Understanding the pathways through which poor sleep patterns could increase obesity risk in children may provide novel avenues for intervention. PMID:25517022

  17. Habitual sleep length and patterns of recovery sleep after 24 hour and 36 hour sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Benoit, O; Foret, J; Bouard, G; Merle, B; Landau, J; Marc, M E

    1980-12-01

    Five long sleepers (LS) and 5 short sleepers (SS) were selected from 310 medical students. Nine regular sleepers (RS) were used as a control. The sleep was recorded during 3 reference nights, one recovery night after a 36 h sleep deprivation (R2), one morning sleep after a 24 h sleep deprivation (D1) and the night following D1(R1). According to previous data slow wave sleep (SWS) amounts were the same in the 3 groups while stage 2 and paradoxical sleep (PS) amounts increased with the sleep duration. The hourly distribution of intervening wakefulness and SWS were similar for all groups. When compared to RS or SS the hourly distribution in LS of PS was lower until the sixth hour. As a function of experimental conditions, sleep patterns of LS were the most affected. In R2 the sleep of LS more closely resembled that of RS or SS than in reference nights, while in R1 LS' sleep was the most disturbed. Morning sleep durations were very similar for all groups, but in LS intervening wakefulness was increased and PS was decreased when compared to RS and SS. Negative correlations (Spearman rank test) were found between the morning increase of body temperature after a sleep-deprived night and both TST and PS durations. In all recorded sleep periods, SWS amounts were positively correlated with prior wakefulness duration and the PS amount with TST. PMID:6160990

  18. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson’s disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0 ± 5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5 ± 7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6 ± 5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9 ± 12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson’s disease-related network activity was also elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949

  19. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  20. Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carskadon, Mary A., Ed.

    Noting that healthy, adequate sleep fosters longevity and the optimal use of waking hours, and that adolescents, although rarely included in previous studies of sleep, are among the most sleep-deprived populations, this book explores the genesis and development of sleep patterns during adolescence, including biological and cultural factors that…

  1. Sleep Patterns and Its Relationship to Schooling and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Franklin Ross

    Diagnostic classifications of sleep and arousal disorders have been categorized in four major areas: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive sleepiness, disorders of the sleep/wake pattern, and the parasomnias such as sleep walking, talking, and night errors. Another nomenclature classifies them into DIMS (disorders…

  2. Disturbed Dreaming and the Instability of Sleep: Altered Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep Microstructure in Individuals with Frequent Nightmares as Revealed by the Cyclic Alternating Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Simor, Péter; Bódizs, Róbert; Horváth, Klára; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Nightmares are disturbing mental experiences during sleep that usually result in abrupt awakenings. Frequent nightmares are associated with poor subjective sleep quality, and recent polysomnographic data suggest that nightmare sufferers exhibit impaired sleep continuity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Because disrupted sleep might be related to abnormal arousal processes, the goal of this study was to examine polysomnographic arousal-related activities in a group of nightmare sufferers and a healthy control group. Design: Sleep microstructure analysis was carried out by scoring the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in NREM sleep and the arousal index in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on the second night of the polysomnographic examination. Setting: Hospital-based sleep research laboratory. Participants: There were 17 in the nightmare (NMs) group and 23 in the healthy control (CTLs) group. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The NMs group exhibited reduced amounts of CAP A1 subtype and increased CAP A2 and A3 subtypes, as well as longer duration of CAP A phases in comparison with CTLs. Moreover, these differences remained significant after controlling for the confounding factors of anxious and depressive symptoms. The absolute number and frequency of REM arousals did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that NREM sleep microstructure is altered during nonsymptomatic nights of nightmares. Disrupted sleep in the NMs group seems to be related to abnormal arousal processes, specifically an imbalance in sleep-promoting and arousing mechanisms during sleep. Citation: Simor P; Bódizs R; Horváth K; Ferri R. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. SLEEP 2013;36(3):413-419. PMID:23449753

  3. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Youngmin; Williamson, Ariel A; Seo, Hyun-Joo; Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children's sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481

  4. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominately Asian (P-A) and predominately Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children’s sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481

  5. Sleep pattern and practice among adolescents school children in Nigerian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Maduabuchi, Josephat Chinawa; Obu, Herbert Anayo; Chukwu, Barthlomew Friday; Aronu, Ann Ebele; Manyike, Pius Chukwuka; Chinawa, Awoere Tamunosiki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some adolescents may have sleep disorder at some point during adolescence. Determining the pattern and practice of sleep among adolescents could be useful to establish a lasting sleep hygiene program among adolescents. The objectives of this study are to describe sleep pattern and practice among adolescent in Nigerian secondary schools. Methods Sleep habits were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools from February to April 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Results A total of 443 subjects, comprising 263 (59.4%) females and 180 (40.6%) males completed the questionnaire. The mean duration of night sleep of the subjects during weekday was 7.84 (1.9) hours and 8.65 (2.07) hours during the weekend. 22.8% (101/443) had abnormal sleep onset latency (< 5 minutes and > 30 minutes). The gender of the subjects did not influence the sleep onset latency (χ2 = 32.89, p= 0.57). Twenty six (5.9%)of the subjects reported difficulty falling asleep. Conclusion Adolescents have varying degrees of sleeping practice and hygiene. PMID:25883740

  6. Sleep Patterns During Hospitalization Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Kapella, Mary Catherine; Park, Chang; Ferrans, Carol E.; Larson, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To characterize patient-reported and objective sleep assessments and provide a preliminary examination of the relationships among sleep, quality of life, and demographic or treatment factors. Design A secondary data analysis using a descriptive-correlational design. Setting University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System. Sample 40 patients undergoing a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) hospitalized for the conditioning regimen, stem cell infusion, and immediate recovery period. Methods Each patient wore a wrist actigraph continuously from the fourth day following HCT to the eighth day to objectively assess sleep patterns (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and number of awakenings). At the end of the five-day period, patients completed measures of sleep disturbance and quality of life. Main Research Variables Objective sleep (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and number of awakenings), subjective sleep (sleep disturbance), and quality of life. Findings The mean total nighttime sleep (objectively obtained) was 232 minutes (SD = 71 minutes), with 14 patients (35%) sleeping less than three consecutive hours during one or more study days. Age was negatively correlated with patient-reported sleep disturbance. Patient-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with length of hospital stay. No correlations were found between patient-reported and objective sleep assessments. Conclusions This study objectively documents inadequate and irregular sleep in hospitalized patients undergoing HCT. Sole reliance on patient-reported sleep assessments may not represent the full extent of the problem. Implications for Nursing Attempts to streamline care during the night by not waking patients for routine care unless indicated by the patient’s condition (as advocated by the American Academy of Nursing) and providing supportive care for

  7. Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: abnormalities of sleep and behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, D J; Waters, J; CORBETT, J A

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 32 adult females and 31 adult males with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) shows that sleep disorders (including excessive day and night time sleep) and behavioural abnormalities, (temper tantrums and deliberate picking of sores) are common. These abnormalities are not related to the degree of obesity or to each other. Speech disorders also occur. Intelligence quotients are often within the normal range. PMID:2629712

  8. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-07-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.

  9. Understanding adolescents' sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A

    2003-12-01

    The present paper reviews and critiques studies assessing the relation between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school performance of adolescents attending middle school, high school, and/or college. The majority of studies relied on self-report, yet the researchers approached the question with different designs and measures. Specifically, studies looked at (1) sleep/wake patterns and usual grades, (2) school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic performance, and (3) sleep patterns and classroom performance (e.g., examination grades). The findings strongly indicate that self-reported shortened total sleep time, erratic sleep/wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle school through the college years. Limitations of the current published studies are also discussed in detail in this review. PMID:15018092

  10. Dynamics of sleep/wake determination--Normal and abnormal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahowald, Mark W.; Schenck, Carlos H.; O'Connor, Kevin A.

    1991-10-01

    Virtually all members of the animal kingdom experience a relentless and powerful cycling of states of being: wakefulness, rapid eye movement sleep, and nonrapid eye movement sleep. Each of these states is composed of a number of physiologic variables generated in a variety of neural structures. The predictable oscillations of these states are driven by presumed neural pacemakers which are entrained to the 24 h geophysical environment by the light/dark cycle. Experiments in nature have indicated that wake/sleep rhythm perturbations may occur either involving desynchronization of the basic 24 h wake/sleep cycle within the geophysical 24 h cycle (circadian rhythm disturbances) or involving the rapid oscillation or incomplete declaration of state (such as narcolepsy). The use of phase spaces to describe states of being may be of interest in the description of state determination in both illness and health. Some fascinating clinical and experimental phenomena may represent bifurcations in the sleep/wake control system.

  11. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buboltz, Walter C.; Brown, Franklin; Soper, Barlow

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their sleep habits, patterns, and problems. A large majority had at least occasional sleep problems, with women reporting more of some difficulties than men. The most common sleep difficulties were taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, trouble falling asleep more than three times per week, morning…

  12. Sleep Patterns in the Healthy Aged: Relationship with Intellectual Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinz, Patricia N.

    1977-01-01

    Sleep patterns of elderly subjects (N=12) differed from young adult levels. When sleep variables were compared with individual changes in intellectual function measured across the seventh through 10th decades of life, a positive correlation was found between time in REM sleep and several longitudinal measures of mental functioning. (Author)

  13. Holiday and School-Term Sleep Patterns of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-01-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…

  14. Sleep patterns in three acute combat fatigue cases.

    PubMed

    Schlosberg, A; Benjamin, M

    1978-06-01

    A preliminary report is presented on the sleep patterns of three combat fatigued patients with recurrent nightmares, insomnia, low frustration thresholds and impotence. All the patients had undergone acute partial sleep deprivation prior to their breakdown. The results show severe deficiency in REM sleep and absence of stage 4 sleep. EMG was usually high with numerous body movements and bursts of tachycardia throughout the night. Nightmares occurred in stage 2. Total effective sleep time was between 129' and 250'. Most of the sleep was in stage 2, and patients woke up with the feeling that "they had not slept at all." It is hypothesized that acute partial sleep deprivation prior to breakdown was an important predisposing factor, and that chronic partial sleep deprivation was a constant aggravating factor of combat fatigue. Replacement therapy for the specific deficient sleep states is proposed. PMID:207680

  15. Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep in temporal lobe epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-06-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  16. Sleep-patterns, sleep hygiene behaviors and parental monitoring among Bahrain-based Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    John, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep plays an important role in adolescent's health and undergoes substantial changes with puberty and physical maturation with a preference for later bed times. Evidence shows that many adolescents are not obtaining the required amounts of sleep which is 9.25 h, due to inadequate sleep practices, academic and societal demands. This study aims at describing the (1) sleep patterns of adolescents on school days and weekends, (2) sleep hygiene practices and the extent of parental monitoring and (3) gender and grade level differences in sleep duration and sleep hygiene practices among Indian adolescents in Bahrain. Materials and Methods: Study used a descriptive correlational design. A total of 145 adolescents from 11 to 17 years from grade 6 to 12 were selected using convenience sampling. Data was collected from November 2012 to March 2013. A structured questionnaire for sleep patterns and Mastin et al.'s Sleep Hygiene Index for assessing sleep hygiene practices were used. Results: The adolescents’ total sleep duration was 7.07 ± 1.13 hours. A highly significant difference in sleep duration on school days and weekends between adolescents of various grade levels (P < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively) and between parental monitoring at the time of getting up on school days and sleep duration (P value 0.026 at 0.05 level of significance) was found. Gender was not significant with the sleep duration, and also with Sleep Hygiene Index scores. Conclusion: The results suggest that there is a high prevalence of insufficient sleep and irregular bed-time schedule among Indian adolescents in Bahrain. Interventions directed toward improving sleep and promoting good sleep hygiene strategies are required to improve the physical and emotional health of adolescents. PMID:25949973

  17. Disruptions of Sleep/Wake Patterns in the Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) Null Mouse Model of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Profitt, Maxine F; Deurveilher, Samuel; Robertson, George S; Rusak, Benjamin; Semba, Kazue

    2016-09-01

    Disruption of sleep/wake cycles is common in patients with schizophrenia and correlates with cognitive and affective abnormalities. Mice deficient in stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP) show cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological deficits that resemble those seen in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about their sleep phenotype. We characterized baseline sleep/wake patterns and recovery sleep following sleep deprivation in STOP null mice. Polysomnography was conducted in adult male STOP null and wild-type (WT) mice under a 12:12 hours light:dark cycle before, during, and after 6 hours of sleep deprivation during the light phase. At baseline, STOP null mice spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) over a 24-hour period, with more frequent transitions between wake and NREMS, compared to WT mice, especially during the dark phase. The distributions of wake, NREMS and REMS across the light and the dark phases differed by genotype, and so did features of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Following sleep deprivation, both genotypes showed homeostatic increases in sleep duration, with no significant genotype differences in the initial compensatory increase in sleep intensity (EEG delta power). These results indicate that STOP null mice sleep less overall, and their sleep and wake periods are more fragmented than those of WT mice. These features in STOP null mice are consistent with the sleep patterns observed in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26940700

  18. A single dose of hypnotic corrects sleep and EEG abnormalities in symptomatic Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Sandor; Varga, Janos; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities are prominent early features of Huntington's disease (HD) that typically appear before the onset of characteristic motor symptoms. The changes in sleep and electroencephalogram seen in HD patients are largely recapitulated in mouse models of HD such as transgenic R6/2 lines. To test whether or not drugs with hypnotic properties can correct the sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities seen in HD mice, we treated male wild-type (WT; N = 7) and R6/2 mice (N = 9) acutely with intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, zolpidem (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) or amitriptyline (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), and then monitored their sleep-wake behavior. In R6/2 mice, both zolpidem and amitriptyline suppressed the abnormally high REM sleep amount and electroencephalographic gamma (30-46 Hz) oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Amitriptyline's effect on sleep was similar in both genotypes, whereas zolpidem showed significant genotype differences. Zolpidem exerted a strong hypnotic effect in WT mice by increasing electroencephalographic delta power, doubling the mean bout duration and the total amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, no such effect was seen in R6/2 mice. Our study demonstrates that the pathophysiological changes seen in sleep and electroencephalogram are not 'hard-wired' in HD brain and can be reversed even at late stages of the disease. The diminished hypnotic effect of zolpidem suggests that the GABAergic control of sleep-wake states is impaired in HD mice. A better understanding of the neurochemical basis underlying these abnormalities should lead to more effective and rational therapies for HD. PMID:26805423

  19. Stress and sleep patterns of college students.

    PubMed

    Verlander, L A; Benedict, J O; Hanson, D P

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stress and sleep. A self-report measure was used to assess three domains: environmental events, personality mediators, and emotional responses. It was hypothesized that one or more of the domains would predict seven different aspects of sleep. 227 college students completed the Derogatis Stress Profile and the Sleep Questionnaire. Analysis indicated that scores on emotional response were the best predictor of five different sleep aspects: depth of sleep, difficulties in waking up, quality and latency of sleep, negative affect in dreams, and sleep irregularity. Presence of environmental events was the best predictor for the length of sleep only. It was concluded that research looking at the effects of stress on sleep must consider all three components of stress and that perhaps the emotional response to stress is the best predictor of sleep complaints. PMID:10407896

  20. Risperidone is effective for wandering and disturbed sleep/wake patterns in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Akanuma, Kyoko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2004-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), especially aggressiveness, wandering, and sleep disturbance, are a major burden for caregivers. Daily sleep/wake patterns and wandering of institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were visually monitored, and 34 patients who manifested wandering were selected and randomly classified into 2 groups: the risperidone group and the nonrisperidone group. After an administration of low-dose risperidone for the risperidone group, the BPSD were reassessed. The binding potentials of dopamine D2 receptor for preadministration and postadministration of risperidone were assessed using positron emission tomography (PET) for 1 case. After the use of risperidone, aggressiveness and wandering were reduced and the nighttime sleeping hours were increased. The PET revealed that the binding potential of dopamine receptor was increased after administration of the drug, associated with improved sleep/wake patterns and behavioral abnormality. Possible serotonergic modulation of dopaminergic function might explain the neurobiological basis of the effect of risperidone. PMID:15157345

  1. Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP): the marker of sleep instability.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Liborio; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Terzano, Mario G

    2012-02-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern CAP is the EEG marker of unstable sleep, a concept which is poorly appreciated among the metrics of sleep physiology. Besides, duration, depth and continuity, sleep restorative properties depend on the capacity of the brain to create periods of sustained stable sleep. This issue is not confined only to the EEG activities but reverberates upon the ongoing autonomic activity and behavioral functions, which are mutually entrained in a synchronized oscillation. CAP can be identified both in adult and children sleep and therefore represents a sensitive tool for the investigation of sleep disorders across the lifespan. The present review illustrates the story of CAP in the last 25 years, the standardized scoring criteria, the basic physiological properties and how the dimension of sleep instability has provided new insight into pathophysiolology and management of sleep disorders. PMID:21616693

  2. Sleep patterns and the risk for ADHD: a review

    PubMed Central

    Cassoff, Jamie; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Gruber, Reut

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with comorbid sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may be a risk factor for development of the disorder, a symptom of the disorder, or a comorbid condition affected by a similar psychopathology. Various studies have examined the impact of sleep deprivation on the presence/exacerbation of ADHD symptomology, as well as longitudinal and concurrent associations between different sleep disturbances and ADHD, yet the notion of sleep disturbances as a predecessor to ADHD remains unclear. As such, this review examines the evidence for sleep disturbances as a risk factor for the development of ADHD, as well as the mechanisms underlying the association between sleep patterns and ADHD. Additionally, clinical implications regarding the comorbid nature of sleep disturbances and ADHD will be considered. PMID:23620680

  3. Sleep patterns of Japanese preschool children and their parents: implications for co-sleeping

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the direct relationship of sleep schedule and sleep quality variables between healthy preschool children and their parents, focusing on the influence of the difference in bedtime between each other. Methods Forty-seven Japanese 5-year-old children and their primary parent were studied. The parents completed questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The children wore an actigraph for one week. Results Although sleep patterns of children were generally independent of their parents, late sleep end time and bedtime of children were associated with parents' late sleep end time on weekends. For 87% of children and parents who shared a bedroom, sleep quality was negatively affected by a shorter difference in bedtimes between child and parent, but not by co-sleeping. Conclusion Sleep behaviours of parents can influence those of their children. For parents and children who share a bedroom, the timing of bedtime rather than co-sleeping may be a key factor in modulating sleep patterns. Trying to get children asleep and subsequently falling asleep at a similar time may disturb parents' sleep quality, which may subsequently affect that of their children. PMID:23419057

  4. Subtle rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Ochoa, Nalia Canales; Polo, Lourdes Galicia; Valencia, Reyes Haro; Cruz, Gilberto Sánchez; Montero, Jacqueline Medrano; Laffita-Mesa, José M; Mederos, Luis E Almaguer; Zaldívar, Yanetza González; Parra, Cira Torres; Acosta, Arnoy Peña; Mariño, Tania Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disorders are commonly associated to patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2); however, these abnormalities have not been studied in presymptomatic gene carriers. To determine whether the REM sleep pathology is detectable before clinical manifestation of SCA2 and evaluate it as a preclinical biomarker, we studied 36 presymptomatic SCA2 individuals and 36 controls by video-polysomnography (VPSG) and sleep questionnaires. Presymptomatic subjects showed significant decrease of REM sleep percentage, REMs density, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Aging effect on REM sleep percentage was significant in both groups. There was no correlation between cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length and REM sleep. Our findings identified the REM sleep pathology as a prominent herald sign of SCA2, conferring a special importance to VPSG as a sensitive neurophysiological tool to detect early changes associated with SCA2, which contributes to the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the development of therapeutic trials focused on the preclinical disease stage. PMID:20960485

  5. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

  6. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

  7. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment…

  8. Loss of polyubiquitin gene Ubb leads to metabolic and sleep abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312

  9. The Association between Sleep Patterns and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Hayes, Amanda L.; Blackwell, Terri; Evans, Daniel S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Wing, Yun K.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced sleep duration has been increasingly reported to predict obesity. However, timing and regularity of sleep may also be important. In this study, the cross-sectional association between objectively measured sleep patterns and obesity was assessed in two large cohorts of older individuals. Methods Wrist actigraphy was performed in 3053 men (mean age: 76.4 years) participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) and 2985 women (mean age: 83.5 years) participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Timing and regularity of sleep patterns were assessed across nights, as well as daytime napping. Results Greater night-to-night variability in sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean nocturnal sleep duration in both men and women. Each 1 hour increase in the variability of nocturnal sleep duration increased the odds of obesity 1.63-fold (95% CI [1.31-2.02]) among men and 1.22-fold (95% CI [1.01-1.47]) among women. Each 1 hour increase in napping increased the odds of obesity 1.23-fold (95%CI [1.12-1.37]) in men and 1.29-fold (95%CI [1.17-1.41]) in women. In contrast, associations between later sleep timing and night-to-night variability in sleep timing with obesity were less consistent. Conclusions In both older men and women, variability in nightly sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean sleep duration. These findings suggest that characteristics of sleep beyond mean sleep duration may play a role in weight homeostasis, highlighting the complex relationship between sleep and metabolism. PMID:24458262

  10. Sleep Symptoms and Polysomnographic Patterns of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    TAVASOLI, Azita; JALILOLGHADR, Shabnam; LOTFI, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the sleep symptoms and polysomnographic patterns of obstructive sleep apnea in overweight and obese children. Materials & Methods Overweight or obese children aging 6-18 yr old referred during 2010 to Endocrinology Clinic of Ghods Hospital in Ghazvin, central Iran were enrolled in the study. Polysomnography was done for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea and the BEARS and Children’s Sleep Habits questionnaires were used to survey sleep behaviors. Results: We enrolled 30 children (14 males, 16 females). Twenty-one cases had body mass index (BMI) >95% and 9 had 85% sleep talking 10 (33.3%); bedtime resistance 9 (30%); nightmares 8 (26.6%); waking up problems 6 (20%); sleep walking 6 (20%); difficult breathing 4 (13.3%); bedwetting 3 (10%) and sleep onset delay 2 (6.06%). Severe, moderate and mild apnea – hypopnea Index (AHI) were seen in 12, 9 and 6 subjects, respectively. A significant Pearson correlation was found between the BMI values and sleep latency. Conclusion : Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is high among overweight and obese children. Physicians should be familiar with its manifestations and consider polysomnography as an invaluable diagnostic test. There was no relation between the degree of obesity and severity of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:27057182

  11. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich

    2008-01-01

    Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns. PMID:18853306

  12. Sleep Patterns of College Students at a Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forquer, LeAnne M.; Camden, Adrian E.; Gabriau, Krista M.; Johnson, C. Merle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine the sleep patterns of college students to identify problem areas and potential solutions. Participants: A total of 313 students returned completed surveys. Methods: A sleep survey was e-mailed to a random sample of students at a North Central university. Questions included individual…

  13. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  14. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian medical students.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A; Adeyemi, J D

    1989-07-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the patterns of isolated sleep paralysis among 164 Nigerian medical students, 26.1% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. About 31% of the females and 20% of the males had had this experience. Of those with sleep paralysis, 32.6% had hypnogenic hallucinations during the episode, mainly visual. Sleep paralysis was not significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile. Although the rate differs across cultures, the myths associated with sleep paralysis are similar. PMID:2787863

  15. Sleep and activity rhythms in mice: a description of circadian patterns and unexpected disruptions in sleep.

    PubMed

    Mitler, M M; Lund, R; Sokolove, P G; Pittendrigh, C S; Dement, W C

    1977-08-01

    Studies on daily and circadian rhythms in wheel running and electrographically defined wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep in M. musculus were done to gather data on the temporal distribution of activity and sleep. Generally, peaks in NREM and sleep tended to coincide and to alternate with the coincident peaks of wakefulness and wheel running. However, during the active phase of the circadian wheel running cycle some NREM and REM sleep did occur; conversely, during its rest phase, wakefulness was often present. The most striking finding was that in mice with clearly entrained or free-running activity onsets, the circadian peak-through patterns in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep were not always distinct--they could be damped and/or polyphasic. Several explanations of these phenomena are considered. PMID:195675

  16. Bullying, sleep/wake patterns and subjective sleep disorders: findings from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Kubiszewski, Violaine; Fontaine, Roger; Potard, Catherine; Gimenes, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (a) sleep patterns and disorders possibly associated with adolescent bullying profiles (pure bully, pure victim, bully/victim and neutral) and (b) the effect of sleep on psychosocial problems (externalized and internalized) related to bullying. The sample consisted of 1422 students aged 10-18 (mean = 14.3, SD = 2.7; 57% male) from five socioeconomically diverse schools in France. Bullying profiles were obtained using the revised Bully-Victim Questionnaire. Subjective sleep disorders were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. School-week and weekend sleep/wake patterns were recorded. Internalizing problems were investigated using a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing behaviors were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. These questionnaires were administered during individual interviews at school. After controlling for effects of gender and age, victims of bullying showed significantly more subjective sleep disturbances than the pure-bully or neutral groups (p < 0.001). Bullies' sleep schedules were more irregular (p < 0.001 for bedtime irregularity and p<0.01 for wake-up time irregularity) and their sleep duration was shorter than their schoolmates (p < 0.001 for the school week and p < 0.05 for the weekend). There was an effect of sleep on psychosocial problems related to bullying, and our results indicate that sleep has a moderating effect on aggression in bullies (p < 0.001). This would suggest a higher vulnerability of bullies to sleep deprivation. These results show differences in sleep problems and patterns in school-bullying profiles. Findings of this study open up new perspectives for understanding and preventing bullying in schools, with implications for research and clinical applications. PMID:24417522

  17. Abnormal patterns of the renal veins

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Hassan; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the renal vascular anatomy may greatly contribute to the success of surgical, invasive and radiological procedures of the retroperitoneal region. Here, morphometric and histological studies of a human cadaveric specimen presented a complex, anomalous pattern of renal veins. The left renal vein had an oblique retro-aortic course and received two lumbar veins. It bifurcated near its drainage point into the inferior vena cava. The right renal vein received the right testicular vein. In addition, the left kidney was located at a low position. The spleen was enlarged. The present case is unique and provides information that may help surgeons or angiologists to apply safer interventions. PMID:22536553

  18. Relationship of sleep abnormalities to patient genotypes in Prader-Willi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Vgontzas, A.N.; Kales, A.; Bixler, E.O.

    1996-09-20

    To assess whether sleep abnormalities are related to the genetic abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), we performed polysomnographic studies (nighttime and daytime) and determined the chromosome 15 genotypes in eight patients with PWS. Four patients demonstrated sleep onset REM periods (SOREM), and five met the objective polysomnographic criteria for severe or moderate excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Three of the four patients with SOREM displayed a paternally derived deletion of chromosome 15q11-q13, whereas the fourth exhibited maternal uniparental heterodisomy in this chromosomal region (UPD). Two of the four patients that did not display SOREM carried paternally derived deletions; the remaining two demonstrated UPD. Four of the five patients with EDS displayed paternal deletions, and the fifth exhibited UPD. One of three patients without evidence of EDS demonstrated paternal deletion; the remaining two showed UPD. Although neither EDS nor SOREM was not consistently associated with a specific genetic abnormality, these phenotypes may be more common in patients with paternal deletions than in those with UPD. Sleep abnormalities in PWS cannot be explained by a single genetic model. 32 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Cyclic alternating pattern: A window into pediatric sleep.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Oliviero; Novelli, Luana; Miano, Silvia; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) has now been studied in different age groups of normal infants and children, and it is clear that it shows dramatic changes with age. In this review we first focus on the important age-related changes of CAP from birth to peripubertal age and, subsequently, we describe the numerous studies on CAP in developmental clinical conditions such as pediatric sleep disordered breathing, disorders of arousal (sleep walking and sleep terror), pediatric narcolepsy, learning disabilities with mental retardation (fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, autistic spectrum disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome) or without (dyslexia, Asperger syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). CAP rate is almost always decreased in these conditions with the exception of the disorders of arousal and some cases of sleep apnea. Another constant result is the reduction of A1 subtypes, probably in relationship with the degree of cognitive impairment. The analysis of CAP in pediatric sleep allows a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disturbance. CAP can be considered as a window into pediatric sleep, allowing a new vision on how the sleeping brain is influenced by a specific pathology or how sleep protecting mechanisms try to counteract internal or external disturbing events. PMID:20427233

  20. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2008-11-01

    Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.

  1. Sleep patterns at an altitude of 3500 metres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamurthy, W.; Raju, V. R. K.; Ranganathan, S.; Hegde, K. S.; Ray, U. S.

    1986-06-01

    Alterations in sleep pattern during acclimatisation at an altitude of 3500 m were studied on 27 healthy men (20 30 years of age). Of these, 15 were sojourners (SJ), 6 were acclimatised lowlanders (AL) and 6 were high altitude natives (HAN). Baseline sleep profile of SJ was electrophysiologically monitored, initially at Delhi (260 m) and later at 3500 m altitude in Western Himalayas for 2 weeks. At high altitude (HA) the sleep patterns of AL and HAN were also monitored for comparison. There were 4 cases of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among SJ, whose sleep profiles were also recorded. The state of autonomic arousal was assessed by a battery of indices, while the psychological arousal was measured by the anxiety scales. On completion of studies at HA, the SJ were flown back to the plains and re-tested within one week of return. SJ showed curtailment of slow wave sleep (SWS) and frequent short episodes of arousal during sleep at HA. AL and HAN also had lesser amounts of SWS; however, the arousals and awakenings during sleep were less frequent. Subjects who experienced AMS had normal amounts of SWS at HA. There was sympathetic hyperactivity and slight increase in anxiety level in SJ, while HAN and AL had relatively reduced level of sympathetic activity. The curtailment of SWS and frequent arousals observed in SJ during the initial phase of acclimatisation at HA, appear to be adaptive features to prevent the accentuation of arterial hypoxemia due to sleep hypoventilation.

  2. Mobile usage and sleep patterns among medical students.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, Saxena; Abha, Shrivastava; Priyanka, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to radio frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) both during receiving and transmitting the signals has amplified public and scientific debate about possible adverse effects on human health. The study was designed with the objective of assessing the extent of mobile phone use amongst medical students and finding correlation if any between the hours of usage of mobile to sleep pattern and quality. hundred medical students grouped as cases (n = 57) (> 2 hours/day of mobile usage) and control (n = 43) (≤ 2 hours/day of mobile usage) were examined for their sleep quality & pattern by Pittsburg sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Differences between groups were examined with the Mann Whitney "U" test for proportions (Quantitative values) and with Student't' test for continuous variables. The association of variables was analyzed by Spearman Rank's correlation. Probability was set at < 0.05 as significant. Sleep disturbance, latency and day dysfunction was more in cases especially females. A significant association of hours of usage and sleep indices were observed in both genders (males r = 0.25; p = 0.04, females r = 0.31; p = 0.009). Evening usage of mobile phone in cases showed a statistically significant negative association (-0.606; p = 0.042) with Sleep quality (higher PSQI means sleep deprivation). Students using mobile for > 2 hours/day may cause sleep deprivation and day sleepiness affecting cognitive and learning abilities of medical students. PMID:25464686

  3. Mobile usage and sleep patterns among medical students.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, Saxena; Abha, Shrivastava; Priyanka, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to radio frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) both during receiving and transmitting the signals has amplified public and scientific debate about possible adverse effects on human health. The study was designed with the objective of assessing the extent of mobile phone use amongst medical students and finding correlation if any between the hours of usage of mobile to sleep pattern and quality. hundred medical students grouped as cases (n = 57) (> 2 hours/day of mobile usage) and control (n = 43) (≤ 2 hours/day of mobile usage) were examined for their sleep quality & pattern by Pittsburg sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Differences between groups were examined with the Mann Whitney "U" test for proportions (Quantitative values) and with Student't' test for continuous variables. The association of variables was analyzed by Spearman Rank's correlation. Probability was set at < 0.05 as significant. Sleep disturbance, latency and day dysfunction was more in cases especially females. A significant association of hours of usage and sleep indices were observed in both genders (males r = 0.25; p = 0.04, females r = 0.31; p = 0.009). Evening usage of mobile phone in cases showed a statistically significant negative association (-0.606; p = 0.042) with Sleep quality (higher PSQI means sleep deprivation). Students using mobile for > 2 hours/day may cause sleep deprivation and day sleepiness affecting cognitive and learning abilities of medical students. PMID:25508317

  4. Symmetric Abnormalities in Sulcal Patterning in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Csernansky, John G.; Gillespie, Sarah K.; Dierker, Donna L.; Anticevic, Alan; Wang, Lei; Barch, Deanna M.; Van Essen, David C.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the morphology of the cerebral cortex and its characteristic pattern of gyri and sulci in individuals with and without schizophrenia, T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected, along with clinical and cognitive information, from 33 individuals with schizophrenia and 30 healthy individuals group-matched for age, gender, race and parental socioeconomic status. Sulcal depth was measured across the entire cerebral cortex by reconstructing surfaces of cortical mid-thickness (layer 4) in each hemisphere and registering them to the human PALS cortical atlas. Group differences in sulcal depth were tested using methods for cluster size analysis and interhemispheric symmetry analysis. A significant group difference was found bilaterally in the parietal operculum, where the average sulcal depth was shallower in individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, group differences in sulcal depth showed significant bilateral symmetry across much of the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices. In individuals with schizophrenia, sulcal depth in the left hemisphere was correlated with the severity of impaired performance on tests of working memory and executive function. PMID:18707008

  5. Family socioeconomic status and sleep patterns of young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marco, Christine A; Wolfson, Amy R; Sparling, Michaela; Azuaje, Andrea

    2011-12-28

    This study examined associations among socioeconomic status (SES), SES-related variables, and sleep in young middle school adolescents. Participants included 155 seventh-graders attending two urban New England middle schools. Aspects of the SES environment included parent demographic variables (e.g., income and education), neighborhood environment, and family home environment. Students completed 1 week of actigraphy to estimate sleep patterns. Results demonstrated that the timing and consistency of school-night sleep were associated with demographic and behavioral aspects of SES, whereas weekend sleep schedules were associated with demographic, behavioral, and neighborhood aspects of SES. Finally, regularity in school-night and weekend sleep schedules were associated with demographic and neighborhood aspects of SES. PMID:22250780

  6. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables. PMID:25396279

  7. Classification of vibratory patterns of the upper airway during sleep.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Hisham; Rudzicz, Frank; Falk, Tiago H; Tseng, Wen-Hou; Bradley, T Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway (UA) narrowing and collapse during sleep results in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesize that vibratory patterns of snoring can distinguish simple snorers from those with OSA. Samples of breath sounds were collected from 7 snorers without OSA and 5 with OSA. Snoring pitch (F0) contours were found using the robust algorithm for pitch tracking (RAPT). The OSA snoring contours showed fluctuating patterns as compared to the smoother patterns of simple snorers. This suggests that snoring reveals the underlying instabilities of UA tissue in OSA. Conditional random fields, a statistical sequence classifier, gave 75% accuracy in distinguishing the 2 groups. PMID:24110129

  8. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  9. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals.

    PubMed

    Capellini, I; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R A

    2008-10-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states - rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep - that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size. PMID:20428321

  10. Holiday and school-term sleep patterns of Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-10-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient sleep for their needs and reporting lowered mood and daytime functioning. Support was found for the hypothesis that trait circadian preference mediates mood, daytime functioning and academic grades through its effect on sleep variables at school time. It was concluded that while the imposition of school schedule negatively impacted on mood and daytime functioning for the sample as a whole, evening-oriented adolescents were the most vulnerable to poorer outcomes. These students obtained poorer quality and less sleep than morning-oriented students. Sleep factors impacted negatively on evening-oriented students' mood and ability to function at school during the day, which in turn predicted poorer academic achievement. PMID:18076979

  11. Incidence of Short-Sleep Patterns in Institutionalized Individuals with Profound Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.

    1994-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…

  12. Sleep in space as a new medical frontier: the challenge of preserving normal sleep in the abnormal environment of space missions

    PubMed Central

    Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Gonfalone, Alain A.

    2016-01-01

    Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man’s adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man’s most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man’s biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth’s gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts’ subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve “normal” sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality

  13. Sleep in space as a new medical frontier: the challenge of preserving normal sleep in the abnormal environment of space missions.

