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Sample records for abnormal smooth muscle-like

  1. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments. PMID:25734774

  2. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  3. Smooth Muscle-Like Tissue Constructs with Circumferentially Oriented Cells Formed by the Cell Fiber Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Amy Y.; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments. PMID:25734774

  4. Smooth-muscle-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells support and augment cord-like structures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vo, Elaine; Hanjaya-Putra, Donny; Zha, Yuanting; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon

    2010-06-01

    Engineering vascularized tissue is crucial for its successful implantation, survival, and integration with the host tissue. Vascular smooth muscle cells (v-SMCs) provide physical support to the vasculature and aid in maintaining endothelial viability. In this study, we show an efficient derivation of v-SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and demonstrate their functionality and ability to support the vasculature in vitro. Human ESCs were differentiated in monolayers and supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Human ESC-derived smooth-muscle-like cells (SMLCs) were found to highly express specific smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers--including alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, SM22, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain--to produce and secrete fibronectin and collagen, and to contract in response to carbachol. In vitro tubulogenesis assays revealed that these hESC-derived SMLCs interacted with human endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) to form longer and thicker cord-like structures in vitro. We have demonstrated a simple protocol for the efficient derivation of highly purified SMLCs from hESCs. These in vitro functional SMLCs interacted with EPCs to support and augment capillary-like structures (CLSs), demonstrating the potential of hESCs as a cell source for therapeutic vascular tissue engineering.

  5. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Juliane; Lutz, Katrin A.; Neumayer, Katharina M. H.; Klein, Gerd; Seeger, Tanja; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Wörgötter, Katharina; Schmid, Sandra; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Hart, Melanie L.

    2015-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late) myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1–2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), calponin (CNN1), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11) according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion channel

  6. A Novel Method for Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Smooth Muscle-Like Cells on Clinically Deliverable Thermally Induced Phase Separation Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Nina; Ahmadi, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Muscle degeneration is a prevalent disease, particularly in aging societies where it has a huge impact on quality of life and incurs colossal health costs. Suitable donor sources of smooth muscle cells are limited and minimally invasive therapeutic approaches are sought that will augment muscle volume by delivering cells to damaged or degenerated areas of muscle. For the first time, we report the use of highly porous microcarriers produced using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) to expand and differentiate adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) into smooth muscle-like cells in a format that requires minimal manipulation before clinical delivery. AdMSCs readily attached to the surface of TIPS microcarriers and proliferated while maintained in suspension culture for 12 days. Switching the incubation medium to a differentiation medium containing 2 ng/mL transforming growth factor beta-1 resulted in a significant increase in both the mRNA and protein expression of cell contractile apparatus components caldesmon, calponin, and myosin heavy chains, indicative of a smooth muscle cell-like phenotype. Growth of smooth muscle cells on the surface of the microcarriers caused no change to the integrity of the polymer microspheres making them suitable for a cell-delivery vehicle. Our results indicate that TIPS microspheres provide an ideal substrate for the expansion and differentiation of AdMSCs into smooth muscle-like cells as well as a microcarrier delivery vehicle for the attached cells ready for therapeutic applications. PMID:25205072

  7. Early growth response 2 (Egr2) plays opposing roles in committing C3H10T1/2 stem cells to adipocytes and smooth muscle-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Huang, Hai-Yan; Chen, Su-Zhen; Li, Xi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Ting; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-08-01

    Early growth response 2 (Egr2) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that acts as an important modulator of a variety of physiological processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Here we showed that Egr2 was downregulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways during the commitment of C3H10T1/2 stem cells to adipocyte lineage. Overexpression of Egr2 completely prevented BMP4-induced adipocyte lineage commitment of C3H10T1/2 stem cells, while simultaneously stimulating early smooth muscle-like differentiation. We also demonstrated that Egr2-induced early smooth muscle-like differentiation is transforming growth factor β1-independent. Egr2 can activate the transcription of early smooth muscle cell specific genes smooth muscle protein 22α and calponin 1. Together, the results indicated a novel role for Egr2 in repressing adipocyte lineage commitment and promoting early smooth muscle-like cell differentiation. PMID:23751188

  8. Active fascial contractility: Fascia may be able to contract in a smooth muscle-like manner and thereby influence musculoskeletal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schleip, R; Klingler, W; Lehmann-Horn, F

    2005-01-01

    Dense connective tissue sheets, commonly known as fascia, play an important role as force transmitters in human posture and movement regulation. Fascia is usually seen as having a passive role, transmitting mechanical tension which is generated by muscle activity or external forces. However, there is some evidence to suggest that fascia may be able to actively contract in a smooth muscle-like manner and consequently influence musculoskeletal dynamics. General support for this hypothesis came with the discovery of contractile cells in fascia, from theoretical reflections on the biological advantages of such a capacity, and from the existence of pathological fascial contractures. Further evidence to support this hypothesis is offered by in vitro studies with fascia which have been reported in the literature: the biomechanical demonstration of an autonomous contraction of the human lumbar fascia, and the pharmacological induction of temporary contractions in normal fascia from rats. If verified by future research, the existence of an active fascial contractility could have interesting implications for the understanding of musculoskeletal pathologies with an increased or decreased myofascial tonus. It may also offer new insights and a deeper understanding of treatments directed at fascia, such as manual myofascial release therapies or acupuncture. Further research to test this hypothesis is suggested.

  9. Vascular progenitor cells isolated from human embryonic stem cells give rise to endothelial and smooth muscle like cells and form vascular networks in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lino S; Gerecht, Sharon; Shieh, Hester F; Watson, Nicki; Rupnick, Maria A; Dallabrida, Susan M; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Langer, Robert

    2007-08-01

    We report that human embryonic stem cells contain a population of vascular progenitor cells that have the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like and smooth muscle (SM)-like cells. Vascular progenitor cells were isolated from EBs grown in suspension for 10 days and were characterized by expression of the endothelial/hematopoietic marker CD34 (CD34+ cells). When these cells are subsequently cultured in EGM-2 (endothelial growth medium) supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (50 ng/mL), they give rise to endothelial-like cells characterized by a cobblestone cell morphology, expression of endothelial markers (platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1, CD34, KDR/Flk-1, vascular endothelial cadherin, von Willebrand factor), incorporation of acetylated low-density lipoprotein, and formation of capillary-like structures when placed in Matrigel. In contrast, when CD34+ cells are cultured in EGM-2 supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (50 ng/mL), they give rise to SM-like cells characterized by spindle-shape morphology, expression of SM cell markers (alpha-SM actin, SM myosin heavy chain, calponin, caldesmon, SM alpha-22), and the ability to contract and relax in response to common pharmacological agents such as carbachol and atropine but rarely form capillary-like structures when placed in Matrigel. Implantation studies in nude mice show that both cell types contribute to the formation of human microvasculature. Some microvessels contained mouse blood cells, which indicates functional integration with host vasculature. Therefore, the vascular progenitors isolated from human embryonic stem cells using methods established in the present study could provide a means to examine the mechanisms of endothelial and SM cell development, and they could also provide a potential source of cells for vascular tissue engineering.

  10. Abnormal tracheal smooth muscle function in the CF mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Helen L; Southern, Kevin W; Connell, Marilyn G; Wray, Susan; Burdyga, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility is thought to underlie symptoms of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, ASM anomalies have been reported, but have not been fully characterized and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined ASM in an adult CF mouse tracheal ring preparation, and determined whether changes in contractility were associated with altered ASM morphology. We looked for inherent changes in the cellular pathways involved in contractility, and characterized trachea morphology in the adult trachea and in an embryonic lung culture model during development. Results showed that that there was a reduction in tracheal caliber in CF mice as indicated by a reduction in the number of cartilage rings; proximal cross-sectional areas of cftr−/− tracheas and luminal areas were significantly smaller, but there was no difference in the area or distribution of smooth muscle. Morphological differences observed in adult trachea were not evident in the embryonic lung at 11.5 days gestation or after 72 h in culture. Functional data showed a significant reduction in the amplitude and duration of contraction in response to carbachol (CCh) in Ca-free conditions. The reduction in contraction was agonist specific, and occurred throughout the length of the trachea. These data show that there is a loss in the contractile capacity of the CF mouse trachea due to downregulation of the pathway specific to acetylcholine (ACh) activation. This reduction in contraction is not associated with changes in the area or distribution of ASM. PMID:24400140

  11. Smooth muscle calcium and endothelium-derived relaxing factor in the abnormal vascular responses of acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Conger, J D; Robinette, J B; Schrier, R W

    1988-01-01

    Abnormal renovascular reactivity, characterized by paradoxical vasoconstriction to a reduction in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) in the autoregulatory range, increased sensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS), and loss of vasodilatation to acetylcholine have all been demonstrated in ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). To determine if ischemic injury alters vascular contractility by increasing smooth muscle cell calcium or calcium influx, the renal blood flow (RBF) response to reductions in RPP within the autoregulatory range and to RNS were tested before and after a 90-min intrarenal infusion of verapamil or diltiazem in 7-d ischemic ARF rats. Both calcium entry blockers, verapamil and diltiazem, blocked the aberrant vasoconstrictor response to a reduction in RPP and RNS (both P less than 0.001). In a second series of experiments the potential role of an ischemia-induced endothelial injury and of the absence of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) production were examined to explain the lack of vasodilatation to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, bradykinin (a second EDRF-dependent vasodilator), or prostacyclin, an EDRF-independent vasodilator, was infused intrarenally for 90 min, and RBF responses to a reduction in RPP and RNS were tested in 7-d ischemic ARF rats. Neither acetylcholine nor bradykinin caused vasodilatation or altered the slope of the relationship between RBF and RPP. By contrast, prostacyclin increased RBF (P less than 0.001), but did not change the vascular response to changes in RPP. It was concluded that the abnormal pressor sensitivity to a reduction in RPP and RNS was due to changes in renovascular smooth muscle cell calcium activity that could be blocked by calcium entry blockers. A lack of response to EDRF-dependent vasodilators, as a result of ischemic endothelial injury, may contribute to the increased pressor sensitivity of the renal vessels. PMID:3261301

  12. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  13. Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Muscle-Like Fibers.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Antoine; Du, Guangyan; Moulin, Emilie; Fuks, Gad; Maaloum, Mounir; Buhler, Eric; Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2016-01-11

    An acid-base switchable [c2]daisy chain rotaxane terminated with two 2,6-diacetylamino pyridine units has been self-assembled with a bis(uracil) linker. The complementary hydrogen-bond recognition patterns, together with lateral van der Waals aggregations, result in the hierarchical formation of unidimensional supramolecular polymers associated in bundles of muscle-like fibers. Microscopic and scattering techniques reveal that the mesoscopic structure of these bundles depends on the extended or contracted states that the rotaxanes show within individual polymer chains. The observed local dynamics span over several length scales because of a combination of supramolecular and mechanical bonds. This work illustrates the possibility to modify the hierarchical mesoscopic structuring of large polymeric systems by the integrated actuation of individual molecular machines. PMID:26582752

  14. Anisotropic Elastic Properties of Muscle-like Nematic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna, Banahalii; Thomseniii, Donald L.; Shenoy, Devanand; Srinivasan, Amritha; Keller, Patrick

    2001-03-01

    De Gennes suggested in 1997 that the liquid crystal elastomers are an excellent framework to mimic muscular action. We have prepared anisotropic freestanding films of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers that show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When the order parameter drops at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. Dynamic mechanical data along directions parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis, show anisotropic stress-strain behavior. The film exhibits soft elasticity when strained in the perpendicular direction when the liquid crystal mesogens reorient without appreciable stress build up. Thermostrictive studies in the parallel direction show 40constriction at the nematic-isotropic phase transition. Isometric studies show that the elastic energy stored is purely entropic in origin and the elastomer acts like a spring with unusually large spring constant at the NI transition. The maximum stress measured is 300kPa. A strain rate of 5s-1 is estimated from shear relaxation studies.

  15. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling. PMID:26335177

  16. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling.