    PubMed

    Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gonfalone, Alain A

    2016-01-01

    Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man's adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man's most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man's biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth's gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts' subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve "normal" sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality which has

  14. Emerging adults' sleep patterns and attentional capture: the pivotal role of consistency.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Wythe L; Murdock, Karla Klein

    2016-05-01

    College students face consistent cognitive demands and often get insufficient and/or irregular sleep. The current study investigated associations of sleep duration and sleep variability with attentional performance. Sleep duration variability was expected to moderate the association between duration and cognitive functioning. College students' (n = 83) natural sleep patterns were recorded via wristband actigraphy across three consecutive nights during an academic term. The association between sleep duration and attentional capture was strongest for those whose sleep was the most consistent across the three nights preceding the attentional task (i.e., low sleep duration variability). For those with low sleep duration variability, less sleep was associated (B = -0.25) with reduced ability to ignore irrelevant cues and redirect attention to target locations. In other words, consistently low sleep duration was associated with compromises in attention. Our results indicate the importance of consistent sleep routines as well as sufficient sleep duration in order to optimize attentional performance in college students. PMID:26921151

  15. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  16. Perceived Parenting Styles, Personality Traits and Sleep Patterns in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…

  17. Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D

    2010-06-01

    We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. PMID:20472221

  18. Parental Involvement in Infant Sleep Routines Predicts Differential Sleep Patterns in Children With and Without Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Jennifer; Palmer, Cara A; Hussain, Hira; Alfano, Candice A

    2016-08-01

    This study compared parents' retrospective reports of their involvement in infant settling strategies and their relation to current sleep patterns among children (N = 84, ages 7-11) with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Parents of children with GAD were significantly more likely to report rocking their infants to sleep and putting infants down when they were already asleep than parents of healthy controls, even when accounting for infant health-related factors and parental anxiety. Greater involvement in infant sleep routines also predicted sleep patterns (measured via actigraphy) during childhood, though opposite relationships were observed in the two groups. Early involvement was related to poorer sleep in control children but better sleep for children with GAD even after controlling for current parenting practices. Findings suggest differential effects of early sleep-related parenting for children with and without later anxiety disorders with possible implications for early intervention. PMID:26493392

  19. Abnormalities of Lipoprotein Concentrations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Are Related to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alice; Cardell, James; Ariel, Danit; Lamendola, Cindy; Abbasi, Fahim; Kim, Sun H.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Tomasso, Vanessa; Mojaddidi, Hafasa; Grove, Kaylene; Kushida, Clete A.; Reaven, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), possibly related to dyslipidemia in these individuals. Insulin resistance is also common in OSA, but its contribution to dyslipidemia of OSA is unclear. The study's aim was to define the relationships among abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism, clinical measures of OSA, and insulin resistance. Design: Cross-sectional study. OSA severity was defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during polysomnography. Hypoxia measures were expressed as minimum and mean oxygen saturation, and the oxygen desaturation index. Insulin resistance was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test. Fasting plasma lipid/lipoprotein evaluation was performed by vertical auto profile methodology. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: 107 nondiabetic, overweight/obese adults. Measurements and Results: Lipoprotein particles did not correlate with AHI or any hypoxia measures, nor were there differences noted by categories of OSA severity. By contrast, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, SSPG was positively correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, P < 0.01), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and its subclasses (VLDL1+2) (r = 0.21–0.23, P < 0.05), and low density lipoprotein subclass 4 (LDL4) (r = 0.30, P < 0.01). SSPG was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = −0.38, P < 0.001) and its subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3) (r = −0.32, −0.43, P < 0.01), and apolipoprotein A1 (r = −0.33, P < 0.01). Linear trends of these lipoprotein concentrations across SSPG tertiles were also significant. Conclusions: Pro-atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are related to insulin resistance, but not to OSA severity or degree of hypoxia. Insulin resistance may represent the link between OSA-related dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease

  20. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Instability, and Health Related Quality of Life in Parents of Ventilator-Assisted Children

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Sanchez-Ortuno, Maria M.; Edinger, Jack D.; Avis, Kristin T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Parents of children with chronic illnesses have poorer health related quality of life (HRQoL), shorter sleep duration, and poorer sleep quality than parents of healthy children. However, night-to-night variability of sleep in parents has not previously been considered. This study compared the sleep patterns of parents of ventilator-assisted children (VENT) and healthy, typically developing children (HEALTHY), and examined the relationship between sleep variability and perceived HRQoL. Methods: Seventy-nine mothers and 33 fathers from 42 VENT families (n = 56) and 40 HEALTHY (n = 56) families completed the SF-36 and wore an actigraph for 2 weeks. Reported bedtime and wake time, along with actigraphic total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE) were examined using both average values and night-tonight instability (mean square successive differences). Results: VENT parents showed significantly later bedtimes, shorter TST, longer WASO, and lower SE than HEALTHY parents. VENT parents also exhibited greater instability in their reported wake time, WASO, and SE. Adjusting for family type and gender, greater instability of wake times, WASO and SE were related to poorer SF-36 subscale scores, while averaged sleep values were not. Conclusions: Many parents of ventilator-assisted children experience deficient sleep and show significant instability in their sleep, which was related to HRQoL. Similar to shift workers, variable sleep schedules that may result from caregiving responsibilities or stress may impact parental caregivers' health and well-being. Additional studies are needed to determine how support and other interventions can reduce sleep disruptions in parental caregivers. Citation: Meltzer LJ, Sanchez-Ortuno MM, Edinger JD, Avis KT. Sleep patterns, sleep instability, and health related quality of life in parents of ventilator-assisted children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):251–258. PMID:25515280

  1. Accommodating Adolescent Sleep-Wake Patterns: The Effects of Shifting the Timing of Sleep on Training Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P.; Shattuck, Lawrence G.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. Design: The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. Setting: The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Trainees: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Measurements and Results: Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Conclusions: Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment. Citation: Miller NL; Tvaryanas AP; Shattuck LG. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1123-1136. PMID:22851808

  2. The influence of odorants on respiratory patterns in sleep.

    PubMed

    Arzi, Anat; Sela, Lee; Green, Amit; Givaty, Gili; Dagan, Yaron; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of using odors as a potential mechanism for treating sleep apnea, we set out to test the hypothesis that odorants delivered during sleep would modify respiratory patterns without inducing arousal or wake in healthy sleepers. We used 2 mildly trigeminal odorants: the pleasant lavender and unpleasant vetiver oil and 2 pure olfactory odorants: the pleasant vanillin and unpleasant ammonium sulfide. During sleep, an olfactometer delivered a transient odorant every 9, 12, or 15 min (randomized), providing 21-37 odorant presentations per night. Each of 36 participants was studied for 1 night and with 1 of the 4 different odorants tested. In addition to standard overnight polysomnography, we employed highly accurate measurements of nasal and oral respiration. Odorants did not increase the frequency of arousals or wake but did influence respiration. Specifically, all 4 odorants transiently decreased inhalation and increased exhalation for up to 6 breaths following odor onset. This effect persisted regardless of odorant valence or stage of sleep. These results suggest that the olfactory system may provide a path to manipulate respiration in sleep. PMID:19917590

  3. [Night sleep patterns in post-operative intensive care patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Landau-Ferey, J; Rebelo, F; Glaser, P; Garma, L

    1977-01-01

    5 patients admitted to intensive care following post-operative complications had EEG recordings on 2 consecutive nights some time after their operations. Study of the different sleep stages showed a marked increase in deep slow wave sleep and waking but asignificant reduction in light slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep. The appearance of the sleep cycles through the night was unusual with respect to the maximum occurrence of the various stages and their evolution. Finally certain characteristics of paradoxical sleep, the rhythm and duration of the phases and the number and frequency of ocular movements were also modified. Comparison of these findings with those previously reported show that these abnormalities, rather than suggesting sleep deprivation resemble more closely the fidings in shift workers when they resume night sleep after a period of day sleep. The also resemble the changes seen in people whose circadian rhythm has been displaced by 12 hours. PMID:565525

  4. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance during Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. Methods: A sample of…

  5. Patterns of respiration and heart rate during wakefulness and sleep in elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Castellini, M A; Milsom, W K; Berger, R J; Costa, D P; Jones, D R; Castellini, J M; Rea, L D; Bharma, S; Harris, M

    1994-03-01

    Although breath holding during diving has been studied extensively in seals, the recent observation that these mammals also exhibit long-duration apnea while apparently sleeping has not been systematically examined. This project examined sleep apnea in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). The animals exhibited a sequential sleep pattern of wakefulness-slow-wave sleep (SWS)-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep that resembled the normal pattern of mammalian sleep. The typical respiratory pattern during sleep in 4-mo-old pups consisted of short periods of continuous breathing separated by periods of apnea of up to 12 min. Several cycles of apnea and eupnea could occur during a single sleep episode. Breathing during a sleep cycle occurred only in SWS, never during REM sleep. The eupneic heart rate was characterized by significant sinus arrhythmia, and the apneic heart rate was similar to the minimum value during normal sinus arrhythmia. Patterns of change in breathing and heart rate associated with wakefulness and sleep were similar in seals sleeping underwater and on land. When sleeping underwater, the seals raised their heads to the surface to breathe without awakening. The changes in heart rate associated with normal sinus arrhythmia, sleep apnea, and diving apnea appear to be similar, suggesting regulation by a common homeostatic control mechanism. PMID:8160882

  6. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, I.; Nunn, C. L.; McNamara, P.; Preston, B. T.; Barton, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states – rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep – that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size. PMID:20428321

  7. Human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85–105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20–30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60–70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494

  8. An Investigation of Sleep Characteristics, EEG Abnormalities and Epilepsy in Developmentally Regressed and Non-Regressed Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Cerquiglini, Antonella; Miraglia, Daniela; Vagnoni, Cristina; Sebastiani, Teresa; Bernabei, Paola

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sleep of children with autism and developmental regression and the possible relationship with epilepsy and epileptiform abnormalities. Participants were 104 children with autism (70 non-regressed, 34 regressed) and 162 typically developing children (TD). Results suggested that the regressed group had higher incidence of…

  9. Self-reported sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems among school children aged 8-11 years.

    PubMed

    Hoedlmoser, K; Kloesch, G; Wiater, A; Schabus, M

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: Investigation of sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems in 8- to 11-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 330 children (age: M=9.52; SD=0.56; range=8-11 years; 47.3% girls) in the 4th grade of elementary school in Salzburg (Austria) completed a self-report questionnaire (80 items) to survey sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems. RESULTS: Children aged 8-11 years slept approximately 10 h and 13 min on school days (SD=47 min) as well as on weekends (SD=81 min); girls slept significantly longer on weekends than boys. Most common self-reported sleep problems were dryness of the mouth (26.6%), sleep onset delay (21.9%), bedtime resistance (20.3%), and restless legs (19.4%). There was a significant association between watching TV as well as playing computer games prior to sleep with frightful dreams. Daytime sleepiness indicated by difficulty waking up (33.4%) and having a hard time getting out of bed (28.5%) was also very prominent. However, children in Salzburg seemed to be less tired during school (6.6%) or when doing homework (4.8%) compared to other nationalities. Behavioral problems (e.g., emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and inattention, conduct problems, peer problems) and daytime sleepiness were both significantly associated with sleep problems: the more sleep problems reported, the worse behavioral problems and daytime sleepiness were. Moreover, we could show that sharing the bed with a pet was also related to sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported sleep problems among 8- to 11-year-old children are very common. There is a strong relationship between sleep disorders and behavioral problems. Routine screening and diagnosis as well as treatment of sleep disorders in school children should, therefore, be established in the future. PMID:23162377

  10. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian nursing students.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Adelekan, M F; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among the entire population of nursing students at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Abeokuta, Nigeria (consisting of 58 males and 37 females), 44% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. The findings largely supported the results of a similar study of Nigerian medical students, except that there was a slight male preponderance among those who had the experience. Visual hallucination was the most common perceptual problem associated with the episodes, and all the affected subjects were most distressed by the experience. Whereas sleep paralysis in this country has not been found to be significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile, the popular view in Africa and the United States is that it is caused by witchcraft. PMID:1602503

  11. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762

  12. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762

  13. Abnormal patterns of displacement activities: a review and reinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    A series of important theoretical contributions flourished in the years 1950-1970 about displacement activities -- those 'out-of-context' actions expressed by organisms in stressful situations. Nothing really new has appeared thereafter. Although the models address different issues, such as causal factors of displacement, it appears obvious that they do not provide a unified (coherent) approach; they often explain the same phenomena using very different means and turn out to be contradictory on several points. In addition, some problems currently remain unsolved, especially concerning the fact that displacement activities exhibit 'abnormalities' of expression in comparison with the same activities performed in usual context. Each model is here described and criticized in order to evaluate its explanatory power and allow the identification of specific limits. A new, integrative model -- the Anticipatory Dynamics Model (or ADM) -- then attempts to overcome the failures of previous models. The ADM suggests that abnormal patterns of displacement activities result from attentional interference caused by a thwarting experience or conflicting motivations. At least one theoretical prediction of the ADM can be differentiated from that of any other model. PMID:18554824

  14. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: An Expanded Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buboltz, Walter, Jr., Jenkins, Steve M.; Soper, Barlow; Woller, Kevin; Johnson, Patrick; Faes, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This study represents an expansion of previous research investigating the prevalence of sleep difficulties in college students. Sleep quality and sleep habits were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Poor sleep quality was reported by 22.6% of participants, whereas 65.9% replied that they experienced occasional sleep problems. More than half…

  15. Integrating nap and night-time sleep into sleep patterns reveals differential links to health-relevant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Devine, Jaime K; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Both night-time sleep and nap behaviour have been linked consistently to health outcomes. Although reasons for napping are usually tied to night-time sleep, the majority of studies assess their effects independently. The current study thus aimed to examine the health relevance of patterns of sleep behaviour that take into account both night-time and daytime sleep habits. Night-time sleep, recorded during 7 days via actigraphy from 313 participants (aged 34-82 years) of the Midlife in the United States II Biomarker study, was assessed. Blood and urine specimens were assayed for noradrenaline, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Participants self-reported nap behaviour, depressive symptoms, perceived chronic stress and the presence of medical symptoms and conditions. Overall, nappers (n = 208) showed elevated waist-hip ratios, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels compared to non-nappers and reported more physiological symptoms and conditions (all P ≤ 0.019). Within nappers, cluster analysis revealed three patterns of sleep behaviour-infrequent nappers with good night-time sleep, frequent nappers with good night-time sleep and nappers with poor night-time sleep. Nappers with poor night-time sleep thereby exhibited elevated noradrenaline levels, depressive symptoms and perceived stress scores compared to other groups (all P ≤ 0.041). These findings support the idea that nap-health relationships are complex, in that frequency of napping and accumulation of nap sleep is not related linearly to health consequences. Assessing nap behaviour in conjunction with night-time sleep behaviour appeared crucial to elucidate further the health relevance of napping, particularly in terms of psychological health outcomes, including chronic stress and depressive symptoms. PMID:26718988

  16. Descriptive Assessment of Sleep Patterns among Community-Living Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…

  17. Sleep in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome: Parent Perceptions of Patterns and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Beebe, Dean; Byars, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for Angelman syndrome includes sleep disturbance as an associated characteristic. There are, however, few researchers who have examined sleep problems in this population. Our goal in this study was to better characterize the sleep patterns and problems in individuals with Angelman syndrome. Parents of 339 individuals…

  18. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  19. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  20. Sleep/wake patterns of breast-fed infants in the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Elias, M F; Nicolson, N A; Bora, C; Johnston, J

    1986-03-01

    Published norms for infant sleep/wake patterns during the first 2 years of life include an increase in length of maximum sleep bout from four to five to eight to ten hours by 4 months but little decrease in total sleep in 24 hours from 13 to 15 hours. Thirty-two breast-fed infants were followed for 2 years and data collected on 24-hour patterns of nursing and sleep. Infants who were breast-fed into the second year did not develop sleep/wake patterns in conformance with the norms. Instead of having long unbroken night sleep, they continued to sleep in short bouts with frequent wakings. Their total sleep in 24 hours was less than that of weaned infants. This pattern was most pronounced in infants who both nursed and shared a bed with the mother, common practices in many nonwestern cultures. The sleep/wake development accepted as the physiologic norm may be attributable to the early weaning and separated sleeping practiced in western culture. As prolonged breast-feeding becomes more popular in our society, the norms of sleep/wake patterns in infancy will have to be revised. PMID:3951913

  1. Monitoring of Weekly Sleep Pattern Variations at Home with a Contactless Biomotion Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hashizaki, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Many people find that their sleep is restricted or disturbed by social obligations, including work. Sleep phase delays can affect an individual’s circadian rhythms on the following day and cause daytime sleepiness and/or poor performance. In this study, to examine weekly variations in sleep patterns, we analyzed sleep data for seven-day periods (from Sunday to Saturday) that had been collected from 2914 subjects (aged 20–79 years) over a total of 24,899 subject-weeks using contactless biomotion sensors. On the weekend, the subjects’ mean sleep midpoint, bedtime, and wake-up time were delayed by 40, 26 and 53 min, respectively, compared with those seen on weekdays. In addition, on weekdays, the mean difference between the maximum and median sleep midpoint ranged from 35 to 47 min among the subjects in their 20 s–70 s. The weekend delay and weekday variation in the subjects’ sleep patterns tended to decrease with age. This study detected sleep pattern disturbances on both weekdays and weekends. The serial changes in weekday bedtimes detected in this study suggest that sleep habits are influenced by changes in the temporal patterns of social activities/duties. We need further study the advantages of getting extra sleep and the disadvantages of sleep pattern disturbances in daily lifestyle. PMID:26247948

  2. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state. Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time. A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy. Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal

  3. Effects of competition on the sleep patterns of elite rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Shearer, David A; Jones, Rhys M; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    No published research has assessed sleep patterns of elite rugby union players following match-play. The present study examined sleep patterns of professional rugby union players, prior and post-match-play, to assess the influence of competition. Twenty-eight male rugby union players (24.4 ± 2.9 years, 103.9 ± 12.2 kg) competed in one of four competitive home matches. Player's sleep behaviours were monitored continuously using an Actiwatch® from two days before the match, until three days post-match. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences across the time points measured for time to bed (F = 26.425, η(2)  = 0.495, p < .001), get up time (F = 21.175, η(2) = 0.440, p < .001), time spent in bed (F = 10.669, η(2) = 0.283, p < .001), time asleep (F = 8.752, η(2) = 0.245, p < .001) and percentage of time moving (F = 4.602, η(2) = 0.146 p < .05). Most notable, post hocs revealed a significant increase for time in bed the night before the match (p < .01; 95% CI = 0 : 10-1 : 28 h; 9.7 ± 13.5%) compared with the reference night sleep. Furthermore, time asleep significantly decreased post-match (p < .05; 95% CI = -0:03 to -1:59 h; -19.5 ± 19.8%) compared to two nights pre-match. Across all time points, sleep latency and efficiency for most players were considered abnormal compared to that expected in normal populations. The results demonstrate that sleep that is deprived post-match may have detrimental effects on the recovery process. PMID:26255667

  4. Sleep-wake pattern of medical students: early versus late class starting time.

    PubMed

    Lima, P F; Medeiros, A L D; Araujo, J F

    2002-11-01

    The sleep-wake cycle of students is characterized by delayed onset, partial sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality. Like other circadian rhythms, the sleep-wake cycle is influenced by endogenous and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of different class starting times on the sleep-wake pattern of 27 medical students. The data were collected during two medical school semesters having different class starting times. All subjects answered the Portuguese version of the Horne and Ostberg Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and kept a sleep diary for two weeks during each semester. Better sleep quality (PSQI = 5.3 vs 3.4), delayed sleep onset (23:59 vs 0:54 h) and longer sleep duration (6 h and 55 min vs 7 h and 25 min) were observed with the late schedule. We also found reduced sleep durations during weekdays and extended sleep durations during weekends. This pattern was more pronounced during the semester with the early class schedule, indicating that the students were more sleep deprived when their classes began earlier in the morning. These results require further investigation regarding the temporal organization of our institutions. PMID:12426638

  5. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V; Tarekegn, Yared A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.25-1.92), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.63), and khat use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.09-2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11-2.73) and khat consumption (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.22-3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%), as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors. PMID:23710363

  6. Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Burnham, Melissa; Gaylor, Erika; Anders, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children (ages 2-11) with pervasive developmental disorders. Slightly more than half of parents reported a sleep problem in their child. All of the children exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. (Contains references.)…

  7. Characterization of Sleep Breathing Pattern in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Sweet Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecube, Albert; Sampol, Gabriel; Hernández, Cristina; Romero, Odile; Ciudin, Andreea; Simó, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Although sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is unknown whether or not subjects with and without T2D share the same sleep breathing pattern. Methodology/Principal findings A cross-sectional study in patients with SAHS according to the presence (n = 132) or not (n = 264) of T2D. Both groups were matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A subgroup of 125 subjects was also matched by AHI. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and heart failure. A higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was observed in T2D patients [32.2 (10.2–114.0) vs. 25.6 (10.2–123.4) events/hours; p = 0.002). When sleep events were evaluated separately, patients with T2D showed a significant increase in apnea events [8.4 (0.1–87.7) vs. 6.3 (0.0–105.6) e/h; p = 0.044), as well as a two-fold increase in the percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation <90% [15.7 (0.0–97.0) vs. 7.9 (0.0–95.6) %; <0.001)], higher rates of oxygen desaturation events, and also higher daily sleepiness [7.0 (0.0–21.0) vs. 5.0 (0.0–21.0); p = 0.006)] than subjects without T2D. Significant positive correlations between fasting plasma glucose and AHI, the apnea events, and CT90 were observed. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2D was independently associated with AHI (R2 = 0.217), the apnea index (R2 = 0.194), CT90 (R2 = 0.222), and desaturation events. Conclusions/significance T2D patients present a different pattern of sleep breathing than subject without diabetes. The most important differences are the severity of hypoxemia and the number of apneas whereas the incidence of hypopnea episodes is similar. PMID:25760760

  8. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  9. Effects of Parent Training on Infant Sleeping Patterns, Parents' Stress, and Perceived Parental Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assigned 60 couples to training group learning behavioral strategies to promote healthy sleep patterns in infants or to control group. At 6-9 weeks, training group infants displayed significantly better sleeping patterns than did control infants. Training group parents awakened and responded less often to infant signaling and reported greater…

  10. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  11. Sleeping pattern of kindergartners and nursery school children: function of daytime nap.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sakashita, Yukine

    2002-02-01

    With a questionnaire answered by parents this study investigated the sleeping pattern of children attending kindergartens or nursery schools and the function of an afternoon nap. Sleeping pattern was investigated by a questionnaire with 441 young children (229 boys and 212 girls) attending kindergartens or nursery schools at the ages of 3 to 6 years old. Nighttime sleep did not show any significant change, while daytime naps decreased drastically and almost disappeared by the age of 6. Nursery school children went to bed later at night, so nighttime sleep was shorter than that of kindergartners. They also reported having more 'difficulty to fall asleep', more frequent 'staying-up at late night', less 'not getting enough sleep', worse 'mood at rising', and more 'unwillingness to go to their schools'. To investigate whether afternoon naps, which are routine at Japanese nursery schools, can compensate for sleep insufficiency on the previous night and whether they have the effect of delaying the onset of the subsequent nighttime sleep, we compared sleep duration on the previous night and the sleep onset time between the days with and without an afternoon nap. The afternoon nap appeared to cause delayed sleep onset but was not a result of sleep deficiency. PMID:11883566

  12. Sleep Patterns in Adults with a Diagnosis of High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine sleep patterns and sleep problems and their relationship with daytime functioning in adults with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual disability (high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [HFASD]) compared to neurotypical (NT) adults. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Home-based study. Participants: 36 adults with HFASD and 36 age-, intelligence quotient- and sex-matched NT adults. Measurements: Participants completed an online questionnaire battery including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 14-d sleep wake diary and 14-d actigraphy data collection. Results: Adults with HFASD had significantly more general sleep disturbances and higher scores on the PSQI, longer sleep onset latencies (actigraphy), and poorer sleep efficiency (diary) and these results remained significant after accounting for the False Discovery Rate. Those adults with HFASD who did not have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety/depression had significantly shorter total sleep time (diary and actigraphy) compared to NT adults. Compared to NT adults, the HFASD group self-reported significantly poorer refreshment scores upon waking in the morning and higher scores on the daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness subscale of the PSQI. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that problems related to sleep, in particular insomnia, continue into adulthood in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Citation: Baker EK, Richdale AL. Sleep patterns in adults with a diagnosis of high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1765–1774. PMID:26237770

  13. Sleeping patterns of Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents: a large observational study.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) have experienced multiple traumas and are a high-risk group for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effects of trauma are known to be associated with sleep problems; indeed sleeping problems are core features of PTSD. However, there has been no systematic research examining the sleep of this high risk group of children. This study presents the first evidence on the sleeping patterns of Afghan UASC living in the UK. A total of 222 male Afghan children, aged 13-18, were interviewed using validated self-report questionnaires measuring sleeping patterns and PTSD. Overall, UASC patterns for bed time and rise time appear acculturated to the country of asylum. Mean UASC sleep onset latency scores were approximately 20 minutes greater compared with normative scores, which may be a reflection of UASC pre-migration and post-migration experiences. As expected, UASC who screened above the clinical cut-off for PTSD reported significantly greater sleep onset latency, increased nightmares, and less total sleep time compared to the non-PTSD group. The results may be of particular interest to clinicians given that, compared to screening for PTSD, screening for sleep problems may be a less culturally disputed form of initial assessment indicating distress in UASC. Similarly, the field of UASC and refugee child interventions is largely focused on trauma, yet sleep may provide a novel avenue for equally or more effective treatment. PMID:23457517

  14. Carotid body chemoreflex: a driver of autonomic abnormalities in sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2016-08-01

    What is the topic of this review? This article presents emerging evidence for heightened carotid body chemoreflex activity as a major driver of sympathetic activation and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. What advances does it heighlight? This article discusses the recent advances on cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex in experimental models of sleep apnoea. The carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen concentration, and the resulting chemoreflex is a potent regulator of the sympathetic tone, blood pressure and breathing. Sleep apnoea is a disease of the respiratory system that affects several million adult humans. Apnoeas occur during sleep, often as a result of obstruction of the upper airway (obstructive sleep apnoea) or because of defective respiratory rhythm generation by the CNS (central sleep apnoea). Patients with sleep apnoea exhibit several co-morbidities, with the most notable among them being heightened sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. Emerging evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia resulting from periodic apnoea stimulates the carotid body, and the ensuing chemoreflex mediates the increased sympathetic tone and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. Rodent models of intermittent hypoxia that simulate the O2 saturation profiles encountered during sleep apnoea have provided important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the heightened carotid body chemoreflex. This article describes how intermittent hypoxia affects the carotid body function and discusses the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex. PMID:27474260

  15. Sleep Patterns and Symptoms of Depression in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Peggy R.; Girgenti, Alicia A.; Mills, Maura J.

    2009-01-01

    College students have long been considered a population particularly affected by sleep difficulties. Previous studies have confirmed individuals with sleep disturbances may be at risk for development of depression. This study provides evidence in support of the hypothesis that sleep and specific aspects of depression are related. 147 students…

  16. A Comparison of the Sleep-Wake Patterns of Cosleeping and Solitary-Sleeping Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Amy; Burnham, Melissa M.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Gaylor, Erika E.; Anders, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether 3-15, month-old cosleeping infants displayed differences in time spent in active versus quiet sleep, and in the number/duration of nighttime awakenings when compared with solitary-sleeping infants; and also whether they spent the majority of the night sleeping face-to-face, as previously reported. Nine cosleeping and…

  17. Primary sleep disorders seen at a Neurology service-based sleep clinic in India: Patterns over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness for recognition of sleep disorders in India; however, there is still a huge gap in the number of people suffering from various sleep disorders, in the community versus those visiting hospital clinics for the same. Ours is a neurology services-based sleep disorders clinic, which has evolved successfully over the last decade. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in referral patterns and distribution of various sleep disorders in the patients presenting to the clinic. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review-based study on all patients seen over an 8-year period, divided into 2 groups comprising of patients seen during the first 4 years versus those seen over the next 4 years. Only those patients who had the sleep disorder as their presenting manifestation and those who had been formally interviewed with a pre-structured questionnaire detailing about the main features of the common sleep disorders according to the ICSD-R were included. Patients, in whom the sleep disorder could be clearly attributable to another neurological or systemic disorder, were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify the differences between the two groups as regards the distribution of various sleep disorders and other clinical data. Results: Among 710 patients registered in the clinic, 469 were included for analysis and 222 patients formed group 1 while 247 formed group 2. The main differences observed were in the form of a clear increase in the percentage of patients with sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorder, and the hypersomnias on comparison of distribution over the first 4 years versus the last 4 years; while a clear decline was seen in the number of patients with insomnia and parasomnias. A 3-fold increase was observed in the number of patients in whom polysomnography was obtained. Conclusion: The distribution of various sleep disorders as seen in a neurology service-based sleep

  18. Mexican American adolescents' sleep patterns: contextual correlates and implications for health and adjustment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; De Jesús, Sue A Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the US population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from seven phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents' familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context. PMID:25047598

  19. Mexican American Adolescents’ Sleep Patterns: Contextual Correlates and Implications for Health and Adjustment in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; McHale, Susan M.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the U.S. population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from 7 phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents’ familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context. PMID:25047598

  20. Ambulatory sleep-wake patterns and variability in young people with emerging mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Rébecca; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Rogers, Naomi L.; Ip, Tony K.C.; Mullin, Sharon J.; Alvares, Gail A.; Guastella, Adam J.; Smith, Kristie Leigh; Rong, Ye; Whitwell, Bradley; Southan, James; Glozier, Nick; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nature of sleep-wake abnormalities in individuals with mental disorders remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the differences in objective ambulatory measures of the sleep-wake and activity cycles across young people with anxiety, mood or psychotic disorders. Methods Participants underwent several days of actigraphy monitoring. We divided participants into 5 groups (control, anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, psychotic disorder) according to primary diagnosis. Results We enrolled 342 participants aged 12–35 years in our study: 41 healthy controls, 56 with anxiety disorder, 135 with unipolar depression, 80 with bipolar disorder and 30 with psychotic disorders. Compared with the control group, sleep onset tended to occur later in the anxiety, depression and bipolar groups; sleep offset occurred later in all primary diagnosis groups; the sleep period was longer in the anxiety, bipolar and psychosis groups; total sleep time was longer in the psychosis group; and sleep efficiency was lower in the depression group, with a similar tendency for the anxiety and bipolar groups. Sleep parameters were significantly more variable in patient subgroups than in controls. Cosinor analysis revealed delayed circadian activity profiles in the anxiety and bipolar groups and abnormal circadian curve in the psychosis group. Limitations Although statistical analyses controlled for age, the sample included individuals from preadolescence to adulthood. Most participants from the primary diagnosis subgroups were taking psychotropic medications, and a large proportion had other comorbid mental disorders. Conclusion Our findings suggest that delayed and disorganized sleep offset times are common in young patients with various mental disorders. However, other sleep-wake cycle disturbances appear to be more prominent in broad diagnostic categories. PMID:25203899

  1. Sleep Hygiene Pattern and Behaviors and Related Factors among General Population in West Of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Chehri, Azita; Sadeghi, Kheirollah; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Akram; Rezaei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep hygiene was found as an important predictor for sleep quality. People’s sleep hygiene can have a major role in their daily function. The purpose of the study was to determine sleep hygiene patterns and sleep hygiene behaviors and factors affecting them in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1829 men and 1262 women were selected randomly from 50 clusters of different parts of the city. The inclusion criteria were age between 12 and 65 years and living in Kermanshah. The exclusion criteria were psychiatric disorder and known general medical conditions that affecting sleep. The data collection instruments were demographic questionnaire and Sleep Hygiene Questionnaire, consisted of 13 items about biological rhythm and bed room environment and behaviors that affecting sleep. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Results: The highest percentage was obtained for irregular woke and went up from day to day or at weekend and holidays (74.8%). Only 213 (6.9%) participants were classified as having good sleep hygiene (score 12-14). The mean age of very poor, poor, moderate, and good sleepers was 34.8 ± 14.4, 33.7 ± 17.4, 36.5 ± 13.8, and 35 ± 13.7years, respectively. There were significant differences between the age of poor and moderate sleepers and also sleep hygiene patterns with respect to sex, education level and job. Conclusion: Poor sleep hygiene were more frequent in Iranian peoples and the major problem in sleep hygiene in our study was inappropriate sleep schedule. PMID:27045403

  2. A Study on the Sleep Patterns and Problems of University Business Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Y. Y.; Wing, Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate sleep patterns and problems of university business students. Participants: Undergraduate Chinese business students in Hong Kong. Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were completed during class lectures and through online system. Results: Of the 620 participating students (mean age 19.9 years), sleep duration was…

  3. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance. PMID:11765249

  4. Sleep Patterns of a Primarily Obese Sample of Treatment-Seeking Children

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Danielle M.; Janicke, David M.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the sleep patterns and the role of day of the week and school break in these patterns within a primarily obese sample of children. Methods: Participants included 143 obese children (8-12 years) and their parents initiating treatment in a weight-management study in a community-based setting. Demographics, anthropometrics, and objectively measured sleep (i.e., with use of Sensewear Armbands) were collected prior to treatment. Results: Sleep duration was insufficient in our sample, as approximately 88% obtained less than 8 hours of sleep (mean = 6.92, standard deviation = 0.85). Those with lower total sleep time included older children, those identified as African American (compared to those identified as Caucasian), and those identified as Non-Hispanic (compared to those identified as Hispanic). Children on school break initiated sleep later than those in school the week of measurement. Children woke later on weekends and when on school break. There were no differences in day of the week or school break in predicting child sleep duration and total wake time (p's > 0.05). Conclusions: This study is one of the first to examine sleep patterns within a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking rural children. There is a need for research to develop a better understanding of how sleep may affect health functioning and weight management, as well as quality of life and psychosocial functioning of children who are overweight or obese. Clinical Trials Information: Title of trial: Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids). Clinical-Trials.gov identifier: NCT01820338. NIH/NIDDK Grant #: 1R18DK082374-01. Citation: Graef DM, Janicke DM, McCrae CS. Sleep patterns of a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1111-1117. PMID:25317092

  5. Sleep Cyclic Alternating Pattern in Otherwise Healthy Overweight School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Ferri, Raffaele; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) characteristics in otherwise healthy overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) children Design: Polysomnographic cross-sectional study Setting: Sleep laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight (26 NW and 32 OW) 10-year-old children Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Participants were part of a longitudinal study beginning in infancy and free of sleep disorders. Groups were based on body-mass index (BMI) z-score. From polysomnographic overnight recordings, sleep-waking states were scored according to international criteria. CAP analysis was performed visually during NREM sleep. Conventional sleep parameters were similar between groups. BMI was positively related to CAP rate and CAP sequences but inversely related to CAP B phase duration. Differences between groups were confined to slow-wave sleep (SWS), with OW children showing higher CAP rate, CAP cycles, and CAP A1 number and index and shorter CAP cycles and B phase duration. They also showed more CAP class intervals shorter than 30 s, and a suggestive trend for fewer intervals longer than 30 s. Conclusions: Cyclic alternating pattern characteristics in children related to nutritional status and were altered in overweight subjects during slow-wave sleep. We suggest that the more frequent oscillatory pattern of electroencephalographic slow activity in overweight subjects might reflect less stable slow-wave sleep episodes. Citation: Chamorro R; Ferri R; Algarin C; Garrido M; Lozoff B; Peirano P. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in otherwise healthy overweight school-age children. SLEEP 2014;37(3):557-560. PMID:24587578

  6. Sleeping under the Ocean: Despite Total Isolation, Nuclear Submariners Maintain Their Sleep and Wake Patterns throughout Their Under Sea Mission

    PubMed Central

    Trousselard, Marion; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Coste, Olivier; Vicard, Arnaud; Pontis, Julien; Crosnier, Sylvain-Nicolas; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the effects of isolation, inadequate exposure to light and specific shift work on the subjective and objective measurements of sleep and alertness of submariners. Purpose A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with the polysomnography recorded twice during the mission. Methods Setting: Shift and night work with prolonged (70 days) social isolation from the real world (with no phone or Internet contact with families or friends during a routine mission aboard the “Téméraire” French Strategic Submarine with Ballistic Nuclear missiles (SSBN). Participants: 19 submariners working on a 24-hour shift for three days in a row schedule. Interventions: The participants attended two polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of night sleep on Day 21 (D21) and Day 51 (D51) of the 70-day patrol; urine cortisol levels were also taken after sleep, and subjective assessments of sleep, sleepiness, mood and anxiety on D21 and D51. The light and temperature on board were also recorded. Results PSG analyses showed that sleep did not significantly vary in length (total sleep time) or in quality between D21 and D51. The mariners reported the same subjective sleep, sleepiness, anxiety or mood (except for a slightly worse score for confusion on D51). Blood cortisol levels did not vary significantly. Conclusions These results show that humans living in an isolated environment for more than two months with this specific shift schedule do not suffer from any significant effects on sleep, sleepiness and confusion between D21 and D51, when they follow an organized regular shift pattern with controlled light and temperature. PMID:26016656

  7. Discharge Patterns of Human Tensor Palatini Motor Units During Sleep Onset

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Christian L.; Jordan, Amy S.; Heckel, Leila; Worsnop, Christopher; Bei, Bei; Saboisky, Julian P.; Eckert, Danny J.; White, David P.; Malhotra, Atul; Trinder, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Upper airway muscles such as genioglossus (GG) and tensor palatini (TP) reduce activity at sleep onset. In GG reduced muscle activity is primarily due to inspiratory modulated motor units becoming silent, suggesting reduced respiratory pattern generator (RPG) output. However, unlike GG, TP shows minimal respiratory modulation and presumably has few inspiratory modulated motor units and minimal input from the RPG. Thus, we investigated the mechanism by which TP reduces activity at sleep onset. Design: The activity of TP motor units were studied during relaxed wakefulness and over the transition from wakefulness to sleep. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Nine young (21.4 ± 3.4 years) males were studied on a total of 11 nights. Intervention: Sleep onset. Measurements and Results: Two TP EMGs (thin, hooked wire electrodes), and sleep and respiratory measures were recorded. One hundred twenty-one sleep onsets were identified (13.4 ± 7.2/subject), resulting in 128 motor units (14.3 ± 13.0/subject); 29% of units were tonic, 43% inspiratory modulated (inspiratory phasic 18%, inspiratory tonic 25%), and 28% expiratory modulated (expiratory phasic 21%, expiratory tonic 7%). There was a reduction in both expiratory and inspiratory modulated units, but not tonic units, at sleep onset. Reduced TP activity was almost entirely due to de-recruitment. Conclusions: TP showed a similar distribution of motor units as other airway muscles. However, a greater proportion of expiratory modulated motor units were active in TP and these expiratory units, along with inspiratory units, tended to become silent over sleep onset. The data suggest that both expiratory and inspiratory drive components from the RPG are reduced at sleep onset in TP. Citation: Nicholas CL; Jordan AS; Heckel L; Worsnop C; Bei B: Saboisky JP; Eckert DJ; White DP; Malhotra A; Trinder J. Discharge patterns of human tensor palatini motor units during sleep onset. SLEEP 2012;35(5):699-707. PMID

  8. Developmental Divergence of Sleep-Wake Patterns in Orexin Knockout and Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Cassandra M.; Johnson, Eric D.; Shaw, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by fragmented bouts of sleep and wakefulness during the day and night as well as cataplexy, has been linked in humans and non-human animals to the functional integrity of the orexinergic system. Adult orexin knockout mice and dogs with a mutation of the orexin receptor exhibit symptoms that mirror those seen in narcoleptic humans. As with narcolepsy, infant sleep-wake cycles in humans and rats are highly fragmented, with consolidated bouts of sleep and wakefulness developing gradually. Based on these common features of narcoleptics and infants, we hypothesized that the development of sleep-wake fragmentation in orexin knockout mice would be expressed as a developmental divergence between knockouts and wild-types, with the knockouts lagging behind the wild-types. We tested this hypothesis by recording the sleep-wake patterns of infant orexin knockout and wild-type mice across the first three postnatal weeks. Both knockouts and wild-types exhibited age-dependent, and therefore orexin-independent, quantitative and qualitative changes in sleep-wake patterning. At 3 weeks of age, however, by which time the sleep and wake bouts of the wild-types had consolidated further, the knockouts lagged behind the wild-types and exhibited significantly more bout fragmentation. These findings suggest the possibility that the fragmentation of behavioral states that characterizes narcolepsy in adults reflects reversion back toward the more fragmented sleep-wake patterns that characterize infancy. PMID:17284193

  9. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  10. Noise Effects on the Complex Patterns of Abnormal Heartbeats

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Glass, Leon; Goldberger, Ary L.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-08-06

    Patients at high risk for sudden death often exhibit complex heart rhythms in which abnormal heartbeats are interspersed with normal heartbeats. We analyze such a complex rhythm in a single patient over a 12-h period and show that the rhythm can be described by a theoretical model consisting of two interacting oscillators with stochastic elements. By varying the magnitude of the noise, we show that for an intermediate level of noise, the model gives best agreement with key statistical features of the dynamics.

  11. Are Cardiometabolic and Endocrine Abnormalities Linked to Sleep Difficulties in Schizophrenia? A Hypothesis Driven Review

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Rébecca; Rogers, Naomi L.; Whitwell, Bradley G.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that includes symptoms such as hallucinations, disordered thoughts, disorganized or catatonic behaviour, cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disturbance. In addition to these symptoms, cardiometabolic dysfunction is common in patients with schizophrenia. While previously it has been thought that cardiometabolic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were associated with medications used to manage this disorder, more recently it has been demonstrated that these symptoms are present in drug naive and unmedicated patients. Sleep-wake disturbance, resulting in chronic sleep loss has also been demonstrated to induce changes in cardiometabolic function. Chronic sleep loss has been associated with an increased risk for weight gain, obesity and cardiac and metabolic disorders, independent of other potentially contributing factors, such as smoking and body mass index. We hypothesise that the sleep-wake disturbance comorbid with schizophrenia may play a significant role in the high prevalence of cardiometabolic dysfunction observed in this patient population. Here we present a critical review of the evidence that supports this hypothesis. PMID:23429436

  12. Infant sleep and feeding patterns are associated with maternal sleep, stress, and depressed mood in women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD).