  17. Acute administration of ivacaftor to people with cystic fibrosis and a G551D-CFTR mutation reveals smooth muscle abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Hisert, Katherine B.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L.; Barnes, Janel K.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Sieren, Jered P.; Gross, Thomas J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McKone, Edward F.; Stoltz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Airflow obstruction is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the underlying pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. People with CF often exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in airway smooth muscle (ASM), and ASM from newborn CF pigs has increased contractile tone, suggesting that loss of CFTR causes a primary defect in ASM function. We hypothesized that restoring CFTR activity would decrease smooth muscle tone in people with CF. METHODS. To increase or potentiate CFTR function, we administered ivacaftor to 12 adults with CF with the G551D-CFTR mutation; ivacaftor stimulates G551D-CFTR function. We studied people before and immediately after initiation of ivacaftor (48 hours) to minimize secondary consequences of CFTR restoration. We tested smooth muscle function by investigating spirometry, airway distensibility, and vascular tone. RESULTS. Ivacaftor rapidly restored CFTR function, indicated by reduced sweat chloride concentration. Airflow obstruction and air trapping also improved. Airway distensibility increased in airways less than 4.5 mm but not in larger-sized airways. To assess smooth muscle function in a tissue outside the lung, we measured vascular pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index, which both decreased following CFTR potentiation. Finally, change in distensibility of <4.5-mm airways correlated with changes in PWV. CONCLUSIONS. Acute CFTR potentiation provided a unique opportunity to investigate CFTR-dependent mechanisms of CF pathogenesis. The rapid effects of ivacaftor on airway distensibility and vascular tone suggest that CFTR dysfunction may directly cause increased smooth muscle tone in people with CF and that ivacaftor may relax smooth muscle. FUNDING. This work was funded in part from an unrestricted grant from the Vertex Investigator-Initiated Studies Program. PMID:27158673

  18. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  19. 2-Arachidonylglyceryl ether and abnormal cannabidiol-induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation in rabbit pulmonary arteries via receptor-pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins-ERK1/2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Su, Judy Y; Vo, Anhkiet C

    2007-03-22

    The receptor(s) used by cannabinoids to relax vascular smooth muscle is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of 2-arachidonylglyceryl ether (2-AG ether), a metabolically stable endocannabinoid, and abnormal cannabidiol (abn-CBD) on relaxation of permeabilized pulmonary arterial strips monitored with force, and on extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in permeabilized vascular smooth muscle cells using immunoblotting. We found that 2-AG ether and abn-CBD caused relaxation and increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. 2-AG ether effects were completely abolished by N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251), and N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716A), and partially blocked by (-)-1.3-dimethoxy-2-(3-3,4-trans-p-menthadien-(1,8)-yl)-orcinol (O-1918). In contrast, abn-CBD effects were completely abolished by O-1918, and only partially blocked by AM251, and SR141716A. Both 2-AG ether and abn-CBD effects were partially blocked by pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gi/o proteins. PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), completely abolished the relaxation, but only partially blocked the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by 2-AG ether. In contrast, abn-CBD-induced relaxation was partially blocked and the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was abolished by PD98059. These findings suggest that 2-AG ether and abn-CBD-induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation are mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, and the abn-CBD receptor, respectively, and are modulated by cross-talk between the receptors. These responses occur mainly by coupling to pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins, but also, in part independent of these G proteins, which have been classically thought to initiate MEK/ERK1/2 signaling to relax vascular smooth muscle.

  20. Muscle-like high-stress dielectric elastomer actuators with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Wei-Yee Tan, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Despite being capable of generating large strains, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are short of strength. Often, they cannot produce enough stress or as much work as that achievable by human elbow muscles. Their maximum actuation capacity is limited by the electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomers. Often, failures of these soft actuators are pre-mature and localized at the weakest spot under high field and high stress. Localized breakdowns, such as electrical arcing, thermal runaway and punctures, could spread to ultimately cause rupture if they were not stopped. This work shows that dielectric oil immersion and self-clearable electrodes nibbed the buds of localized breakdowns from DEAs. Dielectric oil encapsulation in soft-membrane capsules was found to help the DEA sustain an ultra-high electrical breakdown field of 835\\;MV{{m}^{-1}}, which is 46% higher than the electrical breakdown strength of the dry DEA in air at 570\\;MV{\\mkern 1mu} {{m}^{-1}}. Because of the increased apparent dielectric strength, this oil-capsuled DEA realizes a higher maximum isotonic work density of up to 31.51Jk{{g}^{-1}}, which is 43.8% higher than that realized by the DEA in air. Meanwhile, it produces higher maximum isometric stress of up to 1.05 MPa, which is 75% higher than that produced by the DEA in air. Such improved actuator performances are comparable to those achieved by human flexor muscles, which can exert up to 1.2 MPa during elbow flexion. This muscle-like, high-stress dielectric elastomeric actuation is very promising to drive future human-like robots.

  1. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  2. Smooth Sailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…

  3. Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Musri, Melina Mara; Ivo, Victor; Barberà, Joan Albert; Tura-Ceide, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery remodelling it is a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is characterised by cellular and structural changes of the pulmonary arteries causing higher pulmonar vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Abnormal deposition of smooth muscle-like (SM-like) cells in normally non-muscular, small diameter vessels and a deregulated control of endothelial cells are considered pathological features of PH. The origin of the SM-like cells and the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this remodelling process are not understood. Endothelial cells within the intima may migrate from their organised layer of cells and transition to mesenchymal or SM-like phenotype in a process called endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Traditionally, Waddington’s epigenetic landscape illustrates that fates of somatic cells are progressively determined to compulsorily follow a downhill differentiation pathway. EnMT induces the transformation of cells with stem cell traits, therefore contrasting Waddington’s theory and confirming that cell fate seems to be far more flexible than previously thought. The prospect of therapeutic inhibition of EnMT to delay or prevent PH may represent a promising new treatment modality. PMID:25973327

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  6. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  7. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  8. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    MedlinePlus

    ... often in males. XLAG is characterized by abnormal brain development that results in the brain having a smooth ... for interneuron migration. In addition to impairing normal brain development, a lack of functional ARX protein disrupts cell ...

  10. Generalized smooth models

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.

    1992-07-23

    The class of gene linear models is extended to develop a class of nonparametric regression models known as generalized smooth models. The technique of local scoring is used to estimate a generalized smooth model and the estimation procedure based on locally weighted regression is shown to produce local likelihood estimates. The asymptotically correct distribution of the deviance difference is derived and its use in comparing the fits of generalized linear models and generalized smooth models is illustrated. The relationship between generalized smooth models and generalized additive models is discussed, also.

  11. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  12. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  13. Discrete square root smoothing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminski, P. G.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques applied in the square root least squares and square root filtering solutions are applied to the smoothing problem. Both conventional and square root solutions are obtained by computing the filtered solutions, then modifying the results to include the effect of all measurements. A comparison of computation requirements indicates that the square root information smoother (SRIS) is more efficient than conventional solutions in a large class of fixed interval smoothing problems.

  14. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the ...

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  19. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  2. Smooth eigenvalue correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2013-12-01

    Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Marčenko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Marčenko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.

  3. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  4. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy.

  5. A Novel Selectable Islet 1 Positive Progenitor Cell Reprogrammed to Expandable and Functional Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth C; Huang, Chien-Ling; Sawhney, Neha; Govindarajan, Kalaimathi; Clover, Anthony J P; Martin, Kenneth; Browne, Tara C; Whelan, Derek; Kumar, Arun H S; Mackrill, John J; Wang, Shaohua; Schmeckpeper, Jeffrey; Stocca, Alessia; Pierce, William G; Leblond, Anne-Laure; Cai, Liquan; O'Sullivan, Donnchadh M; Buneker, Chirlei K; Choi, Janet; MacSharry, John; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Caplice, Noel M

    2016-05-01

    Disorders affecting smooth muscle structure/function may require technologies that can generate large scale, differentiated and contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC) suitable for cell therapy. To date no clonal precursor population that provides large numbers of differentiated SMC in culture has been identified in a rodent. Identification of such cells may also enhance insight into progenitor cell fate decisions and the relationship between smooth muscle precursors and disease states that implicate differentiated SMC.  In this study, we used classic clonal expansion techniques to identify novel self-renewing Islet 1 (Isl-1) positive primitive progenitor cells (PPC) within rat bone marrow that exhibited canonical stem cell markers and preferential differentiation towards a smooth muscle-like fate. We subsequently used molecular tagging to select Isl-1 positive clonal populations from expanded and de novo marrow cell populations. We refer to these previously undescribed cells as the PPC given its stem cell marker profile, and robust self-renewal capacity. PPC could be directly converted into induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) using single transcription factor (Kruppel-like factor 4) knockdown or transactivator (myocardin) overexpression in contrast to three control cells (HEK 293, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) where such induction was not possible. iSMC exhibited immuno- and cytoskeletal-phenotype, calcium signaling profile and contractile responses similar to bona fide SMC. Passaged iSMC could be expanded to a scale sufficient for large scale tissue replacement.  PPC and reprogramed iSMC so derived may offer future opportunities to investigate molecular, structure/function and cell-based replacement therapy approaches to diverse cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary diseases that have as their basis smooth muscle cell functional aberrancy or numerical loss. Stem Cells 2016;34:1354-1368.

  6. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  7. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  8. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  9. Smooth Muscle Strips for Intestinal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Walthers, Christopher M.; Lee, Min; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle. PMID:25486279

  10. Smooth Sailing with Contract Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to make the contract services relationship work smoothly for educational facilities. Covers topics of food, child care, and transportation services, along with a brief explanation of the benefits of outsourcing on-campus amenities. (GR)

  11. Active controls for ride smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Thompson, G. O.

    1976-01-01

    Active controls technology offers great promise for significantly smoothing the ride, and thus improving public and air carrier acceptance, of certain types of transport aircraft. Recent findings which support this promise are presented in the following three pertinent areas: (1) Ride quality versus degree of traveler satisfaction; (2) significant findings from a feasibility study of a ride smoothing system; and (3) potential ride problems identified for several advanced transport concepts.

  12. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  13. Piperine Congeners as Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mair, Christina E; Liu, Rongxia; Atanasov, Atanas G; Wimmer, Laurin; Nemetz-Fiedler, Daniel; Sider, Nadine; Heiss, Elke H; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Dirsch, Verena M; Rollinger, Judith M

    2015-08-01

    Successful vascular healing after percutaneous coronary interventions is related to the inhibition of abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and efficient re-endothelialization. In the search for vascular smooth muscle cell anti-proliferative agents from natural sources we identified piperine (1), the main pungent constituent of the fruits from Piper nigrum (black pepper). Piperine inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation with an IC50 of 21.6 µM, as quantified by a resazurin conversion assay. Investigations of ten piperamides isolated from black pepper fruits and 15 synthesized piperine derivatives resulted in the identification of three potent vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation inhibitors: the natural alkaloid pipertipine (4), and the two synthetic derivatives (2E,4E)-N,N-dibutyl-5-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dienamide (14) and (E)-N,N-dibutyl-3-(naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)acrylamide (20). They showed IC50 values of 3.38, 6.00, and 7.85 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the synthetic compound (2E,4E)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(piperidin-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (12) was found to be cell type selective, by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation with an IC50 of 11.8 µM without influencing the growth of human endothelial cells. PMID:26132851

  14. Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kennerly, Stacey Joy; Aimi, Marco Francesco

    2012-08-14

    A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

  15. Exotic smoothness and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, T.

    2010-08-01

    Since the first work on exotic smoothness in physics, it was folklore to assume a direct influence of exotic smoothness to quantum gravity. Thus, the negative result of Duston (2009 arXiv:0911.4068) was a surprise. A closer look into the semi-classical approach uncovered the implicit assumption of a close connection between geometry and smoothness structure. But both structures, geometry and smoothness, are independent of each other. In this paper we calculate the 'smoothness structure' part of the path integral in quantum gravity assuming that the 'sum over geometries' is already given. For that purpose we use the knot surgery of Fintushel and Stern applied to the class E(n) of elliptic surfaces. We mainly focus our attention to the K3 surfaces E(2). Then we assume that every exotic smoothness structure of the K3 surface can be generated by knot or link surgery in the manner of Fintushel and Stern. The results are applied to the calculation of expectation values. Here we discuss the two observables, volume and Wilson loop, for the construction of an exotic 4-manifold using the knot 52 and the Whitehead link Wh. By using Mostow rigidity, we obtain a topological contribution to the expectation value of the volume. Furthermore, we obtain a justification of area quantization.

  16. [Morphological study of muscle fibers stained red by modified Gomori trichrome staining with special reference to smooth red fibers].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K

    1997-03-01

    The modified Gomori trichrome stain of muscles can demonstrate ragged red fibers which are irregular in outline and display a thick and irregular red subsarcolemmal layer and intermyofibrillar red deposits. Typical ragged red fibers are often encountered in mitochondrial myopathy. On the other hand, we have noticed fibers outlined by a thin red subsarcolemmal layer. These fibers are smooth in outline. The sarcoplasm shows normal intermyofibrillar network. We defined these fibers as "smooth red fibers". To investigate the pathological significance of the smooth red fibers, we studied morphological differences between the smooth red fibers and ragged red fibers by light and electron microscopy and evaluated the occurrence and characteristics of the both abnormal muscle fibers in several neuromuscular diseases. Muscle specimens from 738 patients who were seen or consulted at the Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University, from January 1980 to October 1994 were examined. The smooth red fibers were classified into two types, type I and type II. Type I smooth red fibers were hypertrophied and showed a thin smooth red margin. Electron microscopy of the type I smooth red fibers showed no mitochondrial abnormality, being different from ragged red fibers which have abnormal mitochondria. Type I smooth red fibers were observed in chronic denervation process; they were specially frequent in Kugelberg-Welander syndrome. Hypertrophy of type I smooth red fibers were considered to be a compensative reaction in chronic denervation. Type II smooth red fibers were observed with or without ragged red fibers in mitochondrial myopathy. Type II smooth red fibers showed a thin smooth red margin, spreading red deposits from the margin into sarcoplasm. The fibers showed mitochondrial abnormality in electron microscopy. It could be posturated that type II smooth red fibers were transformed into ragged red fibers. The findings suggest 1) type I and type II smooth red fibers are different in

  17. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  18. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  19. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  20. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  1. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  2. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  4. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  5. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  6. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.768 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture..., California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit....

  8. 7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit....

  9. 7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture... Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit....

  10. 7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety...

  12. 7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...

  13. 7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...

  14. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.768 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit....

  17. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.768 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the...

  18. 7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture..., California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit....

  19. 7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit....

  20. 7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...

  1. 7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety...

  2. 7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture... Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit....

  3. 7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety...

  5. Smooth ocular pursuit in Chiari type II malformation.

    PubMed

    Salman, Michael S; Sharpe, James A; Lillakas, Linda; Steinbach, Martin J; Dennis, Maureen

    2007-04-01

    Chiari type II malformation (CII) is a congenital anomaly of the cerebellum and brainstem, both important structures for processing smooth ocular pursuit. CII is associated with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus. We investigated the effects of CII on smooth pursuit (SP) eye movements, and determined the effects of spinal lesion level, number of shunt revisions, nystagmus, and brain dysmorphology on SP. SP was recorded using an infrared eye tracker in 21 participants with CII (11 males, 10 females; age range 8-19y, mean 14y 3mo [SD 3y 2mo]). Thirty-eight healthy children (21 males, 17 females) constituted the comparison group. Participants followed a visual target moving sinusoidally at +/- 10 degrees amplitude, horizontally and vertically at 0.25 or 0.5Hz. SP gains, the ratio of eye to target velocities, were abnormal in the CII group with nystagmus (n= 8). The number of shunt revisions (range 0-10), brain dysmorphology, or spinal lesion level (n= 15 for lower and n= 6 for upper spinal lesion level) did not correlate with SP gains. SP is impaired in children with CII and nystagmus. Abnormal pursuit might be related to the CII dysgenesis or to effects of hydrocephalus. The lack of effect of shunt revisions and abnormal tracking in participants with nystagmus provide evidence that it is related primarily to the cerebellar and brainstem malformation.

  6. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  7. Registration of 'Newell' Smooth Bromegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Newell’ (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI 671851) smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) is a steppe or southern type cultivar that is primarily adapted in the USA to areas north of 40o N lat. and east of 100o W long. that have 500 mm or more annual precipitation or in areas that have similar climate cond...

  8. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  9. Surface antigens of smooth brucellae.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R; Jones, L M; Leong, D; Wilson, J B

    1968-10-01

    Surface antigens of smooth brucellae were extracted by ether-water, phenol-water, trichloroacetic acid, and saline and examined by immunoelectrophoresis and gel diffusion with antisera from infected and immunized rabbits. Ether-water extracts of Brucella melitensis contained a lipopolysaccharide protein component, which was specific for the surface of smooth brucellae and was correlated with the M agglutinogen of Wilson and Miles, a polysaccharide protein component devoid of lipid which was not restricted to the surface of smooth brucellae and was not correlated with the smooth agglutinogen (component 1), and several protein components which were associated with internal antigens of rough and smooth brucellae. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of ether-water extracts of B. abortus revealed only two components, a lipopolysaccharide protein component, which was correlated with the A agglutinogen, and component 1. Component 1 from B. melitensis and B. abortus showed identity in gel diffusion tests, whereas component M from B. melitensis and component A from B. abortus showed partial identity with unabsorbed antisera and no cross-reactions with monospecific sera. Attempts to prepare monospecific sera directly by immunization of rabbits with cell walls or ether-water extracts were unsuccessful. Absorption of antisera with heavy fraction of ether-water extracts did not always result in monospecific sera. It was concluded (as has been described before) that the A and M antigens are present on a single antigenic complex, in different proportions depending upon the species and biotype, and that this component is a lipopolysaccharide protein complex of high molecular weight that diffuses poorly through agar gel. Components 1, A, and M were also demonstrated in trichloroacetic acid and phenol-water extracts. With all extracts, B. melitensis antigen showed greater diffusibility in agar than B. abortus antigens. After mild acid hydrolysis, B. abortus ether-water extract was able

  10. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  11. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with smoothed pseudo-density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoko; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which, unlike the standard SPH (SSPH), is well behaved at the contact discontinuity. The SSPH scheme cannot handle discontinuities in density (e.g., the contact discontinuity and the free surface), because it requires that the density of fluid is positive and continuous everywhere. Thus there is inconsistency in the formulation of the SSPH scheme at discontinuities of the fluid density. To solve this problem, we introduce a new quantity associated with particles and the "density" of that quantity. This "density" evolves through the usual continuity equation with an additional artificial diffusion term, in order to guarantee the continuity of the "density." We use this "density," or pseudo-density, instead of the mass density, to formulate our SPH scheme. We call our new method SPH with smoothed pseudo-density, and we show that it is physically consistent and can handle discontinuities quite well.

  12. Smooth Pursuit in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research since 1993

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Callahan, Brandy L.

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal smooth pursuit eye-tracking is one of the most replicated deficits in the psychophysiological literature in schizophrenia [Levy, D. L., Holzman, P. S., Matthysse, S., & Mendell, N. R. (1993). "Eye tracking dysfunction and schizophrenia: A critical perspective." "Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19", 461-505]. We used meta-analytic procedures to…

  13. Young Craters on Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Young craters (the largest of which is about 100 kilometers in diameter) superposed on smooth plains. Larger young craters have central peaks, flat floors, terraced walls, radial ejecta deposits, and surrounding fields of secondary craters. Smooth plains have well-developed ridges extending NW and NE. This image (FDS 167), acquired during the spacecraft's first encounter with Mercury, is located approximately 60 degrees N, 175 degrees W.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  14. Smoothing of mixed complementarity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.A.; More, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The authors introduce a smoothing approach to the mixed complementarity problem, and study the limiting behavior of a path defined by approximate minimizers of a nonlinear least squares problem. The main result guarantees that, under a mild regularity condition, limit points of the iterates are solutions to the mixed complementarity problem. The analysis is applicable to a wide variety of algorithms suitable for large-scale mixed complementarity problems.

  15. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  16. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  17. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  18. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  20. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  1. Implicit function theorem as a realization of the Lagrange principle. Abnormal points

    SciTech Connect

    Arutyunov, A V

    2000-02-28

    A smooth non-linear map is studied in a neighbourhood of an abnormal (degenerate) point. Inverse function and implicit function theorems are proved. The proof is based on the examination of a family of constrained extremal problems; second-order necessary conditions, which make sense also in the abnormal case, are used in the process. If the point under consideration is normal, then these conditions turn into the classical ones.

  2. Cooperation of myocardin and Smad2 in inducing differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Ren, Guang-Da; Zhou, Zhen; Xu, Yao; Qin, Tao; Yu, Ru-Fa; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2012-04-01

    Several reports demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro and in vivo. It has been shown that myocardin protein is a strong inducer of smooth muscle genes and MSCs can differentiate into SMCs in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). However, the relationship or link between myocardin and TGF-β3-induced MSC differentiation has not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that both myocardin and TGF-β3 were able to induce differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs toward smooth-muscle-like cell types, as evidenced by increasing expression of SMC-specific genes. Of note, myocardin cooperated with Smad2 to synergistically activate SM22α promoter and significantly enhance the expression of SM22α. Report assays with site-direct mutation analysis of SM22α promoter demonstrated that myocardin and Smad2 coactivated SM22α promoter mainly depending on CArG box and less on smad binding elements (SBE) sites as well. These findings reveal the cooperation of myocardin and Smad2 in process of MSC differentiation into SMCs. PMID:22362485

  3. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  4. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  5. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  6. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  7. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  10. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  12. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  16. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  17. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that...

  18. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  19. Beamline smoothing of the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Zhao, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper outlines a general beamline smoothing concept based on the use of First Principle Component analysis. Bean-dine smoothing is commonly used for the detection of blunders in the positioning of beam elements and to provide a smooth particle beam path with the fewest adjustments to individual beam components. It also provides the data for assessment of the achieved positioning quality.

  20. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  1. Smooth metrics for snapping strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Hindmarsh, Mark

    1995-11-01

    We construct two possible metrics for Abelian Higgs vortices with ends on black holes. We show how the detail of the vortex fields smooths out the nodal singularities which exist in the idealized metrics. A corollary is that apparently topologically stable strings might be able to split by black hole pair production. We estimate the rate per unit length by reference to related Ernst and C-metric instantons, concluding that it is completely negligible for GUT-scale strings. The estimated rate for macroscopic superstrings is much higher, although still extremely small, unless there is an early phase of strong coupling.

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  3. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ``smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  4. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  5. Standard-smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-12-15

    We consider the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which, for {mu}>0 and universal boundary conditions, succeeds to yield experimentally acceptable b-quark masses by moderately violating Yukawa unification. It is known that this model can lead to new shifted or new smooth hybrid inflation. We show that a successful two-stage inflationary scenario can be realized within this model based only on renormalizable superpotential interactions. The cosmological scales exit the horizon during the first stage of inflation, which is of the standard hybrid type and takes place along the trivial flat direction with the inflaton driven by radiative corrections. Spectral indices compatible with the recent data can be achieved in global supersymmetry or minimal supergravity by restricting the number of e-foldings of our present horizon during the first inflationary stage. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are naturally provided by a second stage of inflation, which occurs mainly along the built-in new smooth hybrid inflationary path appearing right after the destabilization of the trivial flat direction at its critical point. Monopoles are formed at the end of the first stage of inflation and are, subsequently, diluted by the second stage of inflation to become utterly negligible in the present universe for almost all (for all) the allowed values of the parameters in the case of global supersymmetry (minimal supergravity)

  6. Unidirectional abnormal eye movement without gaze nystagmus - Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masahiro; Shibasaki, Osamu; Shindo, Susumu; Ito, Akinori; Kase, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case with unidirectional abnormalities of smooth eye movements without gaze nystagmus. Abnormalities of eye movements were confined to unidirectional (leftward) horizontal pursuit and slow phase of OKN; however, horizontal VOR (slow phase of caloric nystagmus) and saccade were normal, and vertical eye movements were also normal. No lesions were detected in the central nervous system, and any history of drug intake was denied. Although the cause of the unidirectional abnormality in eye movement of this case is still not clear, a congenital origin seems to be the most probable. PMID:26386498

  7. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second-order oscillation-free total -variation-diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusive flux ('smoothing') to a second-order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second-order spatial accuracy was found to have extremely restrictive time-step limitation. Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time-step limitation.

  8. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second order, oscillation free, total variation diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusion flux (smoothing) to a second order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell by cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second order spatial accuracy was found to have an extremely restrictive time step limitation (Delta t less than Delta x squared). Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time step limitation.

  9. An adaptive data-smoothing routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Clayborne D.; Nicolas, David P.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive noise reduction algorithm that can be implemented on a microcomputer is developed. Smoothing polynomials are used where the polynomial coefficients are chosen such that the mean-square-error between the noisy and smoothed data is minimized. This approach is equivalent to the implementation of a low-pass finite impulse response filter. The noise reduction depends on the order of the smoothing polynomial. A whiteness test on the error sequence is incorporated to search for the optimal smoothing. Expansion coefficients may be computed via the fast Fourier transform, and the resulting smoothing process is the equivalent of the implementation of an adaptive ideal low-pass filter. Results are obtained for an analytical signal with added white Gaussian noise. The routine may be applied to any smooth signal with additive random noise.

  10. Smooth Crossed Products of Rieffel's Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshveyev, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Assume is a Fréchet algebra equipped with a smooth isometric action of a vector group V, and consider Rieffel's deformation of . We construct an explicit isomorphism between the smooth crossed products and . When combined with the Elliott-Natsume-Nest isomorphism, this immediately implies that the periodic cyclic cohomology is invariant under deformation. Specializing to the case of smooth subalgebras of C*-algebras, we also get a simple proof of equivalence of Rieffel's and Kasprzak's approaches to deformation.

  11. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no

    2013-12-18

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  12. On a smooth quintic 4-fold

    SciTech Connect

    Cheltsov, I A

    2000-10-31

    The birational geometry of an arbitrary smooth quintic 4-fold is studied using the properties of log pairs. As a result, a new proof of its birational rigidity is given and all birational maps of a smooth quintic 4-fold into fibrations with general fibre of Kodaira dimension zero are described. In the Addendum similar results are obtained for all smooth hypersurfaces of degree n in P{sup n} in the case of n equal to 6, 7, or 8.

  13. Polarization smoothing for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, J F

    1998-08-13

    Polarization smoothing (PS) is the illumination of the target with two distinct and orthogonally polarized speckle patterns. Since these two polarizations do not interfere, the intensity patterns add incoherently and thus the contrast of the intensity nonuniformity can be reduced by a factor of {radical}2 in addition to any reduction achieved by temporal smoothing techniques. Smoothing by PS is completely effective on an instantaneous basis and is therefore of particular interest for the suppression of laser plasma instabilities, which have a very rapid response time. The various implementations of PS are considered and their impact, in conjunction with temporal smoothing methods, on the spatial spectrum of the target illumination is analyzed.