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Iko, Ijeoma N; Machan, Jason T; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age ± SD = 28.3 ± 5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p = .02) and lower sleep efficiency (p = .04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p = .008) and duration of infant feeding (p = .008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress. PMID:26228760

  13. A biphasic daily pattern of slow wave activity during a two-day 90-minute sleep wake schedule.

    PubMed

    Duncan, W C; Barbato, G; Fagioli, I; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Wehr, T A

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-four hour sleep patterns were measured in six healthy male volunteers during a 90-minute short sleep-wake (SW 30:60) cycle protocol for 48 hours. Sleep pressure estimates (amount of Slow Wave Sleep [SWS], SWA, and Rate of Synchronization [RoS: the rate of SWA build-up at the beginning of the NREM period]) were compared with the 24-hour patterns of body temperature (Tb24) and sleep propensity. A moderate sleep debt was incurred over the 48 hour study as indicated by decreased levels of 24 hour sleep. On day 1, ultradian patterns of REM and SWS sleep were prominent; on day 2, more prominent were circadian patterns of REM sleep, SWS, Sleep Latency, TST and Tb24. Also on Day 2, biphasic patterns of SWA and RoS were expressed, with peaks occurring during the falling and rising limbs of Tb24. The biphasic peaks in SWA and RoS may be associated with phase-specific interactions of the circadian pacemaker with the sleep homeostat during conditions of moderate sleep pressure. Further research is needed to replicate the finding and to identify biological factors that may underlie the twelve hour pattern in SWA. PMID:20162861

  14. Effects of a sleep education program with self-help treatment on sleeping patterns and daytime sleepiness in Japanese adolescents: A cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norihisa; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insufficient sleep and delayed sleep-wake patterns have been reported as the primary causes for daytime sleepiness, a reasonably significant and prevalent problem for adolescents worldwide. Systematic reviews have indicated that the success of sleep education programs has thus far been inconsistent, due to the lack of a tailored approach that allows for evaluation of individual differences in behavior patterns. One way to resolve this problem is to assess the individual sleep behaviors of adolescents by using a checklist containing the recommended behaviors for promoting sleep health. Such self-help education programs have already been implemented for elementary school children, school nurses and the elderly. The present study aimed to verify the effects of a sleep education program with supplementary self-help treatment, based on a checklist of sleep-promoting behaviors, in addition to evaluation of changes in sleeping patterns, sleep-promoting behaviors and daytime sleepiness in adolescents. A cluster randomized controlled trial involving 5 Japanese junior high schools was conducted, and 243 students (sleep education: n = 122; waiting list: n = 121; 50.6% female; 7th grade) were included in the final analysis. The sleep education group was provided with information on proper sleep health and sleep-promoting behaviors. The students in this group were asked to practice one sleep-promoting behavior as a goal for 2 weeks and to monitor their practice using sleep diaries. Both pre- and post-treatment questionnaires were administered to students in order to assess knowledge of sleep-promoting behaviors, sleeping patterns and daytime functioning. Students in the sleep education group showed significant improvement in their knowledge of sleep health (F1,121 = 648.05, p < 0.001) and in their sleep-promoting behaviors (F1,121 = 55.66, p < 0.001). Bedtime on both school nights (F1,121 = 50.86, p < 0.001) and weekends (F1,121 = 15.03, p < 0.001), sleep

  15. Sleep Loss, Circadian Mismatch, and Abnormalities in Reorienting of Attention in Night Workers with Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Methods: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Statistical analyses: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. Results: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Howard R; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Drake CL. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder. SLEEP 2014

  16. Sleep Patterns Before, During, and After Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Boyko, Edward J.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Gehrman, Philip; Macera, Carol A.; Smith, Tyler C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the associations between deployment in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and sleep quantity and quality. Design: Longitudinal cohort study Setting: The Millennium Cohort Study survey is administered via a secure website or US mail. Participants: Data were from 41,225 Millennium Cohort members who completed baseline (2001–2003) and follow-up (2004–2006) surveys. Participants were placed into 1 of 3 exposure groups based on their deployment status at follow-up: nondeployed, survey completed during deployment, or survey completed postdeployment. Measurements and Results: Study outcomes were self-reported sleep duration and trouble sleeping, defined as having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep. Adjusted mean sleep duration was significantly shorter among those in the deployed and postdeployment groups compared with those who did not deploy. Additionally, male gender and greater stress were significantly associated with shorter sleep duration. Personnel who completed their survey during deployment or postdeployment were significantly more likely to have trouble sleeping than those who had not deployed. Lower self-reported general health, female gender, and reporting of mental health symptoms at baseline were also significantly associated with increased odds of trouble sleeping. Conclusions: Deployment significantly influenced sleep quality and quantity in this population though effect size was mediated with statistical modeling that included mental health symptoms. Personnel reporting combat exposures or mental health symptoms had increased odds of trouble sleeping. These findings merit further research to increase understanding of temporal relationships between sleep and mental health outcomes occurring during and after deployment. Citation: Seelig AD; Jacobson IG; Smith B; Hooper TI; Boyko EJ; Gackstetter GD; Gehrman P; Macera CA; Smith TC. Sleep patterns before, during, and after deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan

  17. Sleep Pattern Differences Between Older Adult Dementia Caregivers and Older Adult Noncaregivers Using Objective and Subjective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.; Campbell, Judy M.; Pe Benito, Andrea; Cheng, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia often complain about poor quality sleep; however, studies on caregivers have mixed results when examining sleep values. The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns in a subset of dementia caregivers who provide care during the night, and compare those patterns to noncaregiving adults. Methods: Data from a study on dementia caregivers and from a study of sleep in older adults were used. Both studies used objective and subjective methods to measure sleep in the home setting over a 7-day period. Participants were over 60 years old and relatively healthy. Results: Older dementia caregivers had worse objectively measured sleep than noncaregiving older adults, characterized by fewer minutes asleep and longer time to fall asleep. For subjectively measured sleep, depressive symptoms were the only predictive factor, with depressed participants reporting longer total sleep time, greater sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset. Caregivers' sleep had greater night-to-night variability. Conclusions: Caregivers consistently report poorer quality sleep and greater fatigue than noncaregivers. However, when sleep is measured objectively and subjectively, a mixed picture emerges regarding sleep deficits. Thus sleep changes are caused by a multitude of factors affecting sleep in a variety of ways. It is important for health care providers to assess sleep adequacy and depression in caregivers. Citation: Rowe MA; McCrae CS; Campbell JM; Benito AP; Cheng J. Sleep pattern differences between older adult dementia caregivers and older adult noncaregivers using objective and subjective measures. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(4):362–369. PMID:18763429

  18. Passive body heating improves sleep patterns in female patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andressa; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; Andersen, Monica Levy; Mônico-Neto, Marcos; da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; Roizenblatt, Suely; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of passive body heating on the sleep patterns of patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Six menopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the criteria determined by the American College of Rheumatology were included. All women underwent passive immersion in a warm bath at a temperature of 36±1°C for 15 sessions of 30 minutes each over a period of three weeks. Their sleep patterns were assessed by polysomnography at the following time-points: pre-intervention (baseline), the first day of the intervention (acute), the last day of the intervention (chronic), and three weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Core body temperature was evaluated by a thermistor pill during the baseline, acute, chronic, and follow-up periods. The impact of this treatment on fibromyalgia was assessed via a specific questionnaire termed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. RESULTS: Sleep latency, rapid eye movement sleep latency and slow wave sleep were significantly reduced in the chronic and acute conditions compared with baseline. Sleep efficiency was significantly increased during the chronic condition, and the awakening index was reduced at the chronic and follow-up time points relative to the baseline values. No significant differences were observed in total sleep time, time in sleep stages 1 or 2 or rapid eye movement sleep percentage. The core body temperature and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire responses did not significantly change over the course of the study. CONCLUSION: Passive body heating had a positive effect on the sleep patterns of women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23525306

  19. Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  20. Sleep Patterns Are Associated with Common Illness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Orzech, Kathryn M.; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Barker, David; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This prospective, field-based study examined the association between actigraphically-measured total sleep time and incident illness including cold, flu, gastroenteritis, and other common infectious diseases (e.g., strep throat) in adolescents over the course of a school semester. Participants were 56 adolescents ages 14–19 years (mean = 16.6 (standard deviation = 1.2), 39% male) from 5 high schools in Rhode Island. Beginning in late January, adolescents wore actigraphs (mean 91 (19) days, range 16 – 112 days) and were assigned post-hoc to Longer or Shorter sleep groups based on median splits. Adolescents were interviewed weekly across as many as 16 weeks (modal number of interviews = 13) using a structured protocol that included 14 health event questions. Illness events and illness-related school absences were coded for 710 completed interviews, with 681 illness events and 90 school absences reported. Outcomes (illness bouts, illness duration, and absences) were compared among sex, sleep, and academic year groups using non-parametric regression. In a subset of 18 subjects, mean actigraphically estimated total sleep time 6 nights before matched illness/wellness events was compared using MANOVA. Longer sleepers and males reported fewer illness bouts; total sleep time effects were more apparent in males than females. A trend was found for shorter total sleep time before ill events. The present findings in this small naturalistic sample indicate that acute illnesses were more frequent in otherwise healthy adolescents with shorter sleep, and illness events were associated with less sleep during the prior week than comparable matched periods without illness. PMID:24134661

  1. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (P<0.01). Based on the mean cumulative self-reported grade point average (GPA), the academic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, P<0.05, respectively). Depression, as scored by CES-D, in females was significantly negatively correlated with the cumulative GPA (r=−0.278, P<0.01), earlier wake time (r=−0.168, P<0.05), and average sleep duration (r=−0.221, P<0.01) on weekdays. GPA of males was significantly correlated with bedtime on weekends (r=−0.159, P<0.05). We conclude that sex differences in sleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather

  2. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (P<0.01). Based on the mean cumulative self-reported grade point average (GPA), the academic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, P<0.05, respectively). Depression, as scored by CES-D, in females was significantly negatively correlated with the cumulative GPA (r=-0.278, P<0.01), earlier wake time (r=-0.168, P<0.05), and average sleep duration (r=-0.221, P<0.01) on weekdays. GPA of males was significantly correlated with bedtime on weekends (r=-0.159, P<0.05). We conclude that sex differences in sleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather than

  3. Adolescent Sleep Patterns and Night-Time Technology Use: Results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Big Sleep Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Amanda L.; D'Rozario, Angela L.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Williams, Shaun; Bin, Yu Sun; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Marshall, Nathaniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electronic devices in the bedroom are broadly linked with poor sleep in adolescents. This study investigated whether there is a dose-response relationship between use of electronic devices (computers, cellphones, televisions and radios) in bed prior to sleep and adolescent sleep patterns. Methods Adolescents aged 11–17 yrs (n = 1,184; 67.6% female) completed an Australia-wide internet survey that examined sleep patterns, sleepiness, sleep disorders, the presence of electronic devices in the bedroom and frequency of use in bed at night. Results Over 70% of adolescents reported 2 or more electronic devices in their bedroom at night. Use of devices in bed a few nights per week or more was 46.8% cellphone, 38.5% computer, 23.2% TV, and 15.8% radio. Device use had dose-dependent associations with later sleep onset on weekdays (highest-dose computer adjOR  = 3.75: 99% CI  = 2.17–6.46; cellphone 2.29: 1.22–4.30) and weekends (computer 3.68: 2.14–6.32; cellphone 3.24: 1.70–6.19; TV 2.32: 1.30–4.14), and later waking on weekdays (computer 2.08: 1.25–3.44; TV 2.31: 1.33–4.02) and weekends (computer 1.99: 1.21–3.26; cellphone 2.33: 1.33–4.08; TV 2.04: 1.18–3.55). Only ‘almost every night’ computer use (: 2.43: 1.45–4.08) was associated with short weekday sleep duration, and only ‘almost every night’ cellphone use (2.23: 1.26–3.94) was associated with wake lag (waking later on weekends). Conclusions Use of computers, cell-phones and televisions at higher doses was associated with delayed sleep/wake schedules and wake lag, potentially impairing health and educational outcomes. PMID:25390034

  4. Habitual sleep duration and eating disorders in college students.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; Rozette, E

    1986-02-01

    To measure the relationship between habitual sleep duration and eating disorders, the responses of groups of 34 short- and 43 longer-sleeping college students to the EAT-26 Test were compared. The short-sleepers scored twice as high and were five times more likely to exhibit abnormal eating patterns than the longer-sleeping group. PMID:3457356

  5. Sleep-Wake Patterns of Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Huỳnh, Christophe; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Godbout, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Sleep-wake patterns are rarely examined in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Within a developmental perspective, this study explores the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents aged 12-17 years with BPD or BD and healthy controls (HC) during periods with and without entrainment by school/work schedules. Eighteen euthymic BPD, six euthymic BD, and 20 HC adolescents wore wrist actigraphy during nine consecutive days to assess sleep-wake patterns. During school/work days, BPD adolescents spent more time awake when they were in bed compared to HC and BD adolescents (p = 0.039). On schedule-free days, BPD and BD youths spent more time in bed compared to HC adolescents (p = 0.015). BPD adolescents woke up over 1 h later compared to HC (p = 0.003). Total sleep time was more variable between nights in BPD adolescents compared to the HC group (p = 0.031). Future research should explore if sleep-wake pattern disruptions are a cause or a consequence of BPD symptomatology in adolescents. Addressing sleep-wake pattern during clinical assessment and treatment of BPD adolescents may potentially reduce their symptoms; this therapeutic effect still needs to be evaluated. PMID:26003420

  6. Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on sleep patterns of individuals practicing resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, Daniel Paulino; Tufik, Sergio; Garbuio, Silvério Aparecido; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2008-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse has become a public health problem in many countries, and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Epidemiological studies have also found increasing numbers of sleep disorders reported by individuals using AASs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sleep patterns and disorders in anabolic androgenic users who practice resistance exercise. The sample comprised 58 males divided into three groups: (1) 20 current AAS users aged 26 +/- 1.2, (2) 21 controls with no history of AAS use, aged 26 +/- 1 and (3) 17 sedentary men with no sleep disorders aged 27.2 +/- 0.34. The volunteers spent a night in the sleep laboratory for polysomnography. Comparing the three groups, the user group showed reduced sleep efficiency and more wakings after sleep onset than the sedentary group (P = 0.001). The sedentary group showed a higher percentage of stage 4 than the non-users group. We suggest that using of anabolic steroids reduced sleep efficiency and alters sleep architecture. PMID:18043934

  7. Establishment and consolidation of the sleep-wake cycle as a function of attachment pattern.

    PubMed

    Pennestri, Marie-Hélène; Moss, Ellen; O'Donnell, Katherine; Lecompte, Vanessa; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Gruber, Reut; Fleming, Alison S; Meaney, Michael J; Gaudreau, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The development of sleep-wake regulation in infants depends upon brain maturation as well as various environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep duration and quality as a function of child attachment to the mother. One hundred and thirty-four mother-child dyads enrolled in the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project were included in this study. Attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation procedure at 36 months and maternal sleep reports were collected at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. Differences in sleep characteristics were assessed with mixed models with one factor (attachment group) and one repeated measure (age). Children classified as disorganized had a significantly lower duration of nocturnal sleep, went to bed later, signaled more awakenings, had shorter periods of uninterrupted sleep (only at 12 months) and had shorter periods of time in bed (only at 6 months) than children classified as secure and/or ambivalent (p < 0.05). This is the first study to show that children with insecure disorganized attachment present a distinct sleep pattern in comparison with those with secure or ambivalent attachment between 6 and 36 months of age. Sleep disturbances could exacerbate difficulties in these families that are already considered vulnerable. PMID:25231054

  8. Associations between sleep patterns and lifestyle behaviors in children: an international comparison

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, J-P; Katzmarzyk, P T; LeBlanc, A G; Tremblay, M S; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Rae, D E; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Olds, T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although evidence is accumulating on the importance of a good night's sleep for healthy eating and activity behaviors, existing research has mainly been conducted in high-income, developed countries with limited sociocultural variability. This study is the first to examine the associations between sleep patterns and lifestyle behaviors in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. METHODS: This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 5777 children aged 9–11 years from sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. Nocturnal sleep duration (hours per night), sleep efficiency (%) and bedtime (h:min) were monitored over 7 consecutive days using an accelerometer. Lifestyle behaviors included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time (SED), self-reported screen time (ST) and healthy/unhealthy diet patterns (HDP/UDP). Multilevel modeling analyses were used to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. RESULTS: Overall, participants averaged 8.8 (s.d. 0.9) hours of sleep with 96.2% (s.d. 1.4) sleep efficiency and a mean bedtime of 2218 hours. After adjustment for age, sex, highest parental education and BMI z-score, results showed that (i) sleep duration was negatively associated with MVPA, SED and UDP score; (ii) sleep efficiency was negatively associated with MVPA and UDP score, and positively associated with SED; and (iii) later bedtime was positively associated with SED, ST and UDP score, and negatively associated with MVPA and HDP score. Results using categories of sleep patterns were consistent with the linear associations. Results also revealed that associations between sleep patterns and MVPA, SED and ST were significantly different between study sites, with stronger associations in high-income countries compared with low/middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep

  9. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-08-01

    Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and

  10. Cyclic alternating patterns in normal sleep and insomnia: structure and content differences.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, Ioanna; Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Rosso, V; Bianchi, Anna M; Parrino, Liborio; Grassi, Andrea; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Cerutti, Sergio; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2012-09-01

    This work aims to investigate new markers for the quantitative characterization of insomnia, in the context of sleep microstructure, as expressed by cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) sleep. The study group includes 11 subjects with normal sleep and 10 subjects with diagnosed primary insomnia. Differences between normal sleepers and insomniacs are investigated, in terms of dynamics and content of CAP events. The overall rate of CAP and of different phases is considered. The dynamic in the structure and alternation of CAP events is further studied in different scales by use of wavelet analysis, and calculation of energy/entropy features. The content of CAP events is studied in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) complexity analysis for the different types of events. Statistically significant differences are highlighted, both in structure and content. Besides confirming the increase in CAP rate, main findings regarding the microstructure difference in insomnia include: 1) as regards the deep sleep building phases, more irregular activation-deactivation patterns, with bigger deactivation time, i.e., distance between consecutive activation events, and appearing with higher EEG complexity in deactivation, and 2) a bigger duration of desynchronisation phases, with increased EEG complexity and more irregular patterns. This analysis extends previous findings on the relation between CAPrate increase and sleep instability mechanisms, proposing specific features of CAP that seem to play a role in insomnia (as consistently presented via classification analysis). This opens new perspectives for the understanding of the role of CAP in the quantitative characterization of sleep and its disorders. PMID:22855235

  11. Sleep patterns and sleepiness of working college students.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Liliane; Lowden, Arne; da Luz, Andrea Aparecida; Turte, Samantha Lemos; Valente, Daniel; Matsumura, Roberto Jun; de Paula, Leticia Pickersgill; Takara, Meire Yuri; Nagai-Manelli, Roberta; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    The double journey (work and study) may result or aggravate health problems, including sleep disturbances, as observed in previous studies with high school students. The aim of this study is to analyze the sleep-wake cycle and perceived sleepiness of working college students during weekdays. Twenty-three healthy college male students, 21-24 years old, working during the day and attending classes in the evening, participated in this study. During five consecutive days, the students filled out daily activities logs and wore actigraphs. Mean sleeping time was lower than 6 hours per night. No significant differences were observed in the sleep-wake cycle during the weekdays. The observed lack of changes in the sleepwake cycle of these college students might occur as participants were not on a free schedule, but exposed to social constraints, as was the regular attendance to evening college and day work activities. Sleepiness worsened over the evening school hours. Those results show the burden carried by College students who perform double activities - work and study. PMID:22317611

  12. Narcolepsy patients have antibodies that stain distinct cell populations in rat brain and influence sleep patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Peter; Adori, Csaba; Vas, Szilvia; Kai-Larsen, Ylva; Sarkanen, Tomi; Cederlund, Andreas; Agerberth, Birgitta; Julkunen, Ilkka; Horvath, Beata; Kostyalik, Diana; Kalmár, Lajos; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Huutoniemi, Anne; Partinen, Markku; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder, likely with an autoimmune component. During 2009 and 2010, a link between A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemrix vaccination and onset of narcolepsy was suggested in Scandinavia. In this study, we searched for autoantibodies related to narcolepsy using a neuroanatomical array: rat brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry/double labeling using patient sera/cerebrospinal fluid as primary antibodies. Sera from 89 narcoleptic patients, 52 patients with other sleep-related disorders (OSRDs), and 137 healthy controls were examined. Three distinct patterns of immunoreactivity were of particular interest: pattern A, hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone and proopiomelanocortin but not hypocretin/orexin neurons; pattern B, GABAergic cortical interneurons; and pattern C, mainly globus pallidus neurons. Altogether, 24 of 89 (27%) narcoleptics exhibited pattern A or B or C. None of the patterns were exclusive for narcolepsy but were also detected in the OSRD group at significantly lower numbers. Also, some healthy controls exhibited these patterns. The antigen of pattern A autoantibodies was identified as the common C-terminal epitope of neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine/α–melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NEI/αMSH) peptides. Passive transfer experiments on rat showed significant effects of pattern A human IgGs on rapid eye movement and slow-wave sleep time parameters in the inactive phase and EEG θ-power in the active phase. We suggest that NEI/αMSH autoantibodies may interfere with the fine regulation of sleep, contributing to the complex pathogenesis of narcolepsy and OSRDs. Also, patterns B and C are potentially interesting, because recent data suggest a relevance of those brain regions/neuron populations in the regulation of sleep/arousal. PMID:25136085

  13. Heat distribution over normal and abnormal joints: thermal pattern and quantification.

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, R S; Parr, G; De Silva, M; Hazleman, B L; Page-Thomas, D P

    1983-01-01

    We have identified regular thermal patterns over normal knee, ankle, and elbow joints and demonstrate how synovitis affecting these joints may be identified by alteration or loss of the thermal pattern. Sixty healthy volunteers were thermographed on a total of 190 occasions, and 614 out of 618 joints conformed to the normal thermal pattern. Eighty-five patients with synovitis of at least one of the specified joints were thermographed on a total of 339 occasions, and 322 out of 1362 thermograms were abnormal. No joint with clinical evidence of synovitis had a normal thermal pattern. As temperature-based parameters have been found to show marked diurnal variation and relative frequency distributions do not have this drawback, we suggest that quantification of synovitis by thermography should in future be based on abnormalities of thermal pattern rather than absolute skin temperature values. PMID:6684900

  14. Pattern Recognition With Adaptive-Thresholds For Sleep Spindle In High Density EEG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Gemignani, Jessica; Agrimi, Jacopo; Cheli, Enrico; Gemignani, Angelo; Laurino, Marco; Allegrini, Paolo; Landi, Alberto; Menicucci, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep spindles are electroencephalographic oscillations peculiar of non-REM sleep, related to neuronal mechanisms underlying sleep restoration and learning consolidation. Based on their very singular morphology, sleep spindles can be visually recognized and detected, even though this approach can lead to significant mis-detections. For this reason, many efforts have been put in developing a reliable algorithm for spindle automatic detection, and a number of methods, based on different techniques, have been tested via visual validation. This work aims at improving current pattern recognition procedures for sleep spindles detection by taking into account their physiological sources of variability. We provide a method as a synthesis of the current state of art that, improving dynamic threshold adaptation, is able to follow modification of spindle characteristics as a function of sleep depth and inter-subjects variability. The algorithm has been applied to physiological data recorded by a high density EEG in order to perform a validation based on visual inspection and on evaluation of expected results from normal night sleep in healthy subjects. PMID:26736332

  15. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672

  16. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shokry, Shereen M.; El Wakeel, Eman E.; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2 = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ2 = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ2 = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ2 = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2 = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ2 = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672

  17. Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime functioning, and quality of life in Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tzischinsky, Orna; Shochat, Tamar

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationships between eveningness, sleep patterns, measures of daytime functioning, i.e., sleepiness, sleep problem behaviors, and depressed mood, and quality of life (QOL) in young Israeli adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was performed in urban and rural middle schools in Northern Israel. Participants were 470 eighth and ninth grade middle school students (14 ± 0.8 yrs of age) in the normative school system. Students completed the modified School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Short Form, assessing six subscales of physical, emotional, social, school performance, and psychosocial functioning, plus an addition generated total score. During weekdays and weekends, evening types went to bed later, their sleep latency was longer, their wake-up time was later, and their sleep duration was shorter than intermediate and morning types. Evening types exhibited more sleep problem behaviors, sleepiness, depressed mood, and lower QOL compared to intermediate and morning types. Based on the regression model, sleepiness, sleep-problem behaviors, and depressed mood were the variables most strongly associated with QOL, followed by morning-evening preference, weekday sleep duration, and weekend sleep latency. This study is the first to assess QOL in normative, healthy adolescents and to demonstrate strong associations between morning-evening preference and QOL. These findings enhance the need to identify young individuals with an evening preference, and to be aware of the characteristics and manifestations of the evening chronotype on daytime and nighttime behaviors in adolescence. PMID:21539425

  18. Pattern of electroencephalographic abnormalities in children with hydrocephalus: a study of 68 patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Sulaiman, A A; Ismail, H M

    1998-03-01

    The pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities was studied in 68 patients (41 male, 27 female, age range 1 month to 17 years) with hydrocephalus. They all had standardized EEG recordings, which were read by the same electroencephalographer. In 48 children the EEG was performed after ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The EEG abnormalities in the shunted group included slow waves in 26 patients [focal 2 (4.2%), generalized asynchronous 22 (45.8%), generalized synchronous 2 (4.2%)]; amplitude abnormalities in 2 (focal 1, generalized 1); epileptiform activity in 26 [partial 11 (22.9%), generalized 15 (31.3%)] and hypsarrhythmia in 4 (8.3%). Only 4 (8.3%) traces were normal, giving an overall percentage abnormality of 92%. In the unshunted group generalized asynchronous slow waves were found in 12 patients (60%), generalized amplitude abnormality in 1, focal epileptiform activity in 3 (15%), and generalized epileptiform activity in 6 (30%); 2 tracings in this group were normal, giving an overall percentage abnormality of 90%. Hydrocephalus in children, regardless of the cause, may be associated with generalized or focal EEG abnormalities. This may reflect the heterogeneity of the neural generator in the underlying disease process. PMID:9579868

  19. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. PMID:26724401

  20. Abnormal Patterns of Tongue-Palate Contact in the Speech of Individuals with Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with cleft palate, even those with adequate velopharyngeal function, are at high risk for disordered lingual articulation. This article attempts to summarize current knowledge of abnormal tongue-palate contact patterns derived from electropalatographic (EPG) data in speakers with cleft palate. These data, which have been reported in 23…

  1. The longer the better: Sleep-wake patterns during preparation of the World Rowing Junior Championships.

    PubMed

    Kölling, Sarah; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recovery is essential for high athletic performance, and therefore especially sleep has been identified as a crucial source for physical and psychological well-being. However, due to early-morning trainings, which are general practice in many sports, athletes are likely to experience sleep restrictions. Therefore, this study investigated the sleep-wake patterns of 55 junior national rowers (17.7 ± 0.6 years) via sleep logs and actigraphy during a four-week training camp. Recovery and stress ratings were obtained every morning with the Short Recovery and Stress Scale on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (does not apply at all) to 6 (fully applies). The first training session was scheduled for 6:30 h every day. With two to four training sessions per day, the training load was considerably increased from athletes' home training. Objective sleep measures (n = 14) revealed less total sleep time (TST) in the first two weeks (409.6 ± 19.1 and 416.0 ± 16.3 min), while training volume and intensity were higher. In the second half of the camp, less training sessions were implemented, more afternoons were training free and TSTs were longer (436.3 ± 15.8 and 456.9 ± 25.7 min). A single occasion of 1.5-h delayed bedtime and usual early morning training (6:30 h) resulted in reduced ratings of Overall Recovery (OR) (M = 3.3 ± 1.3) and greater Negative Emotional State (NES) (M = 1.3 ± 1.2, p < .05), which returned to baseline on the next day. Following an extended night due to the only training-free day, sleep-offset times were shifted from ~5:30 to ~8:00 h, and each recovery and stress score improved (p < .01). Moreover, subjective ratings of the first six days were summarised as a baseline score to generate reference data as well as to explore the association between sleep and recovery. Intercorrelations of these sleep parameters emphasised the relationship between restful sleep and falling asleep quickly (r = .34, p < .05) as well as few awakenings (r = .35, p

  2. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and sleep patterns of abused women in shelters.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ruiz, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a music therapy procedure (music listening paired with progressive muscle relaxation) on the reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep patterns in abused women in shelters. Twenty-eight women residing in 2 domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on 5 consecutive days for half-hour sessions. A pretest-posttest design with control and experimental groups was used. The dependent variables included: stait anxiety measured by the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983) before and after each music stimulus, sleep quality as measured by the PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989) on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale (Lee, 1992) at waking time. The independent variable was a 20-minute recording of participant-selected music with a Progressive Muscle Relaxation script. Results indicated that music therapy constituted an effective method for reducing anxiety levels. Results also indicated a significant effect on sleep quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group. No significant relationships were found between anxiety levels and sleep quality, nor fatigue levels and sleep quality. These results seem promising in the light of domestic violence research, which has found that a greater amount of personal resources is a crucial aspect of abused women's recovery process. Reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep quality can be considered as increased personal resources, and seem feasible through the use of music therapy. PMID:15913391

  3. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Hasan, Muhammad; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Allan, David; Fraser, Matthew; Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Conway, Bernie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP) during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain (CNP) and complete/incomplete injury patients) and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:25221505

  4. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C.; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician’s time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a “texton histogram” of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different “textons” representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  5. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-11-20

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  6. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038

  7. Beyond the mean: A systematic review on the correlates of daily intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns.

    PubMed

    Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F; Trinder, John; Manber, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Features of an individual's sleep/wake patterns across multiple days are governed by two dimensions, the mean and the intraindividual variability (IIV). The existing literature focuses on the means, while the nature and correlates of sleep/wake IIV are not well understood. A systematic search of records in five major databases from inception to November 2014 identified 53 peer-reviewed empirical publications that examined correlates of sleep/wake IIV in adults. Overall, this literature appeared unsystematic and post hoc, with under-developed theoretical frameworks and inconsistent methodologies. Correlates most consistently associated with greater IIV in one or more aspects of sleep/wake patterns were: younger age, non-White race/ethnicity, living alone, physical health conditions, higher body mass index, weight gain, bipolar and unipolar depression symptomatology, stress, and evening chronotype; symptoms of insomnia and poor sleep were associated with higher sleep/wake IIV, which was reduced following sleep interventions. The effects of experimentally reduced sleep/wake IIV on daytime functioning were inconclusive. In extending current understanding of sleep/wake patterns beyond the mean values, IIV should be incorporated as an additional dimension when sleep is examined across multiple days. Theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature, and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:26588182

  8. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  9. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity within the default mode network subregions in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Jun; Nie, Xiao; Gong, Hong-Han; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Si; Peng, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the central executive network and the default mode network (DMN) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported. However, the effect of OSA on rs-FC within the DMN subregions remains uncertain. This study was designed to investigate whether the rs-FC within the DMN subregions was disrupted and determine its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with OSA. Methods Forty male patients newly diagnosed with severe OSA and 40 male education- and age-matched good sleepers (GSs) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations and clinical and neuropsychologic assessments. Seed-based region of interest rs-FC method was used to analyze the connectivity between each pair of subregions within the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus formation (HF), inferior parietal cortices (IPC), and medial temporal lobe (MTL). The abnormal rs-FC strength within the DMN subregions was correlated with clinical and neuropsychologic assessments using Pearson correlation analysis in patients with OSA. Results Compared with GSs, patients with OSA had significantly decreased rs-FC between the right HF and the PCC, MPFC, and left MTL. However, patients with OSA had significantly increased rs-FC between the MPFC and left and right IPC, and between the left IPC and right IPC. The rs-FC between the right HF and left MTL was positively correlated with rapid eye movement (r=0.335, P=0.035). The rs-FC between the PCC and right HF was negatively correlated with delayed memory (r=-0.338, P=0.033). Conclusion OSA selectively impairs the rs-FC between right HF and PCC, MPFC, and left MTL within the DMN subregions, and provides an imaging indicator for assessment of cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients. PMID:26855576

  10. Sleep Quality and Sleep Patterns in Relation to Consumption of Energy Drinks, Caffeinated Beverages and Other Stimulants among Thai College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality; and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Results Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1%. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0%). Stimulant use (OR 1.50; 95%CI 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-1.98) also had statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health. PMID:23239460

  11. Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

  12. Rhythmic alternating patterns of brain activity distinguish rapid eye movement sleep from other states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-18

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation. PMID:23733938

  13. Atypical patterns in portable monitoring for sleep apnoea: features of nocturnal epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Parrino, Liborio; Milioli, Giulia; Grassi, Andrea; De Paolis, Fernando; Riccardi, Silvia; Colizzi, Elena; Bosi, Marcello; Terzano, Mario Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Atypical cardiorespiratory patterns can be found during routine clinical use of portable monitoring for diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Over 1,000 consecutive portable recordings were analysed to study the potential ictal nature of stereotyped cardiorespiratory and motor patterns. Snoring, airflow, thoracic effort, pulse rate, body position, oxygen saturation and activity of the anterior tibialis muscles were quantified. Recordings showing stereotyped polygraphic patterns recurring throughout the night, but without the features of sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index <5 events·h(-1)), were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography. A total of 15 recordings showing repeated polygraphic patterns characterised by a sequence of microphone activation, respiratory activity atypical for sleep and wakefulness, heart rate acceleration and limb movements, followed by body position change, were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography that showed frontal epileptic discharges triggering periodic electroencephalographic arousals, autonomic activation and stereotyped motor patterns. A diagnosis of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) was established for all patients. NFLE should be taken into consideration in patients with stereotyped and recurrent behavioural features during portable monitoring carried out for diagnosis of SDB. PMID:22700842

  14. T-Wave Alternans Patterns During Sleep in Healthy, Cardiac Disease and Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Shamim; Malhotra, Atul; Clifford, Gari D.

    2010-01-01

    Background T-Wave Alternans (TWA) activity is known to be a function of heart rate and condition, as well as perhaps physiological state. A recently published non-parametric non-stationary TWA analysis method has been shown to reject nonstationary noise accurately using phase randomized surrogates and has been shown to estimate TWA accurately. This new method was evaluated on multiple databases over a range of heart rates and in healthy subjects, cardiac patients, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. We hypothesized that TWA would be lower than previously reported when measured with our new technique and that higher levels of TWA would be observed in OSA patients when compared to normals. Methods Five databases were analyzed: 1) Healthy subjects from PhysioNet’s Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (NSRDB), 2) Arrhythmia patients from PhysioNet’s Chronic Heart Failure Database (CHFDB) and 3) PhysioNet’s Sudden Cardiac Death Database (SCDDB), 4) OSA patients from PhysioNet’s MIT-BIH Polysomnographic Database (SLPDB), and 5) a private Sleep Apnea Database (SADB) of 85 subjects. TWA magnitudes were calculated for 7 heart rate decades [intervals of 10 beats per minute (BPM) between 40 and 110 BPM] for each database. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were applied to test for significant differences between data from each database in each heart rate decade interval. Results In the healthy population TWA activity level tended to increase with heart rate. Moreover, there appeared to be an unexpected nadir in TWA activity around 60–70 BPM, and a small but significant rise in TWA above and below these heart rates. The rise in TWA at lower heart rates has not been previously reported to our knowledge. We also observed that TWA is unexpectedly lower in OSA patients and did not increase with heart rate. Conclusion Although the physiological mechanisms underlying our observations are unclear, there may be clinical implications for TWA

  15. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  16. Analysis of A-phase transitions during the cyclic alternating pattern under normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Alba, Alfonso; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Grassi, Andrea; Arce-Santana, Edgar; Milioli, Guilia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Parrino, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the EEG signal during the B-phase and A-phases transitions of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) during sleep is presented. CAP is a sleep phenomenon composed by consecutive sequences of A-phases (each A-phase could belong to a possible group A1, A2 or A3) observed during the non-REM sleep. Each A-phase is separated by a B-phase which has the basal frequency of the EEG during a specific sleep stage. The patterns formed by these sequences reflect the sleep instability and consequently help to understand the sleep process. Ten recordings from healthy good sleepers were included in this study. The current study investigates complexity, statistical and frequency signal properties of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at the transitions: B-phase-A-phase. In addition, classification between the onset-offset of the A-phases and B-phase was carried out with a kNN classifier. The results showed that EEG signal presents significant differences (p < 0.05) between A-phases and B-phase for the standard deviation, energy, sample entropy, Tsallis entropy and frequency band indices. The A-phase onset showed values of energy three times higher than B-phase at all the sleep stages. The statistical analysis of variance shows that more than 80 % of the A-phase onset and offset is significantly different from the B-phase. The classification performance between onset or offset of A-phases and background showed classification values over 80 % for specificity and accuracy and 70 % for sensitivity. Only during the A3-phase, the classification was lower. The results suggest that neural assembles that generate the basal EEG oscillations during sleep present an over-imposed coordination for a few seconds due to the A-phases. The main characteristics for automatic separation between the onset-offset A-phase and the B-phase are the energy at the different frequency bands. PMID:26253282

  17. Classifying performance impairment in response to sleep loss using pattern recognition algorithms on single session testing

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Anderson, Clare; Cohen, Daniel A.; Barger, Laura K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently no “gold standard” marker of cognitive performance impairment resulting from sleep loss. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms to determine which features of data collected under controlled laboratory conditions could most reliably identify cognitive performance impairment in response to sleep loss using data from only one testing session, such as would occur in the “real world” or field conditions. A training set for testing the pattern recognition algorithms was developed using objective Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) data collected from laboratory studies during which subjects were sleep deprived for 26 – 52 hours. The algorithm was then tested in data from both laboratory and field experiments. The pattern recognition algorithm was able to identify performance impairment with a single testing session in individuals studied under laboratory conditions using PVT, KSS, length of time awake and time of day information with sensitivity and specificity as high as 82%. When this algorithm was tested on data collected under real-world conditions from individuals whose data were not in the training set, accuracy of predictions for individuals categorized with low performance impairment were as high as 98%. Predictions for medium and severe performance impairment were less accurate. We conclude that pattern recognition algorithms may be a promising method for identifying performance impairment in individuals using only current information about the individual’s behavior. Single testing features (e.g., number of PVT lapses) with high correlation with performance impairment in the laboratory setting may not be the best indicators of performance impairment under real-world conditions. Pattern recognition algorithms should be further tested for their ability to be used in conjunction with other assessments of sleepiness in real-world conditions to quantify performance impairment in

  18. Chronotype, sleep loss, and diurnal pattern of salivary cortisol in a simulated daylong driving.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Golonka, Krystyna; Marek, Tadeusz; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Tucholska, Kinga

    2010-07-01

    The study focused on chronotype-related differences in subjective load assessment, sleepiness, and salivary cortisol pattern in subjects performing daylong simulated driving. Individual differences in work stress appraisal and psychobiological cost of prolonged load seem to be of importance in view of expanding compressed working time schedules. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers (mean +/- SD: 27.9 +/- 4.9 yrs) were required to stay in semiconstant routine conditions. They performed four sessions (each lasting approximately 2.5 h) of simulated driving, i.e., completed chosen tasks from computer driving games. Saliva samples were collected after each driving session, i.e., at 10:00-11:00, 14:00-15:00, 18:00-19:00, and 22:00-23:00 h as well as 10-30 min after waking (between 05:00 and 06:00 h) and at bedtime (after 00:00 h). Two subgroups of subjects were distinguished on the basis of the Chronotype Questionnaire: morning (M)- and evening (E)-oriented types. Subjective data on sleep need, sleeping time preferences, sleeping problems, and the details of the preceding night were investigated by questionnaire. Subjective measures of task load (NASA Task Load Index [NASA-TLX]), activation (Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List [AD ACL]), and sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) were applied at times of saliva samples collection. M- and E-oriented types differed significantly as to their ideal sleep length (6 h 54 min +/- 44 versus 8 h 13 min +/- 50 min), preferred sleep timing (midpoint at 03:19 versus 04:26), and sleep index, i.e., 'real-to-ideal' sleep ratio, before the experimental day (0.88 versus 0.67). Sleep deficit proved to be integrated with eveningness. M and E types exhibited similar diurnal profiles of energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness assessed by AD ACL, but E types estimated higher their workload (NASA-TLX) and sleepiness (KSS). M types exhibited a trend of higher mean cortisol levels than E types (F = 4.192, p < .056) and

  19. Sleep Patterns and Behaviour in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Sue M.; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep problems have often been reported in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). How anomalies in 24-h sleep patterns relate to behaviour difficulties in children with different types of ID remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to assess 24-h sleep and behaviour patterns in children with a variety disorders including…

  20. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  1. Detection of abnormal living patterns for elderly living alone using support vector data description.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we developed an automated behavior analysis system using infrared (IR) motion sensors to assist the independent living of the elderly who live alone and to improve the efficiency of their healthcare. An IR motion-sensor-based activity-monitoring system was installed in the houses of the elderly subjects to collect motion signals and three different feature values, activity level, mobility level, and nonresponse interval (NRI). These factors were calculated from the measured motion signals. The support vector data description (SVDD) method was used to classify normal behavior patterns and to detect abnormal behavioral patterns based on the aforementioned three feature values. The simulation data and real data were used to verify the proposed method in the individual analysis. A robust scheme is presented in this paper for optimally selecting the values of different parameters especially that of the scale parameter of the Gaussian kernel function involving in the training of the SVDD window length, T of the circadian rhythmic approach with the aim of applying the SVDD to the daily behavior patterns calculated over 24 h. Accuracies by positive predictive value (PPV) were 95.8% and 90.5% for the simulation and real data, respectively. The results suggest that the monitoring system utilizing the IR motion sensors and abnormal-behavior-pattern detection with SVDD are effective methods for home healthcare of elderly people living alone. PMID:21317086

  2. A forward genetic screen in mice identifies mutants with abnormal cortical patterning.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seungshin; Stottmann, Rolf W; Furley, Andrew J; Beier, David R

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a 6-layered cortical plate and axon tract patterning are key features of cerebral cortex development. Abnormalities of these processes may be the underlying cause for a range of functional disabilities seen in human neurodevelopmental disorders. To identify mouse mutants with defects in cortical lamination or corticofugal axon guidance, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis was performed using mice expressing LacZ reporter genes in layers II/III and V of the cortex (Rgs4-lacZ) or in corticofugal axons (TAG1-tau-lacZ). Four lines with abnormal cortical lamination have been identified. One of these was a splice site mutation in reelin (Reln) that results in a premature stop codon and the truncation of the C-terminal region (CTR) domain of reelin. Interestingly, this novel allele of Reln did not display cerebellar malformation or ataxia, and this is the first report of a Reln mutant without a cerebellar defect. Four lines with abnormal cortical axon development were also identified, one of which was found by whole-genome resequencing to carry a mutation in Lrp2. These findings demonstrated that the application of ENU mutagenesis to mice carrying transgenic reporters marking cortical anatomy is a sensitive and specific method to identify mutations that disrupt patterning of the developing brain. PMID:23968836

  3. Teachers' knowledge of normal and abnormal elimination patterns in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Boyt, Margaret A

    2005-12-01

    Dysfunctional elimination may be learned, to some degree. Because children spend nearly half of their waking hours at school, there is the potential for school to have a significant impact on their elimination patterns. Surveys were mailed to 1,000 randomly selected Iowa public elementary school teachers; 467 of the surveys were returned. Findings indicate that most elementary school teachers are unaware of the potential health problems of elimination dysfunction. One third of respondents indicated that they ask children to wait to go to the bathroom. Suboptimal conditions exist in most of the school bathrooms, with only 35% of the boys' restrooms and 48% of the girls' restrooms reported as "always clean." Those teachers with more experience were more likely to report information about abnormal elimination to the school nurse. Very few teachers (18% of respondents) reported having received information about abnormal elimination and even fewer (8% of respondents) were aware of specialists trained to treat children with these problems. School nurses can have a significant impact on the development of healthy bladder habits in children. Teachers need information about normal and abnormal elimination patterns in children. PMID:16285844