  14. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  15. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  16. Smooth Passage For The Jetfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Flying Princess is a Boeing Jetfoil, one of a family of commercial waterjets built by Boeing Marine Systems, a division of The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. The new Jetfoil offers a number of advantages over earlier hydrofoils, a major one being a smooth ride in rough waters. NASA technology contributed to jolt-free passenger comfort. Hydrofoils skim the surface at speeds considerably greater than those of conventional ships because there is little friction between hull and water. Hulls are raised above the water by the lift of the foils, which resemble and function like an airplane wing. The foils are attached to the hull by rigid struts, which ordinarily cause a vessel operating in coastal seas to follow the contour of the waves. In wind-whipped waters, this makes for a rough ride. Seeking to increase passenger acceptance, Boeing Marine System engineers looked for ways to improve rough-water ride quality. Langley Research Center conducts continuing ride quality research. Initially, it was aimed at improving aircraft ride; it was later expanded to include all modes of transportation. Research includes studies of vibration, acceleration, temperature, humidity, passenger seats and posture, and the psychological aspects of passenger reaction to vehicle ride. As part of the program, Langley developed instrumentation, ride quality models and methods of data analysis.

  17. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-05-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.

  18. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  19. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  20. Thermal smoothing of rough surfaces in vacuo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahl, G.

    1986-01-01

    The derivation of equations governing the smoothing of rough surfaces, based on Mullins' (1957, 1960, and 1963) theories of thermal grooving and of capillarity-governed solid surface morphology is presented. As an example, the smoothing of a one-dimensional sine-shaped surface is discussed.

  1. contbin: Contour binning and accumulative smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jeremy S.

    2016-09-01

    Contbin bins X-ray data using contours on an adaptively smoothed map. The generated bins closely follow the surface brightness, and are ideal where the surface brightness distribution is not smooth, or the spectral properties are expected to follow surface brightness. Color maps can be used instead of surface brightness maps.

  2. Leiomodin and tropomodulin in smooth muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to suggest that actin filament remodeling is critical for smooth muscle contraction, which implicates actin filament ends as important sites for regulation of contraction. Tropomodulin (Tmod) and smooth muscle leiomodin (SM-Lmod) have been found in many tissues containing smooth muscle by protein immunoblot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Both proteins cofractionate with tropomyosin in the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton of rabbit stomach smooth muscle and are solubilized by high salt. SM-Lmod binds muscle tropomyosin, a biochemical activity characteristic of Tmod proteins. SM-Lmod staining is present along the length of actin filaments in rat intestinal smooth muscle, while Tmod stains in a punctate pattern distinct from that of actin filaments or the dense body marker alpha-actinin. After smooth muscle is hypercontracted by treatment with 10 mM Ca(2+), both SM-Lmod and Tmod are found near alpha-actinin at the periphery of actin-rich contraction bands. These data suggest that SM-Lmod is a novel component of the smooth muscle actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, that the pointed ends of actin filaments in smooth muscle may be capped by Tmod in localized clusters.

  3. Increased Saccadic Rate during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Patients at Ultra High Risk for Developing a Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tricht, M. J.; Nieman, D. H.; Bour, L. J.; Boeree, T.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in eye tracking are consistently observed in schizophrenia patients and their relatives and have been proposed as an endophenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis on a task of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM). Forty-six UHR…

  4. Mechanism by Which Avenanthramide-C, a Polyphenol of Oats, Blocks Cell Cycle Progression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which manifests its clinical symptom at a later age. Abnormal growth of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contributes to the initiation and progression of this chronic disease; therefore, nutritional inhibition of the proliferation of SMC is considered to be ...

  5. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Mahanti, P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy, and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the maria. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted basin impact ejecta, most likely from the Imbrium and possibly Orientale basins. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation, contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100), sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Terrain with slopes less than 2° (1 km baseline) and standard deviation of slope less than 0.75° (1 km x 1 km box, n=9) are defined as smooth plains. Highland smooth plains are distinguished from basaltic smooth plains using the following criteria: LROC WAC 643 nm normalized reflectance > 0.056, LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio < 0.74, and Clementine FeO < 12 wt.% (excluding Clementine non-coverage areas). The remaining smooth plains are classified as maria and are subdivided into two classes: LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio > 0.77 is termed blue maria and a ratio ≤ 0.77 is termed red maria. The automatic classification was limited to the 87% of the Moon covered by photometrically normalized WAC data (60°S to 60°N). The differences between the maria and highland smooth plains

  6. SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  7. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  8. The induction of YAP expression following arterial injury is crucial for smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and neointima formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaobo; Hu, Guoqing; Gao, Xiangwei; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Harmon, Erin Yund; Zhi, Xu; Xu, Zhengping; Lennartz, Michelle R.; Barroso, Margarida; Trebak, Mohamed; Chen, Ceshi; Zhou, Jiliang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the key events in the progression of neointima formation in response to vascular injury. The goal of this study is to investigate the functional role of a potent oncogene YAP in smooth muscle phenotypic modulation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results In vitro in cell culture and in vivo in both mouse and rat arterial injury models YAP expression is significantly induced and correlated with the vascular SMC synthetic phenotype. Over-expression of YAP promotes SMC migration and proliferation while attenuating smooth muscle contractile gene expression. Conversely, knocking-down endogenous YAP in SMCs up-regulates smooth muscle gene expression but attenuates SMC proliferation and migration. Consistent with this, knocking-down YAP expression in a rat carotid balloon injury model and genetic deletion of YAP specifically in vascular SMCs in mouse after carotid artery ligation injury attenuates injury-induced smooth muscle phenotypic switch and neointima formation. Conclusions YAP plays a novel integrative role in smooth muscle phenotypic modulation by inhibiting smooth muscle-specific gene expression while promoting smooth muscle proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Blocking the induction of YAP would be a potential therapeutic approach for ameliorating vascular occlusive diseases. PMID:22922963

  9. AFSMO/AFSCL- AIRFOIL SMOOTHING AND SCALING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L

    1994-01-01

    Since its early beginnings, NASA has been actively involved in the design and testing of airfoil sections for a wide variety of applications. Recently a set of programs has been developed to smooth and scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program, AFSMO, utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic-spline techniques to iteratively smooth the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. The camber and thickness distribution of the smooth airfoil are also computed. The scaling program, AFSCL, may then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specified maximum thickness. Once the thickness distribution has been scaled, it is combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. The airfoil smoothing and scaling programs are written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and have been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 70K (octal) of 60 bit words. Both programs generate plotted output via CALCOMP type plotting calls. These programs were developed in 1983.

  10. Numerical Convergence In Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qirong; Hernquist, Lars; Li, Yuexing

    2015-02-01

    We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and Nnb → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and Nnb is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding Nnb fixed. We demonstrate that if Nnb is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if Nnb is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for Nnb by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find Nnb vpropN 0.5. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N 1 + δ), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.

  11. Small Heat Shock Proteins in Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Salinthone, Sonemany; Tyagi, Manoj; Gerthoffer, William T.

    2008-01-01

    The small heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP20, HSP27 and αB-crystallin are chaperone proteins that are abundantly expressed in smooth muscles are important modulators of muscle contraction, cell migration and cell survival. This review focuses on factors regulating expression of small HSPs in smooth muscle, signaling pathways that regulate macromolecular structure and the biochemical and cellular functions of small HSPs. Cellular processes regulated by small HSPs include chaperoning denatured proteins, maintaining cellular redox state and modifying filamentous actin polymerization. These processes influence smooth muscle proliferation, cell migration, cell survival, muscle contraction and synthesis of signaling proteins. Understanding functions of small heat shock proteins is relevant to mechanisms of disease in which dysfunctional smooth muscle causes symptoms, or is a target of drug therapy. One example is that secreted HSP27 may be a useful marker of inflammation during atherogenesis. Another is that phosphorylated HSP20 which relaxes smooth muscle may prove to be highly relevant to treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, asthma, premature labor and overactive bladder. Because small HSPs also modulate smooth muscle proliferation and cell migration they may prove to be targets for developing effective, novel treatments of clinical problems arising from remodeling of smooth muscle in vascular, respiratory and urogenital systems. PMID:18579210

  12. Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.

    1998-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to

  13. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  14. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  15. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  16. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  17. Backward smoothing for precise GNSS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaclavovic, Pavel; Dousa, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The Extended Kalman filter is widely used for its robustness and simple implementation. Parameters estimated for solving dynamical systems usually require certain time to converge and need to be smoothed by a dedicated algorithms. The purpose of our study was to implement smoothing algorithms for processing both code and carrier phase observations with Precise Point Positioning method. We implemented and used the well known Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother (RTS). It has been found out that the RTS suffer from significant numerical instability in smoothed state covariance matrix determination. We improved the processing with algorithms based on Singular Value Decomposition, which was more robust. Observations from many permanent stations have been processed with final orbits and clocks provided by the International GNSS service (IGS), and the smoothing improved stability and precision in every cases. Moreover, (re)convergence of the parameters were always successfully eliminated.

  18. Refractory thermal insulation for smooth metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    To protect rocket metal surfaces from engine exhaust heat, a refractory thermal insulation mixture, which adheres to smooth metals, has been developed. Insulation protection over a wide temperature range can be controlled by thickness of the applied mixture.

  19. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P. D.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-09-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and appear to have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains on the Moon and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that smooth highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the basaltic maria [e.g., 1]. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted as being deposits generated by impact events, most likely ejecta from the youngest and largest multi-ring basins, e.g., Imbrium and Orientale [1]. Spectral interpretations by Pieters [2] showed that the highland light plains are not mare basalt, but are composed of significantly more feldspathic, nonmare material [2]. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation (a deposit of post-Imbrium KREEP basalt [3,4]), contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We have developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100) [5], sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the identified smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images [6]. In this abstract, we do not address formation mechanisms for the nonmare deposits.

  20. Real-time in vivo proteomic identification of novel kinase substrates in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Anne A; Haystead, Timothy A

    2007-01-01

    Relaxation of smooth muscle can occur through agonists (such as nitric oxide) that activate guanylyl cyclase and stimulate the production of cGMP, activating its target, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). This kinase can raise the Ca2+ threshold for contraction, thus causing Ca2+ desensitization, but the mechanism for this event is not completely understood. Ca2+ sensitization/desensitization pathways are essential for maintenance of normal smooth muscle tone, and abnormalities in these pathways have been shown to be key components in the pathogenesis of diseases such as hypertension and asthma in humans. Our laboratory has devised a proteomic method to specifically address the question of what proteins are early phosphorylation targets in calcium desensitization. Using ileum smooth muscle, we metabolically labeled the muscle with (32P)-orthophosphate, permeabilized the muscle, established constant calcium concentrations, and stimulated with 8-bromo-cGMP, which activates PKG. Proteins whose phosphorylation state changed in response to cGMP at constant levels of calcium were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, identified by autoradiography, and sequenced with nanospray mass spectrometry. Using this technique, we identified a previously uncharacterized PKG phosphoprotein, which we have termed CHASM (Calponin Homology Smooth Muscle protein). Using physiological muscle bath contraction studies, we have validated CHASM as a component of calcium desensitization pathways in smooth muscle.

  1. Beam-smoothing investigation on Heaven I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yi-huai; Gao, Zhi-xing; Tong, Xiao-hui; Dai, Hui; Tang, Xiu-zhang; Shan, Yu-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Directly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) require laser beams with extremely smooth irradiance profiles to prevent hydrodynamic instabilities that destroy the spherical symmetry of the target during implosion. Such instabilities can break up and mix together the target's wall and fuel material, preventing it from reaching the density and temperature required for fusion ignition. 1,2 Measurements in the equation of state (EOS) experiments require laser beams with flat-roofed profiles to generate uniform shockwave 3. Some method for beam smooth, is thus needed. A technique called echelon-free induced spatial incoherence (EFISI) is proposed for producing smooth target beam profiles with large KrF lasers. The idea is basically an image projection technique that projects the desired time-averaged spatial profile onto the target via the laser system, using partially coherent broadband lighe. Utilize the technique, we developing beam- smoothing investigation on "Heaven I". At China Institute of Atomic Energy , a new angular multiplexing providing with beam-smoothing function has been developed, the total energy is 158J, the stability of energy is 4%, the pulse duration is 25ns, the effective diameter of focusing spot is 400um, and the ununiformity is about 1.6%, the power density on the target is about 3.7×10 12W/cm2. At present, the system have provided steady and smooth laser irradiation for EOS experiments.

  2. Abnormal Vascular Function and Hypertension in Mice Deficient in Estrogen Receptor β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Bian, Zhao; Lu, Ping; Karas, Richard H.; Bao, Lin; Cox, Daniel; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Shaul, Philip W.; Thorén, Peter; Smithies, Oliver; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Mendelsohn, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Blood vessels express estrogen receptors, but their role in cardiovascular physiology is not well understood. We show that vascular smooth muscle cells and blood vessels from estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-deficient mice exhibit multiple functional abnormalities. In wild-type mouse blood vessels, estrogen attenuates vasoconstriction by an ERβ-mediated increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In contrast, estrogen augments vasoconstriction in blood vessels from ERβ-deficient mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from ERβ-deficient mice show multiple abnormalities of ion channel function. Furthermore, ERβ-deficient mice develop sustained systolic and diastolic hypertension as they age. These data support an essential role for ERβ in the regulation of vascular function and blood pressure.

  3. Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kum, O.

    1995-07-01

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (u{rho}) and (T{rho}), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.

  4. Effects of hydrogen sulphide in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Ralevic, Vera; Roberts, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that the gaseous pollutant, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can be synthesised in the body and has a multitude of biological actions. This review summarizes some of the actions of this 'gasotransmitter' in influencing the smooth muscle that is responsible for controlling muscular activity of hollow organs. In the vasculature, while H2S can cause vasoconstriction by complex interactions with other biologically important gases, such as nitric oxide, the prevailing response is vasorelaxation. While most vasorelaxation responses occur by a direct action of H2S on smooth muscle cells, it has recently been proposed to be an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S also promotes relaxation in other smooth muscle preparations including bronchioles, the bladder, gastrointestinal tract and myometrium, opening up the opportunity of exploiting the pharmacology of H2S in the treatment of conditions where smooth muscle tone is excessive. The original concept, that H2S caused smooth muscle relaxation by activating ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, has been supplemented with observations that H2S can also modify the activity of other potassium channels, intracellular pH, phosphodiesterase activity and transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves. While the enzymes responsible for generating endogenous H2S are widely expressed in smooth muscle preparations, it is much less clear what the physiological role of H2S is in determining smooth muscle contractility. Clarification of this requires the development of potent and selective inhibitors of H2S-generating enzymes.

  5. Turbulent flow in smooth and rough pipes.

    PubMed

    Allen, J J; Shockling, M A; Kunkel, G J; Smits, A J

    2007-03-15

    Recent experiments at Princeton University have revealed aspects of smooth pipe flow behaviour that suggest a more complex scaling than previously noted. In particular, the pressure gradient results yield a new friction factor relationship for smooth pipes, and the velocity profiles indicate the presence of a power-law region near the wall and, for Reynolds numbers greater than about 400x103 (R+>9x103), a logarithmic region further out. New experiments on a rough pipe with a honed surface finish with krms/D=19.4x10-6, over a Reynolds number range of 57x103-21x106, show that in the transitionally rough regime this surface follows an inflectional friction factor relationship rather than the monotonic relationship given in the Moody diagram. Outer-layer scaling of the mean velocity data and streamwise turbulence intensities for the rough pipe show excellent collapse and provide strong support for Townsend's outer-layer similarity hypothesis for rough-walled flows. The streamwise rough-wall spectra also agree well with the corresponding smooth-wall data. The pipe exhibited smooth behaviour for ks+ < or =3.5, which supports the suggestion that the original smooth pipe was indeed hydraulically smooth for ReD< or =24x106. The relationship between the velocity shift, DeltaU/utau, and the roughness Reynolds number, ks+, has been used to generalize the form of the transition from smooth to fully rough flow for an arbitrary relative roughness krms/D. These predictions apply for honed pipes when the separation of pipe diameter to roughness height is large, and they differ significantly from the traditional Moody curves.

  6. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  7. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  8. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  9. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  10. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  11. Improved metabolite profile smoothing for flux estimation.

    PubMed

    Dromms, Robert A; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-09-01

    As genome-scale metabolic models become more sophisticated and dynamic, one significant challenge in using these models is to effectively integrate increasingly prevalent systems-scale metabolite profiling data into them. One common data processing step when integrating metabolite data is to smooth experimental time course measurements: the smoothed profiles can be used to estimate metabolite accumulation (derivatives), and thus the flux distribution of the metabolic model. However, this smoothing step is susceptible to the (often significant) noise in experimental measurements, limiting the accuracy of downstream model predictions. Here, we present several improvements to current approaches for smoothing metabolite time course data using defined functions. First, we use a biologically-inspired mathematical model function taken from transcriptional profiling and clustering literature that captures the dynamics of many biologically relevant transient processes. We demonstrate that it is competitive with, and often superior to, previously described fitting schemas, and may serve as an effective single option for data smoothing in metabolic flux applications. We also implement a resampling-based approach to buffer out sensitivity to specific data sets and allow for more accurate fitting of noisy data. We found that this method, as well as the addition of parameter space constraints, yielded improved estimates of concentrations and derivatives (fluxes) in previously described fitting functions. These methods have the potential to improve the accuracy of existing and future dynamic metabolic models by allowing for the more effective integration of metabolite profiling data.

  12. Migration of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerthoffer, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Migration of smooth muscle cells is a process fundamental to development of hollow organs, including blood vessels and the airways. Migration is also thought to be part of the response to tissue injury. It has also been suggested to contribute to airways remodeling triggered by chronic inflammation. In both nonmuscle and smooth muscle cells numerous external signaling molecules and internal signal transduction pathways contribute to cell migration. The review includes evidence for the functional significance of airway smooth muscle migration, a summary of promigratory and antimigratory agents, and summaries of important signaling pathways mediating migration. Important signaling pathways and effector proteins described include small G proteins, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3-K), Rho activated protein kinase (ROCK), p21-activated protein kinases (PAK), Src family tyrosine kinases, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These signaling modules control multiple critical effector proteins including actin nucleating, capping and severing proteins, myosin motors, and proteins that remodel microtubules. Actin filament remodeling, focal contact remodeling and propulsive force of molecular motors are all coordinated to move cells along gradients of chemical cues, matrix adhesiveness, or matrix stiffness. Airway smooth muscle cell migration can be modulated in vitro by drugs commonly used in pulmonary medicine including β-adrenergic agonists and corticosteroids. Future studies of airway smooth muscle cell migration may uncover novel targets for drugs aimed at modifying airway remodeling. PMID:18094091

  13. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  14. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  15. On a problem of abnormal high local tsunami run-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaystrenko, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of tsunami height distributions along the coast shows that far tsunami sources give a rather homogeneous and smoothed distributions. On the contrary, we have many examples of abnormal high tsunami run-ups produced by the source near the coast. There are Urup tsunami at 20 October 1963, Nihonkai-Chubu tsunami 26 May 1983, Okushiri tsunami 12 July 1993, Indonesia tsunami 26 December 2004 and others. Investigation of Go (1993) showed that mechanism of its forming looks random. The term 'abnormal high' means abnormal high local tsunami run-up comparatively to the one on the nearest part of coast. There are several possible mechanisms of forming of abnormal tsunami height. It can be done by focusing bottom topography or non-linear interaction and other. All of these mechanisms are not investigated to the end. Additionally to it there is one smoothing mechanism which makes tsunami height distributions more homogeneous. We can show that homogeneous shelf is working as smoothing mechanism fir wave field. Tsunami propagation in the shelf zone except area near the coast can be described by linear wave equation ν tt=div(gh grad ν) where ν describes the disturbance of the sea level, g is the gravity acceleration and h is the sea depth.. Investigations of the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the shelf can give a result: there are no abnormal high local tsunami run-ups if tsunami source is locating out of homogeneous shelf zone. The work was supported by Russian foundation for basic research, grant 08-05-01096. REFERENCES Ch.N.Go. The limitation of tsunami wave height. TSUNAMI'93. Proceedings of the International Tsunami Symposium. Wakayama, Japan, August 23-27, 1993, pp. 87-93.

  16. Smooth muscle actin and myosin expression in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Z; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Rippetoe, P; White, S; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Evans, J; McHugh, K M; Low, R B

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the expression of smooth muscle actin and myosin was examined in cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells. Protein and mRNA analyses demonstrated that these cells express alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-B heavy chains. The expression of the smooth muscle specific actin and myosin isoforms was regulated in the same direction when growth conditions were changed. Thus, at confluency in 1 or 10% serum-containing medium as well as for low-density cells (50-60% confluent) deprived of serum, the expression of the smooth muscle forms of actin and myosin was relatively high. Conversely, in rapidly proliferating cultures at low density in 10% serum, smooth muscle contractile protein expression was low. The expression of nonmuscle myosin-B mRNA and protein was more stable and was upregulated only to a small degree in growing cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular basis of differentiation and contractile function in airway smooth muscle cells.

  17. Local, Optimization-based Simplicial Mesh Smoothing

    1999-12-09

    OPT-MS is a C software package for the improvement and untangling of simplicial meshes (triangles in 2D, tetrahedra in 3D). Overall mesh quality is improved by iterating over the mesh vertices and adjusting their position to optimize some measure of mesh quality, such as element angle or aspect ratio. Several solution techniques (including Laplacian smoothing, "Smart" Laplacian smoothing, optimization-based smoothing and several combinations thereof) and objective functions (for example, element angle, sin (angle), and aspectmore » ratio) are available to the user for both two and three-dimensional meshes. If the mesh contains invalid elements (those with negative area) a different optimization algorithm for mesh untangling is provided.« less

  18. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  19. ibr: Iterative bias reduction multivariate smoothing

    SciTech Connect

    Hengartner, Nicholas W; Cornillon, Pierre-andre; Matzner - Lober, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Regression is a fundamental data analysis tool for relating a univariate response variable Y to a multivariate predictor X {element_of} E R{sup d} from the observations (X{sub i}, Y{sub i}), i = 1,...,n. Traditional nonparametric regression use the assumption that the regression function varies smoothly in the independent variable x to locally estimate the conditional expectation m(x) = E[Y|X = x]. The resulting vector of predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} at the observed covariates X{sub i} is called a regression smoother, or simply a smoother, because the predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} are less variable than the original observations Y{sub i}. Linear smoothers are linear in the response variable Y and are operationally written as {cflx m} = X{sub {lambda}}Y, where S{sub {lambda}} is a n x n smoothing matrix. The smoothing matrix S{sub {lambda}} typically depends on a tuning parameter which we denote by {lambda}, and that governs the tradeoff between the smoothness of the estimate and the goodness-of-fit of the smoother to the data by controlling the effective size of the local neighborhood over which the responses are averaged. We parameterize the smoothing matrix such that large values of {lambda} are associated to smoothers that averages over larger neighborhood and produce very smooth curves, while small {lambda} are associated to smoothers that average over smaller neighborhood to produce a more wiggly curve that wants to interpolate the data. The parameter {lambda} is the bandwidth for kernel smoother, the span size for running-mean smoother, bin smoother, and the penalty factor {lambda} for spline smoother.

  20. A monoclonal antibody against alpha-smooth muscle actin: a new probe for smooth muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (anti-alpha sm-1) recognizing exclusively alpha- smooth muscle actin was selected and characterized after immunization of BALB/c mice with the NH2-terminal synthetic decapeptide of alpha- smooth muscle actin coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Anti-alpha sm- 1 helped in distinguishing smooth muscle cells from fibroblasts in mixed cultures such as rat dermal fibroblasts and chicken embryo fibroblasts. In the aortic media, it recognized a hitherto unknown population of cells negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin and for desmin. In 5-d-old rats, this population is about half of the medial cells and becomes only 8 +/- 5% in 6-wk-old animals. In cultures of rat aortic media SMCs, there is a progressive increase of this cell population together with a progressive decrease in the number of alpha- smooth muscle actin-containing stress fibers per cell. Double immunofluorescent studies carried out with anti-alpha sm-1 and anti- desmin antibodies in several organs revealed a heterogeneity of stromal cells. Desmin-negative, alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were found in the rat intestinal muscularis mucosae and in the dermis around hair follicles. Moreover, desmin-positive, alpha-smooth muscle actin- negative cells were identified in the intestinal submucosa, rat testis interstitium, and uterine stroma. alpha-Smooth muscle actin was also found in myoepithelial cells of mammary and salivary glands, which are known to express cytokeratins. Finally, alpha-smooth muscle actin is present in stromal cells of mammary carcinomas, previously considered fibroblastic in nature. Thus, anti-alpha sm-1 antibody appears to be a powerful probe in the study of smooth muscle differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:3539945

  1. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  2. Production of super-smooth articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  3. Some cautionary remarks about smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Potential difficulties with smoothed particle hydrodynamics are discussed. In particular, empirical tests are used to demonstrate that the errors resulting from the use of variable smoothing can be much larger than commonly believed. Fortunately, however, these errors, which are normally small, do not appear to promote instability on small scales, such as fragmentation in self-gravitating fluids. Still, while SPH remains a useful tool for many problems of astrophysical interest, a rigorous formulation of it, which is adaptive but still satisfies conservation properties, is clearly wanting.

  4. Geometrical Wake of a Smooth Flat Collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    A transverse geometrical wake generated by a beam passing through a smooth flat collimator with a gradually varying gap between the upper and lower walls is considered. Based on generalization of the approach recently developed for a smooth circular taper we reduce the electromagnetic problem of the impedance calculation to the solution of two much simpler static problems - a magnetostatic and an electrostatic ones. The solution shows that in the limit of not very large frequencies, the impedance increases with the ratio h/d where h is the width and d is the distance between the collimating jaws. Numerical results are presented for the NLC Post Linac collimator.