  4. Stratification Pattern of Static and Scale-Invariant Dynamic Measures of Heartbeat Fluctuations Across Sleep Stages in Young and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Daniel T.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac dynamics exhibit complex variability characterized by scale-invariant and nonlinear temporal organization related to the mechanism of neuroautonomic control, which changes with physiologic states and pathologic conditions. Changes in sleep regulation during sleep stages are also related to fluctuations in autonomic nervous activity. However, the interaction between sleep regulation and cardiac autonomic control remains not well understood. Even less is known how this interaction changes with age, as aspects of both cardiac dynamics and sleep regulation differ in healthy elderly compared to young subjects. We hypothesize that because of the neuroautonomic responsiveness in young subjects, fractal and nonlinear features of cardiac dynamics exhibit a pronounced stratification pattern across sleep stages, while in elderly these features will remain unchanged due to age-related loss of cardiac variability and decline of neuroautonomic responsiveness. We analyze the variability and the temporal fractal organization of heartbeat fluctuations across sleep stages in both young and elderly. We find that independent linear and nonlinear measures of cardiac control consistently exhibit the same ordering in their values across sleep stages, forming a robust stratification pattern. Despite changes in sleep architecture and reduced heart rate variability in elderly subjects, this stratification surprisingly does not break down with advanced age. Moreover, the difference between sleep stages for some linear, fractal, and nonlinear measures exceeds the difference between young and elderly, suggesting that the effect of sleep regulation on cardiac dynamics is significantly stronger than the effect of healthy aging. Quantifying changes in this stratification pattern may provide insights into how alterations in sleep regulation contribute to increased cardiac risk. PMID:19203874

  5. A penny for your thoughts: patterns of sleep-related beliefs, insomnia symptoms and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Montserrat Sánchez-Ortuño, M; Edinger, Jack D

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how distinctive patterns of unhelpful beliefs about sleep endorsed by insomnia patients relate to their presenting symptoms and treatment responses. A sample of 281 primary insomnia sufferers completed items comprising the Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep scale (DBAS-16). Their resultant scores on the four DBAS-16 subscales were then subjected to a cluster analysis, which resulted in the identification of four distinctive age-matched subgroups. Two subgroups were characterized by pathologically elevated scores on at least two of the DBAS-16 subscales, whereas the other two subgroups had subscale scores that closely resembled those of a normative sample. Subsequent comparisons showed the insomnia subgroups differed in regard to their insomnia severity, use of prescribed medication for sleep, depression and anxiety symptoms, and daytime sleepiness. Furthermore, comparisons of treatment outcomes (i.e. analysis of change scores and normative comparisons) across clusters showed that the subgroups did not benefit equally from a standardized form of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for insomnia. Findings demonstrate the contribution of specific sleep-related beliefs on presenting insomnia symptoms and suggest the potential usefulness of tailoring CBT protocols to match the needs of distinctive insomnia subtypes. PMID:19879556

  6. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  7. Sleep Disorders Associated with Primary Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ryan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. Design: We examined publications reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Measurements and Results: Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Conclusions: Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. Citation: Ramezani RJ

  8. Patterns of sleep quality during and after postacute rehabilitation in older adults: a latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer L; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Mitchell, Michael; Fung, Constance H; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A

    2013-12-01

    Sleep quality is related to emotional, physical, psychological and cognitive functioning and functional independence in later life. After acute health events, older adults are likely to utilize postacute rehabilitation services to improve functioning and facilitate return to independent living. Patterns of how sleep changes with postacute rehabilitation, and predictors of such patterns, are unknown. The current investigation employed latent class analysis (LCA) methods to classify older adults (n = 233) into groups based on patterns of self-reported sleep quality pre-illness, during postacute rehabilitation and up to 1 year following postacute rehabilitation. Using LCA, older adults were grouped into (1) consistently good sleepers (46%), (2) good sleepers who transitioned into poor sleepers (34%), (3) consistently poor sleepers (14%) and (4) poor sleepers who transitioned into good sleepers (6%). In three planned analyses, pain was an independent predictor of membership in classes 1 or 2 (good pre-illness sleep quality) versus classes 3 or 4 (poor pre-illness sleep quality), and of membership in class 1 (consistently good sleep) versus class 2 (good sleep that transitioned to poor sleep). A lower Mini-Mental State Examination score was a predictor of membership in class 1 versus class 2. There were no statistically significant predictors of membership in class 3 versus class 4. Demographics, comorbidities and depressive symptoms were not significant predictors of class membership. These findings have implications for identification of older adults at risk for developing poor sleep associated with changes in health and postacute rehabilitation. The findings also suggest that pain symptoms should be targeted to improve sleep during postacute rehabilitation. PMID:23834036

  9. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation. PMID:26762188

  10. Brainstem Involvement as a Cause of Central Sleep Apnea: Pattern of Microstructural Cerebral Damage in Patients with Cerebral Microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Duning, Thomas; Deppe, Michael; Brand, Eva; Stypmann, Jörg; Becht, Charlotte; Heidbreder, Anna; Young, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD), an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a "model disease" of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea. Patients and Methods Genetically proven FD patients (n = 23) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 44) underwent a cardio-respiratory polysomnography and brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla. We applied different MR-imaging techniques, ranging from semiquantitative measurement of white matter lesion (WML) volumes and automated calculation of brain tissue volumes to VBM of gray matter and voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Results In 5 of 23 Fabry patients (22%) CSA-CSR was detected. Voxel-based DTI analysis revealed widespread structural changes in FD patients when compared to the healthy controls. When calculated as a separate group, DTI changes of CSA-CSR patients were most prominent in the brainstem. Voxel-based regression analysis revealed a significant association between CSR severity and microstructural DTI changes within the brainstem. Conclusion Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than

  11. Differentiation of abnormal blood flow patterns in coronary arteries based on Doppler catheter recordings.

    PubMed

    Denardo, S J; Yock, P G; Hargrave, V K; Srebro, J P; Ports, T A; Talbot, L

    1991-09-01

    Abnormal arterial blood flow patterns have been implicated as etiologic factors in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Intravascular pulsed Doppler ultrasound techniques with fast-Fourier transform analysis offer the opportunity to measure these abnormalities. The authors hypothesized that statistical analysis of radial-directed beam spectra could be used to distinguish disturbed from non-disturbed flow and that analysis of conventional axial-directed beam spectra could then be used to distinguish laminar high-shear from laminar low-shear flow. They developed a scaled-up in-vitro model of coronary flow consisting of a glycerol/H2O test fluid flowing through an acrylic cylinder at Reynolds numbers spanning the typical physiologic range within the coronary arteries. A scaled-up Doppler catheter with the capacity for 90 degrees reflection of the beam was placed centrally. Disturbed flow was created by introducing a flow screen, and altered shear rates were produced by changing the Reynolds number. For the radial-directed beam studies, the coefficients of variation of the Doppler spectra for the disturbed flow states were significantly greater than for the nondisturbed flow states (p less than 0.01). For the axial-directed beam studies, the coefficients of variation of the Doppler spectra for the laminar high-shear flow states were significantly greater than for the laminar low-shear flow states (p less than 0.01). They conclude that abnormal blood flow patterns can be differentiated by the selective use of radial-directed and axial-directed Doppler catheter recordings. PMID:1928812

  12. Specific patterns of chromosomal abnormalities are associated with RER status in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Curtis, L J; Georgiades, I B; White, S; Bird, C C; Harrison, D J; Wyllie, A H

    2000-12-01

    Current opinion of the genetic events driving colorectal tumourigenesis focuses on genomic instability. At least two apparently independent mechanisms are recognized, microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability. The genetic defects underlying each type of instability are only partially understood and controversy remains as to the role of p53 in the generation of chromosomal defects in colorectal cancer. This study sought to clarify the relationships between chromosomal abnormalities and defects of both p53 and mismatch repair. Extensive chromosomal analysis was undertaken, using flow cytometry and comparative genomic hybridization, of a series of sporadic colorectal cancers which had been grown to early passage as subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice. Overall levels of chromosomal defects were observed to be low in RER+ cancers compared with RER- and distinctive patterns of chromosomal anomalies were found to be associated with both the RER+ and RER- phenotype. No particular level or pattern of chromosomal anomalies appeared to be associated with p53 status, supporting recent observations that abnormal p53 function is not sufficient to cause chromosomal anomalies in colorectal tumours. PMID:11113860

  13. Controlling light–dark exposure patterns, rather than sleep schedules, determines circadian phase

    PubMed Central

    Appleman, Kenneth; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine, in a field study, circadian phase changes associated with two different light–dark exposures patterns, one that was congruent with a phase advanced sleep schedule and the other that was incongruent with an advanced schedule. Methods Twenty-one adults (mean age ± SD = 22.5 ± 3.9 years; 11 women) participated in the 12 day study. After a five day baseline period, participants were all given individualized, fixed, 90 minute advanced sleep schedules for one week. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups, an advance group with a light–dark exposure prescription designed to advance circadian phase or a delay group with light–dark exposure prescription designed to delay circadian phase. The advance group received two morning hours of short-wavelength (blue) light (λmax ≈ 476 ± 1 nm, full-width-half-maximum ≈ 20 nm) exposure and three evening hours of light restriction (orange-filtered light, λ < 525 nm = 0). The delay group received blue light for three hours in the evening and light restriction for two hours in the morning. Participants led their normal lives while wearing a calibrated wrist-worn light exposure and activity monitor. Results After seven days on the 90 minute advanced sleep schedule, circadian phase advanced 132 ± 19 minutes for the advance group and delayed 59 ± 7.5 minutes for the delay group. Conclusions Controlling the light–dark exposure pattern shifts circadian phase in the expected direction irrespective of the fixed advanced sleep schedule. PMID:23481485

  14. Novel analysis of sleep patterns in rats separates periods of vigilance cycling from long-duration wake events.

    PubMed

    Simasko, Steven M; Mukherjee, Sanjib

    2009-01-23

    Rats are polyphasic sleepers. However, a formal definition of when one sleep episode ends and another begins has not been put forth. In the present study we examine the distribution of wake episode durations and based on this distribution conclude there are multiple components of wake. If the wake episode exceeds 300 s the wake episode is assigned to long-duration wake (LDW), if the episode is less than 300 s it is assigned to brief wake (BW). Further support for this separation was found in close analysis of the EEG power spectrum in BW versus LDW. We then used LDW episodes to separate one sleep episode from another. We term the sleep episodes vigilance cycling (VC) because the rat is cycling between the vigilance states of BW, slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS). We find that the characteristics of VC are different in the light period versus the dark period. We further find that as VC episodes progress, SWS pressure lessens, but the amount of time spent in REMS increases. These findings suggest that VC episodes are regulated and meaningful to the sleep behavior of rats. The use of the concepts of LDW and VC provides additional insights into the description of sleep patterns in rats that may be important in the development of a complete description of sleep behavior in this animal. PMID:18835301

  15. Novel Analysis of Sleep Patterns in Rats Separates Periods of Vigilance Cycling from Long Duration Wake Events

    PubMed Central

    Simasko, Steven M.; Mukherjee, Sanjib

    2009-01-01

    Rats are polyphasic sleepers. However, a formal definition of when one sleep episode ends and another begins has not been put forth. In the present study we examine the distribution of wake episode durations and based on this distribution conclude there are multiple components of wake. If the wake episode exceeds 300 sec the wake episode is assigned to long duration wake (LDW), if the episode is less than 300 sec it is assigned to brief wake (BW). Further support for this separation was found in close analysis of the EEG power spectrum in BW versus LDW. We then used LDW episodes to separate one sleep episode from another. We term the sleep episodes vigilance cycling (VC) because the rat is cycling between the vigilance states of brief wake (BW), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS). We find that the characteristics of VC are different in the light period versus the dark period. We further find that as VC episodes progress, SWS pressure lessens, but the amount of time spent in REMS increases. These findings suggest that VC episodes are regulated and meaningful to the sleep behavior of rats. The use of the concepts of LDW and VC provides additional insights into the description of sleep patterns in rats that may be important in the development of a complete description of sleep behavior in this animal. PMID:18835301

  16. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Characterization of the autonomic system during the cyclic alternating pattern of sleep.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Salazar, J S; Alba, A; Mendez, M O; Luna-Rivera, J M; Parrino, L; Grassi, A; Terzano, M; Milioli, G

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the RR variability was carried out during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) in sleep. CAP is a central phenomenon formed by short events called A-phases that break basal electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations of the sleep stages. A-phases are classified in three types (A1, A2 and A3) based on the EEG desynchronization during A-phase. However, the relation of A-phases with other systems, such as cardiovascular system, is unclear and a deep analysis is required. For the study, six patients with Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) and other six healthy controls patients underwent whole night polysomnographic recordings with CAP and hypnogram annotations. Amplitude reduction and time delay of the RR intervals minimum with respect to A-phases onset were computed. In addition, the same process was computed over randomly chosen RR interval segments during the NREM sleep for further comparison. The results suggest that the onset of the A-phases is correlated with a significative increase of the heart rate that peaks at around 4s after the Aphase onset, independently of the A-phase subtype. PMID:25570820

  18. Relation between heart beat fluctuations and cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in insomnia patients.

    PubMed

    de Leon-Lomeli, R; Murguia, J S; Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Gonzalez-Galvan, E; Alba, A; Milioli, G; Grassi, A; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a condition that affects the nervous and muscular system. Thirty percent of the population between 18 and 60 years suffers from insomnia. The effects of this disorder involve problems such as poor school or job performance and traffic accidents. In addition, patients with insomnia present changes in the cardiac function during sleep. Furthermore, the structure of electroencephalographic A-phases, which builds up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern during sleep, is related to the insomnia events. Therefore, the relationship between these brain activations (A-phases) and the autonomic nervous system would be of interest, revealing the interplay of central and autonomic activity during insomnia. With this goal, a study of the relationship between A-phases and heart rate fluctuations is presented. Polysomnography recording of five healthy subjects, five sleep misperception patients and five patients with psychophysiological insomnia were used in the study. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) was used in order to evaluate the heart rate dynamics and this was correlated with the number of A-phases. The results suggest that pathological patients present changes in the dynamics of the heart rate. This is reflected in the modification of A-phases dynamics, which seems to modify of heart rate dynamics. PMID:25570435

  19. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  20. Sleep in thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, G. R.; Putcha, Venkata; Lakshmi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ‘thyrotoxicosis’ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their sleep: difficulty in falling asleep (DFA), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), excess daytime sleepiness). In the first phase, univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in the next phase on variables with a P-value < 0.1: these were considered as potential categories/ variables. Results: In model response variable with DFA, multivariate logistic regression predicted that subjects with abnormal appetite (more 1.7 or less 2.2), change in bowel motion (loose 1.5 or constipation 2.8), in mood (easy loss of temper 3.4), change of voice -- hoarse 7.4 or moderately hoarse 3.1), tended to have higher chances of difficulty in falling asleep (DFA). Patients with tremor (yes = 5.4) had greater likelihood of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS). Conclusions: Individuals with hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis principally had difficulty in falling asleep DFA, which was related to hyperkinetic features. PMID:21584162

  1. Effects of pre-sleep media use on sleep/wake patterns and daytime functioning among adolescents: the moderating role of parental control.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Delphine; De Valck, Elke; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Pirrera, Sandra; Wuyts, Johan; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Haex, Bart; Michiels, Nina; Verbraecken, Johan; Cluydts, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of media use in the hour before bedtime on sleep/wake patterns and daytime functioning among adolescents and to examine the moderating role of parental control. A total of 1,926 Belgian students, 55% girls and 45% boys, with a mean age of 16.9 ± 1.5 years, completed a modified version of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Correlational analyses showed that media use, except television viewing, was associated with later bedtimes and longer sleep latencies. Cell phone and computer usage was negatively associated with daytime functioning. On schooldays, parental control had a moderating effect on the relationship between bedtime and computer use (β = .05; p < .05) and between bedtime and mp3 player use (β = .08; p < .01). During the weekend, parental control played a moderating role between bedtime and television viewing (β = .06; p = .01). As media use can influence the sleep of adolescents considerably, parental control is necessary to regulate the exposure of adolescents to media and to moderate the detrimental effect of media use on sleep. PMID:24617896

  2. Abnormal methylation pattern in constitutive and facultative heterochromatin of ICF patients

    SciTech Connect

    Miniou, P.; Blanquet, V.; Viegas-Pequignot, E.

    1994-09-01

    ICF syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by variable immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial abnormalities. Stretchings and frequent associations of centromeric or juxtacentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and 16 principally, and to a lesser degree, chromosome 9 mimic chromosome features of normal PHA-stimulated lymphocytes treated with 5-azacytidine, an inducer of demethylation. In fact, in these patients we have detected by DNA digestion with methyl-sensitive enzymes a hypomethylation of classical satellites 2 and 3, located in heterochromatin. To assess the role of other satellite DNA in the heterochromatin modifications and chromosome rearrangements, in situ fluorescent method using 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) monoclonal antibody on chromosomes and nuclei were performed in parallel with Southern blot analysis of other satellite sequences located in heterochromatin. 5-MeC reveals that constitutive and facultative heterochromatin (X inactive chromosome) are hypomethylated. Alpha satellite sequences corresponding to centromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, 18 and X are mostly methylated in patients G and R, and are undermethylated in patient S. Both molecular and cytogenetic analysis are in agreement. By in situ hybridization, breakpoints of rearranged chromosomes were located in stretched and hypomethylated classical satellites. In euchromatin, 5-MeC antibodies reveal an R-like banding pattern indicating an unequal distribution of DNA methylation, disclosing another aspect of chromosome organization. The underlying hypomethylation, associated with an abnormal chromatin structure, may predispose to chromosome instability.

  3. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25100588

  4. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  5. Polysomnographic study of nocturnal sleep in idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Poli, Francesca; Vandi, Stefano; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    We investigated nocturnal sleep abnormalities in 19 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IH) in comparison with two age- and sex- matched control groups of 13 normal subjects (C) and of 17 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), the latter considered as the extreme of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Sleep macro- and micro- (i.e. cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) structure as well as quantitative analysis of EEG, of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and of muscle tone during REM sleep were compared across groups. IH and NC patients slept more than C subjects, but IH showed the highest levels of sleep fragmentation (e.g. awakenings), associated with a CAP rate higher than NC during lighter sleep stages and lower than C during slow wave sleep respectively, and with the highest relative amount of A3 and the lowest of A1 subtypes. IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH. PMID:23061443

  6. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  7. Time-series analysis of sleep wake stage of rat EEG using time-dependent pattern entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Ryuji; Shinba, Toshikazu; Mugishima, Go; Haraguchi, Hikaru; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    We performed electroencephalography (EEG) for six male Wistar rats to clarify temporal behaviors at different levels of consciousness. Levels were identified both by conventional sleep analysis methods and by our novel entropy method. In our method, time-dependent pattern entropy is introduced, by which EEG is reduced to binary symbolic dynamics and the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window is considered. A high correlation was obtained between level of consciousness as measured by the conventional method and mean entropy in our entropy method. Mean entropy was maximal while awake (stage W) and decreased as sleep deepened. These results suggest that time-dependent pattern entropy may offer a promising method for future sleep research.

  8. Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale

    PubMed Central

    Rhie, Seonkyeong; Lee, Sihyoung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Korean adolescents have severe nighttime sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness because of their competitive educational environment. However, daytime sleep patterns and sleepiness have never been studied using age-specific methods, such as the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS). We surveyed the daytime sleepiness of Korean adolescents using a Korean translation of the PDSS. Methods We distributed the 27-item questionnaire, including the PDSS and questions related to sleep pattern, sleep satisfaction, and emotional state, to 3,370 students in grades 5-12. Results The amount of nighttime sleep decreased significantly with increasing age. During weekday nights, 5-6th graders slept for 7.95±1.05 h, 7-9th graders for 7.57±1.05 h, and 10-12th graders for 5.78±1.13 h. However, the total amounts of combined daytime and nighttime sleep during weekdays were somewhat greater, 8.15±1.12 h for 5-6th graders, 8.17±1.20 h for 7-9th graders, and 6.87±1.40 h for 10-12th graders. PDSS scores increased with age, 11.89±5.56 for 5-6th graders, 16.57±5.57 for 7-9th graders, and 17.71±5.24 for 10-12th graders. Higher PDSS scores were positively correlated with poor school performance and emotional instability. Conclusion Korean teenagers sleep to an unusual extent during the day because of nighttime sleep deprivation. This negatively affects school performance and emotional stability. A Korean translation of the PDSS was effective in evaluating the severity of daytime sleepiness and assessing the emotional state and school performance of Korean teenagers. PMID:21359058

  9. Electroencephalographic patterns during sleep in children with chromosome 15q11.2-13.1 duplications (Dup15q).

    PubMed

    Arkilo, Dimitrios; Devinsky, Orrin; Mudigoudar, Basanagoud; Boronat, Susana; Jennesson, Melanie; Sassower, Kenneth; Vaou, Okeanis Eleni; Lerner, Jason T; Jeste, Shafali Spurling; Luchsinger, Kadi; Thibert, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to define the EEG features during sleep of children with neurodevelopmental disorders due to copy number gains of 15q11-q13 (Dup15q). We retrospectively reviewed continuous EEG recordings of 42 children with Dup15q (mean age: eight years, 32 with idic15), and data collected included background activity, interictal epileptiform discharges, sleep organization, and ictal activity. Three patterns were recognized: This is the first report of electroencephalographic patterns during sleep of children with Dup15q reporting alpha-delta rhythms, CSWS, and high amplitude fast frequencies. Alpha-delta rhythms are described in children with dysautonomia and/or mood disorders and CSWS in children with developmental regression. The significance of these findings in cognitive function and epilepsy for the children in our cohort needs to be determined with follow-up studies. PMID:26949155

  10. Nonlinear analysis of the change points between A and B phases during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern under normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Alba, A; Bianchi, A M; Grassi, A; Arce-Santana, E; Rosso, V; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the nonlinear properties of the EEG at transition points of the sequences that build the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP). CAP is a sleep phenomenon built up by consecutive sequences of activations and non-activations observed during the sleep time. The sleep condition can be evaluated from the patterns formed by these sequences. Eleven recordings from healthy and good sleepers were included in this study. We investigated the complexity properties of the signal at the onset and offset of the activations. The results show that EEG signals present significant differences (p<0.05) between activations and non-activations in the Sample Entropy and Tsallis Entropy indices. These indices could be useful in the development of automatic methods for detecting the onset and offset of the activations, leading to significant savings of the physician's time by simplifying the manual inspection task. PMID:23366075

  11. Regional scalp EEG slow-wave synchronization during sleep cyclic alternating pattern A1 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Bruni, Oliviero; Terzano, Mario G; Stam, Cornelis J

    2006-09-01

    The levels of EEG synchronization, in the 0.25-2.5 Hz band, during the A1 subtypes of the sleep "cyclic alternating pattern" (CAP) were measured in five healthy subjects by means of the synchronization likelihood (SL) algorithm. SL was measured for seven electrode pairs (F4-F3, C4-C3, P4-P3 for the analysis of interhemispheric SL and F4-C4, C4-P4, F3-C3, and C3-P3, for the analysis of intrahemispheric SL). During the A1 CAP subtypes, SL tended to be highest between pairs of electrodes situated over different hemispheres; in particular, SL obtained from F4-F3 was the highest, followed by that of P4-P3. These results indicate that the transient high level of synchronization in the slow-wave EEG range, during the sleep A1 CAP subtypes, is a phenomenon involving mostly the anterior parts of the brain and is probably based on interhemispheric interactions, possibly mediated by transcallosal connections. PMID:16806696

  12. Abnormal Tc-99m-MDP/GA-67 scan patterns in association with active chronic osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Weissman, B.; McNeil, B.J.

    1985-05-01

    In this study the authors reviewed data from 136 patients (pts) in order to refine the interpretive criteria used to diagnose active osteomyelitis (AOM) in patients with previous bone disease (e.g., old osteomyelitis, fractures, orthopedic devices excluding prostheses). They evaluated bone (Tc-99mMDP) and gallium 67 studies and obtained followup in all pts. AOM was diagnosed by surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 pts and was excluded by the same criteria in 16 pts. An additional 71 pts had the diagnosis excluded by followup clinical criteria. Five patterns were found. T1: abnormal Tc-99m-MDP, normal Ga-67. T2: diffuse increased uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m-MDP greater than Ga-67. T3: different geographic distribution, but similar intensities of uptake of both. T4: very similar uptake and distribution of both. T5: Ga-67 exceeded Tc-99m-MDP. The authors conclude that T5 is diagnostic of AOM, T3 and T4 raise the probability of AOM than before scanning, T1 and T2 decrease it.

  13. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  14. Sleep in amphibians and reptiles: a review and a preliminary analysis of evolutionary patterns.

    PubMed

    Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of sleep, its functions remain a mystery. In an attempt to address this, many researchers have studied behavioural and electrophysiological phenomena associated with sleep in a diversity of animals. The great majority of vertebrates and invertebrates display a phase of immobility that could be considered as a sort of sleep. Terrestrial mammals and birds, both homeotherms, show two sleep states with distinct behavioural and electrophysiological features. However, whether these features have evolved independently in each clade or were inherited from a common ancestor remains unknown. Unfortunately, amphibians and reptiles, key taxa in understanding the evolution of sleep given their position at the base of the tetrapod and amniote tree, respectively, remain poorly studied in the context of sleep. This review presents an overview of what is known about sleep in amphibians and reptiles and uses the existing data to provide a preliminary analysis of the evolution of behavioural and electrophysiological features of sleep in amphibians and reptiles. We also discuss the problems associated with analysing existing data, as well as the difficulty in inferring homologies of sleep stages based on limited data in the context of an essentially mammalian-centric definition of sleep. Finally, we highlight the importance of developing comparative approaches to sleep research that may benefit from the great diversity of species with different ecologies and morphologies in order to understand the evolution and functions of sleep. PMID:26031314

  15. Association between Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Autonomic Activity in Cyclic Alternating Pattern during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Design: Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Setting: Academic sleep laboratory. Participants: Ten healthy males. Measurements and Results: The increase in HR (median [first quartile – third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P < 0.001, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). The increase in BP for each subtype was as follows: A1, 1.23 (-2.04 to 5.75), A2, 1.76 (-1.46 to 9.32), and A3, 12.51 (4.75 to 19.94) mm Hg (A1 vs. A2 P = 0.249, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). In all of phase A, the peak values for HR and BP appeared at 4.2 (3.5 to 5.4) and 8.4 (7.0 to 10.3) seconds, respectively, after the onset of phase A. The area under the curve for low-frequency and high-frequency amplitude significantly increased after the onset of CAP phase A (P < 0.001) and was higher in the order of subtype A3, A2, and A1 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: All phase A subtypes were accompanied with increased heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1. Citation: Kondo H; Ozone M; Ohki N; Sagawa Y; Yamamichi K; Fukuju M; Yoshida T; Nishi C; Kawasaki; Mori; Kanbayashi T; Izumi M; Hishikawa Y; Nishino S; Shimizu T. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep

  16. Impact of CPAP on Activity Patterns and Diet in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L.; Drescher, Amy A.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Methods: Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Results: Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m2, and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). The BMI was higher among women in both CPAP and Sham groups. However, compared to women, men had higher AHI only in the CPAP group (50 vs. 34). Similarly, the arousal index was higher among men in CPAP group. Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p < 0.05), there also were no changes in activity patterns. Conclusion

  17. Electroencephalographic Abnormalities during Sleep in Children with Developmental Speech-Language Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Fielder, Bronwyn; Collins, Kevin; Fisher, John; Keir, Eddie; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Nolan, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research has suggested a link between epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental speech-language disorder (DSLD). This study investigated the strength of this association by comparing the frequency of EEG abnormalities in 45 language-normal children (29 males, 16 females; mean age 6y 11mo, SD 1y 10mo, range…

  18. Abnormal Brain Areas Common to the Focal Epilepsies: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of fMRI.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mangor; Curwood, Evan K; Vaughan, David N; Omidvarnia, Amir H; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with focal epilepsy have heterogeneous sites of seizure origin. However, there may be brain regions that are common to most cases of intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, we aim to identify these using multivariate analysis of task-free functional MRI. Fourteen subjects with extratemporal focal epilepsy and 14 healthy controls were included in the study. Task-free functional MRI data were used to calculate voxel-wise regional connectivity with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and weighted degree centrality (DCw), in addition to regional activity using fraction of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Multivariate pattern analysis was applied to each of these metrics to discriminate brain areas that differed between focal epilepsy subjects and healthy controls. ReHo and DCw classified focal epilepsy subjects from healthy controls with high accuracy (89.3% and 75%, respectively). However, fALFF did not significantly classify patients from controls. Increased regional network activity in epilepsy subjects was seen in the ipsilateral piriform cortex, insula, and thalamus, in addition to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortices. Decreased regional connectivity was observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as lateral temporal cortices. Patients with extratemporal focal epilepsy have common areas of abnormality (ReHo and DCw measures), including the ipsilateral piriform cortex, temporal neocortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. ReHo shows additional increase in the "salience network" that includes anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. DCw showed additional effects in the ipsilateral thalamus and striatum. These brain areas may represent key regional network properties underlying focal epilepsy. PMID:26537783

  19. Concordance of Mother/Child Sleep Patterns Using Actigraphy: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Suzanne E; Wang, Lily; Fawkes, Diane B

    2014-02-24

    Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are often associated with problem behaviors. Problematic sleep in the child may impact maternal sleep. We examined the association of sleep in mother-child dyads to child daytime behavior and maternal insomnia and daytime sleepiness in 11 children with ASD and 6 children of typical development (TD) using wrist actigraphs over 14 consecutive nights. Early morning wakenings were significantly associated with poorer daytime behavior as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist in both ASD and TD children. Additionally, associations were found between mother and child sleep and between the child's sleep and maternal daytime sleepiness. These results highlight the need to consider the potential interaction of maternal-child sleep in future studies. PMID:25325077

  20. Use of personal EEG monitors in a behavioral neuroscience course to investigate natural setting sleep patterns and the factors affecting them in college students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jillian C; Malerba, Julie R; Schroeder, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is often a topic of avid interest to college students, yet it is one that does not yield itself well to hands-on, interactive learning modules. Supplementing classroom learning with interactive "real world" laboratory activities provides students with a deeper understanding of behavior and its neural control. The project described here was designed to supplement the teaching of EEGs, sleep and circadian rhythms and involved students in the empirical process from hypothesizing about the factors that affect sleep, to personal data collection, data analysis and writing in the style of a peer-reviewed manuscript. Students enrolled in Behavioral Neuroscience at Connecticut College were provided with a home-based personal EEG monitor used to collect sleep data in their natural sleep setting. Participants recorded sleep data with the use of the ZEO® Personal Sleep Coach system and completed a nightly sleep journal questionnaire for seven nights. The ZEO® system uses EEG patterns to define sleep stages including wakefulness, light, deep and REM sleep. The journal included questions about factors known to affect sleep such as stress, caffeine, academic activity, exercise and alcohol. A class data set was compiled and used by students to perform univariate correlations examining the relationships between ZEO® variables and sleep journal variables. The data set allowed students to choose specific variables to investigate, analyze and write a peer-reviewed style manuscript. Significant class-wide correlations were found between specific sleep stages and behavioral variables suggesting that the ZEO® system is sophisticated yet inexpensive enough to be used as an effective tool in the classroom setting. Overall student feedback on the exercise was positive with many students indicating that it significantly enhanced their understanding of sleep architecture and made them keenly aware of the factors that affect quality of sleep. PMID:23626495

  1. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective

  2. [Acute correction of nocturnal hypoxemia and sleep pattern using continuous nasal positive pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Rendón, A; Cano, M E

    1998-01-01

    In order to find out the effectiveness of the nasal CPAP in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we studied 30 patients with this diagnosis corroborated by nocturnal polysomnography. The average age was 46.37 +/- 11.58 years, 97% were males and 90% were overweight, with a weight of 101.24 +/- 15.57 Kg. All the patients were evaluated before and after the application of nasal CPAP with a pressure of 12.9 +/- 4.35 cm of H2O with a FIO2 of 21%. The sleep efficiency index improved from 0.62 +/- 0.03 to 0.84 +/- 0.02 (p < 0.0001). The maximum duration of the apneas diminished from 65.5 +/- 6.5 seconds to 19 +/- 3.7 seconds (p < 0.0001), and the minimum level of O2 saturation of the hemoglobin increased from 56.8 +/- 3.2% to 84.9 +/- 1.9% (p < 00.0001). These findings showed a clear improvement in the majority of the evaluated parameters in all of the patients, and, in many of them, a normalization. We conclude that the nasal CPAP is effective for the acute improvement of the disorders observed during the sleep in patients with OSA, which supports its therapeutic use in this illness. PMID:9927773

  3. Abnormal Cognition, Sleep, EEG and Brain Metabolism in a Novel Knock-In Alzheimer Mouse, PLB1

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Bettina; Drever, Benjamin; Koss, David; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Jyoti, Amar; Plano, Andrea; Utan, Aneli; Merrick, Georgina; Ryan, Duncan; Melis, Valeria; Wan, Hong; Mingarelli, Marco; Porcu, Emanuele; Scrocchi, Louise; Welch, Andy; Riedel, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Late-stage neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are β-amyloid (βA) and hyperphosphorylated tau peptides, aggregated into plaques and tangles, respectively. Corresponding phenotypes have been mimicked in existing transgenic mice, however, the translational value of aggressive over-expression has recently been questioned. As controlled gene expression may offer animal models with better predictive validity, we set out to design a transgenic mouse model that circumvents complications arising from pronuclear injection and massive over-expression, by targeted insertion of human mutated amyloid and tau transgenes, under the forebrain- and neurone-specific CaMKIIα promoter, termed PLB1Double. Crossing with an existing presenilin 1 line resulted in PLB1Triple mice. PLB1Triple mice presented with stable gene expression and age-related pathology of intra-neuronal amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau in hippocampus and cortex from 6 months onwards. At this early stage, pre-clinical 18FDG PET/CT imaging revealed cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain. Quantitative EEG analyses yielded heightened delta power during wakefulness and REM sleep, and time in wakefulness was already reliably enhanced at 6 months of age. These anomalies were paralleled by impairments in long-term and short-term hippocampal plasticity and preceded cognitive deficits in recognition memory, spatial learning, and sleep fragmentation all emerging at ∼12 months. These data suggest that prodromal AD phenotypes can be successfully modelled in transgenic mice devoid of fibrillary plaque or tangle development. PLB1Triple mice progress from a mild (MCI-like) state to a more comprehensive AD-relevant phenotype, which are accessible using translational tools such as wireless EEG and microPET/CT. PMID:22096518

  4. How stressful are 105 days of isolation? Sleep EEG patterns and tonic cortisol in healthy volunteers simulating manned flight to Mars.

    PubMed

    Gemignani, Angelo; Piarulli, Andrea; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Rota, Giuseppina; Mastorci, Francesca; Gushin, Vadim; Shevchenko, Olga; Garbella, Erika; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sebastiani, Laura; Bergamasco, Massimo; L'Abbate, Antonio; Allegrini, Paolo; Bedini, Remo

    2014-08-01

    Spaceflights "environment" negatively affects sleep and its functions. Among the different causes promoting sleep alterations, such as circadian rhythms disruption and microgravity, stress is of great interest also for earth-based sleep medicine. This study aims to evaluate the relationships between stress related to social/environmental confinement and sleep in six healthy volunteers involved in the simulation of human flight to Mars (MARS500). Volunteers were sealed in a spaceship simulator for 105 days and studied at 5 specific time-points of the simulation period. Sleep EEG, urinary cortisol (24 h preceding sleep EEG recording) and subjectively perceived stress levels were collected. Cognitive abilities and emotional state were evaluated before and after the simulation. Sleep EEG parameters in the time (latency, duration) and frequency (power and hemispheric lateralization) domains were evaluated. Neither cognitive and emotional functions alterations nor abnormal stress levels were found. Higher cortisol levels were associated to: (i) decrease of sleep duration, increase of arousals, and shortening of REM latency; (ii) reduction of delta power and enhancement of sigma and beta in NREM N3; and (iii) left lateralization of delta activity (NREM and REM) and right lateralization of beta activity (NREM). Stressful conditions, even with cortisol fluctuations in the normal range, alter sleep structure and sleep EEG spectral content, mirroring pathological conditions such as primary insomnia or insomnia associated to depression. Correlations between cortisol fluctuations and sleep changes suggest a covert risk for developing allostatic load, and thus the need to develop ad-hoc countermeasures for preventing sleep alterations in long lasting manned space missions. PMID:24793641

  5. Evaluation of actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities and associations with caregivers’ educational attainment: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers’ education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. Methods This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6–12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers’ education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver–child relationship and caregivers’ age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers’ educational attainment. Results Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers’ education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trend<0.001). Adjusted mean sleep efficiency was 75.7% (SE=1.4) among children of caregivers high school education. Compared to children whose caregivers had >high school, children of caregivers with sleep latency (OR=3.27; 95% CI 1.12 to 9.61) and longer WASO (OR=5.95; 95% CI 1.91 to 18.53). Associations were consistent across disability types. Conclusions Children with disabilities experience difficulties initiating sleep (prolonged sleep latency) and maintaining sleep (long WASO, low sleep efficiency). Among children with

  6. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep-wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep-wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+), a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients. PMID:25018625

  7. Classification of abnormal fundus autofluorescence patterns in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy in patients with age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bindewald, A; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Jorzik, J J; Dolar-Szczasny, J; Sieber, H; Keilhauer, C; Weinberger, A W A; Dithmar, S; Pauleikhoff, D; Mansmann, U; Wolf, S; Holz, F G

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe and classify patterns of abnormal fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age related macular degeneration. Methods: Digital FAF images were recorded in 164 eyes of 107 patients using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO; excitation 488 nm, detection above 500 nm) as part of a prospective multicentre natural history study (FAM Study). FAF images were obtained in accordance with a standardised protocol for digital image acquisition and generation of mean images after automated alignment. Results: Image quality was sufficient for classification of FAF patterns in 149 eyes (90.9%) with lens opacities being the most common reason for insufficient image quality. Abnormal FAF outside GA in 149 eyes was classified into four patterns: focal (12.1%), banded (12.8%), patchy (2.0%), and diffuse (57.0%), whereby 12.1% had normal background FAF in the junctional zone. In 4% there was no predominant pattern. The diffuse pattern was subdivided into four groups including reticular (4.7%), branching (27.5%), fine granular (18.1%), and fine granular with peripheral punctate spots (6.7%). Conclusions: Different phenotypic patterns of abnormal FAF in the junctional zone of GA can be identified with cSLO FAF imaging. These distinct patterns may reflect heterogeneity at a cellular and molecular level in contrast with a non-specific ageing process. A refined phenotypic classification may be helpful to identify prognostic determinants for the spread of atrophy and visual loss, for identification of genetic risk factors as well as for the design of future interventional trials. PMID:15965170

  8. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304

  9. A spatiotemporal mining framework for abnormal association patterns in marine environments with a time series of remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Cunjin; Song, Wanjiao; Qin, Lijuan; Dong, Qing; Wen, Xiaoyang

    2015-06-01

    A spatiotemporal mining framework is a novel tool for the analysis of marine association patterns using multiple remote sensing images. From data pretreatment, to algorithm design, to association rule mining and pattern visualization, this paper outlines a spatiotemporal mining framework for abnormal association patterns in marine environments, including pixel-based and object-based mining models. Within this framework, some key issues are also addressed. In the data pretreatment phase, we propose an algorithm for extracting abnormal objects or pixels over marine surfaces, and construct a mining transaction table with object-based and pixel-based strategies. In the mining algorithm phase, a recursion method to construct a direct association pattern tree is addressed with an asymmetric mutual information table, and a recursive mining algorithm to find frequent items. In the knowledge visualization phase, a "Dimension-Attributes" visualization framework is used to display spatiotemporal association patterns. Finally, spatiotemporal association patterns for marine environmental parameters in the Pacific Ocean are identified, and the results prove the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed mining framework.

  10. Visibility graph analysis of very short-term heart rate variability during sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, F. Z.; Li, F. W.; Wang, J.; Yan, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    Based on a visibility-graph algorithm, complex networks were constructed from very short-term heart rate variability (HRV) during different sleep stages. Network measurements progressively changed from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep to light sleep and then deep sleep, exhibiting promising ability for sleep assessment. Abnormal activation of the cardiovascular controls with enhanced 'small-world' couplings and altered fractal organization during REM sleep indicates that REM could be a potential risk factor for adverse cardiovascular event, especially in males, older individuals, and people who are overweight. Additionally, an apparent influence of gender, aging, and obesity on sleep was demonstrated in healthy adults, which may be helpful for establishing expected sleep-HRV patterns in different populations.

  11. Effects of Single Treatment of Anti-Dementia Drugs on Sleep-Wake Patterns in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Young; Roh, Mootaek; Ko, Kyung-Kyun; Jang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seong-Ryong; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Jang, Il-Sung; Lee, Ho-Won; Lee, Maan-Gee

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil and galantamine, and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker, memantine, on sleep-wake architecture in rats. Screw electrodes were chronically implanted into the frontal and parietal cortex for the electroencephalography (EEG). EEG was recorded with a bio-potential amplifier for 8 h from 09:30 to 17:30. Vibration was recorded to monitor animal activity with a vibration measuring device. Sleep-wake states such as wake (W), slow-wave sleep (S) and paradoxical or rapid eye movement sleep (P), were scored every 10 sec by an experimenter. We measured mean episode duration and number of episode to determine which factor sleep disturbance was attributed to. Donepezil and memantine showed a significant increase in total W duration and decreases in total S and P duration and delta activity. Memantine showed increases in sleep latency and motor activity. Changes of S and P duration in memantine were attributed from changes of mean episode duration. Galantamine had little effect on sleep architecture. From these results, it is showed that galantamine may be an anti-dementia drug that does not cause sleep disturbances and memantine may be a drug that causes severe sleep disturbance. PMID:22915987

  12. Sleep disorders and acute nocturnal delirium in the elderly: a comorbidity not to be overlooked.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, Michele; Sartori, Ivana; Rustioni, Valter; Manni, Raffaele

    2014-04-01

    Delirium is a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that results in a confusional state. It tends to fluctuate in intensity and is often observed in older patients. Sleep is a window of vulnerability for the occurrence of delirium and sleep disorders can play a role in its appearance. In particular, delirious episodes have been associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, which is reported to be frequent in the elderly. Hereby, we present a case-report documenting the sudden onset of a confusional state triggered by obstructive sleep apnoea-induced arousal, together with a review of the literature on the topic. We emphasise that, among the many pathogenic factors implicated in delirium, it is worth considering the possible link between nocturnal delirium and the occurrence of impaired arousals. Indeed, the complex confusional manifestations of delirium could be due, in part, to persistence of dysfunctional sleep activity resulting in an inability to sustain full arousal during behavioural wakefulness. Arousals can be triggered by sleep disturbances or other medical conditions. Clinicians should be aware that older patients may present disordered sleep patterns, and make investigation of sleep patterns and disorders potentially affecting sleep continuity a key part of their clinical workup, especially in the presence of cognitive comorbidities. Correct diagnosis and optimal treatment of sleep disorders and disrupted sleep can have a significant impact in the elderly, improving sleep quality and reducing the occurrence of abnormal sleep-related behaviours. PMID:24636782

  13. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

  14. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Takala, Pirjo; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding. PMID:15507139

  15. Pathophysiology of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eliot S.; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common and serious cause of metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive morbidity in children. The spectrum of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing ranges from habitual snoring to partial or complete airway obstruction, termed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Breathing patterns due to airway narrowing are highly variable, including obstructive cycling, increased respiratory effort, flow limitation, tachypnea, and/or gas exchange abnormalities. As a consequence, sleep homeostasis may be disturbed. Increased upper airway resistance is an essential component of OSA, including any combination of narrowing/retropositioning of the maxilla/mandible and/or adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, in addition to anatomic factors, the stability of the upper airway is predicated on neuromuscular activation, ventilatory control, and arousal threshold. During sleep, most children with OSA intermittently attain a stable breathing pattern, indicating successful neuromuscular activation. At sleep onset, airway muscle activity is reduced, ventilatory variability increases, and an apneic threshold slightly below eupneic levels is observed in non-REM sleep. Airway collapse is offset by pharyngeal dilator activity in response to hypercapnia and negative lumenal pressure. Ventilatory overshoot results in sudden reduction in airway muscle activation, contributing to obstruction during non-REM sleep. Arousal from sleep exacerbates ventilatory instability and, thus, obstructive cycling. Paroxysmal reductions in pharyngeal dilator activity related to central REM sleep processes likely account for the disproportionate severity of OSA observed during REM sleep. Understanding the pathophysiology of pediatric OSA may permit more precise clinical phenotyping, and therefore improve or target therapies related to anatomy, neuromuscular compensation, ventilatory control, and/or arousal threshold. PMID:18250219

  16. Sleep Patterns and Daytime Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, S. E.; Malow, B. A.; Newman, K. D.; Roof, E.; Dykens, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and may adversely affect daytime functioning. Children with Williams syndrome have been reported to have disturbed sleep; however, no studies have been performed to determine if these problems continue into adolescence and adulthood. Methods: This study…

  17. Spreading Photoparoxysmal EEG Response is Associated with an Abnormal Cortical Excitability Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J.; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR…

  18. Advances in Sleep Studies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Advances in Sleep Studies Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents `` ... sleep patterns and possible problems diagnosed What Are Sleep Studies? Sleep studies are tests that measure how ...

  19. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  20. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4±2.3years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS. PMID:20615010

  1. University students and "the all nighter": correlates and patterns of students' engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Thacher, Pamela V

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the self-reported patterns, motivations, and correlates of engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation (SN-TSD) in a sample of 120 university students at a 4-year liberal arts college. Participants' mean age . was 20.1 years; the sample was 63% female. Measures included the Owl-Lark Scale of circadian preference; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); as well as self-reported usual bedtime, rise time, and total sleep time. Students' cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) were also obtained; these were reported from the university registrar. Sixty percent of students surveyed reported engaging in SN-TSD once or more since coming to college. No differences between genders or among class standing with respect to use of SN-TSD were detected. Engagement in SN-TSD was associated with later self-reported bedtimes, evening preference, and poorer academic achievement as measured by GPA. A trend for increased symptoms of depression was detected; sleep quality as measured by the PSQI was not related to engagement in SN-TSD. PMID:18412035

  2. Adult-onset multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenation deficiency associated with an abnormal isoenzyme pattern of serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Fuminobu; Baba, Kousuke; Toyooka, Keiko; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamadera, Misaki; Sumi, Hisae; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a 37 year-old male with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). The patient had suffered from exercise intolerance in his hip and thigh muscles for one year. Then, restriction of carbohydrates for a diet made his symptoms rapidly deteriorate. Blood test revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel missense mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase gene (ETFDH), and an abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern: LDH-1 (60.0%) and LDH-2 (26.0%) predominated with abnormally elevated LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (2.3), compared with muscle-derived LDH-5 (4.0%). Oral riboflavin treatment significantly improved his exercise intolerance and the LDH profile: LDH-1 (34.4%), LDH-2 (34.9%), LDH-5 (6.9%) and LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (1.0). The abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern may be one feature of adult-onset MADD selectively affecting type I muscle fibers with relatively high LDH-1 content. PMID:21907580

  3. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.

  4. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in the elderly To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. ...

  5. Differences in parental attitudes towards sleep and associations with sleep-wake patterns in Caucasian and Southeast Asian school-aged children in Australia.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Sarah N; Pizzorno, Violeta A; van den Heuvel, Cameron J; Kennedy, J Declan; Martin, A James; Lushington, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Caucasian (N = 47) and Southeast (SE) Asian (N = 36) families completed a questionnaire on their attitudes toward sleep, as well as a 7-day sleep diary for their children aged 5 to 11 years. Cultural differences were found in the perceived importance of sleep, particularly compared to homework and belief of how much sleep a child needs. Differences were also found in sleep-wake behaviors and amount of time spent on homework, with SE Asian children reporting a shift in sleep timing and increased homework load compared to Caucasian counterparts. Parental attitudes toward sleep, perception of sleep need, and homework load were not associated with the regulation of actual sleep behaviors in children, regardless of cultural heritage. PMID:20924834

  6. Distinct gender-related sleep pattern in an acute model of TMJ pain.

    PubMed

    Schütz, T C B; Andersen, M L; Silva, A; Tufik, S

    2009-05-01

    Since it is recognized that acute inflammation of the temporomandibular joint results in sleep disturbances in male rats, and that the orofacial region may display a site-specific effect of ovarian hormones on nociception, we hypothesized that distinct genders would respond differently when subjected to this inflammatory acute orofacial pain. Sleep was monitored after injection of saline/Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint in male and female (proestrus and diestrus phases) rats. Progesterone and stress-related hormones were also assessed. In males, Freund's adjuvant induced a significant nociceptive response and sleep disturbances. Behavior and sleep architecture in the females remained unaffected. Our results suggest that females and males present distinct responses to an acute model of orofacial pain. PMID:19493893

  7. Laboratory sleep patterns and dream content of type A and B scoring college students.

    PubMed

    Koulack, D; Nesca, M; Stroud, B M

    1993-08-01

    The suggestion that there may be a discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep led us to explore the sleep and dreams of 7 Type A and 7 Type B scorers in our laboratory over a three-night period. In earlier studies, Type A scorers had indicated that their sleep was somewhat more disturbed and their dream content generally more active and negative in tone than that of Type B scorers. However, in this study the only differences were that Type A scorers had a greater number of body movements and greater dream recall than did Type B scorers. These results seem to indicate that the impression Type A scorers have of the quality of their sleep and dreams may be a function of their waking life-style. PMID:8367243

  8. Marijuana use patterns and sleep among community-based young adults.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Kurth, Megan E; Strong, David R; Brower, Kirk J; Stein, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States. Research on the relationship between marijuana and sleep is still in its infancy. The study examined differences in sleep characteristics between a community sample of daily users, non-daily marijuana users, and non-users. A total of 98 subjects (45 M; 53 F) participated. The mean age was 22.3 (standard deviation = 3.0). There were 53 females and 55% of the sample was Caucasian. Recruitment was done online and via print advertisements in the community. Groups were categorized as non-daily users (n = 29), daily users (n = 49), and non-user controls (n = 20). Sleep was characterized by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. A standard cut off score of >10 for the Insomnia Severity Index was found in 38.8% of daily users, 10.3% of non-daily users, and 20% of non-users. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores in daily users (7.0+/-3.8) were higher than non-daily (4.9+/-3.2) and non-user controls (5.0+/-3.7), p = .02. Insomnia Severity Index scores in daily users (7.9+/-6.1) were higher than non-daily (5.1+/-4.3) and non-user controls (4.3+/-4.8), p = .01. Covariate adjusted regression analyses revealed mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index scores were significantly lower for non-daily users and controls relative to the daily users. When adjusting for depression and anxiety, these unique associations were not significant. There were no differences in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale or Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. Daily marijuana users endorsed more sleep disturbance than non-daily users. Future studies should consider mood in the relationship between marijuana use and sleep. PMID:26727193

  9. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations. PMID:26163336

  10. Recurring discharge patterns in multiple spike trains. II. Application in forebrain areas related to cardiac and respiratory control during different sleep-waking states.

    PubMed

    Frostig, R D; Frysinger, R C; Harper, R M

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneously recorded spike trains were obtained using microwire bundles from unrestrained, drug-free cats during different sleep-waking states in forebrain areas associated with cardiac and respiratory activity. Cardiac and respiratory activity was simultaneously recorded with the spike trains. We applied the recurring discharge patterns detection procedure described in a companion paper (Frostig et al. 1990) to the spike and cardiorespiratory trains. The pattern detection procedure was applied to detect only precise (in time and structure) recurring patterns. Recurring discharge patterns were detected in all simultaneously recorded groups. Recurring discharge patterns were composed of up to ten spikes per pattern and involved up to four simultaneously recorded spike trains. Fourty-two percent of the recurring patterns contained cardiac and/or respiratory events in addition to neuronal spikes. When patterns were compared over different sleep-waking states it was found the the same units produced different patterns in different states, that patterns were significantly more compact in time during quiet sleep, and that changes in the discharge rates accompanying changes in sleep-waking states were not correlated with changes in pattern rate. PMID:2357473

  11. A feasibility study: Use of actigraph to monitor and follow-up sleep/wake patterns in individuals attending community pharmacy with sleeping disorders

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Zaswiza Mohamad; Smith, Alesha J.; Smith, Simon S.; Nissen, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Community pharmacists are in a suitable position to give advice and provide appropriate services related to sleep disorders to individuals who are unable to easily access sleep clinics. An intervention with proper objective measure can be used by the pharmacist to assist in consultation. Objectives: The study objectives are to evaluate: (1) The effectiveness of a community pharmacy-based intervention in managing sleep disorders and (2) the role of actigraph as an objective measure to monitor and follow-up individuals with sleeping disorders. Methods and Instruments: The intervention care group (ICG) completed questionnaires to assess sleep scale scores (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] and Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), wore a wrist actigraph, and completed a sleep diary. Sleep parameters (sleep efficiency in percentage [SE%], total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and number of nocturnal awakenings) from actigraphy sleep report were used for consultation and to validate sleep diary. The usual care group (UCG) completed similar questionnaires but received standard care. Results: Pre- and post-mean scores for sleep scales and sleep parameters were compared between and within groups. A significant difference was observed when comparing pre- and post-mean scores for ISI in the ICG, but not for ESS. For SE%, an increase was found in the number of subjects rated as “good sleepers” at post-assessment in the ICG. Conclusions: ISI scores offer insights into the development of a community pharmacy-based intervention for sleeping disorders, particularly in those with symptoms of insomnia. It also demonstrates that actigraph could provide objective sleep/wake data to assist community pharmacists during the consultation. PMID:27413344

  12. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  13. Diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities are associated with an altered lipid pattern: protective effects of LXR activation[S

    PubMed Central

    Cermenati, Gaia; Abbiati, Federico; Cermenati, Solei; Brioschi, Elisabetta; Volonterio, Alessandro; Cavaletti, Guido; Saez, Enrique; De Fabiani, Emma; Crestani, Maurizio; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Caruso, Donatella; Mitro, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is characterized by myelin abnormalities; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying such deficits remain obscure. To uncover the effects of diabetes on myelin alterations, we have analyzed myelin composition. In a streptozotocin-treated rat model of diabetic neuropathy, analysis of sciatic nerve myelin lipids revealed that diabetes alters myelin's phospholipid, FA, and cholesterol content in a pattern that can modify membrane fluidity. Reduced expression of relevant genes in the FA biosynthetic pathway and decreased levels of the transcriptionally active form of the lipogenic factor sterol-regulatory element binding factor-1c (SREBF-1c) were found in diabetic sciatic nerve. Expression of myelin's major protein, myelin protein zero (P0), was also suppressed by diabetes. In addition, we confirmed that diabetes induces sciatic nerve myelin abnormalities, primarily infoldings that have previously been associated with altered membrane fluidity. In a diabetic setting, synthetic activator of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) increased SREBF-1c function and restored myelin lipid species and P0 expression levels to normal. These LXR-modulated improvements were associated with restored myelin structure in sciatic nerve and enhanced performance in functional tests such as thermal nociceptive threshold and nerve conduction velocity. These findings demonstrate an important role for the LXR-SREBF-1c axis in protection from diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities. PMID:22158827

  14. Patterns of cortical thinning in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Rahayel, Shady; Montplaisir, Jacques; Monchi, Oury; Bedetti, Christophe; Postuma, Ronald B; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Joubert, Sven; Latreille, Véronique; Jubault, Thomas; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2015-04-15

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia that is a risk factor for dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease. Brain function impairments have been identified in this disorder, mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical regions. However, the anatomical support for these dysfunctions remains poorly understood. We investigated gray matter thickness, gray matter volume, and white matter integrity in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Twenty-four patients with polysomnography-confirmed idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 42 healthy individuals underwent a 3-tesla structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging examination using corticometry, voxel-based morphometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. In the patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, decreased cortical thickness was observed in the frontal cortex, the lingual gyrus, and the fusiform gyrus. Gray matter volume was reduced in the superior frontal sulcus only. Patients showed no increased gray matter thickness or volume. Diffusion tensor imaging analyses revealed no significant white matter differences between groups. Using corticometry in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, several new cortical regions with gray matter alterations were identified, similar to those reported in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease. These findings provide some anatomical support for previously identified brain function impairments in this disorder. PMID:24676967

  15. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Based on an International Mega-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D.; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Chen, Jiayu; Patel, Veena; Liu, Jingyu; Segall, Judith; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Fisher, Simon E.; Fernandez, Guillen; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Potkin, Steven; Ford, Judith; Mathalon, Daniel; McEwen, Sarah; Lee, Hyo Jong; Mueller, Bryon A.; Greve, Douglas N.; Andreassen, Ole; Agartz, Ingrid; Gollub, Randy L.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Pearlson, Godfrey; Glahn, David C.; Sprooten, Emma; Mayer, Andrew R.; Stephen, Julia; Jung, Rex E.; Canive, Jose; Bustillo, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of gray matter concentration (GMC) deficits in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) have identified robust changes throughout the cortex. We assessed the relationships between diagnosis, overall symptom severity, and patterns of gray matter in the largest aggregated structural imaging dataset to date. We performed both source-based morphometry (SBM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses on GMC images from 784 Sz and 936 controls (Ct) across 23 scanning sites in Europe and the United States. After correcting for age, gender, site, and diagnosis by site interactions, SBM analyses showed 9 patterns of diagnostic differences. They comprised separate cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. Seven patterns showed greater GMC in Ct than Sz, while 2 (brainstem and cerebellum) showed greater GMC for Sz. The greatest GMC deficit was in a single pattern comprising regions in the superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal cortex, which replicated over analyses of data subsets. VBM analyses identified overall cortical GMC loss and one small cluster of increased GMC in Sz, which overlapped with the SBM brainstem component. We found no significant association between the component loadings and symptom severity in either analysis. This mega-analysis confirms that the commonly found GMC loss in Sz in the anterior temporal lobe, insula, and medial frontal lobe form a single, consistent spatial pattern even in such a diverse dataset. The separation of GMC loss into robust, repeatable spatial patterns across multiple datasets paves the way for the application of these methods to identify subtle genetic and clinical cohort effects. PMID:25548384

  16. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Based on an International Mega-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Chen, Jiayu; Patel, Veena; Liu, Jingyu; Segall, Judith; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Fisher, Simon E; Fernandez, Guillen; van Erp, Theo G M; Potkin, Steven; Ford, Judith; Mathalon, Daniel; McEwen, Sarah; Lee, Hyo Jong; Mueller, Bryon A; Greve, Douglas N; Andreassen, Ole; Agartz, Ingrid; Gollub, Randy L; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Pearlson, Godfrey; Glahn, David C; Sprooten, Emma; Mayer, Andrew R; Stephen, Julia; Jung, Rex E; Canive, Jose; Bustillo, Juan; Turner, Jessica A

    2015-09-01

    Analyses of gray matter concentration (GMC) deficits in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) have identified robust changes throughout the cortex. We assessed the relationships between diagnosis, overall symptom severity, and patterns of gray matter in the largest aggregated structural imaging dataset to date. We performed both source-based morphometry (SBM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses on GMC images from 784 Sz and 936 controls (Ct) across 23 scanning sites in Europe and the United States. After correcting for age, gender, site, and diagnosis by site interactions, SBM analyses showed 9 patterns of diagnostic differences. They comprised separate cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. Seven patterns showed greater GMC in Ct than Sz, while 2 (brainstem and cerebellum) showed greater GMC for Sz. The greatest GMC deficit was in a single pattern comprising regions in the superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal cortex, which replicated over analyses of data subsets. VBM analyses identified overall cortical GMC loss and one small cluster of increased GMC in Sz, which overlapped with the SBM brainstem component. We found no significant association between the component loadings and symptom severity in either analysis. This mega-analysis confirms that the commonly found GMC loss in Sz in the anterior temporal lobe, insula, and medial frontal lobe form a single, consistent spatial pattern even in such a diverse dataset. The separation of GMC loss into robust, repeatable spatial patterns across multiple datasets paves the way for the application of these methods to identify subtle genetic and clinical cohort effects. PMID:25548384

  17. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  18. Teachers' Knowledge of Normal and Abnormal Elimination Patterns in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyt, Margaret A.

    2005-01-01

    Dysfunctional elimination may be learned, to some degree. Because children spend nearly half of their waking hours at school, there is the potential for school to have a significant impact on their elimination patterns. Surveys were mailed to 1,000 randomly selected Iowa public elementary school teachers; 467 of the surveys were returned. Findings…

  19. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  20. Sleep in Children and Adolescents with Angelman Syndrome: Association with Parent Sleep and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, S. E.; Bichell, T. J.; Surdyka, K.; Malow, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep concerns are common in children with Angelman syndrome, with 20-80% of individuals having a decreased sleep need and/or abnormal sleep-wake cycles. The impact of these sleep behaviours on parental sleep and stress is not known. Method: Through the use of standardised questionnaires, wrist actigraphy and polysomnography, we…

  1. Neurobiological aspects of sleep physiology.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, Alex; Murray, Brian James

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is characterized by changes in neural firing and chemistry compared with wakefulness. Many neurologic diseases affect pathways that regulate control of sleep state and some primary sleep disorders have abnormalities of this circuitry. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep alternate in an approximately 90-minute cycle. Recent findings have expanded understanding of the control of sleep state, and will facilitate development of novel therapeutics to assist patients with a variety of disorders of sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of sleep and wake disorders can assist patients with a variety of neurologic problems. PMID:23099125

  2. Sleep and Alzheimer disease pathology—a bidirectional relationship

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yo-El S.; Lucey, Brendan P.; Holtzman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Factors other than age and genetics may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain seems to initiate a cascade of key events in the pathogenesis of AD. Moreover, evidence is emerging that the sleep–wake cycle directly influences levels of Aβ in the brain. In experimental models, sleep deprivation increases the concentration of soluble Aβ and results in chronic accumulation of Aβ, whereas sleep extension has the opposite effect. Furthermore, once Aβ accumulates, increased wakefulness and altered sleep patterns develop. Individuals with early Aβ deposition who still have normal cognitive function report sleep abnormalities, as do individuals with very mild dementia due to AD. Thus, sleep and neurodegenerative disease may influence each other in many ways that have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AD. PMID:24366271

  3. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With a Blood Pressure Nondipping Pattern in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Debaty, Isabelle; Levy, Patrick; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mallion, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in type 1 diabetes is correlated with specific sleep characteristics and differences in nocturnal glycemic profiles. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty type 1 diabetic adult patients underwent sleep studies with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous nocturnal glucose monitoring. RESULTS Altogether, 55% of patients exhibited blunted blood pressure dipping. They did not differ from the dipper group in age, BMI, or systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. Total sleep period (TSP) was higher in the dipper group (497 ± 30 vs. 407 ± 44 min for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P < 0.001). TSP was correlated with SBP and DBP day-night differences (r = 0.44 and 0.49, respectively). Periods of nocturnal hypoglycemia (i.e., % of TSP with glycemia <70 mg/dl) were longer in the dipper group (8.1 ± 10.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.4% for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Dipping status in type 1 diabetes was associated with longer sleep duration and with hypoglycemia unawareness. PMID:19542208

  4. Understanding Adolescent Caffeine Use: Connecting Use Patterns with Expectancies, Reasons, and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant; Wolfson, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about adolescents' caffeine use, yet caffeinated soda, and more recently coffee and energy drinks, are part of youth culture. This study examines adolescents' caffeine use and, using cluster analysis, identifies three groups of caffeine users who differed in their reasons for use, expectancies, and sleep behaviors. In this high…

  5. Patterns of Developmental Change in Infants' Nighttime Sleep Awakenings from 6 through 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinraub, Marsha; Bender, Randall H.; Friedman, Sarah L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Knoke, Bonnie; Bradley, Robert; Houts, Renate; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Nighttime sleep awakenings and infant and family characteristics were measured longitudinally in more than 1,200 infants when the infants were 6, 15, 24, and 36 months old. By 6 months of age, the majority of children slept through the night, awakening their mothers only about once or twice per week. However, not all children followed this…

  6. Sleep patterns in Amazon rubber tappers with and without electric light at home

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, C. R. C.; Vasconcelos, S.; Marqueze, E. C.; Lowden, A.; Middleton, B.; Fischer, F. M.; Louzada, F. M.; Skene, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Today’s modern society is exposed to artificial electric lighting in addition to the natural light-dark cycle. Studies assessing the impact of electric light exposure on sleep and its relation to work hours are rare due to the ubiquitous presence of electricity. Here we report a unique study conducted in two phases in a homogenous group of rubber tappers living and working in a remote area of the Amazon forest, comparing those living without electric light (n = 243 in first phase; n = 25 in second phase) to those with electric light at home (n = 97 in first phase; n = 17 in second phase). Questionnaire data (Phase 1) revealed that rubber tappers with availability of electric light had significantly shorter sleep on work days (30 min/day less) than those without electric light. Analysis of the data from the Phase 2 sample showed a significant delay in the timing of melatonin onset in workers with electric light compared to those without electric light (p < 0.01). Electric lighting delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration during the work week and appears to interfere with alignment of the circadian timing system to the natural light/dark cycle. PMID:26361226

  7. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns.

    PubMed

    Fraley, E R; Burkett, Z D; Day, N F; Schwartz, B A; Phelps, P E; White, S A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans. PMID:27184477

  8. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, E. R.; Burkett, Z. D.; Day, N. F.; Schwartz, B. A.; Phelps, P. E.; White, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans. PMID:27184477

  9. Spreading photoparoxysmal EEG response is associated with an abnormal cortical excitability pattern.

    PubMed

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR with occipital spikes only) or spread to anterior non-visual cortical regions (i.e. PPR with propagation). The mechanisms underlying the PPR and causing its spread remain to be clarified. In unmedicated PPR-positive individuals and PPR-negative control participants without any history of previous seizures, we used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the excitability of the visual or primary motor cortex (M1). In the first experiment [18 healthy control subjects (i.e. without PPR in electroencephalography: 6 females, mean age 26.5 +/- 7.34 years) and 17 healthy participants with PPR (7 females, mean age 25.18 +/- 12.2 years) were studied], occipital TMS was used to elicit phosphenes or to suppress the visual perception of letter trigrams. PPR-positive individuals with propagation had lower phosphene thresholds and steeper stimulus-response curves than individuals without PPR or with occipital spikes only. Occipital TMS also induced a stronger suppression of visual perception in PPR-positive subjects with propagation relative to subjects without PPR or with occipital spikes. In the second experiment, we applied TMS over the right M1 without concurrent IPS and measured the motor threshold, the stimulus response curve, and the duration of the cortical silent period (CSP) in PPR positive individuals with propagation and in PPR-negative control participants [15 right-handed healthy subjects without PPR (3 males, mean age 17.7 +/- 3.6 years) and 14 right-handed healthy individuals showing a PPR with propagation (3 males, mean age 17.4 +/- 3.9 years)]. PPR-positive individuals showed no changes in these

  10. Sleep-related headaches.

    PubMed

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2012-11-01

    Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache. PMID:23099138

  11. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  12. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  13. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  14. Hallucinations and sleep disorders in PD

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Christopher G.; Ouyang, Bichun; Negron, Alice; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess prospectively progression and relationship of hallucinations and sleep disorders over a 10-year longitudinal study of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Eighty-nine patients with PD were recruited to fill cells of normal sleep without hallucinations (n = 20), sleep fragmentation only (n = 20), vivid dreams/nightmares (n = 20), hallucinations with insight (n = 20), and hallucinations without insight (n = 9). At baseline, 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years, sleep disorders and hallucinations were assessed by standardized scales with the longitudinal data analyzed by generalized estimating equations with assumptions of linearity in time. Results: At 10 years, we could account for all subjects (27 interviewed, 61 deceased, and 1 too ill for interview). Hallucination prevalence and severity increased over time (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0001). Acting out dreams also increased over time (p = 0.001). In contrast, presence of vivid dreams/nightmares or sleep fragmentation did not increase over time. For all visits, the prevalence of sleep fragmentation did not differ between subjects with vs without hallucinations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, p = 0.09). However, severe sleep fragmentation was associated with concurrent hallucinations (OR 2.01, p = 0.006). The presence of hallucinations was also highly associated with concurrent vivid dreams/nightmares (OR = 2.60, p < 0.0001) and with concurrent acting out dreams (OR = 2.38, p = 0.0004). Among the baseline nonhallucinators, no sleep abnormalities at study entry predicted future development of hallucinations. Conclusions: Hallucinations and sleep abnormalities follow very different patterns of progression in PD over 10 years. Whereas patients with hallucinations often have concurrent sleep aberrations, no sleep problem is predictive of future hallucinations. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; GEE = generalized estimating equation; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease

  15. Interocular suppression patterns in binocularly abnormal observers using luminance- and contrast-modulated noise stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chima, Akash S; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2016-08-01

    In binocular viewing, images presented to the amblyopic eye are suppressed in the cortex to prevent confusion or diplopia. The present study measures depth and extent of interocular suppression across the central circular 24° visual field in observers with strabismus and microstrabismus. Visual stimuli were concentric rings of alternating polarity, each divided into sectors. Rings were defined by luminance (L), luminance-modulated noise (LM), or contrast-modulated noise (CM). They were viewed binocularly except for the tested ring, which was viewed dichoptically, so that the modulation of one sector presented to the weaker or amblyopic eye was adjusted to perceptually match the surrounding ring presented to the preferred eye. A two alternative forced-choice paradigm combined with a staircase procedure allowed for measurement of the point of subjective equality, or perceptual match. Depth of suppression was calculated as the difference between physical modulations presented to the two eyes at this point. Strabismic participants showed suppression deeper centrally than peripherally, and in one hemifield of the visual field more than the other. Suppression was deeper for L than LM, and CM than LM stimuli. Microstrabismic suppression was weaker than that of strabismics, central for L and LM stimuli, with suppression of CM stimuli being broader, deeper and more in one hemifield. Suppression depth was positively correlated with interocular visual acuity difference and stereoacuity reduction. Clinically, LM stimuli could be used for assessment of deeper amblyopes to assess suppression patterns, while more sensitive detection of mild suppression would be possible using CM stimuli. PMID:27580040

  16. 3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN WILLIAMS SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Reiss, Allan L.; Lee, Agatha D.; Bellugi, Ursula; Galaburda, Albert M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Mills, Debra L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with deletion of ~20 contiguous genes in chromosome band 7q11.23. Individuals with WS exhibit mild to moderate mental retardation, but are relatively more proficient in specific language and musical abilities. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to visualize the complex pattern of gray/white matter reductions in WS, based on fluid registration of structural brain images. Methods 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 41 WS subjects (age: 29.2±9.2SD years; 23F/18M) and 39 age-matched healthy controls (age: 27.5±7.4 years; 23F/16M) were fluidly registered to a minimum deformation target. Fine-scale volumetric differences were mapped between diagnostic groups. Local regions were identified where regional structure volumes were associated with diagnosis, and with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. Brain asymmetry was also mapped and compared between diagnostic groups. Results WS subjects exhibited widely distributed brain volume reductions (~10–15% reduction; P < 0.0002, permutation test). After adjusting for total brain volume, the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala, fusiform gyrus and cerebellum were found to be relatively preserved in WS, but parietal and occipital lobes, thalamus and basal ganglia, and midbrain were disproportionally decreased in volume (P < 0.0002). These regional volumes also correlated positively with performance IQ in adult WS subjects (age ≥ 30 years, P = 0.038). Conclusion TBM facilitates 3D visualization of brain volume reductions in WS. Reduced parietal/occipital volumes may be associated with visuospatial deficits in WS. By contrast, frontal lobes, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus are relatively preserved or even enlarged, consistent with unusual affect regulation and language production in WS. PMID:17512756

  17. Companionable sleep: Social regulation of sleep and co-sleeping in Egyptian families

    PubMed Central

    Worthman, Carol M.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examines family sleep patterns and quality in a setting of normative napping and co-sleeping. Participants comprised 78 members of 16 families from two locales in Egypt, Cairo and village. Each family member provided a history of sleeping arrangements, one week of continuous activity records, and details of each sleep event. Sleep records documented late-onset and dispersed sleep patterns with extensive co-sleeping. Of recorded sleep events, 69% involved co-sleeping, 24% included more than one co-sleeper, and only 21% were solitary. Mid-late afternoon napping occurred on 31% of days and night sleep onsets averaged after midnight. Age and gender structured sleep arrangements and together with locale, extensively explained sleep behavior (onset, duration, total) and quality. Co-sleepers had fewer night arousals, shorter and less variable night sleep duration, and less total sleep. Increased solitary sleep in adolescents and young adults was associated with increased sleep dysregulation, including exaggerated phase shifts in males and more nighttime arousals in females. Where normative, co-sleeping may provide psychosensory stimuli that moderate arousal and stabilize sleep. Such moderating features may address important self-regulatory developmental needs during adolescence. PMID:17371117

  18. Operational assessment of the 5-h on/10-h off watchstanding schedule on a US Navy ship: sleep patterns, mood and psychomotor vigilance performance of crewmembers in the nuclear reactor department.

    PubMed

    Shattuck, Nita Lewis; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2016-05-01

    We assessed sleep patterns, psychomotor vigilance performance, work demands and mood of 77 crewmembers of USS NIMITZ (CVN-68) on the rotating 5-h on/10-h off (5/10) watchstanding schedule. Within the 3-day cycle of the 5/10, sleep occurred at distinctly different times each day. On two of these days, sailors typically received only brief, 4-h sleep episodes followed by periods of sustained wakefulness (approximately 22 and 20 h). Crewmembers received approximately seven hours of sleep daily, but reported excessive fatigue and dissatisfaction with their schedule. Crewmembers' mood worsened significantly over the course of the underway phase. Psychomotor vigilance performance (reaction times, lapses) was significantly degraded compared to performance when working circadian-aligned schedules. Overall, standing watch on the 5/10 schedule, combined with other work duties, resulted in poor sleep hygiene. Crewmembers on the 5/10 experienced periodic bouts of sustained wakefulness and accrued a significant sleep debt due to extended workdays and circadian-misaligned sleep. Practitioner summary: We assessed crewmembers' sleep patterns, psychomotor vigilance performance and work demands when working a rotating 5-h on/10-h off (5/10) watchstanding schedule. The 5/10, combined with other work duties, resulted in poor sleep hygiene. Crewmembers experienced periodic bouts of sustained wakefulness and accrued a significant sleep debt due to extended workdays and circadian-misaligned sleep. PMID:26360772

  19. Scaling analysis of heart beat fluctuations data and its relationship with cyclic alternating pattern data during sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León-Lomelí, R.; Murguía, J. S.; Chouvarda, I.; Méndez, M. O.; González-Galván, E.; Alba, A.

    2016-01-01

    During sleep there exists a nonlinear dynamic phenomenon, which is called cyclic alternating pattern. This phenomenon is generated in the brain and is composed of a series of events of short duration known as A-phases. It has been shown that A-phases can be found in other physiological systems such as the cardiovascular. However, there is no evidence that shows the temporal influence of the A-phases with the cardiovascular system. For this purpose, we consider the scaling method known as detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The analysis was carried out in well sleepers and insomnia people, and the numerical results show an increment in the scaling parameter for the insomnia subjects compared with the normal ones. In addition, the results of the heart dynamics suggests a persistent behavior toward the 1/f-noise.

  20. Morning cortisol secretion in school-age children is related to the sleep pattern of the preceding night.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance in childhood is common and a risk factor for poor mental health. Evidence indicates that disturbed sleep is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity. Knowledge regarding the association between HPAA-activity and objective sleep measures particularly regarding sleep architecture in school-age children is missing. Sleep-electroencephalography was administered to 113 children aged 6-10 years (including 58 children born very preterm and 55 born at term) during one night at the children's homes and sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture were assessed. To assess the cortisol awakening response at the following morning, cortisol secretion was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Regression analyses controlling child age, gender, prematurity status, and the awakening time revealed that morning cortisol secretion was negatively associated with sleep duration and slow wave sleep and positively associated with the relative amount of Stage 2 sleep during the preceding night. In addition, morning cortisol secretion linearly increased with age. In conclusion, associations of sleep disturbance with poor mental health may be confounded with altered HPAA-activity. PMID:25553389

  1. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  2. Genetic contributions to circadian activity rhythm and sleep pattern phenotypes in pedigrees segregating for severe bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Lucia; St Clair, Patricia A; Teshiba, Terri M; Service, Susan K; Fears, Scott C; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Claudia P; Aldana, Ileana; Navarro, Linda; Freimer, Daniel G; Safaie, Brian; Keung, Lap-Woon; Greenspan, Kiefer; Chou, Katty; Escobar, Javier I; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Kremeyer, Barbara; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cantor, Rita M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Bearden, Carrie E; Takahashi, Joseph S; Freimer, Nelson B

    2016-02-01

    Abnormalities in sleep and circadian rhythms are central features of bipolar disorder (BP), often persisting between episodes. We report here, to our knowledge, the first systematic analysis of circadian rhythm activity in pedigrees segregating severe BP (BP-I). By analyzing actigraphy data obtained from members of 26 Costa Rican and Colombian pedigrees [136 euthymic (i.e., interepisode) BP-I individuals and 422 non-BP-I relatives], we delineated 73 phenotypes, of which 49 demonstrated significant heritability and 13 showed significant trait-like association with BP-I. All BP-I-associated traits related to activity level, with BP-I individuals consistently demonstrating lower activity levels than their non-BP-I relatives. We analyzed all 49 heritable phenotypes using genetic linkage analysis, with special emphasis on phenotypes judged to have the strongest impact on the biology underlying BP. We identified a locus for interdaily stability of activity, at a threshold exceeding genome-wide significance, on chromosome 12pter, a region that also showed pleiotropic linkage to two additional activity phenotypes. PMID:26712028

  3. Genetic contributions to circadian activity rhythm and sleep pattern phenotypes in pedigrees segregating for severe bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Lucia; St. Clair, Patricia A.; Teshiba, Terri M.; Service, Susan K.; Fears, Scott C.; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Claudia P.; Aldana, Ileana; Navarro, Linda; Freimer, Daniel G.; Safaie, Brian; Keung, Lap-Woon; Greenspan, Kiefer; Chou, Katty; Escobar, Javier I.; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Kremeyer, Barbara; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cantor, Rita M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Bearden, Carrie E.; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in sleep and circadian rhythms are central features of bipolar disorder (BP), often persisting between episodes. We report here, to our knowledge, the first systematic analysis of circadian rhythm activity in pedigrees segregating severe BP (BP-I). By analyzing actigraphy data obtained from members of 26 Costa Rican and Colombian pedigrees [136 euthymic (i.e., interepisode) BP-I individuals and 422 non–BP-I relatives], we delineated 73 phenotypes, of which 49 demonstrated significant heritability and 13 showed significant trait-like association with BP-I. All BP-I–associated traits related to activity level, with BP-I individuals consistently demonstrating lower activity levels than their non–BP-I relatives. We analyzed all 49 heritable phenotypes using genetic linkage analysis, with special emphasis on phenotypes judged to have the strongest impact on the biology underlying BP. We identified a locus for interdaily stability of activity, at a threshold exceeding genome-wide significance, on chromosome 12pter, a region that also showed pleiotropic linkage to two additional activity phenotypes. PMID:26712028

  4. The influence of family pattern abnormalities in the early stages of life on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic immune mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. CD and UC are related with the development of chronic inflammatory lesions in the GI tract, causing digestive and absorption disorders. Typical symptoms of IBD are: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. In addition, IBD are often associated with the extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis and dermatoses. While the cause of IBD is still not fully understood, the psychological aspects are regarded as possible trigger factors. Moreover, most recent studies suggest that family pattern abnormalities associated with stress at the early stages of life may strongly affect health balance. In this paper, the most relevant studies focusing on the association between early life stress and IBD, found in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE are discussed. Possible effects of the early life stress on IBD progression and response to undertaken therapies are analyzed. PMID:27199029

  5. Continuous exposure to a novel stressor based on water aversion induces abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms and sleep-wake cycles in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Koyomi; Itoh, Nanako; Ohyama, Sumika; Kadota, Koji; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stressors prominently affect diurnal rhythms, including locomotor activity, sleep, blood pressure, and body temperature, in humans. Here, we found that a novel continuous stress imposed by the perpetual avoidance of water on a wheel (PAWW) affected several physiological diurnal rhythms in mice. One week of PAWW stress decayed robust circadian locomotor rhythmicity, while locomotor activity was evident even during the light period when the mice are normally asleep. Daytime activity was significantly upregulated, whereas nighttime activity was downregulated, resulting in a low amplitude of activity. Total daily activity gradually decreased with increasing exposure to PAWW stress. The mice could be exposed to PAWW stress for over 3 weeks without adaptation. Furthermore, continuous PAWW stress enhanced food intake, but decreased body weight and plasma leptin levels, indicating that sleep loss and PAWW stress altered the energy balance in these mice. The diurnal rhythm of corticosterone levels was not severely affected. The body temperature rhythm was diurnal in the stressed mice, but significantly dysregulated during the dark period. Plasma catecholamines were elevated in the stressed mice. Continuous PAWW stress reduced the duration of daytime sleep, especially during the first half of the light period, and increased nighttime sleepiness. Continuous PAWW stress also simultaneously obscured sleep/wake and locomotor activity rhythms compared with control mice. These sleep architecture phenotypes under stress are similar to those of patients with insomnia. The stressed mice could be entrained to the light/dark cycle, and when they were transferred to constant darkness, they exhibited a free-running circadian rhythm with a timing of activity onset predicted by the phase of their entrained rhythms. Circadian gene expression in the liver and muscle was unaltered, indicating that the peripheral clocks in these tissues remained intact. PMID:23383193

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  7. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... Work SIDS Sleep apnea Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need ...