  5. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  6. Autophagic regulation of smooth muscle cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Salabei, Joshua K.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy regulates the metabolism, survival, and function of numerous cell types, including those comprising the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, changes in autophagy have been documented in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions and in hypertensive vessels. The biology of vascular smooth muscle cells appears particularly sensitive to changes in the autophagic program. Recent evidence indicates that stimuli or stressors evoked during the course of vascular disease can regulate autophagic activity, resulting in modulation of VSMC phenotype and viability. In particular, certain growth factors and cytokines, oxygen tension, and pharmacological drugs have been shown to trigger autophagy in smooth muscle cells. Importantly, each of these stimuli has a redox component, typically associated with changes in the abundance of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or lipid species. Collective findings support the hypothesis that autophagy plays a critical role in vascular remodeling by regulating smooth muscle cell phenotype transitions and by influencing the cellular response to stress. In this graphical review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of autophagy in the biology of the smooth muscle cell in (patho)physiology. PMID:25544597

  7. Smooth PARAFAC Decomposition for Tensor Completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Tatsuya; Zhao, Qibin; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, low-rank based tensor completion, which is a higher-order extension of matrix completion, has received considerable attention. However, the low-rank assumption is not sufficient for the recovery of visual data, such as color and 3D images, where the ratio of missing data is extremely high. In this paper, we consider "smoothness" constraints as well as low-rank approximations, and propose an efficient algorithm for performing tensor completion that is particularly powerful regarding visual data. The proposed method admits significant advantages, owing to the integration of smooth PARAFAC decomposition for incomplete tensors and the efficient selection of models in order to minimize the tensor rank. Thus, our proposed method is termed as "smooth PARAFAC tensor completion (SPC)." In order to impose the smoothness constraints, we employ two strategies, total variation (SPC-TV) and quadratic variation (SPC-QV), and invoke the corresponding algorithms for model learning. Extensive experimental evaluations on both synthetic and real-world visual data illustrate the significant improvements of our method, in terms of both prediction performance and efficiency, compared with many state-of-the-art tensor completion methods.

  8. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  9. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  10. Smoothness and Striation in Digital Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayne, Sian

    2004-01-01

    It is Deleuze & Guattari's description of smooth and striated cultural spaces (Deleuze & Guattari, 1988) which informs this exploration of pedagogical alternatives within the learning environments of cyberspace. Digital spaces work to constitute subject and text in ways which are distinct, and it is awareness of this distinctiveness which must…

  11. Functional significance of increased airway smooth muscle in asthma and COPD.

    PubMed

    Lambert, R K; Wiggs, B R; Kuwano, K; Hogg, J C; Paré, P D

    1993-06-01

    Using a computational model, we investigated the effect of the morphologically determined increased airway smooth muscle mass, adventitial mass, and submucosal mass observed in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the increase in airway resistance in response to a bronchoconstricting stimulus. The computational model of Wiggs et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 69: 849-860, 1990) was modified in such a way that smooth muscle shortening was limited by the maximal stress that the muscle could develop at the constricted length. Increased adventitial thickness was found to increase constriction by reducing parenchymal interdependence. Increased submucosal thickness led to greater luminal occlusion for any degree of smooth muscle shortening. Increased muscle thickness allowed greater smooth muscle shortening against the elastic loads provided by parenchymal interdependence and airway wall stiffness. We found that for constant airway mechanics, as reflected by the passive area-pressure curves of the airways, the increased muscle mass is likely to be the most important abnormality responsible for the increased resistance observed in response to bronchoconstricting stimuli in asthma and COPD. For a given maximal muscle stress, greater muscle thickness allows the development of greater tension and thus more constriction of the lumen. PMID:8365980

  12. Biomechanical strain induces elastin and collagen production in human pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wanjare, Maureen; Agarwal, Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels are subjected to numerous biomechanical forces that work harmoniously but, when unbalanced because of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) dysfunction, can trigger a wide range of ailments such as cerebrovascular, peripheral artery, and coronary artery diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) serve as useful therapeutic tools that may help provide insight on the effect that such biomechanical stimuli have on vSMC function and differentiation. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of biomechanical strain on vSMCs derived from hPSCs. The effects of two types of tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives at different stages of differentiation were examined. The derivatives included smooth muscle-like cells (SMLCs), mature SMLCs, and contractile vSMCs. All vSMC derivatives aligned perpendicularly to the direction of cyclic uniaxial strain. Serum deprivation and short-term uniaxial strain had a synergistic effect in enhancing collagen type I, fibronectin, and elastin gene expression. Furthermore, long-term uniaxial strain deterred collagen type III gene expression, whereas long-term circumferential strain upregulated both collagen type III and elastin gene expression. Finally, long-term uniaxial strain downregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in more mature vSMC derivatives while upregulating elastin in less mature vSMC derivatives. Overall, our findings suggest that in vitro application of both cyclic uniaxial and circumferential tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives induces cell alignment and affects ECM gene expression. Therefore, mechanical stimulation of hPSC-vSMC derivatives using tensile strain may be important in modulating the phenotype and thus the function of vSMCs in tissue-engineered vessels. PMID:26108668

  13. Biomechanical strain induces elastin and collagen production in human pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wanjare, Maureen; Agarwal, Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels are subjected to numerous biomechanical forces that work harmoniously but, when unbalanced because of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) dysfunction, can trigger a wide range of ailments such as cerebrovascular, peripheral artery, and coronary artery diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) serve as useful therapeutic tools that may help provide insight on the effect that such biomechanical stimuli have on vSMC function and differentiation. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of biomechanical strain on vSMCs derived from hPSCs. The effects of two types of tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives at different stages of differentiation were examined. The derivatives included smooth muscle-like cells (SMLCs), mature SMLCs, and contractile vSMCs. All vSMC derivatives aligned perpendicularly to the direction of cyclic uniaxial strain. Serum deprivation and short-term uniaxial strain had a synergistic effect in enhancing collagen type I, fibronectin, and elastin gene expression. Furthermore, long-term uniaxial strain deterred collagen type III gene expression, whereas long-term circumferential strain upregulated both collagen type III and elastin gene expression. Finally, long-term uniaxial strain downregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in more mature vSMC derivatives while upregulating elastin in less mature vSMC derivatives. Overall, our findings suggest that in vitro application of both cyclic uniaxial and circumferential tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives induces cell alignment and affects ECM gene expression. Therefore, mechanical stimulation of hPSC-vSMC derivatives using tensile strain may be important in modulating the phenotype and thus the function of vSMCs in tissue-engineered vessels. PMID:26108668

  14. Calcium Sensitization Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Perrino, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is the primary trigger of contraction of gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles. However, increasing the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments by elevating myosin light chain phosphorylation also plays an essential role. Inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase activity with protein kinase C-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying myofilament Ca2+ sensitization. The relative importance of Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms to the diverse patterns of GI motility is likely related to the varied functional roles of GI smooth muscles. Increases in CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in response to agonist stimulation regulate myosin light chain phosphatase activity in phasic, tonic, and sphincteric GI smooth muscles. Recent evidence suggests that MYPT1 phosphorylation may also contribute to force generation by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms responsible for maintaining constitutive CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in GI smooth muscles are still largely unknown. The characteristics of the cell-types comprising the neuroeffector junction lead to fundamental differences between the effects of exogenous agonists and endogenous neurotransmitters on Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms. The contribution of various cell-types within the tunica muscularis to the motor responses of GI organs to neurotransmission must be considered when determining the mechanisms by which Ca2+ sensitization pathways are activated. The signaling pathways regulating Ca2+ sensitization may provide novel therapeutic strategies for controlling GI motility. This article will provide an overview of the current understanding of the biochemical basis for the regulation of Ca2+ sensitization, while also discussing the functional importance to different smooth muscles of the GI tract. PMID:26701920

  15. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  16. Extracellular calcium sensing in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Christoffersen, Tue E.H.

    2006-10-06

    Extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) can act as a first messenger in many cell types through a G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). It is still debated whether the CaR is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we report the expression of CaR mRNA and protein in rat aortic VSMCs and show that Ca2+o stimulates proliferation of the cells. The effects of Ca2+o were attenuated by pre-treatment with MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor, as well as an allosteric modulator, NPS 2390. Furthermore, stimulation of the VSMCs with Ca2+o-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but surprisingly did not cause inositol phosphate accumulation. We were not able to conclusively state that the CaR mediates Ca2+o-induced cell proliferation. Rather, an additional calcium-sensing mechanism may exist. Our findings may be of importance with regard to atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of VSMCs and high local levels of calcium.

  17. Arterial Myogenic Activation through Smooth Muscle Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Arhatte, Malika; Demolombe, Sophie; Peyronnet, Rémi; Baudrie, Véronique; Jodar, Martine; Bourreau, Jennifer; Henrion, Daniel; Offermanns, Stefan; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Feng, Yuanyi; Patel, Amanda; Duprat, Fabrice; Honoré, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the filamin A (FlnA) gene are frequently associated with severe arterial abnormalities, although the physiological role for this cytoskeletal element remains poorly understood in vascular cells. We used a conditional mouse model to selectively delete FlnA in smooth muscle (sm) cells at the adult stage, thus avoiding the developmental effects of the knockout. Basal blood pressure was significantly reduced in conscious smFlnA knockout mice. Remarkably, pressure-dependent tone of the resistance caudal artery was lost, whereas reactivity to vasoconstrictors was preserved. Impairment of the myogenic behavior was correlated with a lack of calcium influx in arterial myocytes upon an increase in intraluminal pressure. Notably, the stretch activation of CaV1.2 was blunted in the absence of smFlnA. In conclusion, FlnA is a critical upstream element of the signaling cascade underlying the myogenic tone. These findings allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of arterial autoregulation and associated disease states. PMID:26923587

  18. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  19. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  20. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  1. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  2. A Generalized Eigensolver based on Smoothed Aggregation (GES-SA) for Initializing Smoothed Aggregation Multigrid (SA)

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S

    2007-05-31

    Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.

  3. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. Tribological properties of smooth diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenov, S. M.; Smolin, A. A.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Konov, V. I.; Bögli, U.; Blatter, A.; Loubnin, E. N.; Maillat, M.; Leijala, A.; Burger, J.; Hintermann, H. E.

    1996-02-01

    The friction and wear properties of smooth diamond coatings sliding against a monocrystalline ruby ball were studied using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The smooth diamond film surface was prepared either by (i) deposition of ultrathin nanocrystalline films in the thickness range from 0.2 to 2 μm or by (ii) postgrowth polishing. Excimer laser surface ablation, microwave plasma etching and mechanical lapping with diamond grit were used for postgrowth polishing. A correlation of film surface properties examined with different techniques (atomic force microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, stylus profilometry) and the tribological properties of the diamond films tested was established. The influence of laser-induced surface graphitization on the friction coefficient of laser-polished films was investigated.

  5. SPHGR: Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    SPHGR (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction) is a python based open-source framework for analyzing smoothed-particle hydrodynamic simulations. Its basic form can run a baryonic group finder to identify galaxies and a halo finder to identify dark matter halos; it can also assign said galaxies to their respective halos, calculate halo & galaxy global properties, and iterate through previous time steps to identify the most-massive progenitors of each halo and galaxy. Data about each individual halo and galaxy is collated and easy to access. SPHGR supports a wide range of simulations types including N-body, full cosmological volumes, and zoom-in runs. Support for multiple SPH code outputs is provided by pyGadgetReader (ascl:1411.001), mainly Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and TIPSY (ascl:1111.015).

  6. Variational algorithms for nonlinear smoothing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A variational approach is presented for solving a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem with application to offline processing of noisy data for trajectory reconstruction and parameter estimation. The nonlinear problem is solved as a sequence of linear two-point boundary value problems. Second-order convergence properties are demonstrated. Algorithms for both continuous and discrete versions of the problem are given, and example solutions are provided.

  7. Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi

    Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.

  8. On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2016-09-01

    Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.

  9. Smooth muscle tumours of the alimentary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, T.; Danton, M. H.; Parks, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Neoplasms arising from smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are uncommon, comprising only 1% of gastrointestinal tumours. A total of 51 cases of smooth muscle tumour of the GI tract were analysed; 44 leiomyomas and 7 leiomyosarcomas. Lesions occurred in all areas from the oesophagus to the rectum, the stomach being the commonest site. Thirty-six patients had clinical features referable to the tumour. The tumour was detected during investigation or management of an unrelated disease process in 15 patients. The clinical presentation varied depending on tumour location, but abdominal pain and GI bleeding were the commonest presenting symptoms. The lesion was demonstrated preoperatively, mainly by endoscopy and barium studies, in 27 patients. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice, where possible. There was no recurrence in the leiomyoma group but four patients died in the leiomyosarcoma group. Although rare, smooth muscle tumours should be considered in situations where clinical presentation and investigations are not suggestive of any common GI disorder. The preoperative assessment and diagnosis is difficult because of the variability in clinical features and their inaccessibility to routine GI investigation. It is recommended that, where possible, the lesion, whether symptomatic or discovered incidentally, should be excised completely to achieve a cure and prevent future complications. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2221768

  10. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  11. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  12. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  13. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  14. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  15. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does...

  16. Infant Attention and the Development of Smooth Pursuit Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.; Holley, Felecia B.

    1999-01-01

    Studied effect of attention on smooth pursuit and saccadic tracking in infants at 8, 14, 20, and 26 weeks old. Found an increase across age in overall tracking, gain of smooth-pursuit eye movements, and increased amplitude of compensatory saccades at faster tracking speeds. Findings show that development of smooth pursuit, targeted saccadic eye…

  17. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.1162 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and...

  20. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is...

  4. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  5. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved…

  6. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  9. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and...

  10. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.1162 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and...

  12. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  13. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free...

  15. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is...

  17. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  18. Alternative Smoothing and Scaling Strategies for Weighted Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, smoothing and scaling approaches are compared for estimating subscore-to-composite scaling results involving composites computed as rounded and weighted combinations of subscores. The considered smoothing and scaling approaches included those based on raw data, on smoothing the bivariate distribution of the subscores, on smoothing…

  19. A rare case of lymphangiomyomatosis treated with leuprolide acetate: five-years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bastu, E; Akhan, S E; Karamustafaoglu, B; Gungor-Ugurlucan, F; Sozen, H; Iyibozkurt, A C

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare and systemic disease that is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and along the axial lymphatic system. The authors herein present a rare case of LAM that was treated with long-term use of leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa).

  20. Smooth muscle–endothelial cell communication activates Reelin signaling and regulates lymphatic vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Lutter, Sophie; Xie, Sherry; Tatin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Active lymph transport relies on smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractions around collecting lymphatic vessels, yet regulation of lymphatic vessel wall assembly and lymphatic pumping are poorly understood. Here, we identify Reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein previously implicated in central nervous system development, as an important regulator of lymphatic vascular development. Reelin-deficient mice showed abnormal collecting lymphatic vessels, characterized by a reduced number of SMCs, abnormal expression of lymphatic capillary marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and impaired function. Furthermore, we show that SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels stimulated release and proteolytic processing of endothelium-derived Reelin. Lymphatic endothelial cells in turn responded to Reelin by up-regulating monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) expression, which suggests an autocrine mechanism for Reelin-mediated control of endothelial factor expression upstream of SMC recruitment. These results uncover a mechanism by which Reelin signaling is activated by communication between the two cell types of the collecting lymphatic vessels—smooth muscle and endothelial cells—and highlight a hitherto unrecognized and important function for SMCs in lymphatic vessel morphogenesis and function. PMID:22665518

  1. Airway smooth muscle dynamics: a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma

    PubMed Central

    An, S.S.; Bai, T.R.; Bates, J.H.T.; Black, J.L.; Brown, R.H.; Brusasco, V.; Chitano, P.; Deng, L.; Dowell, M.; Eidelman, D.H.; Fabry, B.; Fairbank, N.J.; Ford, L.E.; Fredberg, J.J.; Gerthoffer, W.T.; Gilbert, S.H.; Gosens, R.; Gunst, S.J.; Halayko, A.J.; Ingram, R.H.; Irvin, C.G.; James, A.L.; Janssen, L.J.; King, G.G.; Knight, D.A.; Lauzon, A.M.; Lakser, O.J.; Ludwig, M.S.; Lutchen, K.R.; Maksym, G.N.; Martin, J.G.; Mauad, T.; McParland, B.E.; Mijailovich, S.M.; Mitchell, H.W.; Mitchell, R.W.; Mitzner, W.; Murphy, T.M.; Paré, P.D.; Pellegrino, R.; Sanderson, M.J.; Schellenberg, R.R.; Seow, C.Y.; Silveira, P.S.P.; Smith, P.G.; Solway, J.; Stephens, N.L.; Sterk, P.J.; Stewart, A.G.; Tang, D.D.; Tepper, R.S.; Tran, T.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is not certain whether, in asthma, there is a change in the intrinsic properties of ASM, a change in the structure and mechanical properties of the noncontractile components of the airway wall, or a change in the interdependence of the airway wall with the surrounding lung parenchyma. All these potential changes could result from acute or chronic airway inflammation and associated tissue repair and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory therapy, however, does not “cure” asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness can persist in asthmatics, even in the absence of airway inflammation. This is perhaps because the therapy does not directly address a fundamental abnormality of asthma, that of exaggerated airway narrowing due to excessive shortening of ASM. In the present study, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is explored. PMID:17470619

  2. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  3. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683

  5. Method for producing smooth inner surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Charles A.

    2016-05-17

    The invention provides a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media to tumble by centrifugal barrel polishing within the cavities for a time sufficient to attain a surface smoothness of less than 15 nm root mean square roughness over approximately a 1 mm.sup.2 scan area. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media bound to a carrier to tumble within the cavities. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media in a slurry to tumble within the cavities.

  6. On spaces of functions of smoothness zero

    SciTech Connect

    Besov, Oleg V

    2012-08-31

    The paper is concerned with the new spaces B-bar{sub p,q}{sup 0} of functions of smoothness zero defined on the n-dimensional Euclidean space R{sup n} or on a subdomain G of R{sup n}. These spaces are compared with the spaces B{sub p,q}{sup 0}(R{sup n}) and bmo(R{sup n}). The embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces are refined in terms of the space B-bar{sub p,q}{sup 0} with the limiting exponent. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  7. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1993-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.

  8. Workshop on advances in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wingate, C.A.; Miller, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    This proceedings contains viewgraphs presented at the 1993 workshop held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Discussed topics include: negative stress, reactive flow calculations, interface problems, boundaries and interfaces, energy conservation in viscous flows, linked penetration calculations, stability and consistency of the SPH method, instabilities, wall heating and conservative smoothing, tensors, tidal disruption of stars, breaking the 10,000,000 particle limit, modelling relativistic collapse, SPH without H, relativistic KSPH avoidance of velocity based kernels, tidal compression and disruption of stars near a supermassive rotation black hole, and finally relativistic SPH viscosity and energy.

  9. Mutator Dynamics on a Smooth Evolutionary Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    We investigate a model of evolutionary dynamics on a smooth landscape which features a ``mutator'' allele which increases the mutation rate. We show that when the fitness is far from its equilibrium value the expected proportion of mutators approaches a value governed solely by the transition rates into and out of the mutator state, resulting in a much faster fitness increase than would be the case without the mutator allele. Near the fitness equilibrium, the mutators are severely suppressed, due to the detrimental effects of a large mutation rate near the fitness maximum. We discuss the results of a recent experiment on natural selection of E. coli in the light of our model.

  10. Accurate statistical tests for smooth classification images.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Alan; Worsley, Keith J; Schyns, Philippe G; Arguin, Martin; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2005-10-05

    Despite an obvious demand for a variety of statistical tests adapted to classification images, few have been proposed. We argue that two statistical tests based on random field theory (RFT) satisfy this need for smooth classification images. We illustrate these tests on classification images representative of the literature from F. Gosselin and P. G. Schyns (2001) and from A. B. Sekuler, C. M. Gaspar, J. M. Gold, and P. J. Bennett (2004). The necessary computations are performed using the Stat4Ci Matlab toolbox.

  11. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683

  12. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.

  13. Improved beam smoothing with SSD using generalized phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The smoothing of the spatial illumination of an inertial confinement fusion target is examined by its spatial frequency content. It is found that the smoothing by spectral dispersion method, although efficient for glass lasers, can yield poor smoothing at low spatial frequency. The dependence of the smoothed spatial spectrum on the characteristics of phase modulation and dispersion is examined for both sinusoidal and more general phase modulation. It is shown that smoothing with non-sinusoidal phase modulation can result in spatial spectra which are substantially identical to that obtained with the induced spatial incoherence or similar method where random phase plates are present in both methods and identical beam divergence is assumed.

  14. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  15. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  17. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  18. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm. PMID:27239213

  19. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K(+)- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K(+) was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca(2+) channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca(2+) channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm.

  20. Isotropic Growth of Graphene toward Smoothing Stitching.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Wang, Lingxiang; Mendes, Rafael G; Qin, Zhihui; Huang, Yaxin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Liwen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yue, Shuanglin; Rümmeli, Mark H; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Chen, Shengli; Fu, Lei

    2016-07-26

    The quality of graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition still has very great disparity with its theoretical property due to the inevitable formation of grain boundaries. The design of single-crystal substrate with an anisotropic twofold symmetry for the unidirectional alignment of graphene seeds would be a promising way for eliminating the grain boundaries at the wafer scale. However, such a delicate process will be easily terminated by the obstruction of defects or impurities. Here we investigated the isotropic growth behavior of graphene single crystals via melting the growth substrate to obtain an amorphous isotropic surface, which will not offer any specific grain orientation induction or preponderant growth rate toward a certain direction in the graphene growth process. The as-obtained graphene grains are isotropically round with mixed edges that exhibit high activity. The orientation of adjacent grains can be easily self-adjusted to smoothly match each other over a liquid catalyst with facile atom delocalization due to the low rotation steric hindrance of the isotropic grains, thus achieving the smoothing stitching of the adjacent graphene. Therefore, the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be eliminated and the excellent transport performance of graphene will be more guaranteed. What is more, such an isotropic growth mode can be extended to other types of layered nanomaterials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal chalcogenides for obtaining large-size intrinsic film with low defect. PMID:27403842

  1. Smooth blasting with the electronic delay detonator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Ichijo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    The authors utilized electronic detonators (EDs) to investigate the effect of high detonator delay accuracy on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness, in comparison with that of long-period delay detonators (0.25 sec interval) PDs. The experiments were conducted in a deep mine, in a test site region composed of very hard granodiorite with a seismic wave velocity of about 6.0 km/sec and a uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and Young`s modulus of 300 MPa, 12 MPa, and 73 GPa, respectively. The blasting design was for a test tunnel excavation of 8 m{sup 2} in cross section, with an advance per round of 2.5 m. Five rounds were performed, each with a large-hole cut and perimeter holes in a 0.4-m spacing charged with 20-mm-diameter water gel explosive to obtain low charge concentration. EDs were used in the holes on the perimeter of the right half, and PDs were used in all other holes. Following each shot, the cross section was measured by laser to determine amount of overbreak and surface smoothness. In situ seismic prospecting was used to estimate the depth of damage in the remaining rock, and the damage was further investigated by boring into both side walls.

  2. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  3. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K(+)- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K(+) was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca(2+) channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca(2+) channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm. PMID:27239213

  4. Isotropic Growth of Graphene toward Smoothing Stitching.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Wang, Lingxiang; Mendes, Rafael G; Qin, Zhihui; Huang, Yaxin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Liwen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yue, Shuanglin; Rümmeli, Mark H; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Chen, Shengli; Fu, Lei

    2016-07-26

    The quality of graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition still has very great disparity with its theoretical property due to the inevitable formation of grain boundaries. The design of single-crystal substrate with an anisotropic twofold symmetry for the unidirectional alignment of graphene seeds would be a promising way for eliminating the grain boundaries at the wafer scale. However, such a delicate process will be easily terminated by the obstruction of defects or impurities. Here we investigated the isotropic growth behavior of graphene single crystals via melting the growth substrate to obtain an amorphous isotropic surface, which will not offer any specific grain orientation induction or preponderant growth rate toward a certain direction in the graphene growth process. The as-obtained graphene grains are isotropically round with mixed edges that exhibit high activity. The orientation of adjacent grains can be easily self-adjusted to smoothly match each other over a liquid catalyst with facile atom delocalization due to the low rotation steric hindrance of the isotropic grains, thus achieving the smoothing stitching of the adjacent graphene. Therefore, the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be eliminated and the excellent transport performance of graphene will be more guaranteed. What is more, such an isotropic growth mode can be extended to other types of layered nanomaterials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal chalcogenides for obtaining large-size intrinsic film with low defect.