  8. Sleep Perception in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Study Using Polysomnography and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyunwoo; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jun-Soon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Koo, Dae Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Discrepancies between objectively measured sleep and subjective sleep perception in patients with insomnia have been reported. However, few studies have investigated sleep-state misperception in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We designed this study to 1) delineate the factors that could affect this discrepancy and 2) infer an underlying mechanism in patients with OSA. Methods We recruited patients who visited our sleep clinic for the evaluation of their snoring and/or observed OSA. Participants completed a structured questionnaire and underwent overnight polysomnography. On the following day, five sessions of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were applied. We divided the patients into two groups: normal sleep perception and abnormal perception. The abnormal-perception group included patients whose perceived total sleep time was less than 80% of that measured in polysomnography. Results Fifty OSA patients were enrolled from a university hospital sleep clinic. Excessive daytime sleepiness, periodic limb movement index (PLMI), and the presence of dreaming were positively associated with poor sleep perception. REM sleep near the sleep termination exerted important effects. Respiratory disturbance parameters were not related to sleep perception. There was a prolongation in the sleep latency in the first session of the MSLT and we suspected that a delayed sleep phase occurred in poor-sleep perceivers. Conclusions As an objectively good sleep does not match the subjective good-sleep perception in OSA, physicians should keep in mind that OSA patients who perceive that they have slept well does not mean that their OSA is less severe. PMID:27074296

  9. Trauma exposure and sleep: using a rodent model to understand sleep function in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, William M; Poe, Gina R; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by intrusive memories of a traumatic event, avoidance behavior related to cues of the trauma, emotional numbing, and hyper-arousal. Sleep abnormalities and nightmares are core symptoms of this disorder. In this review, we propose a model which implicates abnormal activity in the locus coeruleus (LC), an important modifier of sleep-wake regulation, as the source of sleep abnormalities and memory abnormalities seen in PTSD. Abnormal LC activity may be playing a key role in symptom formation in PTSD via sleep dysregulation and suppression of hippocampal bidirectional plasticity. PMID:24623353

  10. Sleep and wake phase of heart beat dynamics by artificial insymmetrised patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.

    2004-05-01

    In order to determine differences between healthy patients and patients with congestive heart failure we apply the artificial insymmetrised pattern (AIP) method. The AIP method by exploring a human eye ability to extract regularities and read symmetries in a dot pattern, serves a tool for qualitative discrimination of heart rate states.

  11. Health Impact of Fasting in Saudi Arabia during Ramadan: Association with Disturbed Circadian Rhythm and Metabolic and Sleeping Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ajabnoor, Ghada M.; Bahijri, Suhad; Borai, Anwar; Abdulkhaliq, Altaf A.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Chrousos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Muslims go through strict Ramadan fasting from dawn till sunset for one month yearly. These practices are associated with disturbed feeding and sleep patterns. We recently demonstrated that, during Ramadan, circadian cortisol rhythm of Saudis is abolished, exposing these subjects to continuously increased cortisol levels. Hypothesis Secretory patterns of other hormones and metabolic parameters associated with cortisol, and insulin resistance, might be affected during Ramadan. Protocol Ramadan practitioners (18 males, 5 females; mean age ±SEM = 23.16±1.2 years) were evaluated before and two weeks into Ramadan. Blood was collected for measurements of endocrine and metabolic parameters at 9 am (±1 hour) and again twelve hours later. Results In Ramadan, glucose concentration was kept within normal range, with a significant increase in the morning. Mean morning concentration of leptin was significantly higher than pre-Ramadan values (p = 0.001), in contrast to that of adiponectin, which was significantly lower (p<0.001). These changes were associated with increased insulin resistance in morning and evening. Concentrations of hsCRP were lower during Ramadan than those during regular living conditions, however, normal circadian fluctuation was abolished (p = 0.49). Even though means of liver enzymes, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin were all decreased during Ramadan, statistically lower means were only noted for GGT, total protein, and albumin (p = 0.018, 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). Discussion Saudi Ramadan practitioners have altered adipokine patterns, typical of insulin resistance. The noted decreases of hsCRP, liver enzymes, total protein, and albumin, are most likely a result of fasting, while loss of circadian rhythmicity of hsCRP is probably due to loss of circadian cortisol rhythm. Conclusions Modern Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia, which are associated with evening hypercortisolism, are also characterized by altered

  12. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  13. Are You Sleep-Deprived? Learn More About Healthy Sleep | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... extreme daytime sleepiness), and parasomnias (abnormal sleep behaviors). Michael J. Twery, Ph.D., director of the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Photo: Dr. Michael Twery Add to those challenges the demands of ...

  14. Determining the relationship between sleep architecture, seizure variables and memory in patients with focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurie A; Ricci, Monica; van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Mohamed, Armin; van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-06-01

    Sleep has been shown to be important to memory. Both sleep and memory have been found to be abnormal in patients with epilepsy. In this study, we explored the effects that nocturnal epileptiform discharges and the presence of a hippocampal lesion have on sleep patterns and memory. Twenty-five patients with focal epilepsy who underwent a 24-hr ambulatory EEG also completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). The EEG record was scored for length of time spent in the various sleep stages, time spent awake after sleep onset, and rapid eye movement (REM) latency. Of these sleep variables, only REM latency differed when the epilepsy patients were divided on the bases of either presence/absence of nocturnal discharges or presence/absence of a hippocampal lesion. In both cases, presence of the abnormality was associated with longer latency. Furthermore, longer REM latency was found to be a better predictor of EMQ score than either number of discharges or presence of a hippocampal lesion. Longer REM latency was associated with a smaller percentage of time spent in slow-wave sleep in the early part of the night and may serve as a particularly sensitive marker to disturbances in sleep architecture. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854742

  15. A Comparative Study of Circadian Rhythm Functioning and Sleep in People with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Jones, Steven; Evershed, Kate

    2006-01-01

    The circadian rhythm functioning and sleep patterns of 10 adults with Asperger syndrome were investigated using actigraphy. When compared with data from neurotypical adults, both statistical and clinically significant differences were found between the two groups, with the adults with Asperger syndrome showing marked abnormalities in both the…

  16. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. PMID:26302334

  17. Effects of sleep deprivation on behaviors and abnormal hippocampal BDNF/miR-10B expression in rats with chronic stress depression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuxue; Zhu, Jinfu

    2015-01-01

    Being sleep-deprived can relieve the depressed emotions in rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, male rats were divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), chronicunpredictable stress (CUPS) and sleep-deprived (SD). All of the groups were examined using the sucrose consumption test and the open field test. The sucrose consumption test and the open field test were performed for all three groups. The BDNF and miR-10B expressions were examined using real-time PCR and the level of BNDF was discovered by western blotting. In the sucrose consumption test and the open field test, the CUPS rats consumed less sucrose and got fewer score than the NC rats, however the SD rats consumed significantly more sucrose and received higher scores than the CUPS rats. Both the expression of BNDF and the protein levels in the CUPS group was significantly lower than in the NC group. Also, the CUPS group also showed a higher miR-10B expression than the NC group. However, the SD group demonstrated higher BDNF expression and lower miR-10B expression when compared with the CUPS group. Further investigation demonstrated that the BDNF is the direct target gene of miR-10B and BDNF expression, which is negatively correlated with the expression of miR-10B. In the sucrose consumption test, BNDF expression is positively correlated with the sucrose preference rate whereas miR-10B has an opposing correlation. Moreover, the open field test demonstrated that BNDF expression is positively correlated with the scores and the miR-10B expression is negatively correlated. These results indicate that sleep deprivation is closely linked with the downregulation of miR-10B and possibly the upregulation of BDNF in the hippocampus in the CUPS rats. PMID:25755749

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation on behaviors and abnormal hippocampal BDNF/miR-10B expression in rats with chronic stress depression

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuxue; Zhu, Jinfu

    2015-01-01

    Being sleep-deprived can relieve the depressed emotions in rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, male rats were divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), chronicunpredictable stress (CUPS) and sleep-deprived (SD). All of the groups were examined using the sucrose consumption test and the open field test. The sucrose consumption test and the open field test were performed for all three groups. The BDNF and miR-10B expressions were examined using real-time PCR and the level of BNDF was discovered by western blotting. In the sucrose consumption test and the open field test, the CUPS rats consumed less sucrose and got fewer score than the NC rats, however the SD rats consumed significantly more sucrose and received higher scores than the CUPS rats. Both the expression of BNDF and the protein levels in the CUPS group was significantly lower than in the NC group. Also, the CUPS group also showed a higher miR-10B expression than the NC group. However, the SD group demonstrated higher BDNF expression and lower miR-10B expression when compared with the CUPS group. Further investigation demonstrated that the BDNF is the direct target gene of miR-10B and BDNF expression, which is negatively correlated with the expression of miR-10B. In the sucrose consumption test, BNDF expression is positively correlated with the sucrose preference rate whereas miR-10B has an opposing correlation. Moreover, the open field test demonstrated that BNDF expression is positively correlated with the scores and the miR-10B expression is negatively correlated. These results indicate that sleep deprivation is closely linked with the downregulation of miR-10B and possibly the upregulation of BDNF in the hippocampus in the CUPS rats. PMID:25755749

  19. Beyond Sleep Duration: Distinct Sleep Dimensions are Associated with Obesity in Children and Adolescent’s

    PubMed Central

    Jarrin, Denise C.; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Short sleep duration is recognized as a significant risk factor in childhood obesity; however, the question as to how sleep contributes to the development of obesity remains largely unknown. The majority of pediatric studies have relied on sleep duration as the exclusive measure of sleep; this insular approach may be misleading given that sleep is a dynamic multidimensional construct beyond sleep duration, including sleep disturbances and patterns. While these sleep dimensions partly overlap, it is necessary to determine their independent relation with obesity, which in turn, may inform a more comprehensive understanding of putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sleep dimensions including sleep duration, disturbances, and patterns were individually associated with obesity, independent of multiple covariates. The second objective was to examine whether sleep disturbances and patterns were independently associated with obesity, after adjusting for sleep duration. Method Participants included 240 healthy children and adolescents (Mage=12.60, SD=1.98; 45.8% females). Anthropometric measures included measured waist and hip circumference, body mass index Z-score and percent body fat. Subjective sleep measures included sleep duration, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and sleep patterns from youth- and parental-report. Results Youth with larger adiposity and body composition measures reported poorer sleep quality (βavg=−0.14, p<.01), more sleep disturbances (βavg=0.13, p<.05), and showed a delayed sleep phase pattern (βavg=0.15, p<.05), independent of age, sex, pubertal status, physical activity, screen time, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration. Shorter sleep duration was significantly associated with obesity; however, this link was attenuated after adjustment of covariates. Conclusions Results suggest sleep measures beyond duration may more precisely capture influences

  20. Non-invasive ventilation for sleep-disordered breathing in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connor, Victoria; Zhao, Sizheng; Angus, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by behavioural disturbances, intellectual disability and early onset obesity. The physical features of this syndrome are well characterised; however, behavioural features, such as sleep disturbance, are less well understood and difficult to manage. Sleep issues in SMS are likely due to a combination of disturbed melatonin cycle, facial anatomy and obesity-related ventilatory problems. Sleep disorders can be very distressing to patients and their families, as exemplified by our patient's experience, and can worsen behavioural issues as well as general health. This case demonstrates the successful use of non-invasive ventilation in treating underlying obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea. As a consequence of addressing abnormalities in sleep patterns, some behavioural problems improved. PMID:27495174

  1. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  2. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. Sleep ... sleepy during the day, you may have a sleep disorder. _____4. Opening the car window or turning the ...

  3. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  4. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard ... problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.

  5. School Start Time and Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Results From the US National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Paksarian, Diana; Rudolph, Kara E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated associations between school start time and adolescent weeknight bedtime, weeknight sleep duration, and weekend compensatory sleep and assessed whether associations differ by age, sex, or urbanicity. Methods. We used a subsample of a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 7308 students aged 13 to 18 years attending 245 schools to estimate associations of school start time, reported by school principals, with weeknight bedtime and sleep duration and weekend compensatory sleep, reported during adolescent face-to-face interviews. Results. Start time was positively associated with weeknight bedtime. Associations between start time and weeknight sleep duration were nonlinear and were strongest for start times of 8:00 am and earlier. Associations differed by sex and urbanicity, with the strongest association among boys in major metropolitan counties. Start time was negatively associated with sleep duration among boys in nonurban counties. Start time was not associated with weekend compensatory sleep. Conclusions. Positive overall associations between school start time and adolescent sleep duration at the national level support recent policy recommendations for delaying school start times. However, the impact of start time delays may differ by sex and urbanicity. PMID:25973803

  6. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Leng

    2016-01-01

    Educational aims The reader will be able to: Understand normal sleep patterns in infancyAppreciate disorders of breathing in infancyAppreciate disorders of respiratory control Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central) as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail. PMID:27064478

  7. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students. PMID:15648478

  8. [Experiences with therapy of pediatric sleep apnea syndrome and obstructive nasopharyngeal respiratory pattern with nasal BIPAP and CPAP therapy].

    PubMed

    Zwacka, G; Scholle, S

    1995-03-01

    Sleep-apnea in childhood shows a frequency similar to adults but it is caused by many other reasons. Therapeutic effects of nasal CPAP and BIPAP can replace surgical ENT-Therapy in large extent mainly in ages at 2-5 years. But also in older children is it possible to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation neuromuscular diseases by BIPAP. Examples for treatment of children by BIPAP who are two years old were given. Other demonstrated cases cover children with stridor congenitus, obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation, adenoidal breathing disturbances with primary surgical treated tonsillar hyperplasia and one case of thoracal postobstructive malformation with therapeutic BIPAP options. PMID:7617601

  9. MEK-ERK1/2-dependent FLNA overexpression promotes abnormal dendritic patterning in tuberous sclerosis independent of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longbo; Bartley, Christopher M; Gong, Xuan; Hsieh, Lawrence S; Lin, Tiffany V; Feliciano, David M; Bordey, Angélique

    2014-10-01

    Abnormal dendritic complexity is a shared feature of many neurodevelopmental disorders associated with neurological defects. Here, we found that the actin-crosslinking protein filamin A (FLNA) is overexpressed in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) mice, a PI3K-mTOR model of neurodevelopmental disease that is associated with abnormal dendritic complexity. Both under- and overexpression of FLNA in wild-type neurons led to more complex dendritic arbors in vivo, suggesting that an optimal level of FLNA expression is required for normal dendritogenesis. In Tsc1(null) neurons, knocking down FLNA in vivo prevented dendritic abnormalities. Surprisingly, FLNA overexpression in Tsc1(null) neurons was dependent on MEK1/2 but not mTOR activity, despite both pathways being hyperactive. In addition, increasing MEK-ERK1/2 activity led to dendritic abnormalities via FLNA, and decreasing MEK-ERK1/2 signaling in Tsc1(null) neurons rescued dendritic defects. These data demonstrate that altered FLNA expression increases dendritic complexity and contributes to pathologic dendritic patterning in TSC in an mTOR-independent, ERK1/2-dependent manner. PMID:25277454

  10. MEK-ERK1/2-dependent FLNA overexpression promotes abnormal dendritic patterning in tuberous sclerosis independent of mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longbo; Bartley, Christopher M.; Gong, Xuan; Hsieh, Lawrence S.; Lin, Tiffany V.; Feliciano, David M.; Bordey, Angélique

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abnormal dendritic complexity is a shared feature of many neurodevelopmental disorders associated with neurological defects. Here, we found that the actin-crosslinking protein filamin A (FLNA) is overexpressed in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) mice, a PI3K-mTOR model of neurodevelopmental disease that is associated with abnormal dendritic complexity. Both under-and overexpression of FLNA in wild-type neurons led to more complex dendritic arbors in vivo, suggesting that an optimal level of FLNA expression is required for normal dendritogenesis. In Tsc1null neurons, knocking down FLNA in vivo prevented dendritic abnormalities. Surprisingly, FLNA overexpression in Tsc1null neurons was dependent on MEK1/2 but not mTOR activity despite both pathways being hyperactive. In addition, increasing MEK-ERK1/2 activity led to dendritic abnormalities via FLNA and decreasing MEK-ERK1/2 signaling in Tsc1null neurons rescued dendritic defects. These data demonstrate that altered FLNA expression increases dendritic complexity and contributes to pathologic dendritic patterning in TSC in an mTOR-independent, ERK1/2-dependent manner. PMID:25277454

  11. Update of sleep alterations in depression

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Andrés Barrera; Lechuga, DeboraYoaly Arana; Escandón, Oscar Sánchez; Moctezuma, Javier Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. PMID:26483922

  12. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process. PMID:25611867

  13. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  14. Sleep and respiratory physiology in children.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kristie R; Rosen, Carol L

    2014-09-01

    Maturational changes of breathing during sleep contribute to the unique features of childhood sleep disorders. The clinician's ability to evaluate common disorders related to sleep in children relies on an understanding of normal patterns of breathing during sleep across the ages. This article reviews respiratory physiology during sleep throughout childhood. Specific topics include an overview of respiration during sleep, normal parameters through childhood including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and measures of carbon dioxide, normal patterns of apneas throughout childhood, and features of breathing during sleep seen in term and preterm infants. PMID:25156762

  15. Parasomnias and movement disorders of sleep.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Alon Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurologists are often enlisted to help diagnose, evaluate, and manage a spectrum of abnormal spells during the night ranging from parasomnias to motor disturbance that span the sleep-wake cycle. Parasomnias are undesirable emotional or physical events that accompany sleep. These events typically occur during entry into sleep from wakefulness, or during arousals from sleep, and are often augmented by the sleep state. Some parasomnias, such as the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder may be extremely undesirable, while others such as somniloquy are often of little concern. The parasomnias include a spectrum of abnormal emotions, movements, behaviors, sensory perceptions, dream mentation, and autonomic activity. Basic physiologic drives, such as sex, hunger, and aggression, may manifest as sleep-related eating, sleep-related sexual behaviors, and sleep-related violence. Parasomnias have a very bizarre nature, but are readily explainable, diagnosable, and treatable. They are hypothesized to be due to changes in brain organization across multiple states of being, and are particularly apt to occur during the incomplete transition or oscillation from one sleep state to another. Parasomnias are often explained on the basis that wakefulness and sleep are not mutually exclusive states, and abnormal intrusion of wakefulness into non-REM (NREM) sleep produces arousal disorders, and intrusion of wakefulness into REM sleep produces REM sleep parasomnias and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), two closely related conditions that often result in disturbed sleep onset and sleep maintenance, are also reviewed in this article. Although the mechanisms that underlie idiopathic RLS or PLMD are not fully understood, there is currently substantial evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction is likely involved in both conditions. The discussion will conclude with the "other parasomnias" and sleep

  16. Extended workdays: Effects of 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift schedules on test performance, subjective alertness, sleep patterns, and psychological variables

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.R.; Colligan, M.J.; Lewis, P.

    1986-06-01

    A newly instituted 3 to 4 day/12-hr rotating shift schedule was compared to the previous 5 to 7 day/8-hr schedule using standard laboratory-type measures of performance and alertness, and a questionnaire on sleep patterns and other personal habits. After seven months adaptation to the new schedule, a preliminary analysis indicates that there were some decrements in alertness, reductions in sleep, and disruptions of other personal activities during 12-hr workdays. Gastro-intestinal state improved during night shift, however, and increases in self-reported stress were reduced by the shortened workweek. These results are discussed in terms of trade-offs between longer workdays and shorter workweeks. It is emphasized that at this time no determination can be made of the extent of risk associated with these changes in alertness.

  17. Maternal Ube3a Loss Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis But Leaves Circadian Rhythmicity Largely Intact

    PubMed Central

    Ehlen, J. Christopher; Jones, Kelly A.; Pinckney, Lennisha; Gray, Cloe L.; Burette, Susan; Weinberg, Richard J.; Evans, Jennifer A.; Brager, Allison J.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms underlying sleep disruptions in AS. Here we demonstrate that abnormal sleep patterns arise from a deficit in accumulation of sleep drive, uncovering the Ube3a gene as a novel genetic regulator of sleep homeostasis. Our findings encourage a re-evaluation of current treatment strategies for sleep dysfunction in AS, and suggest that interventions that promote increased sleep drive may alleviate sleep disturbances in individuals with AS. PMID:26446213

  18. Fatigue, sleep-wake pattern, depressive and anxiety symptoms and body-mass index: analysis in a sample of episodic and chronic migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Cinzia; Baldacci, Filippo; Cafalli, Martina; Dini, Elisa; Giampietri, Linda; Siciliano, Gabriele; Gori, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Migraine clinical presentation and life-time course can be highly heterogeneous, with a subgroup of patients developing chronic migraine; moreover, migraine clinical spectrum is expanded by the association with different coexisting conditions and interictal dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate migraine clinical features, daily functioning parameters, sleep pattern, presence of depressive-anxiety symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 75 episodic and 75 chronic migraine without aura patients. Migraine-related disability, fatigue, daily sleepiness, subjective sleep quality, anxiety and depressive symptoms were, respectively, evaluated using the following questionnaires: Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item Scale (PHQ-9). Mean FSS score (p < 0.001), PSQI score (p = 0.015), GAD-7 score (p = 0.019), PHQ-9 score (p < 0.001) and BMI score (p = 0.012) were significantly higher in chronic compared to episodic migraineurs. Additionally, a correlation analysis carried out in the total sample of 150 migraine patients documented a statistically significant, positive correlation between monthly frequency of migraine attacks and FSS score (p < 0.001), PSQI score (p = 0.006), GAD-7 score (p = 0.019), PHQ-9 score (p < 0.001) and BMI score (p = 0.049). Data from the present report seem to expand the concept of migraine as a continuum or spectrum, with greater occurrence of fatigue, poor sleep quality, anxiety-depressive symptoms and higher BMI score in chronic compared to episodic migraine patients; further investigation is certainly necessary to better define the biological basis and mechanisms associated with migraine transformation from episodic to chronic pattern. PMID:26879311

  19. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... August 19, 2014 Gary H. Gibbons Why Do Fruit Flies Take Naps? NHLBI Investigator Studies Connections Between Sleep Patterns and Gene Networks in Fruit Flies Read all Director's Messages Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ ...

  20. What Are Sleep Studies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... August 19, 2014 Gary H. Gibbons Why Do Fruit Flies Take Naps? NHLBI Investigator Studies Connections Between Sleep Patterns and Gene Networks in Fruit Flies Read all Director's Messages Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ ...

  1. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Yan, Zhihan; Wang, Tingyu; Yang, Xiaokai; Feng, Feng; Fan, Luping; Jiang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) after normal sleep (NS) and after sleep deprivation (SD). Methods A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females) underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL), left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the left CPL had increased rsFC in the SD group with the right inferior frontal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right thalamus, and bilateral precuneus, and decreased rsFC with the BFL, while the right CPL had increased rsFC with the left superior frontal gyrus and decreased rsFC with the left precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and the BFL. Conclusion Bilateral CPL are possibly involved in acupuncture stimulation in different manners, and the right CPL showed more rsFC impairment. PMID:26064046

  2. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » About the NHLBI » Organization » National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) » Patient & Public Information » Sleep Quiz National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Research Professional Education Patient & Public Information Communications ...

  3. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  4. [SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING AND EPILEPSY: RELATIONSHIPS AND THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS].

    PubMed

    Faludi, Béla; Bóné, Beáta; Komoly, Sámuel; Janszky, József

    2015-11-30

    The importance of the sleep related breathing disorders (obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, central sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes breathing) in the pathophysiology crebro- and cardiovascular disorders is well known. The relationship of sleep related breathing abnormalities and epilepsy is also important but underestimated in the daily practice. The relation is bidirectional. The breathing abnormalities in sleep may play important role in generating epileptic seizure, but the adverse effect of seizure and antiepileptic therapy (generation of apneas and hypopneas) may worsen the seizure control. The effect of new therapies (vagal nerve and deep brain stimulation) on the sleep architecture and sleep disordered breathing must be examined and discussed. Here we present a brief case of epileptic patient with deep brain stimulation therapy on sleep as well. The examination of the sleep related breathing abnormalities in epilepsy patient may help improve the effectiveness of antiepileptic therapy. PMID:26821511

  5. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  6. Sleeping worries away or worrying away sleep? Physiological evidence on sleep-emotion interactions.

    PubMed

    Talamini, Lucia M; Bringmann, Laura F; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  7. Sleep Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Keshavamurthy, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disorders are common in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). It can antedate the motor manifestations of PD. It is related primarily to the involvement of sleep regulating structures, secondary involvement through motor, depressive and dysautonomic symptoms and the tertiary involvement through anti-parkinsonian medications. Aim The aim of our study is to evaluate the frequency and nature of the sleep abnormalities in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease, analysing the sleep architecture using polysomnography and to correlate the results with the disease parameters. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done in 50 patients who fulfill the “UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria”. They were assessed using detailed history and clinical neurological examination. The severity of the disease was assessed based on Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS part III) and the sleep is assessed using Parkinson’s Disease Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Objective sleep study was done using polysomnography. Results Disturbed sleep was reported by 70% of patients. Sixty percent of them had difficulty in falling asleep and 48% had difficulty in maintaining the sleep due to frequent awakenings. Day time somnolence was reported by 30% of patients. Polysomnographic analysis showed reduced total sleep time in 40 patients (80%). Correlation analysis of the total sleep time, sleep efficiency, deep sleep time, REM sleep time with the disease duration, staging, severity, PDSS Score, showed significant positive correlation (p<0.05). Sleep related movement disorders like Periodic Limb Movements (PLMS), Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) also showed inverse correlation with disease duration and severity (p<0.05). Conclusion Sleep architecture is markedly disturbed in patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. There is a reduction in the total sleep time, deep sleep time and REM Sleep duration

  8. Sleep and respiration in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  9. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  10. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    PubMed

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception. PMID:25179115

  11. Sleep and Emotional Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience continues to build meaningful connections between affective behavior and human brain function. Within the biological sciences, a similar renaissance has taken place, focusing on the role of sleep in various neurocognitive processes, and most recently, the interaction between sleep and emotional regulation. In this article, we survey an array of diverse findings across basic and clinical research domains, resulting in a convergent view of sleep-dependent emotional brain processing. Based on the unique neurobiology of sleep, we outline a model describing the overnight modulation of affective neural systems and the (re)processing of recent emotional experiences, both of which appear to redress the appropriate next-day reactivity of limbic and associated autonomic networks. Furthermore, a REM sleep hypothesis of emotional-memory processing is proposed, the implications of which may provide brain-based insights into the association between sleep abnormalities and the initiation and maintenance of mood disturbances. PMID:25285060

  12. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  13. Current treatments to counter sleep dysfunction as a pathogenic stimulus of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Choy, Ernest H

    2016-05-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and nonrestorative sleep. Polysomnography showed reduced short-wave sleep and abnormal alpha rhythms during nonrapid eye movement sleep in patients with fibromyalgia. However, sleep dysfunction might be pathogenic in fibromyalgia since myalgia and fatigue could be induced in healthy individuals by disrupting sleep. Poor sleep quality was a major risk factor for the subsequent development of chronic widespread pain in healthy pain-free individuals. Sleep disruption leads to impairment of the descending pain inhibition pathways. Aside from good sleep, hygiene, exercise can promote sleep. Among currently available pharmacological treatments, evidence suggests amitriptyline and pregabalin can improve sleep in fibromyalgia. PMID:27312978

  14. Sleep Needs, Patterns, and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop. Forum on Adolescence (Washington, DC, September 22, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mary G., Ed.

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussion at a workshop on adolescent sleep. The workshop was organized by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families and the Forum on Adolescence of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. The workshop brought together policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to examine research…

  15. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  16. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Billeh, Yazan N; Rodriguez, Alexander V; Bellesi, Michele; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Funk, Chadd M; Harris, Julie; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25-P30, ≥ 50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  17. The Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatments of REM Sleep Disturbances in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Li, Rui; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Ze; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Most depressed patients suffer from sleep abnormalities, which are one of the critical symptoms of depression. They are robust risk factors for the initiation and development of depression. Studies about sleep electroencephalograms have shown characteristic changes in depression such as reductions in non-rapid eye movement sleep production, disruptions of sleep continuity and disinhibition of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep alterations include a decrease in REM sleep latency, an increase in REM sleep duration and REM sleep density with respect to depressive episodes. Emotional brain processing dependent on the normal sleep-wake regulation seems to be failed in depression, which also promotes the development of clinical depression. Also, REM sleep alterations have been considered as biomarkers of depression. The disturbances of norepinephrine and serotonin systems may contribute to REM sleep abnormalities in depression. Lastly, this review also discusses the effects of different antidepressants on REM sleep disturbances in depression. PMID:26412074

  18. Abnormal pattern of post-gamma-ray DNA replication in radioresistant fibroblast strains from affected members of a cancer-prone family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, R.; Aubin, R. A.; Bosnich, W.; Blattner, W. A.; Paterson, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Non-malignant dermal fibroblast strains, cultured from affected members of a Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) family with diverse neoplasms associated with radiation exposure, display a unique increased resistance to the lethal effects of gamma-radiation. In the studies reported here, this radioresistance (RR) trait has been found to correlate strongly with an abnormal pattern of post-gamma-ray DNA replicative synthesis, as monitored by radiolabelled thymidine incorporation and S-phase cell autoradiography. In particular, the time interval between the gamma-ray-induced shutdown of DNA synthesis and its subsequent recovery was greater in all four RR strains examined and the post-recovery replication rate was much higher and was maintained longer than in normal and spousal controls. Alkaline sucrose sedimentation profiles of pulse-labelled cellular DNA indicated that the unusual pattern of DNA replication in irradiated RR strains may be ascribed to anomalies in both replicon initiation and DNA chain elongation processes. Moreover, the RR strain which had previously displayed the highest post-gamma-ray clonogenic survival was found to harbour a somatic (codon 234) mutation (presumably acquired during culture in vitro) in the same conserved region of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene as the germline (codon 245) mutation in the remaining three RR strains from other family members, thus coupling the RR phenotype and abnormal post-gamma-ray DNA synthesis pattern with faulty p53 expression. Significantly, these two aberrant radioresponse end points, along with documented anomalies in c-myc and c-raf-1 proto-oncogenes, are unprecedented among other LFS families carrying p53 germline mutations. We thus speculate that this peculiar cancer-prone family may possess in its germ line a second, as yet unidentified, genetic defect in addition to the p53 mutation. Images Figure 8 PMID:7779715

  19. Resolution of sleep paralysis by weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1997-08-01

    Sleep paralysis refers to episodes of inability to move during the onset of sleep or more commonly upon awakening. Patients often describe the sensation of struggling to move and may experience simultaneous frightening vivid hallucinations and dreams. Sleep paralysis and other manifestations of dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep, which reflect deficient monoaminergic regulation of neural modulators of REM sleep, have been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A 40 year old woman with remitting-progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) experienced episodes of sleep paralysis since the age of 16, four years prior to the onset of her neurological symptoms. Episodes of sleep paralysis, which manifested at a frequency of about once a week, occurred only upon awakening in the morning and were considered by the patient as a most terrifying experience. Periods of mental stress, sleep deprivation, physical fatigue and exacerbation of MS symptoms appeared to enhance the occurrence of sleep paralysis. In July of 1992 the patient began experimental treatment with AC pulsed applications of picotesla intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 5Hz frequency which were applied extracerebrally 1-2 times per week. During the course of treatment with EMFs the patient made a dramatic recovery of symptoms with improvement in vision, mobility, balance, bladder control, fatigue and short term memory. In addition, her baseline pattern reversal visual evoked potential studies, which showed abnormally prolonged latencies in both eyes, normalized 3 weeks after the initiation of magnetic therapy and remained normal more than 2.5 years later. Since the introduction of magnetic therapy episodes of sleep paralysis gradually diminished and abated completely over the past 3 years. This report suggests that MS may be associated with deficient REM sleep inhibitory neural mechanisms leading to sleep paralysis secondary to the intrusion of REM sleep atonia and dream imagery into the

  20. Cell-free DNA Fragmentation Patterns in Amniotic Fluid Identify Genetic Abnormalities and Changes due to Storage

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Terrin, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N = 36) and aneuploid (N = 29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (−80°C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

  1. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  2. To sleep or not to sleep: the ecology of sleep in artificial organisms

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto; McNamara, Patrick; Nunn, Charles L

    2008-01-01

    Background All animals thus far studied sleep, but little is known about the ecological factors that generate differences in sleep characteristics across species, such as total sleep duration or division of sleep into multiple bouts across the 24-hour period (i.e., monophasic or polyphasic sleep activity). Here we address these questions using an evolutionary agent-based model. The model is spatially explicit, with food and sleep sites distributed in two clusters on the landscape. Agents acquire food and sleep energy based on an internal circadian clock coded by 24 traits (one for each hour of the day) that correspond to "genes" that evolve by means of a genetic algorithm. These traits can assume three different values that specify the agents' behavior: sleep (or search for a sleep site), eat (or search for a food site), or flexibly decide action based on relative levels of sleep energy and food energy. Individuals with higher fitness scores leave more offspring in the next generation of the simulation, and the model can therefore be used to identify evolutionarily adaptive circadian clock parameters under different ecological conditions. Results We systematically varied input parameters related to the number of food and sleep sites, the degree to which food and sleep sites overlap, and the rate at which food patches were depleted. Our results reveal that: (1) the increased costs of traveling between more spatially separated food and sleep clusters select for monophasic sleep, (2) more rapid food patch depletion reduces sleep times, and (3) agents spend more time attempting to acquire the "rarer" resource, that is, the average time spent sleeping is positively correlated with the number of food patches and negatively correlated with the number of sleep patches. "Flexible" genes, in general, do not appear to be advantageous, though their arrangements in the agents' genome show characteristic patterns that suggest that selection acts on their distribution. Conclusion

  3. Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and Their Persistence With Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. Design: A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Setting: Community. Participants: A total of 396 children (51% female). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9–10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Conclusions: Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18. Citation: Armstrong JM, Ruttle PL, Klein MH, Essex MJ, Benca RM. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence. SLEEP 2014

  4. Amphetamine withdrawal and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M R; Bradley, B P; Brewis, R K

    1982-01-01

    Sleep duration and indices of disturbed sleep, such as night-time waking and day-time sleep, were investigated in amphetamine users following hospital admission and withdrawal from the drug. Compared to controls, the amphetamine group showed an initial period of oversleeping and, towards the end of the first week, they showed a considerable degree of reduced sleep which persisted for the 20 days of this study. There was greater variability in sleep duration within the amphetamine group on almost all nights, and the variability in sleep duration from one night to the next was also greater. More night-time sleep disturbance was evident among the amphetamine ex-users. These results are discussed with respect to previous work and the pattern is seen to be more complex than had been imagined. A tentative neurochemical model is suggested and clinical implications are considered. PMID:7166130

  5. Direct Comparison of Measured and Calculated Total Knee Replacement Force Envelopes during Walking in the Presence of Normal and Abnormal Gait Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Hannah J.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint forces measured from instrumented implants provide important information for testing the validity of computational models that predict knee joint forces. The purpose of this study was to validate a parametric numerical model for predicting knee joint contact forces against measurements from four subjects with instrumented TKRs during the stance phase of gait. Model sensitivity to abnormal gait patterns was also investigated. The results demonstrated good agreement for three subjects with relatively normal gait patterns, where the difference between the mean measured and calculated forces ranged from 0.05 to 0.45 body weights, and the envelopes of measured and calculated forces (from three walking trials) overlapped. The fourth subject, who had a “quadriceps avoidance” external moment pattern, initially had little overlap between the measured and calculated force envelopes. When additional constraints were added, tailored to the subject’s gait pattern, the model predictions improved to complete force envelope overlap. Coefficient of multiple determination analysis indicated that the shape of the measured and calculated force waveforms were similar for all subjects (adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation values between 0.88 and 0.92). The parametric model was accurate in predicting both the magnitude and waveform of the contact force, and the accuracy of model predictions was affected by deviations from normal gait patterns. Equally important, the envelope of forces generated by the range of solutions substantially overlapped with the corresponding measured envelope from multiple gait trials for a given subject, suggesting that the variable strategic processes of in vivo force generation are covered by the solution range of this parametric model. PMID:22284431

  6. Night eating in patients with type 2 diabetes. Associations with glycemic control, eating patterns, sleep, and mood.

    PubMed

    Hood, Megan M; Reutrakul, Sirimon; Crowley, Stephanie J

    2014-08-01

    Night eating is a complex behavior associated with disruptions in eating, sleep, and mood regulation. While night eating has been associated with alterations in neuroendocrine functioning, night eating and Night Eating Syndrome (NES) are not well understood in patients with prevalent metabolic conditions, such as diabetes. In this study, 194 adults with Type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires assessing night eating symptoms as well as eating, sleep, and depressive symptoms. Glycemic control data, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), were gathered from patient medical charts. Results indicated that 7% of participants met criteria for NES. Increased symptoms of night eating were associated with poorer glycemic control and disruptions in eating, sleep, and mood, including significantly increased likelihood of having HbA1c levels >7% and endorsing clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Increasing understanding of the relationship between night eating and metabolic and psychosocial functioning in patients with diabetes may provide new avenues for treatment of these patients. PMID:24751916

  7. Abnormal N-glycosylation pattern for brain nucleotide pyrophosphatase-5 (NPP-5) in Mecp2-mutant murine models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cortelazzo, Alessio; De Felice, Claudio; Guerranti, Roberto; Signorini, Cinzia; Leoncini, Silvia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Scalabrì, Francesco; Madonna, Michele; Filosa, Stefania; Della Giovampaola, Cinzia; Capone, Antonietta; Durand, Thierry; Mirasole, Cristiana; Zolla, Lello; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Guy, Jacky; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Hayek, Joussef

    2016-04-01

    Neurological disorders can be associated with protein glycosylation abnormalities. Rett syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Although its pathogenesis appears to be closely associated with a redox imbalance, no information on glycosylation is available. Glycoprotein detection strategies (i.e., lectin-blotting) were applied to identify target glycosylation changes in the whole brain of Mecp2 mutant murine models of the disease. Remarkable glycosylation pattern changes for a peculiar 50kDa protein, i.e., the N-linked brain nucleotide pyrophosphatase-5 were evidenced, with decreased N-glycosylation in the presymptomatic and symptomatic mutant mice. Glycosylation changes were rescued by selected brain Mecp2 reactivation. Our findings indicate that there is a causal link between the amount of Mecp2 and the N-glycosylation of NPP-5. PMID:26476268

  8. Sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Alaa A; Abo-Zenah, Hamdy; Wafa, Ehab; Mahmoud, Khaled; El-Dahshan, Khaled; Hassan, Ahmed; Abbas, Tarek Medhat; Saleh, Abd El-Baset M; Okasha, Kamal

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders is higher in patients with kidney failure than the general population. We studied the prevalence of sleep disorders in 88 (mean age; 41.59 +/- 16.3 years) chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients at the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt over 4-month period. The investigated sleep disorders included insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), narcolepsy and sleep walking, and we used a questionnaire in accordance with those of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, the Berlin questionnaire, Italian version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, and the specific questions of Hatoum's sleep questionnaire. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 79.5% in our patients, and the most common sleep abnormality was insomnia (65.9%), followed by RLS (42%), OSAS (31.8%), snoring (27.3%), EDS (27.3%), narcolepsy (15.9%), and sleep walking (3.4%). Insomnia correlated with anemia (r=0.31, P= 0.003), anxiety (r=0.279, P= 0.042), depression (r=0.298, P= 0.24) and RLS (r=0.327, P= 0.002). Also, RLS correlated with hypoalbuminemia (r=0.41, P= < 0.0001), anemia (r=0.301 and P= 0.046), hyperphosphatemia (r=0.343 and P= 0.001). EDS correlated with OSAS (r=0.5, P= < 0.0001), snoring (r=0.341, P= 0.001), and social worry (r=0.27, P= 0.011). Sleep disorders are quite common in the HD patients, especially those who are anemic and hypoalbuminemic. Assessment of sleep quality, preferably with polysomnography, is necessary to confirm our results. Interventional studies for management of sleep disorders in HD patients are warranted. PMID:20228517

  9. Neuronal Machinery of Sleep Homeostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Donlea, Jeffrey M.; Pimentel, Diogo; Miesenböck, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep is under homeostatic control, but the mechanisms that sense sleep need and correct sleep deficits remain unknown. Here, we report that sleep-promoting neurons with projections to the dorsal fan-shaped body (FB) form the output arm of Drosophila’s sleep homeostat. Homeostatic sleep control requires the Rho-GTPase-activating protein encoded by the crossveinless-c (cv-c) gene in order to transduce sleep pressure into increased electrical excitability of dorsal FB neurons. cv-c mutants exhibit decreased sleep time, diminished sleep rebound, and memory deficits comparable to those after sleep loss. Targeted ablation and rescue of Cv-c in sleep-control neurons of the dorsal FB impair and restore, respectively, normal sleep patterns. Sleep deprivation increases the excitability of dorsal FB neurons, but this homeostatic adjustment is disrupted in short-sleeping cv-c mutants. Sleep pressure thus shifts the input-output function of sleep-promoting neurons toward heightened activity by modulating ion channel function in a mechanism dependent on Cv-c. PMID:24559676

  10. Inactivation of ca10a and ca10b Genes Leads to Abnormal Embryonic Development and Alters Movement Pattern in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Aspatwar, Ashok; Barker, Harlan R.; Saralahti, Anni K.; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Ortutay, Csaba; Pan, Peiwen; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Parikka, Mataleena; Rämet, Mika; Parkkila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) X and XI are highly conserved across species and are predominantly expressed in neural tissues. The biological role of these proteins is still an enigma. Ray-finned fish have lost the CA11 gene, but instead possess two co-orthologs of CA10. We analyzed the expression pattern of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes during embryonic development and in different adult tissues, and studied 61 CARP X/XI-like sequences to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. Sequence analysis of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b reveals strongly predicted signal peptides, N-glycosylation sites, and a potential disulfide, all of which are conserved, suggesting that all of CARP X and XI are secretory proteins and potentially dimeric. RT-qPCR showed that zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes are expressed in the brain and several other tissues throughout the development of zebrafish. Antisense morpholino mediated knockdown of ca10a and ca10b showed developmental delay with a high rate of mortality in larvae. Zebrafish morphants showed curved body, pericardial edema, and abnormalities in the head and eye, and there was increased apoptotic cell death in the brain region. Swim pattern showed abnormal movement in morphant zebrafish larvae compared to the wild type larvae. The developmental phenotypes of the ca10a and ca10b morphants were confirmed by inactivating these genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In conclusion, we introduce a novel zebrafish model to investigate the mechanisms of CARP Xa and CARP Xb functions. Our data indicate that CARP Xa and CARP Xb have important roles in zebrafish development and suppression of ca10a and ca10b expression in zebrafish larvae leads to a movement disorder. PMID:26218428

  11. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. PMID:21846079

  12. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  13. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Extreme Violation of Sleep Hygiene: Sleeping Against the Biological Clock During a Multiday Relay Event

    PubMed Central

    van Maanen, Annette; Roest, Bas; Moen, Maarten; Oort, Frans; Vergouwen, Peter; Paul, Ingrid; Groenenboom, Petra; Smits, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep hygiene is important for sleep quality and optimal performance during the day. However, it is not always possible to follow sleep hygiene requirements. In multiday relay events, athletes have to sleep immediately after physical exertion and sometimes against their biological clock. Objectives: In this pilot study we investigated the effect of having to sleep at an abnormal circadian time on sleep duration. Patients and Methods: Eight runners and two cyclists performing a 500 km relay race were followed. They were divided into two groups that took turns in running and resting. Each group ran four times for approximately five hours while the other group slept. As a result, sleep times varied between normal and abnormal times. All athletes wore actigraphs to record the duration and onset of sleep. Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that athletes slept on average 43 minutes longer when they slept during usual (night) times than during abnormal (day) times. In general, sleep duration decreased during the race with on average 18 minutes per period. Conclusions: This pilot study shows that, even under extreme violation of sleep hygiene rules, there still is an apparent effect of circadian rhythm on sleep duration in relay race athletes. PMID:26715971

  15. Physiological changes and sleep responses during and following a world record continuous walking record.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, B.; Shapiro, C. M.; Daggett, A.; Gatt, J. A.; Jakeman, P.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological changes, and subsequent sleep responses, were recorded in a male subject during and following 338 miles of continuous walking and consequent sleep deprivation. One hundred and thirty hours of walking and a seventy-two hours post-walk recovery period were monitored. The subject walked at approximately 55% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max), heart rate ranged between 102-106 b/min, and blood lactate (LA) remained below the 2 mmol/l level. No electrocardiograph abnormalities were observed either during the walk or pre- and post-functional diagnostic graded exercise test (FDGXT). Creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) levels rose throughout the walk but exhibited differing depletion patterns. The ratio of CK-MB to CK (MB/CK%) did not exceed levels which are suggestive of myocardial ischaemia. Haematological variables demonstrated signs of anaemia towards the end of the walk. Catecholamine levels rose throughout the walk, with greater rises being observed in nor-adrenaline and dopamine. During the post-walk recovery phase, adrenaline concentration remained elevated. Following this extreme period of exertion, the subject demonstrated very short sleep latency and rapid entry into slow wave sleep (SWS). These sleep patterns were compared to sleep recordings made over a similar period (72 h) six months post-walk, when the subject was not exercising. Nocturnal growth hormone (GH) levels were significantly raised on the post-walk nights. Images p173-a p173-b PMID:6487943

  16. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M.; Henry, Owen S.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18–22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  17. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  18. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  19. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  20. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  1. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  2. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... People who have insomnia are often worried about getting enough sleep. The more they try to sleep, the more frustrated and upset they ...

  3. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep (sleep-disruptive behaviors) PROBLEMS FALLING AND ...

  4. Sleep in disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. PMID:19524464

  5. Sleep in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-04-01

    From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. PMID:19524464

  6. Is There an Association between Sleeping Patterns and Other Environmental Factors with Obesity and Blood Pressure in an Urban African Population?

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Sandra; Stewart, Simon; Carrington, Melinda J.; Lamont, Kim; Sliwa, Karen; Crowther, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Beyond changing dietary patterns, there is a paucity of data to fully explain the high prevalence of obesity and hypertension in urban African populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether other environmental factors (including sleep duration, smoking and physical activity) are related to body anthropometry and blood pressure (BP). Data were collected on 1311 subjects, attending two primary health care clinics in Soweto, South Africa. Questionnaires were used to obtain data on education, employment, exercise, smoking and sleep duration. Anthropometric and BP measurements were taken. Subjects comprised 862 women (mean age 41 ± 16 years and mean BMI 29.9 ± 9.2 kg/m2) and 449 men (38 ± 14 years and 24.8 ± 8.3 kg/m2). In females, ANOVA showed that former smokers had a higher BMI (p<0.001) than current smokers, while exposure to second hand smoking was associated with a lower BMI (p<0.001) in both genders. Regression analyses demonstrated that longer sleep duration was associated with a lower BMI (p<0.05) in older females only, and not in males, whilst in males napping during the day for > 30 minutes was related to a lower BMI (β = -0.04, p<0.01) and waist circumference (β = -0.03, p<0.001). Within males, napping for >30 minutes/day was related to lower systolic (β = -0.02, p<0.05) and lower diastolic BP (β = -0.02, p = 0.05). Longer night time sleep duration was associated with higher diastolic (β = 0.005, p<0.01) and systolic BP (β = 0.003, p<0.05) in females. No health benefits were noted for physical activity. These data suggest that environmental factors rarely collected in African populations are related, in gender-specific ways, to body anthropometry and blood pressure. Further research is required to fully elucidate these associations and how they might be translated into public health programs to combat high levels of obesity and hypertension. PMID:26448340

  7. Sleep in childhood and adolescence: age-specific sleep characteristics, common sleep disturbances and associated difficulties.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep changes throughout the lifespan, with particularly salient alterations occurring during the first few years of life, as well as during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Such changes are partly the result of brain maturation; complex changes in the organisation of the circadian system; as well as changes in daily routine, environmental demands and responsibilities. Despite the automaticity of sleep, given that it is governed by a host of complex mechanisms, there are times when sleep becomes disturbed. Sleep disturbances in childhood are common and may stem from behavioural difficulties or abnormalities in physiological processes-and, in some cases manifest into diagnosable sleep disorders. As well as occurring exclusively, childhood sleep disturbances often co-occur with other difficulties. The purpose of this chapter is to outline the neurobiology of typical sleep/wake processes, and describe changes in sleep physiology and architecture from birth to adulthood. Furthermore, common childhood sleep disorders are described as are their associations with other traits, including all of the syndromes presented in this handbook: ASDs, ADHD, schizophrenia and emotional/behavioural difficulties. Throughout, we attempt to explain possible mechanisms underlying these disorders and their associations. PMID:24170426

  8. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  9. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or become ...

  10. Experiment M133. Sleep monitoring on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Shumate, W. H.; Salamy, J. G.; Booher, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Subjective sleep logs during 59-day and 84-day Skylab missions indicate that prolonged space flight, with its accompanying weightless state, is not directly associated with major adverse changes in sleep characteristics. Observed alterations in sleep patterns were not of sufficient magnitude to result in significant degradation of performance capacity.

  11. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  13. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  14. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  15. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  16. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  17. Sleep Issues with Patients Receiving Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Kathleen; Rowder, Cheryl; VanNoord, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep among the general population is understudied, unrecognized, and often not assessed This is especially true for patients receiving hemodialysis. This study used a case study design to examine the impact of hemodialysis treatments on the sleep of two patients as measured by actigraphy and self-reported sleep logs. Patient 1 experienced an average sleep efficiency of 82.3% on non-hemodialysis days compared to 75.0% on dialysis days, which resulted in a 7.3 percentage point change and 9.7% better sleep efficiency on non-hemodialysis days. Patient 2 reported sleep efficiency 76.6% on non-hemodialysis days compared to 70.5% dialysis on days, resulting in a 6.1 percentage point change and 8.7% better sleep efficiency on non-hemodialysis days. Actigraphy sleep patterns provided an initial move toward best practice for sleep evaluation in this population. PMID:26875228

  18. Consequences of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the history of research and the results of recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation in animals and humans. Humans can bear several days of continuous sleeplessness, experiencing deterioration in wellbeing and effectiveness; however, also a shorter reduction in the sleep time may lead to deteriorated functioning. Sleeplessness accounts for impaired perception, difficulties in keeping concentration, vision disturbances, slower reactions, as well as the appearance of microepisodes of sleep during wakefulness which lead to lower capabilities and efficiency of task performance and to increased number of errors. Sleep deprivation results in poor memorizing, schematic thinking, which yields wrong decisions, and emotional disturbances such as deteriorated interpersonal responses and increased aggressiveness. The symptoms are accompanied by brain tissue hypometabolism, particularly in the thalamus, prefrontal, frontal and occipital cortex and motor speech centres. Sleep deficiency intensifies muscle tonus and coexisting tremor, speech performance becomes monotonous and unclear, and sensitivity to pain is higher. Sleeplessness also relates to the changes in the immune response and the pattern of hormonal secretion, of the growth hormone in particular. The risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease increases. The impairment of performance which is caused by 20-25 hours of sleeplessness is comparable to that after ethanol intoxication at the level of 0.10% blood alcohol concentration. The consequences of chronic sleep reduction or a shallow sleep repeated for several days tend to accumulate and resemble the effects of acute sleep deprivation lasting several dozen hours. At work, such effects hinder proper performance of many essential tasks and in extreme situations (machine operation or vehicle driving), sleep loss may be hazardous to the worker and his/her environment. PMID:20442067

  19. Decoupling of Sleep-Dependent Cortical and Hippocampal Interactions in a Neurodevelopmental Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Keith G.; Bartsch, Ullrich; McCarthy, Andrew P.; Edgar, Dale M.; Tricklebank, Mark D.; Wafford, Keith A.; Jones, Matt W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rhythmic neural network activity patterns are defining features of sleep, but interdependencies between limbic and cortical oscillations at different frequencies and their functional roles have not been fully resolved. This is particularly important given evidence linking abnormal sleep architecture and memory consolidation in psychiatric diseases. Using EEG, local field potential (LFP), and unit recordings in rats, we show that anteroposterior propagation of neocortical slow-waves coordinates timing of hippocampal ripples and prefrontal cortical spindles during NREM sleep. This coordination is selectively disrupted in a rat neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: fragmented NREM sleep and impaired slow-wave propagation in the model culminate in deficient ripple-spindle coordination and disrupted spike timing, potentially as a consequence of interneuronal abnormalities reflected by reduced parvalbumin expression. These data further define the interrelationships among slow-wave, spindle, and ripple events, indicating that sleep disturbances may be associated with state-dependent decoupling of hippocampal and cortical circuits in psychiatric diseases. PMID:23141065

  20. Sleep's effects on cognition and learning in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Carskadon, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is accompanied by striking changes in sleep behavior and in the phenomenology of sleep. Maturational changes in the central nervous system underlie changes in adolescent sleep structure. Sleep behaviors change during adolescence in response to maturational changes in sleep regulatory processes and competing behaviors. This pattern leads to insufficient sleep for many teens on school nights. Associations of reduced sleep with poorer school performance beg the question of how prelearning and posttraining sleep affect the learning process. Thus, insufficient sleep can impair acquisition and retrieval when sleep reduction results in sleepiness, irritability, distractibility, inattention, and lack of motivation. Strong evidence indicates that adequate sleep enhances memory consolidation and resistance to interference. Hence, insufficient sleep can also threaten learning by jeopardizing this part of the memory formation process. PMID:21531249

  1. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  2. Sleep disorders in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    De Santo, R M; Perna, A; Di Iorio, B R; Cirillo, M

    2010-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However also a well functioning renal graft does not cure the poor sleep pattern which now emerges as a problem even in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). When patients are made aware for the first time of a disease such as CKD, which may brink to dialysis or at the best to a renal transplant patients begin to experience a disordered sleep. Sleeping disorders include insomnia (I), sleep apnoea (SAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), excessive daily sleeping (EDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, and narcolepsy. Disordered sleep did not meet the clinical and scientific interest it deserves, in addition and we do not have a well defined solution for sleeping complaints. However, awareness that a poor sleep is associated with poor quality of life and carries an increase in mortality risk has recently stimulated interest in the field. There are many putative causes for a disordered sleep in chronic kidney disease and in end-stage renal disease. For a unifying hypothesis demographic factors, lifestyles, disease related factors, psychological factors, treatment related factors, and social factor must be taken into consideration. PMID:20424573

  3. Monoamines and sleep in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nall, Aleksandra; Sehgal, Amita

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an important physiological state, but its function and regulation remain elusive. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model organism for studying sleep because it has a well-established diurnal activity pattern, including consolidated periods of quiescence that share many characteristics with human sleep. Sleep behavior is regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes and is modulated by environmental and physiological context cues. These cues are communicated to sleep circuits by neurohormones and neuromodulators. A major class of neuromodulators, monoamines, has been found to be essential in various aspects of sleep regulation. Dopamine promotes arousal and sleep-dependent memory formation as well as daily activity. Octopamine, the insect homolog of norepinephrine, promotes wake and may play a role in circadian clock-dependent sleep and arousal. Serotonin promotes sleep and modulates circadian entrainment to light. The different monoamines each signal through multiple receptors in various brain regions in response to different conditions. How these separate circuits integrate their inputs into a single program of behavior is an open field of study for which Drosophila will continue to be a useful model. Monoamine biosynthetic pathways and receptors are conserved between flies and humans, and, thus far, their roles in modulating sleep also appear to be conserved. PMID:24886188

  4. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual. PMID:23957180

  5. ISRUC-Sleep: A comprehensive public dataset for sleep researchers.

    PubMed

    Khalighi, Sirvan; Sousa, Teresa; Santos, José Moutinho; Nunes, Urbano

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the performance comparison of new methods for sleep patterns analysis, datasets with quality content, publicly-available, are very important and useful. We introduce an open-access comprehensive sleep dataset, called ISRUC-Sleep. The data were obtained from human adults, including healthy subjects, subjects with sleep disorders, and subjects under the effect of sleep medication. Each recording was randomly selected between PSG recordings that were acquired by the Sleep Medicine Centre of the Hospital of Coimbra University (CHUC). The dataset comprises three groups of data: (1) data concerning 100 subjects, with one recording session per subject; (2) data gathered from 8 subjects; two recording sessions were performed per subject, and (3) data collected from one recording session related to 10 healthy subjects. The polysomnography (PSG) recordings, associated with each subject, were visually scored by two human experts. Comparing the existing sleep-related public datasets, ISRUC-Sleep provides data of a reasonable number of subjects with different characteristics such as: data useful for studies involving changes in the PSG signals over time; and data of healthy subjects useful for studies involving comparison of healthy subjects with the patients, suffering from sleep disorders. This dataset was created aiming to complement existing datasets by providing easy-to-apply data collection with some characteristics not covered yet. ISRUC-Sleep can be useful for analysis of new contributions: (i) in biomedical signal processing; (ii) in development of ASSC methods; and (iii) on sleep physiology studies. To evaluate and compare new contributions, which use this dataset as a benchmark, results of applying a subject-independent automatic sleep stage classification (ASSC) method on ISRUC-Sleep dataset are presented. PMID:26589468

  6. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  7. Why Does Rem Sleep Occur? A Wake-Up Hypothesis1

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness. PMID:21922003

  8. Diagnosis of abnormal patterns in multivariate microclimate monitoring: a case study of an open-air archaeological site in Pompeii (Italy).

    PubMed

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Chemometrics has been applied successfully since the 1990s for the multivariate statistical control of industrial processes. A new area of interest for these tools is the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage. Sensors record climatic parameters over time and statistical data analysis is performed to obtain valuable information for preventive conservation. A case study of an open-air archaeological site is presented here. A set of 26 temperature and relative humidity data-loggers was installed in four rooms of Ariadne's house (Pompeii). If climatic values are recorded versus time at different positions, the resulting data structure is equivalent to records of physical parameters registered at several points of a continuous chemical process. However, there is an important difference in this case: continuous processes are controlled to reach a steady state, whilst open-air sites undergo tremendous fluctuations. Although data from continuous processes are usually column-centred prior to applying principal components analysis, it turned out that another pre-treatment (row-centred data) was more convenient for the interpretation of components and to identify abnormal patterns. The detection of typical trajectories was more straightforward by dividing the whole monitored period into several sub-periods, because the marked climatic fluctuations throughout the year affect the correlation structures. The proposed statistical methodology is of interest for the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage, particularly in the case of open-air or semi-confined archaeological sites. PMID:24814033

  9. Sleep Problems, Overtiredness and Overanxiety and Frustrating Children: From Birth to Preschool. Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael J.

    The first of the two discussions presented here, "Sleep Problems, Overtiredness and Overanxiety," describes sleeping behavior of children from birth to 3 years of age and considers situations that affect children's sleep. Topics briefly addressed include the physiology of sleep; developmental aspects of sleep patterns; the effect of lack of sleep;…

  10. Just a scary dream? A brief review of sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Mark; Sheldon, Stephen H; Loghmanee, Darius

    2013-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of sleep disorders in children is broad, ranging from primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome to complex sleep-related behaviors and movement disorders. Although snoring and OSA typically receive significant attention and discussion, other biologically based sleep disorders are as common, if not more common, in children. A general pediatrician is frequently presented with the complaint of sleep talking, sleep walking, or abnormal movements during sleep. Even more alarming is the presentation of the child suddenly and explosively screaming during sleep. Such complaints fall under the category of parasomnias. Exclusive to sleep and wake-to-sleep transitions, these parasomnias include arousals with abnormal motor, behavioral, autonomic, or sensory symptoms. Parasomnias can be noticeably dissimilar in clinical manifestations, but most share biologic characteristics. Three parasomnias associated with loud vocalizations associated with sleep that can present to general practitioners include sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Although usually benign, these sleep disorders can be disruptive and even potentially dangerous to the patient and can often be threatening to quality of life. In this article, we describe the clinical features of some of these disorders and how to differentiate between their alarming presentations. PMID:24126984

  11. Companionable sleep: social regulation of sleep and cosleeping in Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2007-03-01

    This exploratory study examined family sleep patterns and quality in a setting of normative napping and cosleeping. Participants were 78 members of 16 families from 2 locales in Egypt (Cairo and a village). Each family member provided a history of sleeping arrangements, 1 week of continuous activity records, and details of each sleep event. Sleep records documented late-onset and dispersed sleep patterns with extensive cosleeping. Of recorded sleep events, 69% involved cosleeping, 24% included more than 1 cosleeper, and only 21% were solitary. Mid-late afternoon napping occurred on 31% of days, and night sleep onsets averaged after midnight. Age and gender structured sleep arrangements and, together with locale, extensively explained sleep behavior (onset, duration, total) and quality. Cosleepers had fewer night arousals, shorter and less variable night sleep duration, and less total sleep. Increased solitary sleep in adolescents and young adults was associated with increased sleep dysregulation, including exaggerated phase shifts in males and more nighttime arousals in females. Where normative, cosleeping may provide psychosensory stimuli that moderate arousal and stabilize sleep. Such moderating features may address important self-regulatory developmental needs during adolescence. PMID:17371117

  12. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  13. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yuji; Okuro, Masashi; Sakai, Noriaki; Nishino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD) and a group fed with powder food (PD), and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD), PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes. PMID:26630494

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  15. National Sleep Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Turkish Ukrainian Urdu Vietnamese Welsh Yiddish Choose a Sleep Topic sleep.org Sleep Disorders View More Items ... Recommendations. More Join Now Become a Professional Member Sleep.org Footer Redirect Learn about how sleep impacts ...

  16. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  17. Children's Sleep and Autonomic Function: Low Sleep Quality Has an Impact on Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Nathalie; Clays, Els; De Buyzere, Marc; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality in children have been associated with concentration, problem behavior, and emotional instability, but recently also with disrupted autonomic nervous function, which predicts cardiovascular health. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as noninvasive indicator of autonomic function to examine the influence of sleep. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study on the effect of sleep on HRV Participants: Belgian children (5-11 years) of the ChiBS study in 2010 (N = 334) and 2011 (N = 293). Interventions: N/A. Methods: Sleep duration was reported and in a subgroup sleep quality (efficiency, latency, awakenings) was measured with accelerometry. High-frequency (HF) power and autonomic balance (LF/HF) were calculated on supine 5-minute HRV measurements. Stress was measured by emotion and problem behavior questionnaires. Sleep duration and quality were used as HRV predictors in corrected cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions. Stress was tested as mediator (intermediate pathway) or moderator (interaction) in sleep-HRV associations. Results: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, long sleep latency could predict lower HF (parasympathetic activity), while nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and low corrected sleep duration were related to higher LF/HF (sympathetic/parasympathetic balance). Parental reported sleep duration was not associated with HRV. The significances remained after correction for stress. Stress was not a mediator, but a moderator (enhancer) in the relationship between sleep quality and HRV. Conclusions: Low sleep quality but not parent-reported low sleep duration leads to an unhealthier heart rate variability pattern (sympathetic over parasympathetic dominance). This stresses the importance of good sleep quality for cardiovascular health in children. Citation: Michels N; Clays E; De Buyzere M; Vanaelst B; De Henauw S; Sioen I. Children's sleep

  18. The Consequences of Insufficient Sleep for Adolescents: Links Between Sleep and Emotional Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Ronald E.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews current scientific and clinical information regarding consequences of insufficient sleep in adolescents, including sleepiness; tiredness; changes in mood, attention, and behavior; emotional and behavior problems' effects on sleep patterns; and bidirectional effects. Lifestyle forces are pushing teens' sleep/arousal balance in the wrong…

  19. Radiation necrosis causing failure of automatic ventilation during sleep with central sleep apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Udwadia, Z.F.; Athale, S.; Misra, V.P.; Wadia, N.H.

    1987-09-01

    A patient operated upon for a midline cerebellar hemangioblastoma developed failure of automatic respiration during sleep, together with central sleep apnea syndrome, approximately two years after receiving radiation therapy to the brain. Clinical and CT scan findings were compatible with a diagnosis of radiation necrosis as the cause of his abnormal respiratory control.

  20. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-04-18

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  1. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  2. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  3. Delayed and advanced sleep phase symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsuhisa; Kripke, Daniel F; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Current criteria for circadian rhythm sleep disorders require a mismatch between the endogenous circadian sleep tendency and exogenous environmental requirements for sleep timing. To examine the prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep disorders by DSM-IV criteria, sleep complaints and objectively-measured sleep timing were sampled in a population aged 40-64 years. Randomly selected volunteers were interviewed concerning sleep complaints. Then, objective sleep timing was estimated from wrist activity recordings and environmental illumination data. In this age group, advance-related complaints (trouble staying awake until bedtime and troubled by waking up early in the morning) were found together in 7.4%. Less prevalent were delay-related complaints reported together in 3.1% (trouble falling asleep and trouble waking up in the morning). However, no significant correlations or clusters were found pairing these sleep complaints with recorded sleep timing. The distributions of objectively-recorded lights-out times and arising times were consistently later than the questionnaire-reported times. Thus, complaints suggesting circadian rhythm advance or delay mismatches were common, but evidently such complaints do not usually correspond with objective abnormalities of observed sleep timing. PMID:12013705

  4. [Sleep disturbance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    1990-01-01

    Sleep structure is qualitatively and quantitatively changed by aging. The elderly usually go to bed in early evening and wake up in early morning, and they also take several naps in the day time. The polyphasic sleep is one of the typical sleep patterns found in the elderly. Comparing the sleep of the elderly with that of young adults by the method of polysomnography, the characteristics of the sleep of the elderly are in the prolongation of sleep latency, shortening of total sleep time, increase of Stage W and Stage 1, decrease of Stage 3 and 4, and also decrease of Stage REM and the advance of REM phase. Insomnia is a frequently observed symptom in the elderly. The so-called psychophysiological insomnia due to transient psychological or situational stress is common in the elderly. However, insomnia following the mental disturbance (depression), chronic use of drug or alcohol, dementia (vascular or Alzheimer type) are also important in the elderly. Sleep apnea syndrome is recently found as an important cause of insomnia. Concerning the treatment and prevention of insomnia, it is necessary to exclude the causes of insomnia, to improve the environmental conditions and to keep the regular rhythm of sleep-wake cycle. It is also important to carefully select and use the adequate hypnotics considering the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of the drugs in the elderly. PMID:2191161

  5. Behavioral sleep in the walrus.

    PubMed

    Pryaslova, Julia P; Lyamin, Oleg I; Siegel, Jerome M; Mukhametov, Lev M

    2009-07-19

    In this study we examined behavioral sleep in the walrus, the only living species of the family Odobenidae. The behavior of four 1.5-2-year-old captive walruses was videotaped continuously for 7-17 days and scored in 1-min epochs. When walruses had access to water and land, behavioral sleep, the combined amount of quiet and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, occupied on average 17+/-4% of 24 h (n=4) with the majority of sleep occurring on land. All walruses alternated periods of almost continuous swimming lasting for 40-84 h with periods of rest on land lasting for 2-19 h. When in water they were predominantly awake (88-99% of the time). On land walruses were asleep on average 40-74% of the time. The total sleep time varied between 0 and 60% of 24h with the daily amount of REM sleep ranging from 0 to 5% of 24 h. In water, walruses slept while floating at the surface, lying on the bottom or standing and leaning against the pool wall. REM sleep in water occurred in all positions. On land the breathing pattern was regular during quiet sleep (most pauses were <30s) and arrhythmic in REM sleep (apneas lasted up to 160 s). While in water the irregularity of breathing further increased (apneas were >4 min) and all REM sleep episodes occurred during a single apnea. Data indicate that the pattern of sleep and breathing in walruses is similar to the Otariidae seals while on land and the Phocidae seals while in water. PMID:19428620

  6. GABAB Receptors, Schizophrenia and Sleep Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kantrowitz, Joshua; Citrome, Leslie; Javitt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for an intrinsic relationship between sleep, cognition and the symptomatic manifestations of schizophrenia is accumulating. This review presents evidence for the possible utility of GABAB receptor agonists for the treatment of subjective and objective sleep abnormalities related to schizophrenia. At the phenotypic level, sleep disturbance occurs in 16–30% of patients with schizophrenia and is related to reduced quality of life and poor coping skills. On the neurophysiological level, studies suggest that sleep deficits reflect a core component of schizophrenia. Specifically, slow-wave sleep deficits, which are inversely correlated with cognition scores, are seen. Moreover, sleep plays an increasingly well documented role in memory consolidation in schizophrenia. Correlations of slow-wave sleep deficits with impaired reaction time and declarative memory have also been reported. Thus, both behavioural insomnia and sleep architecture are critical therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia. However, long-term treatment with antipsychotics often results in residual sleep dysfunction and does not improve slow-wave sleep, and adjunctive GABAA receptor modulators, such as benzodiazepines and zolpidem, can impair sleep architecture and cognition in schizophrenia. GABAB receptor agonists have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. These agents have minimal effect on rapid eye movement sleep while increasing slow-wave sleep. Preclinical associations with increased expression of genes related to slow-wave sleep production and circadian rhythm function have also been reported. GABAB receptor deficits result in a sustained hyperdopaminergic state and can be reversed by a GABAB receptor agonist. Genetic, postmortem and electrophysiological studies also associate GABAB receptors with schizophrenia. While studies thus far have not shown significant effects, prior focus on the use of GABAB receptor agonists has been on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, with

  7. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder In Temporal Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Scott S.; Murphy, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study sought to characterize sleep and the circadian rhythm of body core temperature of an individual with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) in the absence of temporal cues and social entrainment and to compare those measures to age-matched normal control subjects studied under identical conditions. Design: Polysomnography and body temperature were recorded continuously for 4 days in entrained conditions, followed immediately by 17 days in a “free-running” environment. Setting: Temporal isolation facility in the Laboratory of Human Chronobiology, Weill Cornell Medical College. Participants: One individual who met criteria for delayed sleep phase disorder according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders Diagnostic and Coding Manual (ICSD-2) and 3 age-matched control subjects. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: The DSPD subject had a spontaneous period length (tau) of 25.38 hours compared to an average tau of 24.44 hours for the healthy controls. The DSPD subject also showed an altered phase relationship between sleep/wake and body temperature rhythms, as well as longer sleep latency, poorer sleep efficiency, and altered distribution of slow wave sleep (SWS) within sleep episodes, compared to control subjects. Conclusions: Delayed sleep phase disorder may be the reflection of an abnormal circadian timing system characterized not only by a long tau, but also by an altered internal phase relationship between the sleep/wake system and the circadian rhythm of body temperature. The latter results in significantly disturbed sleep, even when DSPD patients are permitted to sleep and wake at their preferred times. Citation: Campbell SS; Murphy PJ. Delayed sleep phase disorder in temporal isolation. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1225-1228. PMID:17910395

  8. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for <60 min for comparison with the wake group. A significant Time × Group interaction was noted; these "good-sleepers" showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study. PMID

  9. Sleep and REM sleep disturbance in the pathophysiology of PTSD: the role of extinction memory.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by disturbed sleep and an impaired ability to learn and remember extinction of conditioned fear. Following a traumatic event, the full spectrum of PTSD symptoms typically requires several months to develop. During this time, sleep disturbances such as insomnia, nightmares, and fragmented rapid eye movement sleep predict later development of PTSD symptoms. Only a minority of individuals exposed to trauma go on to develop PTSD. We hypothesize that sleep disturbance resulting from an acute trauma, or predating the traumatic experience, may contribute to the etiology of PTSD. Because symptoms can worsen over time, we suggest that continued sleep disturbances can also maintain and exacerbate PTSD. Sleep disturbance may result in failure of extinction memory to persist and generalize, and we suggest that this constitutes one, non-exclusive mechanism by which poor sleep contributes to the development and perpetuation of PTSD. Also reviewed are neuroendocrine systems that show abnormalities in PTSD, and in which stress responses and sleep disturbance potentially produce synergistic effects that interfere with extinction learning and memory. Preliminary evidence that insomnia alone can disrupt sleep-dependent emotional processes including consolidation of extinction memory is also discussed. We suggest that optimizing sleep quality following trauma, and even strategically timing sleep to strengthen extinction memories therapeutically instantiated during exposure therapy, may allow sleep itself to be recruited in the treatment of PTSD and other trauma and stress-related disorders. PMID:26034578

  10. Addressing sleep disturbances: An opportunity to prevent cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed Central

    GRANDNER, MICHAEL A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of sleep disturbance as an important factor in health and disease. Although subclinical sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep duration or inadequate sleep quality) may be difficult to assess with conceptual and/or methodological clarity, this review attempts to summarize and synthesize these findings. First, the concept of sleep disturbance in a public health context is introduced, to provide context and rationale. Second, operational definitions of ‘cardiometabolic disease’ and ‘sleep disturbance’ are offered, to address many unclear operationalizations. Third, the extant literature is summarized regarding short or long sleep duration and/or insufficient sleep, insomnia and insomnia symptoms, general (non-specific sleep disturbances), circadian rhythm abnormalities that result in sleep disturbances, and, briefly, sleep-disordered breathing. Fourth, the review highlights the social/behavioural context of sleep, including discussions of sleep and race/ethnicity, socio-economic position, and other social/environmental factors, in order to place these findings in a social-environmental context relevant to public health. Fifth, the review highlights the issue of sleep as a domain of health behaviour and addresses issues regarding development of healthy sleep interventions. Finally, a research agenda of future directions is proposed. PMID:24892892

  11. Nap Schedules and Sleep Practices in Infant-Toddler Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siren-Tiusanen, Helena; Robinson, Helja Antola

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed sleep-wake schedules and nap times in multiage infant-toddler groups through three case studies in Finnish day care centers. Found complex interactions among family daily patterns, day care patterns, and young children's sleep disturbances. Identified major differences in day care practices regarding sleep quality related to timing,…

  12. Sleep quality in professional ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Fietze, Ingo; Strauch, Jutta; Holzhausen, Martin; Glos, Martin; Theobald, Christiane; Lehnkering, Hanna; Penzel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Ballet dancers are competitive athletes who undergo extreme physical and mental stress and work according to an irregular schedule, with long days of training, rehearsal, and performance. Their most significant potential risks entail physical injury and altered sleep. The elaborate training requirements for ballet dancers do not allow regular chronobiological patterns or a normal sleep-wake rhythm. Our aim was to investigate the sleep-wake rhythm and sleep quality during rehearsal phases prior to a ballet premiere. We used wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries for a period of 67 days before the ballet premiere performance to study 24 classical ballet dancers. We likewise applied the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), SF-12 Quality of life Assessment, and d2 Test of Attention to assess quality of sleep, aspects of cognitive performance, and health status. We found significant reduction in sleep duration, from 418+/-43 min to 391+/-42 min, and sleep efficiency, from 81+/-4% to 79+/-5%, over the 67-day course of the rehearsal. We also found a decline in time in bed and an increase in wakefulness after sleep onset. Sleep onset latency did not change. However, the changes in sleep as documented by actigraphy were not reflected by the subjective data of the sleep diaries and sleep scores. As a result of the facts that total sleep efficiency and sleep duration values were already lower than usual for the dancers' age group at the beginning of the study and that mental acuity, concentration, and speed were likewise impaired, we observed exacerbated health deterioration in terms of sleep deprivation in ballet dancers during preparation for a premier. We conclude that individual activity-rest schedules, including daytime naps, may be helpful, especially during the stressful training and rehearsal experienced prior to ballet premieres. PMID:19731116

  13. Diabetes, sleep disorders, and male sexual function.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, R C; Stimmel, B B; Mandeli, J; Rayfield, E J

    1993-08-01

    The prevalence and role of sleep disorders in the sexual problems of diabetic patients remain unexplored. This study was conducted on 40 diabetic men carefully screened to exclude the confounding effects of other medical illnesses or drugs likely to impair sexual function and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. They underwent an extensive psychosexual interview, medical and psychiatric evaluations, and three recorded nights in a sleep laboratory. Electroencephalogram, eye movements, muscle tone, and nocturnal penile tumescence were monitored continuously. Respiratory airflow and bilateral anterior tibialis recordings were obtained during the first sleep session. Diabetic men had significantly higher prevalences of respiratory and periodic leg movement disturbances during sleep. There was clinical, although not nocturnal penile tumescence, evidence suggesting that respiratory abnormalities during sleep are associated with erectile difficulties in diabetic men. Future studies should include blood oxygenation and respiratory effort measures to clarify the significance of sleep-related airflow disturbances in diabetic patients. PMID:8399810

  14. Dissociated wake-like and sleep-like electro-cortical activity during sleep.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Lino; Ferrara, Michele; Moroni, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Russo, Giorgio Lo; Campus, Claudio; Cardinale, Francesco; De Carli, Fabrizio

    2011-09-15

    Sleep is traditionally considered a global process involving the whole brain. However, recent studies have shown that sleep depth is not evenly distributed within the brain. Sleep disorders, such as sleepwalking, also suggest that EEG features of sleep and wakefulness might be simultaneously present in different cerebral regions. In order to probe the coexistence of dissociated (wake-like and sleep-like) electrophysiological behaviors within the sleeping brain, we analyzed intracerebral electroencephalographic activity drawn from sleep recordings of five patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy without sleep disturbances, who underwent pre-surgical intracerebral electroencephalographic investigation. We applied spectral and wavelet transform analysis techniques to electroencephalographic data recorded from scalp and intracerebral electrodes localized within the Motor cortex (Mc) and the dorso-lateral Prefrontal cortex (dlPFc). The Mc showed frequent Local Activations (lasting from 5 to more than 60s) characterized by an abrupt interruption of the sleep electroencephalographic slow waves pattern and by the appearance of a wake-like electroencephalographic high frequency pattern (alpha and/or beta rhythm). Local activations in the Mc were paralleled by a deepening of sleep in other regions, as expressed by the concomitant increase of slow waves in the dlPFc and scalp electroencephalographic recordings. These results suggest that human sleep can be characterized by the coexistence of wake-like and sleep-like electroencephalographic patterns in different cortical areas, supporting the hypothesis that unusual phenomena, such as NREM parasomnias, could result from an imbalance of these two states. PMID:21718789

  15. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  16. Sleep and Adjustment in Preschool Children: Sleep Diary Reports by Mothers Relate to Behavior Reports by Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, John E.; Viken, Richard J.; Alexander, Douglas B.; Beyers, Jennifer; Stockton, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral adjustment with 4- to 5-year-old children from low-income families. Found that disrupted child sleep patterns, including variability in parentally reported amount of sleep, variability in bedtime, and lateness of bedtime, predicted less optimal adjustment in preschool, even after…

  17. Increased Reward-Related Behaviors during Sleep and Wakefulness in Sleepwalking and Idiopathic Nightmares

    PubMed Central

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Aberg, Kristoffer; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Perrig, Stephen; Cloninger, C. Robert; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously suggested that abnormal sleep behaviors, i.e., as found in parasomnias, may often be the expression of increased activity of the reward system during sleep. Because nightmares and sleepwalking predominate during REM and NREM sleep respectively, we tested here whether exploratory excitability, a waking personality trait reflecting high activity within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system, may be associated with specific changes in REM and NREM sleep patterns in these two sleep disorders. Methods Twenty-four unmedicated patients with parasomnia (12 with chronic sleepwalking and 12 with idiopathic nightmares) and no psychiatric comorbidities were studied. Each patient spent one night of sleep monitored by polysomnography. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to all patients and healthy controls from the Geneva population (n = 293). Results Sleepwalkers were more anxious than patients with idiopathic nightmares (Spielberger Trait anxiety/STAI-T), but the patient groups did not differ on any personality dimension as estimated by the TCI. Compared to controls, parasomnia patients (sleepwalkers together with patients with idiopathic nightmares) scored higher on the Novelty Seeking (NS) TCI scale and in particular on the exploratory excitability/curiosity (NS1) subscale, and lower on the Self-directedness (SD) TCI scale, suggesting a general increase in reward sensitivity and impulsivity. Furthermore, parasomnia patients tended to worry about social separation persistently, as indicated by greater anticipatory worry (HA1) and dependence on social attachment (RD3). Moreover, exploratory excitability (NS1) correlated positively with the severity of parasomnia (i.e., the frequency of self-reported occurrences of nightmares and sleepwalking), and with time spent in REM sleep in patients with nightmares. Conclusions These results suggest that patients with parasomnia might share common waking personality traits associated

  18. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  19. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement -- or NREM sleep -- and rapid eye movement -- or REM sleep. NREM sleep includes four stages, ranging from light to deep sleep. Then we go into REM sleep, the most active ... During REM sleep, the eyes move back and forth beneath the eyelids and ...

  20. Sleep spindles in Parkinson's disease may predict the development of dementia.

    PubMed

    Latreille, Véronique; Carrier, Julie; Lafortune, Marjolaine; Postuma, Ronald B; Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Panisset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbances and cognitive impairment are common non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies suggest that sleep spindles and slow waves play a role in brain plasticity mechanisms and are associated with cognitive performance. However, it remains unknown whether these sleep parameters could serve as markers of cognitive decline in PD. Therefore, we examined whether alterations in sleep spindles and slow waves at baseline visit were associated with increased likelihood of developing dementia at follow-up in PD. Sixty-eight nondemented PD patients (64.9 ± 8.8 years old; 46 men) participated in the study, along with 47 healthy individuals (65.0 ± 10.6 years old; 30 men). All participants underwent baseline polysomnographic recording and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Sleep spindles (12-15 Hz) and slow waves (>75 μV and <4 Hz) were automatically detected on all-night non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalography. At follow-up (mean: 4.5 years later), 18 PD patients developed dementia (70.2 ± 7.6 years old; 13 men) and 50 remained dementia-free (63.0 ± 8.5 years old; 33 men). Sleep spindle density and amplitude were lower in PD patients who converted to dementia compared with both patients who remained dementia-free and controls, mostly in posterior cortical regions (p < 0.05). Dementia-free PD patients were intermediate between dementia patients and controls, with lower baseline sleep spindle density in all cortical areas compared with controls (p < 0.01). In demented PD patients, lower sleep spindle amplitude in parietal and occipital areas was associated with poorer visuospatial abilities. Although slow wave amplitude was lower in PD patients compared with controls (p < 0.0001), no difference was observed between those who developed or did not develop dementia. Results demonstrate non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic abnormalities in PD patients. Sleep spindle activity was particularly impaired

  1. Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Rare Hereditary Diseases: A Reminder for the Pediatrician, Pediatric and Adult Neurologist, General Practitioner, and Sleep Specialist

    PubMed Central

    Gadoth, Natan; Oksenberg, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Although sleep abnormalities in general and sleep-related breathing disorders (SBD) in particular are quite common in healthy children; their presence is notably under-recognized. Impaired sleep is a frequent problem in subjects with inborn errors of metabolism as well as in a variety of genetic disorders; however, they are commonly either missed or underestimated. Moreover, the complex clinical presentation and the frequently life-threatening symptoms are so overwhelming that sleep and its quality may be easily dismissed. Even centers, which specialize in rare genetic-metabolic disorders, are expected to see only few patients with a particular syndrome, a fact that significantly contributes to the under-diagnosis and treatment of impaired sleep in this particular population. Many of those patients suffer from reduced life quality associated with a variable degree of cognitive impairment, which may be worsened by poor sleep and abnormal ventilation during sleep, abnormalities which can be alleviated by proper treatment. Even when such problems are detected, there is a paucity of publications on sleep and breathing characteristics of such patients that the treating physician can refer to. In the present paper, we provide an overview of sleep and breathing characteristics in a number of rare genetic–metabolic disorders with the hope that it will serve as a reminder for the medical professional to look for possible impaired sleep and SBD in their patients and when present to apply the appropriate evaluation and treatment options. PMID:25101051

  2. Psychological disturbance and sleep disorders in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hilary; Wiggs, Luci; Stores, Gregory; Huson, Susan M

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the behaviour, including sleep patterns, of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). For this purpose we designed a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted by postal enquiry with telephone follow-up. Simonds and Parraga's sleep questionnaire and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to screen sleep patterns and behaviours respectively. Information was obtained for 64 children (39 male, mean age 10 y 7 mo, SD 4 y 1 mo, range 3 to 18 y; 57% response rate). There were increased numbers of children with NF1 achieving scores in the borderline and abnormal range for ratings of peer problems (p < 0.001), hyperactivity (p < 0.001), emotional symptoms (p < 0.001), and conduct disorder (p < 0.05). Total difficulties score was also high (p < 0.001) in the NF1 group. Only one group of sleep problems, parasomnias (in particular sleepwalking and sleep terrors), had a higher occurrence (p < or = 0.05) in the NF1 group than in the general population. Within the NF1 group, conduct problems (p < or = 0.05), hyperactivity (p < or = 0.01), emotional problems (p < or = 0.01), and the total difficulties score (p < or = 0.01) were all significantly higher in children with frequent sleep disturbance. We conclude that NF1 is associated with sleep and behavioural problems in a high proportion of children. Psychiatric conditions, e.g. attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, may be underdiagnosed on a large scale in children with NF1, and the use of simple screening tools in clinical settings may prove beneficial. PMID:15832546

  3. Physiologically based quantitative modeling of unihemispheric sleep.

    PubMed

    Kedziora, D J; Abeysuriya, R G; Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A

    2012-12-01

    Unihemispheric sleep has been observed in numerous species, including birds and aquatic mammals. While knowledge of its functional role has been improved in recent years, the physiological mechanisms that generate this behavior remain poorly understood. Here, unihemispheric sleep is simulated using a physiologically based quantitative model of the mammalian ascending arousal system. The model includes mutual inhibition between wake-promoting monoaminergic nuclei (MA) and sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nuclei (VLPO), driven by circadian and homeostatic drives as well as cholinergic and orexinergic input to MA. The model is extended here to incorporate two distinct hemispheres and their interconnections. It is postulated that inhibitory connections between VLPO nuclei in opposite hemispheres are responsible for unihemispheric sleep, and it is shown that contralateral inhibitory connections promote unihemispheric sleep while ipsilateral inhibitory connections promote bihemispheric sleep. The frequency of alternating unihemispheric sleep bouts is chiefly determined by sleep homeostasis and its corresponding time constant. It is shown that the model reproduces dolphin sleep, and that the sleep regimes of humans, cetaceans, and fur seals, the latter both terrestrially and in a marine environment, require only modest changes in contralateral connection strength and homeostatic time constant. It is further demonstrated that fur seals can potentially switch between their terrestrial bihemispheric and aquatic unihemispheric sleep patterns by varying just the contralateral connection strength. These results provide experimentally testable predictions regarding the differences between species that sleep bihemispherically and unihemispherically. PMID:22960411

  4. Pre-sleep behaviour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Lemmens; Parkes

    1995-12-01

    Behaviour in the 2-h period before sleep onset was evaluated in 90 subjects with normal sleep/wake habits using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. This determined the timing of events from the initial preparation for sleep. The nature of the pre-sleep environment, the level of physical activity, and patterns of feeding behaviour were recorded together with self-ratings of tiredness, mood and security. Estimated sleep duration and sleep quality were determined. Ninety of 120 subjects responded. Sleep 'preparatory latency', from the time of initial sleep preparation to sleep onset, was 77 +/- 48 min; bed time to sleep onset time (sleep latency) was 41 +/- 42 min; lights out to sleep onset latency was 26 +/- 45 min. The estimated total sleep time was 7 +/- 1 h. In the pre-sleep period, mean noise and illumination levels were low and environmental temperature rating was at the median point on a very cold-very hot scale (mean scale scores: 23, 28 and 50, respectively). All subjects went to the bathroom before going to bed. Twenty-five percent of normal subjects had a snack or meal in the 2-h period before sleep onset. Sixty percentage recorded setting an alarm, 27% had a bath or shower, 23% checked door locks or windows and 49% read in bed. Nine percent of subjects slept with a cat on the bed. Humans, like other animal species, show a complex behavioural sequence in the 2-h period before falling asleep. A constant environment with limited metabolic activity may predispose to thermoregulatory changes prior to sleep onset. PMID:10607159

  5. THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF THE COM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND DISCUSSION.

    PubMed

    Frey, Lorraine; Green, Shari; Fabbie, Paula; Hockenbury, Dana; Foran, Marge; Elder, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    The origins of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy began in the early 1960's by orthodontists who recognized the importance of functional nasal breathing, proper swallowing, and more ideal oral rest postures. Re-patterning these functions through myofunctional therapy assisted with better orthodontic outcomes and improved stability. Experts in orofacial myology have concluded that improper oral rest postures and tongue thrusting may be the result of hypertrophy of the lymphatic tissues in the upper airway. Orthodontists are aware of the deleterious effects these habits have on the developing face and dentition. Sleep disordered breathing is a major health concern that affects people from infancy into adulthood. Physicians who treat sleep disorders are now referring patients for orofacial myofunctional therapy. Researchers have concluded that removal of tonsils and adenoids, along with expansion orthodontics, may not fully resolve the upper airway issues that continue to plague patients' health. Sleep researchers report that the presence of mouth breathing, along with hypotonia of the orofacial muscular complex, has been a persistent problem in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing. Orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) coexist in a large population of people with sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnea. Advances in 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging offer the dental and medical communities the opportunity to identify, assess, and treat patients with abnormal growth patterns. These undesirable changes in oral structures can involve the upper airway, as well as functional breathing, chewing and swallowing. Leading researchers have advocated a multidisciplinary team approach. Sleep physicians, otolaryngologists, dentists, myofunctional therapists, and other healthcare professionals are working together to achieve these goals. The authors have compiled research articles that support incorporating the necessary education on sleep disordered

  6. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  7. Classification and epidemiology of childhood sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Owens, Judith

    2008-09-01

    Approximately 25% of all children experience some type of sleep problem at some point during childhood. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of parent- and child-reported sleep complaints in large samples of healthy, typically developing children and adolescents; many of these have also further delineated the association between disrupted sleep and behavioral concerns. Sleep problems are even more prevalent in children and adolescents with chronic medical, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric conditions. It is important to note that definitions of normal sleep patterns, sleep requirements, and sleep disorders in childhood must necessarily incorporate the wide range of normal developmental and physical maturational changes across childhood and adolescence, and cultural, environmental, and social influences. PMID:18710669

  8. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. PMID:26581727

  9. Analysis of EEG activity during sleep - brain hemisphere symmetry of two classes of sleep spindles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolen, Magdalena M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents automatic analysis of some selected human electroencephalographic patterns during deep sleep using the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm. The periodicity of deep sleep EEG patterns was observed by calculating autocorrelation functions of their percentage contributions. The study confirmed the increasing trend of amplitude-weighted average frequency of sleep spindles from frontal to posterior derivations. The dominant frequencies from the left and the right brain hemisphere were strongly correlated.

  10. Melatonin for sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disorders are at risk of sleep problems, typically difficulty getting to sleep, sleep/wake rhythm disturbances and reduced duration of sleep (insomnia). This may be associated with abnormally timed or inadequate secretion of melatonin, a naturally-occurring hormone involved in coordinating the body's sleep-wake cycle. Previously, we reviewed the use of a melatonin product licensed for primary insomnia in adults aged over 55 years. Here we review off-label and unlicensed use of melatonin in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder or related neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26471270

  11. Evaluation of sleep in women with menopause: results of the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Ağan, Kağan; Özmerdivenli, Recep; Değirmenci, Yıldız; Çağlar, Mete; Başbuğ, Alper; Balbay, Ege Güleç; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate subjective sleep quality among women in the menopausal period and to confirm and diagnose the possible sleep disturbances with polysomnographic (PSG) evaluation objectively. Material and Methods Sixty-seven women with menopause were enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and the features of menopause were recorded. We assessed subjective sleep quality with Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). To confirm sleep disturbances and further diagnose the underlying cause, PSG evaluation was performed to women with PSQI scores of >5 who gave their approval. Results Mean PSQI score of women with normal PSG evaluation was 12.00±3.16, while it was 11.00±2.32 in women with abnormal PSG evaluation (p=0.466); 59.7% (n=40) of women had poor sleep quality. Among these, 11 (64.7%) had abnormal results in the PSG evaluation and were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS); 54.5% had mild OSAS, 27.3% had moderate, and 18.2% had severe OSAS. Conclusion PSQI and PSG evaluations would give a chance to demonstrate sleep problems and shed a light on treatment options according to the underlying causes of sleep disturbances in menopause. PMID:26401107

  12. Role of cardiorespiratory synchronization and sleep physiology: effects on membrane potential in the restorative functions of sleep.

    PubMed

    Jerath, Ravinder; Harden, Kyler; Crawford, Molly; Barnes, Vernon A; Jensen, Mike

    2014-03-01

    Although sleep physiology has been extensively studied, many of the cellular processes that occur during sleep and the functional significance of sleep remain unclear. The degree of cardiorespiratory synchronization during sleep increases during the progression of slow-wave sleep (SWS). Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity also assumes a pattern that correlates with the progression of sleep. The ANS is an integral part of physiologic processes that occur during sleep with the respective contribution of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity varying between different sleep stages. In our paper, we attempt to unify the activities of various physiologic systems, namely the cardiac, respiratory, ANS and brain, during sleep into a consolidated picture with particular attention to the membrane potential of neurons. In our unified model, we explore the potential of sleep to promote restorative processes in the brain. PMID:24548599

  13. How deeply does your mutant sleep? Probing arousal to better understand sleep defects in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Faville, R.; Kottler, B.; Goodhill, G. J.; Shaw, P. J.; van Swinderen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a critical model system for investigating sleep functions. Most studies use duration of inactivity to measure sleep. However, a defining criterion for sleep is decreased behavioral responsiveness to stimuli. Here we introduce the Drosophila ARousal Tracking system (DART), an integrated platform for efficiently tracking and probing arousal levels in animals. This video-based platform delivers positional and locomotion data, behavioral responsiveness to stimuli, sleep intensity measures, and homeostatic regulation effects – all in one combined system. We show how insight into dynamically changing arousal thresholds is crucial for any sleep study in flies. We first find that arousal probing uncovers different sleep intensity profiles among related genetic background strains previously assumed to have equivalent sleep patterns. We then show how sleep duration and sleep intensity can be uncoupled, with distinct manipulations of dopamine function producing opposite effects on sleep duration but similar sleep intensity defects. We conclude by providing a multi-dimensional assessment of combined arousal and locomotion metrics in the mutant and background strains. Our approach opens the door for deeper insights into mechanisms of sleep regulation and provides a new method for investigating the role of different genetic manipulations in controlling sleep and arousal. PMID:25677943

  14. Prognostically important EEG coma patterns in diffuse anoxic and traumatic encephalopathies in adults.

    PubMed

    Synek, V M

    1988-04-01

    Because of the paucity in the English literature of a detailed and universally accepted EEG grading scale relating to survival after diffuse traumatic and anoxic brain insults, prognostically oriented EEG patterns including recently described abnormalities are presented and discussed. The significance of these patterns may also apply in cases of coma of other etiologies, which can present morphologically similar features. EEG patterns have been classified into five major grades based on an internationally accepted scale. Individual patterns have been more clearly defined on the basis of the morphology of dominant activities, their distribution, persistence, and reactivity to external stimulation. Favorable outcome with survival seems to occur with both grade 1 and the "reactive type" of grade 2 abnormalities, with preservation of normal sleep features, and with frontal monorhythmic delta activity. Prognostically uncertain patterns are "nonreactive" grade 2 abnormalities, diffuse delta activity with grade 3 abnormality, and the "reactive type of alpha pattern coma." The following patterns are suggested to be prognostically malignant if persistent: grade 3 abnormality with small amplitude, diffuse, irregular delta activity; grade 4 ("burst suppression pattern"), in particular when epileptiform discharges are present and with "low-output EEG"; and grade 5 ("isoelectric EEG"). Fatal outcome is also common with the "nonreactive type of alpha pattern coma" and the recently reported "theta pattern coma." These patterns are presented in the illustrations. It is intended that this more detailed subdivision will promote understanding between electroencephalographers using visual EEG assessment in cases of coma. PMID:3074973

  15. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school. PMID:26770835

  16. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S.; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school. PMID:26770835

  17. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  18. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  19. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. ... Sleep paralysis can be a symptom of narcolepsy . But if you do not have other symptoms of narcolepsy, there is usually no need to have sleep studies done.

  20. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many of the body's cells also show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during deep sleep. ... deep sleep, REM sleep is associated with increased production of proteins. One study found that REM sleep ...

  1. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  2. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  3. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. Symptoms Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sleep Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sleep. Why we sleep. Why do we dream? Sleep Hygiene Tips Get good sleep now. What ... Forum Posts 90 minute rule. _ Re: Insomnia question _ Artificial foods acting as stimulant and causing insomnia _ DNP ...

  5. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  7. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  8. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  9. Mapping Sleeping Bees within Their Nest: Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Worker Honey Bee Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barrett Anthony; Stiegler, Martin; Klein, Arno; Tautz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns. PMID:25029445

  10. Mapping sleeping bees within their nest: spatial and temporal analysis of worker honey bee sleep.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barrett Anthony; Stiegler, Martin; Klein, Arno; Tautz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns. PMID:25029445

  11. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  12. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Libman, Eva; Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  13. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects. IV. The prevalence of abnormal scans in smokers 30 to 49 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Kapitan, K.S.; Brewer, N.S.; Ashburn, W.L.; Hartman, M.T.; Moser, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of ventilation-perfusion scans in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is limited by the wide range of pulmonary diseases that are associated with abnormal scans, and by the largely undetermined prevalence of abnormal scans in persons without cardiopulmonary disease. In prior studies, we found perfusion defects to be rarely present in young persons and in older nonsmokers. To determine if normal older smokers have a higher prevalence of abnormal ventilation and perfusion scans, we performed six-view /sup 99m/Tc perfusion (Q) scans and /sup 133/Xe ventilation (V) scans in 40 subjects 30 to 49 yr of age who had no known cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject had undergone a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and posteroanterior chest roentgenogram prior to scanning. All V and Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by two experienced readers. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect on two views. One subject had a matched subsegmental defect, and one subject had delayed washout from a subsegmental area of the right upper lobe during V scanning, with a normal Q scan. We conclude that abnormal V and Q scans are uncommon among normal smokers 30 to 49 yr of age.

  14. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  15. Advanced sleep phase in adolescents born preterm.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Anna Maria; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rosen, Carol; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Taveras, Elsie M; Redline, Susan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate whether sleep patterns and quality differed between adolescents born preterm and term, and to further explore whether differences in sleep patterns were explained by differences in mediating factors such as mood, behavior, or socioeconomic status. Five hundred and one 16- to 19-year-old children in the longitudinal Cleveland Children's Sleep and Health Study cohort underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG), wore wrist actigraphs, and completed sleep logs for 1 week. The modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale were used to further assess sleep. Adolescents born preterm demonstrated significantly (p < .05) earlier bed and wake times and sleep midpoints (approximately 22 min after adjusting for demographic and psychosocial factors) by actigraphy. They also had significantly fewer arousals (by PSG), and reported being more rested and alert in the morning, as well as less sleepiness and fatigue. These findings support a growing body of evidence that perinatal factors may influence sleep phenotypes later in life. These factors may reflect developmental influences, as well as the influence of parenting styles on children's sleep. PMID:24283662

  16. Sleep disorders of early childhood: a review.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, I

    2000-01-01

    Night awakening and refusal to go to sleep are common problems during the first three years of life, comprising 6-30% of children in the general population. The organization and regulation of child sleep is thought to be closely related to his mode of attachment to his mother. Sleep aids (pacifier, teddy bear, etc.) during the night seem to reduce the occurrence of sleep disorders whereas prolonged breastfeeding and co-sleep with the parents interfere with the normal development of sleep. During the preschool years, the main issue affecting sleep is the ability of parents to set firm limits while respecting the sense of autonomy of the child. Sleep disorders are considered to be more common among physically and mentally handicapped children. Children with a difficult temperament sleep less than those with an easy one. A clear association is found between sleep patterns and psychopathology of the mother probably due to emotional unavailability and inappropriate behavior. Evaluation of the disorder should follow medical examination. It should take place in the presence of the child in order to view the real interaction as well as given information about the reported interaction between the child and his mother. Therapeutic interventions in cases of early childhood sleep disorders can be behavioral or psychodynamic and are advised to be focused and brief, unless there is psychopathology in the parents. PMID:11084806

  17. The nature of spontaneous sleep across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Scott S; Murphy, Patricia J

    2007-03-01

    The decline in sleep quality that often accompanies aging is thought to be the consequence of alterations in both circadian and homeostatic processes widely assumed to be responsible for sleep/wake regulation. A number of experimental approaches have been used to examine various aspects of age-related sleep changes, but none has examined spontaneous sleep across the entire 24-h day. Using the 'disentrainment' protocol, we studied such sleep in young, middle-aged and older adults. All subjects exhibited polyphasic sleep patterns, characterized by relatively short intervals of both sleep and waking. Whereas, the average duration of major nighttime sleep was significantly shorter in middle-aged and older subjects than in young adults, daytime napping was essentially unaffected by age. Comparisons of sleep and circadian variables between age groups suggest differential effects on sleep of the two regulatory processes, with changes in homeostatic drive preceding those of the circadian component. These findings add to a surprisingly scant literature on the longitudinal decline in sleep quality associated with aging. PMID:17309760

  18. REM sleep estimation only using respiratory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Gih Sung; Choi, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jin-Seong; Lee, Jeong Su; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is currently considered the gold standard for assessing sleep quality. However, the numerous sensors that must be attached to the subject can disturb sleep and limit monitoring to within hospitals and sleep clinics. If data could be obtained without such constraints, sleep monitoring would be more convenient and could be extended to ordinary homes. During rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, respiration rate and variability are known to be greater than in other sleep stages. Hence, we calculated the average rate and variability of respiration in an epoch (30 s) by applying appropriate smoothing algorithms. Increased and irregular respiratory patterns during REM sleep were extracted using adaptive and linear thresholds. When both parameters simultaneously showed higher values than the thresholds, the epochs were assumed to belong to REM sleep. Thermocouples and piezoelectric-type belts were used to acquire respiratory signals. Thirteen healthy adults and nine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients participated in this study. Kappa statistics showed a substantial agreement (kappa > 0.60) between the standard and respiration-based methods. One-way ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference between the techniques for total REM sleep. This approach can also be applied to the non-intrusive measurement of respiration signals, making it possible to automatically detect REM sleep without disturbing the subject. PMID:19864705

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

  20. Modeling Dream and Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1989-01-01

    Modifying a proposal of Crick and Mitchison, a possible use of dream sleep is suggested to be the refreshment of a bounded short-term memory through the elimination of accidental weak memories, by reinforcing randomly retrieved strong ones. The extreme sensitivity of random retrieval to the pattern amplitude is explained by an infinite-slope change of the attraction basin size. External fields, representing pulse trains of external origin, cause a proliferation of fixed points, helping or disturbing computation.

  1. Sleep in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Milena K; Allen, Rebecca M; Dworetzky, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a form of functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD), are very rarely seen in genuine, electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed sleep. However, they are more commonly reported as a nocturnal occurrence, likely from a state that is misidentified as sleep (termed by some as "pseudosleep"). Sleep state can be helpful to distinguish FNSD from other neurological disorders. Pseudo-cataplexy, a form of "psychogenic" narcolepsy, "pseudo-parasomnia" and PNES can have a similar presentation. PNES and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently share previously experienced psychological trauma, and therefore the sleep abnormalities found in PTSD may be similarly present in PNES. Future research should use EEG monitoring to evaluate the sleep physiology of patients with FNSD such as PNES, as insights into sleep abnormalities may enable further understanding of the etiology and manifestations of PNES. PMID:25534169

  2. Sleep physiology and sleep-disordered breathing: the essentials.

    PubMed

    Primhak, Robert; Kingshott, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential, but poses a risk to breathing in some children. We have outlined the developmental changes in sleep patterns and physiology, and the evidence of deleterious effects of sleep deprivation and of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD). Some factors increase the risk of adenotonsillar surgery and should be excluded before contemplating surgery in a secondary care setting. Screening for SRBD is indicated in some conditions, which are discussed. Although simple studies may suffice for many patients, there are a few who need more detailed assessment with polysomnography. A managed clinical network would be the most appropriate model to ensure appropriate organisation and utilisation of scarce resources in this area. PMID:21357242

  3. Sleep Wrinkles: Facial Aging and Facial Distortion During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Anson, Goesel; Kane, Michael A C; Lambros, Val

    2016-09-01

    Wrinkles are just one indicator of facial aging, but an indicator that is of prime importance in our world of facial aesthetics. Wrinkles occur where fault lines develop in aging skin. Those fault lines may be due to skin distortion resulting from facial expression or may be due to skin distortion from mechanical compression during sleep. Expression wrinkles and sleep wrinkles differ in etiology, location, and anatomical pattern. Compression, shear, and stress forces act on the face in lateral or prone sleep positions. We review the literature relating to the development of wrinkles and the biomechanical changes that occur in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences. We explore the possibility that compression during sleep not only results in wrinkles but may also contribute to facial skin expansion. PMID:27329660

  4. Sleep architecture and sleep-related mentation in securely and insecurely attached people.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Johnson, Patricia; Harris, Erica; Auerbach, Sanford

    2011-03-01

    Based on REM sleep's brain activation patterns and its participation in consolidation of emotional memories, we tested the hypothesis that measures of REM sleep architecture and REM sleep-related mentation would be associated with attachment orientation. After a habituation night in a sleep lab, a convenience sample of 64 healthy volunteers were awakened 10 minutes into a REM sleep episode and 10 minutes into a control NREM sleep episode in counterbalanced order, then asked to report a dream and to rate themselves and a significant other on a list of trait adjectives. Relative to participants classified as having secure attachment orientations, participants classified as anxious took less time to enter REM sleep and had a higher frequency of REM dreams with aggression and self-denigrating themes. There were no significant differences across attachment groups in other measures of sleep architecture or in post REM-sleep awakening ratings on PANAS subscales reflecting mood and alertness. Selected aspects of REM sleep architecture and mentation appeared to be associated with attachment orientation. We suggest that REM sleep plays a role in processing experiences and emotions related to attachment, and that certain features of sleep and dreaming reflect attachment orientations. PMID:21390907

  5. The delivery of behavioral sleep medicine to college students.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Horsey, Sarah E; Taylor, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    College students are vulnerable to a variety of sleep disorders, which can result in sleep deprivation and a variety of other consequences. The delivery of behavioral sleep medicine is particularly relevant for the college student population, as the early intervention on their sleep problems might prevent lifelong consequences. This article critically reviews the efficacy of relevant behavioral sleep medicine interventions and discusses special considerations for using them with college students who have unique sleep patterns and lifestyles. Recommendations are also given regarding ways to disseminate these empirically supported treatments into this environment. Finally, recommendations regarding future research directions are discussed in the present study. PMID:21575813

  6. Self-reported consistency of normal habitual sleep durations of college students.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; Pellegrini, R J; Hawkins, J; Moore, J D

    1978-10-01

    A relationship between hours of sleep/night and the consistency of this normal daily sleep duration was observed for 763 college students who had rated themselves as good sleepers with stable and fairly well established patterns of sleep. Congruent with a limited literature, these data suggest that shorter sleep durations are likely, for college students, to be relatively recently acquired patterns of sleep. PMID:724383

  7. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  8. Neuroendocrine Alterations in Obese Patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranco, Fabio; Motta, Giovanna; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Baldi, Matteo; Balbo, Marcella; Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela; Maccario, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a serious, prevalent condition that has significant morbidity and mortality when untreated. It is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized by changes in the serum levels or secretory patterns of several hormones. Obese patients with OSAS show a reduction of both spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion coupled to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and impaired peripheral sensitivity to GH. Hypoxemia and chronic sleep fragmentation could affect the sleep-entrained prolactin (PRL) rhythm. A disrupted Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been described in OSAS. Some derangement in Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) secretion has been demonstrated by some authors, whereas a normal thyroid activity has been described by others. Changes of gonadal axis are common in patients with OSAS, who frequently show a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Altogether, hormonal abnormalities may be considered as adaptive changes which indicate how a local upper airway dysfunction induces systemic consequences. The understanding of the complex interactions between hormones and OSAS may allow a multi-disciplinary approach to obese patients with this disturbance and lead to an effective management that improves quality of life and prevents associated morbidity or death. PMID:20182553

  9. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  10. Sleep duration and eating behaviors of college students.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; McTighe, S; Juarez, M

    1986-02-01

    31 short-sleeping college students tended to eat more small meals or snacks than 37 long sleepers, all of whom were satisfied with their sleep. This disrupted pattern of larger meals was predicted from work of Elomaa and Johansson with rats who were partially REM-sleep deprived. PMID:3960667

  11. Sleep and Academic Performance in Hong Kong Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…

  12. Lactate as a Biomarker for Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Erik; Aillon, Daniel V.; Barrett, Brian S.; Wilson, George S.; Johnson, David A.; Johnson, Donna A.; Harmon, Hans P.; Gabbert, Seth; Petillo, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: An ideal biomarker for sleep should change rapidly with sleep onset, remain at a detectably differential level throughout the sleep period, and exhibit a rapid change with waking. Currently, no molecular marker has been identified that exhibits all three properties. This study examined three substances (lactate, glucose, and glutamate) for suitability as a sleep biomarker. Design: Using amperometric biosensor technology in conjunction with electroencephalograph (EEG) and electromyograph (EMG) monitoring, extracellular concentrations of lactate and glucose (Cohort 1) as well as lactate and glutamate (Cohort 2) were recorded over multiple sleep/wake cycles. Patients or Participants: There were 12 C57Bl/6J male mice (3-5 mo old). Interventions: Sleep and waking transitions were identified using EEG recordings. Extracellular concentrations of lactate, glucose, and glutamate were evaluated before and during transition events as well as during extended sleep and during a 6-h sleep deprivation period. Measurements and Results: Rapid and sustained increases in cortical lactate concentration (approximately 15 μM/min) were immediately observed upon waking and during rapid eye movement sleep. Elevated lactate concentration was also maintained throughout a 6-h period of continuous waking. A persistent and sustained decline in lactate concentration was measured during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Glutamate exhibited similar patterns, but with a much slower rise and decline (approximately 0.03 μM/min). Glucose concentration changes did not demonstrate a clear correlation with either sleep or wake. Conclusions: These findings indicate that extracellular lactate concentration is a reliable sleep/wake biomarker and can be used independently of the EEG signal. Citation: Naylor E; Aillon DV; Barrett BS; Wilson GS; Johnson DA; Johnson DA; Harmon HP; Gabbert S; Petillo PA. Lactate as a biomarker for sleep. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1209-1222. PMID:22942499

  13. Brain biology: jerked around by sleep.

    PubMed

    Fraigne, Jimmy J; Peever, John H

    2013-11-01

    During rapid eye movement sleep, the forelimb muscles of newborn rats jerk and twitch in an organized pattern, the fidelity of which improves with time. The coordinated nature of such sleep movements may instruct the developing brain how to more effectively execute movements during wakefulness. PMID:24200321

  14. Advice for the Sleep-Deprived

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat

    2005-01-01

    A research has uncovered that adolescent sleep patterns are influenced not so much by the activities of the young adults as by the changes taking place in the biological timing system of their brains. It is evident that teenagers are not getting the amount of sleep they require and suggestions are presented to help diminish if not entirely avoid…

  15. REM sleep and dreaming functions beyond reductionism.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Roumen

    2013-12-01

    Brain activation patterns and mental, electrophysiological, and neurobiological features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suggest more functions than only elaborative encoding. Hence, the periodic occurrence of REM sleep episodes and dreaming may be regarded as a recurrent adaptive interference, which incorporates recent memories into a broader vital context comprising emotions, basic needs and individual genetic traits. PMID:24304763

  16. Who Needs More Sleep? Comparing Undergraduate and Graduate Students' Sleep Habits in a National U.S. Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders and deficits are a national U.S. health concern, and college students report more sleep difficulties than the general population. Most published studies examine college students as a homogenous population or focus on professional (e.g. medical) students. This study compares sleep patterns of undergraduate and graduate students from…

  17. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  18. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio; Baiardini, Ilaria

    2016-08-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient's quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease. PMID:27621908

  19. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient’s quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease. PMID:27621908

  20. The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Andrea N.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly emerging evidence continues to describe an intimate and causal relationship between sleep and emotional brain function. These findings are mirrored by longstanding clinical observations demonstrating that nearly all mood and anxiety disorders co-occur with one or more sleep abnormalities. This review aims to (1) provide a synthesis of recent findings describing the emotional brain and behavioral benefits triggered by sleep, and conversely, the detrimental impairments following a lack of sleep, (2) outline a proposed framework in which sleep, and specifically rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, supports a process of affective brain homeostasis, optimally preparing the organism for next-day social and emotional functioning, and (3) describe how this hypothesized framework can explain the prevalent relationships between sleep and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression. PMID:24499013

  1. Sleep disturbances in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a sleep questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Pramod; Sinha, Sanjib; Taly, Arun B; Ramachandraiah, Chaitra T; Rao, Shivaji; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2012-03-01

    Sleep and epilepsy share a complex pathophysiological association. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common sleep-sensitive epilepsy in which the effect of seizures could have therapeutic implications in terms of sleep disturbances and seizure control. This study aimed to analyze the effect of epilepsy on sleep in patients with JME. Fifty patients on valproic acid (VPA) monotherapy, and age- and gender-matched controls were recruited into this prospective, hospital-based, case-control study after informed consent and screening for inclusion criteria. They underwent a detailed clinical assessment, electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuroimaging, and were administered validated sleep questionnaires, which included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and NIMHANS Sleep Disorders Questionnaire. The patient and control groups had identical numbers of males and females (M: F=22: 28), without any significant difference in the age and body mass index (BMI). The clinical profile of JME was similar to published literature while the prevalence of EEG abnormalities was less compared to similar studies. The mean ESS and PSQI scores and the number of subjects with abnormal scores on one or both questionnaires were significantly more in patients. Patients had a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances, insomnia and excessive daytime somnolence. No significant seizure- or treatment-related factors influencing sleep could be identified. This study, the first of its kind, revealed that patients with JME have significant sleep disturbances characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and disturbed night sleep, despite adequate medications and good seizure control. The role of VPA in the genesis of these symptoms needs clarification. PMID:22366052

  2. Upper Airway Collapsibility During REM Sleep in Children with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie R.; Pepe, Michelle E.; Glinka, Stephen M.; Samuel, John M.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: In children, most obstructive events occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We hypothesized that children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), in contrast to age-matched control subjects, would not maintain airflow in the face of an upper airway inspiratory pressure drop during REM sleep. Design: During slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep, we measured airflow, inspiratory time, inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation at a holding pressure at which flow limitation occurred and at 5 cm H2O below the holding pressure in children with OSAS and in control subjects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen children with OSAS and 23 normal control subjects. Results: In both sleep states, control subjects were able to maintain airflow, whereas subjects with OSAS preserved airflow in SWS but had a significant decrease in airflow during REM sleep (change in airflow of 18.58 ± 12.41 mL/s for control subjects vs −44.33 ± 14.09 mL/s for children with OSAS, P = 0.002). Although tidal volume decreased, patients with OSAS were able to maintain minute ventilation by increasing the respiratory rate and also had an increase in inspiratory time and inspiratory time per total respiratory cycle time Conclusion: Children with OSAS do not maintain airflow in the face of upper-airway inspiratory-pressure drops during REM sleep, indicating a more collapsible upper airway, compared with that of control subjects during REM sleep. However, compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain minute ventilation. Local reflexes, central control mechanisms, or both reflexes and control mechanisms need to be further explored to better understand the pathophysiology of this abnormality and the compensation mechanism. Citation: Huang J; Karamessinis LR; Pepe ME; Glinka SM; Samuel JM; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Upper airway collapsibility during REM sleep in children with the obstructive sleep apnea

  3. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  4. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep-wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  5. Sleep disorders in children: the Singapore perspective.

    PubMed

    Chng, Seo Yi

    2008-08-01

    This review article summarises the current available literature on sleep patterns and sleep problems in Singapore children. Co-sleeping is a culturally dependent practice and its prevalence in Singapore has been determined to be 73%. Co-sleeping is not associated with significant sleep problems in Singapore children. Snoring and habitual snoring occur in 28.1% and 6.0% of Singapore children, respectively. Habitual snoring in Singapore children was significantly associated with obesity, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, maternal smoking and breastfeeding. Atopy was the strongest risk factor for habitual snoring in Singapore, and the effect was cumulative. Children attending psychiatric services in Singapore may also have sleep disorders, the highest prevalence being in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The knowledge on childhood sleep disorders (including obstructive sleep apnoea) amongst the public, patients, parents and future doctors in Singapore are inadequate and there is an urgent need for increased education in this area given the importance of good sleep in children. There is also a need to change parental attitudes about sleep disorders and encourage early medical consultation. PMID:18797566

  6. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881313

  7. Normal breathing pattern and arterial blood gases in awake and sleeping goats after near total destruction of the presumed pre-Bötzinger complex and the surrounding region

    PubMed Central

    Krause, K. L.; Forster, H. V.; Kiner, T.; Davis, S. E.; Bonis, J. M.; Qian, B.; Pan, L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Abrupt neurotoxic destruction of >70% of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötzC) in awake goats results in respiratory and cardiac failure (Wenninger JM, Pan LG, Klum L, Leekley T, Bastastic J, Hodges MR, Feroah TR, Davis S, Forster HV. J Appl Physiol 97: 1629–1636, 2004). However, in reduced preparations, rhythmic respiratory activity has been found in other areas of the brain stem (Huang Q, St. John WM. J Appl Physiol 64: 1405–1411, 1988; Janczewski WA, Feldman JL. J Physiol 570: 407–420, 2006; Lieske SP, Thoby-Brisson M, Telgkamo P, Ramierz JM. Nature Neurosci 3: 600–607, 2000; St. John WM, Bledsoe TA. J Appl Physiol 59: 684–690, 1985); thus we hypothesized that, when the preBötzC is destroyed incrementally over weeks, time-dependent plasticity within the respiratory network will result in a respiratory rhythm capable of maintaining normal blood gases. Microtubules were bilaterally implanted into the presumed preBötzC of seven goats. After recovery from surgery, studies were completed to establish baseline values for respiratory parameters. At weekly intervals, increasing volumes (in order 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μl) of ibotenic acid (IA; 50 mM) were then injected into the preBötzC. All IA injections resulted in an acute tachypnea and dysrhythmia featuring augmented breaths, apneas, and increased breath-to-breath variation in breathing. In studies at night, apneas were nearly all central and occurred in the awake state. Breath-to-breath variation in breathing was greater (P < 0.05) during wakefulness than during non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, one week after the final IA injection, the breathing pattern, breath-to-breath variation, and arterial blood gases and pH were unchanged from baseline, but there was a 20% decrease in respiratory frequency (f) and CO2 sensitivity (P < 0.05), as well as a 40% decrease in the ventilatory response to hypoxia (P < 0.001). In subsequent histological analysis of the presumed preBötzC region of lesioned goats, it

  8. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Liu, Chun-Lei; Zhou, Ren-Lai; Gong, Hong-Han; Wu, Bin; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN) impairment after sleep deprivation (SD) and its relationships with clinical features. Methods Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW) and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT). The independent component analysis (ICA), rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001), a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003), a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001), and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0.33; P=0.021). The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40) and in the left precuneus (PrC)/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (BA30, 31). The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7) and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37). However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40). The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) value of the

  9. Episodic hormone secretion during sleep in Kleine-Levin syndrome: evidence for hypothalamic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gadoth, N; Dickerman, Z; Bechar, M; Laron, Z; Lavie, P

    1987-01-01

    "Acute" hypothalamic-pituitary function tests including insulin tolerance test, LRH, ACTH and TRH stimulation tests and nocturnal secretory pattern of human growth hormone, 11-OHCS, prolactin, FSH, LH and TSH were studied in a 23-year-old male with Kleine-Levin syndrome during the course of a typical hypersomnic attack. The "acute" tests revealed paradoxical growth-hormone response to TRH stimulation, borderline high basal plasma prolactin levels with normal response to TRH. The hormonal secretory pattern during sleep revealed abnormalities in LH, 11-OHCS and prolactin secretion. These together with the results of the "acute" tests are indicative of an abnormality in the hypothalamic regulation of various pituitary hormones. This observation may indeed be the first laboratory demonstration confirming a long-standing hypothesis that Kleine-Levin syndrome is related to hypothalamic dysfunction. PMID:3477962

  10. Greater night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy among older adults with a sleep complaint compared to noncomplaining older adults.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Rowe, Meredeth; McCrae, Christina S

    2013-04-01

    Research in younger adults suggests sleep discrepancy (objective/subjective measurement difference) is a consistent pattern that primarily occurs within individuals with insomnia. To examine whether older adults exhibit a similar pattern, this study compared night-to-night inconsistency in sleep discrepancy between older adults with and without sleep complaints. Older adults (N = 103; mean age = 72.81, SD = 7.12) wore an Actiwatch-L® (24 hr per day) and concurrently completed sleep diaries for 14 days. Sleep discrepancy = diary (sleep onset latency [SOL] or wake [time] after sleep onset [WASO]) - actigraphy (SOL or WASO). Both groups exhibited sleep discrepancy, but complainers exhibited significantly more night-to-night variability. Sleep discrepancy was a variable behavior that was not limited to insomnia, but instead manifested by degree throughout our older sample. Greater attention to variability in sleep research and clinical practice is warranted. PMID:23137288

  11. Sleep deprivation amplifies striatal activation to monetary reward

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, Benjamin C.; Phillips, Mary L.; Siegle, Greg J.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Forbes, Erika E.; Franzen, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep loss produces abnormal increases in reward-seeking, though the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present study examined the influence of one ni