  5. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including "Mycobacterium canettii" are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  6. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  8. An RYR1 mutation associated with malignant hyperthermia is also associated with bleeding abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rubén J; Byrne, Susan; Vukcevic, Mirko; Sekulic-Jablanovic, Marijana; Xu, Lifen; Brink, Marijke; Alamelu, Jay; Voermans, Nicol; Snoeck, Marc; Clement, Emma; Muntoni, Francesco; Zhou, Haiyan; Radunovic, Aleksandar; Mohammed, Shehla; Wraige, Elizabeth; Zorzato, Francesco; Treves, Susan; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially fatal hypermetabolic disorder triggered by halogenated anesthetics and the myorelaxant succinylcholine in genetically predisposed individuals. About 50% of susceptible individuals carry dominant, gain-of-function mutations in RYR1 [which encodes ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1)], though they have normal muscle function and no overt clinical symptoms. RyR1 is predominantly found in skeletal muscle but also at lower amounts in immune and smooth muscle cells, suggesting that RYR1 mutations may have a wider range of effects than previously suspected. Mild bleeding abnormalities have been described in patients with malignant hyperthermia carrying gain-of-function RYR1 mutations. We sought to determine the frequency and molecular basis for this symptom. We found that some patients with specific RYR1 mutations had abnormally high bleeding scores, whereas their healthy relatives did not. Knock-in mice with the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility RYR1 mutation Y522S (MHS RYR1Y522S) had longer bleeding times than their wild-type littermates. Primary vascular smooth muscle cells from RYR1Y522S knock-in mice exhibited a higher frequency of subplasmalemmal Ca(2+) sparks, leading to a more negative resting membrane potential. The bleeding defect of RYR1Y522S mice and of one patient was reversed by treatment with the RYR1 antagonist dantrolene, and Ca(2+) sparks in primary vascular smooth muscle cells from the MHS RYR1Y522S mice were blocked by ryanodine or dantrolene. Thus, RYR1 mutations may lead to prolonged bleeding by altering vascular smooth muscle cell function. The reversibility of the bleeding phenotype emphasizes the potential therapeutic value of dantrolene in the treatment of such bleeding disorders. PMID:27382027

  9. Correlation-based smoothing model for optical polishing.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yong; Kim, Dae Wook; Martin, Hubert M; Burge, James H

    2013-11-18

    A generalized model is developed to quantitatively describe the smoothing effects from different polishing tools used for optical surfaces. The smoothing effect naturally corrects mid-to-high spatial frequency errors that have features small compared to the size of the polishing lap. The original parametric smoothing model provided a convenient way to compare smoothing efficiency of different polishing tools for the case of sinusoidal surface irregularity, providing the ratio of surface improvement via smoothing to the bulk material removal. A new correlation-based smoothing model expands the capability to quantify smoothing using general surface data with complex irregularity. For this case, we define smoothing as a band-limited correlated component of the change in the surface and original surface. Various concepts and methods, such as correlation screening, have been developed and verified to manipulate the data for the calculation of smoothing factor. Data from two actual polishing runs from the Giant Magellan Telescope off-axis segment and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope monolithic primary-tertiary mirror were processed, and a quantitative evaluation for the smoothing efficiency of a large pitch lap and a conformal lap with polishing pads is provided.

  10. The formation of the smooth halo component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    The detection and characterization of debris in the integral-of-motion space is a promising avenue to uncover the hierarchical formation of the Milky Way. Yet, the fact that the integrals do not remain constant during the assembly process adds considerable complexity to this approach. Indeed, in time-dependent potentials tidal substructures tend to be effaced from the integral-of-motion space through an orbital diffusion process, which naturally leads to the formation of a `smooth' stellar halo. In this talk I will introduce a new probability theory that describes the evolution of collisionless systems subject to a time-dependent potential. The new theory can be used to reconstruct the hierarchical assembly of our Galaxy through modelling the observed distribution of accreted stars in the integral-of-motion space.

  11. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  12. An analysis of smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, J.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Mello, F.J.; Hicks, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) is a gridless Lagrangian technique which is appealing as a possible alternative to numerical techniques currently used to analyze high deformation impulsive loading events. In the present study, the SPH algorithm has been subjected to detailed testing and analysis to determine its applicability in the field of solid dynamics. An important result of the work is a rigorous von Neumann stability analysis which provides a simple criterion for the stability or instability of the method in terms of the stress state and the second derivative of the kernel function. Instability, which typically occurs only for solids in tension, results not from the numerical time integration algorithm, but because the SPH algorithm creates an effective stress with a negative modulus. The analysis provides insight into possible methods for removing the instability. Also, SPH has been coupled into the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO, and a weighted residual derivation of the SPH equations has been obtained.

  13. Action of acetylcholine on smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bolton, T B; Lim, S P

    1991-01-01

    Contraction of smooth muscle by acetylcholine is mediated by activation of muscarinic receptors of which M2 and M3 subtypes are present in longitudinal muscle of guinea pig intestine. In single cells, muscarinic receptor activation evokes calcium release from stores which raises the internal free calcium concentration and causes opening of calcium-activated potassium channels. The rise in internal calcium suppresses the voltage-dependent inward calcium current. A third important effect is the opening of channels which cause depolarization of the membrane and so increase action potential discharge and contraction in the whole muscle. These channels were studied by voltage-clamp of single cells from longitudinal muscle of rabbit small intestine. They were found to be permeable to Na and K but not detectably permeable to Cl. They can pass Ca but the amount entering the cell is not sufficient to raise the internal calcium concentration appreciably.

  14. Smoothness monitors for compressible flow computation

    SciTech Connect

    Sjogreen, B; Yee, H C

    2008-09-02

    In [SY04, YS07] and references cited therein, the authors introduced the concept of employing multiresolution wavelet decomposition of computed flow data as smoothness monitors (flow sensors) to indicate the amount and location of built-in numerical dissipation that can be eliminated or further reduced in shock-capturing schemes. Studies indicated that this approach is able to limit the use of numerical dissipation with improved accuracy compared with standard shock-capturing methods. The studies in [SY04, YS07] were limited to low order multiresolution redundant wavelets with low level supports and low order vanishing moments. The objective of this paper is to expand the previous investigation to include higher order redundant wavelets with larger support and higher order vanishing moments for a wider spectrum of flow type and flow speed applications.

  15. Conduction Modelling Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Paul W.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    1999-01-01

    Heat transfer is very important in many industrial and geophysical problems. Because these problems often have complicated fluid dynamics, there are advantages in solving them using Lagrangian methods like smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Since SPH particles become disordered, the second derivative terms may be estimated poorly, especially when materials with different properties are adjacent. In this paper we show how a simple alteration to the standard SPH formulation ensures continuity of heat flux across discontinuities in material properties. A set of rules is formulated for the construction of isothermal boundaries leading to accurate conduction solutions. A method for accurate prediction of heat fluxes through isothermal boundaries is also given. The accuracy of the SPH conduction solutions is demonstrated through a sequence of test problems of increasing complexity.

  16. Smooth Teeth: Why Multipoles Are Perfect Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönke, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    A type of gear is proposed based on the interaction of individual multipoles. The underlying principle relies on previously unknown continuous degenerate ground states for pairs of interacting multipoles which are free to rotate around specific axes. These special rotation axes, in turn, form a one-parameter family of possible configurations. This allows for the construction of magnetic bevel gears with any desired inclination angle between the in- and output axes. Further, the design of gear systems with more than two multipoles is possible and facilitates tailored applications. Ultimately, an analogy between multipoles and mechanical gears is revealed. In contrast to the mechanical case, the multipole "teeth" mesh smoothly. As an illustrative application, the example of a quadrupole-dipole interaction is then used to construct a 1 ∶2 gear ratio.

  17. Computational brittle fracture using smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.; Schwalbe, L.A.

    1996-10-01

    We are developing statistically based, brittle-fracture models and are implementing them into hydrocodes that can be used for designing systems with components of ceramics, glass, and/or other brittle materials. Because of the advantages it has simulating fracture, we are working primarily with the smooth particle hydrodynamics code SPBM. We describe a new brittle fracture model that we have implemented into SPBM. To illustrate the code`s current capability, we have simulated a number of experiments. We discuss three of these simulations in this paper. The first experiment consists of a brittle steel sphere impacting a plate. The experimental sphere fragment patterns are compared to the calculations. The second experiment is a steel flyer plate in which the recovered steel target crack patterns are compared to the calculated crack patterns. We also briefly describe a simulation of a tungsten rod impacting a heavily confined alumina target, which has been recently reported on in detail.

  18. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  19. Smooth Pursuit of Flicker-Defined Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stevenson, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the pursuit response to stimuli defined by space-variant flicker of a dense random dot carrier pattern. On each frame, every element of the pattern could change polarity, with a probability given by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. A normal distribution produces a circular region of twinkle, while inverting the distribution results in a spot of static texture in a twinkling surround. In this latter case, the carrier texture could be stationary, or could move with the twinkle modulator, thereby producing first-order motion in the region of the spot. While the twinkle-defined spot produces a strong sensation of motion, the complementary stimulus defined by the absence of twinkle does not, when viewed peripherally, it appears to move in steps even when the generating distribution moves smoothly. We examined pursuit responses to these stimuli using two techniques: 1) the eye movement correlogram, obtained by cross-correlating eye velocity with the velocity of a randomly-moving stimulus; and 2) delayed visual feedback, where transient stabilization of a target can produce spontaneous oscillations of the eye, with a period empirically observed to vary linearly with the applied delay. Both techniques provide an estimate of the internal processing time, which can be as short as 100 milliseconds for a first-order target. Assessed by the correlogram method, the response to flicker-defined motion is delayed by more than 100 milliseconds, and significantly weaker (especially in the vertical dimension). When initially presented in the delayed feedback condition, purely saccadic oscillation is observed. One subject eventually developed smooth oscillations (albeit with significant saccadic intrusions), showing a period-versus-delay slope similar to that observed for first-order targets. This result is somewhat surprising, given that we interpret the slope of the period-versus-delay-function as reflecting the balance between position- and velocity

  20. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  1. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  2. Diffusion tensor smoothing through weighted Karcher means.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Owen; Chen, Jun; Paul, Debashis; Peng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantifies the spatial distribution of water Diffusion at each voxel on a regular grid of locations in a biological specimen by Diffusion tensors- 3 × 3 positive definite matrices. Removal of noise from DTI is an important problem due to the high scientific relevance of DTI and relatively low signal to noise ratio it provides. Leading approaches to this problem amount to estimation of weighted Karcher means of Diffusion tensors within spatial neighborhoods, under various metrics imposed on the space of tensors. However, it is unclear how the behavior of these estimators varies with the magnitude of DTI sensor noise (the noise resulting from the thermal e!ects of MRI scanning) as well as the geometric structure of the underlying Diffusion tensor neighborhoods. In this paper, we combine theoretical analysis, empirical analysis of simulated DTI data, and empirical analysis of real DTI scans to compare the noise removal performance of three kernel-based DTI smoothers that are based on Euclidean, log-Euclidean, and affine-invariant metrics. The results suggest, contrary to conventional wisdom, that imposing a simplistic Euclidean metric may in fact provide comparable or superior noise removal, especially in relatively unstructured regions and/or in the presence of moderate to high levels of sensor noise. On the contrary, log-Euclidean and affine-invariant metrics may lead to better noise removal in highly structured anatomical regions, especially when the sensor noise is of low magnitude. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the interplay of sensor noise magnitude and tensor field geometric structure when assessing Diffusion tensor smoothing options. They also point to the necessity for continued development of smoothing methods that perform well across a large range of scenarios. PMID:25419264

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  4. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  5. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  6. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  7. Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua; Elder, Christopher P.; Towse, Theodore F.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and Methods 3T DW-MRI data were used for muscle fiber tractography in the MG of healthy subjects. Anisotropic smoothing was applied at three levels (5%, 10%, 15%), and pennation angle, tract length, fiber tract number, fractional anisotropy, and principal eigenvector orientation were quantified for each smoothing level. Results Fiber tract length increased with pre-fiber tracking smoothing, and local heterogeneities in fiber direction were reduced. However, pennation angle was not affected by smoothing. Conclusion Modest anisotropic smoothing (10%) improved fiber-tracking results, while preserving structural features. PMID:26010830

  8. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  9. Laparoscopy for resolving Müllerian abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Motashaw, N D; Dastur, A; Vaidya, R A; Aloorkar, M

    1978-07-01

    One hundred thirty-five patients with various müllerian abnormalities underwent laparoscopy. At a glance the precise malformation was diagnosed correctly: 44 patients revealed a complete absence of the müllerian system; 35 were found to have a transverse ridge across the pelvis, the lateral ends of which were well developed; 33 patients had rudimentary uteri; 7, a median müllerian nodule; 5 belonged to the group with the testicular feminization syndrome; 4 were classified as having a bicornuate uterus; 3 had unicornuate uteri; and 3, septate uteri. One rare variety of müllerian abnormality is also described. Laparoscopy was found to be invaluable in the diagnosis of müllerian abnormalities.

  10. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  11. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  12. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  13. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  14. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  15. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  16. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  17. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  18. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  19. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  20. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  1. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  2. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  3. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  4. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  5. Comparison of smoothing methods for the development of a smoothed seismicity model for Alaska and the implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschetti, M. P.; Mueller, C. S.; Boyd, O. S.; Petersen, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood

  6. Comparison of smoothing methods for the development of a smoothed seismicity model for Alaska and the implications for seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mueller, Charles S.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood

  7. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion.

  8. SIMS: computation of a smooth invariant molecular surface.

    PubMed Central

    Vorobjev, Y N; Hermans, J

    1997-01-01

    SIMS, a new method of calculating a smooth invariant molecular dot surface, is presented. The SIMS method generates the smooth molecular surface by rolling two probe spheres. A solvent probe sphere is rolled over the molecule and produces a Richards-Connolly molecular surface (MS), which envelops the solvent-excluded volume of the molecule. In deep crevices, Connolly's method of calculating the MS has two deficiencies. First, it produces self-intersecting parts of the molecular surface, which must be removed to obtain the correct MS. Second, the correct MS is not smooth, i.e., the direction of the normal vector of the MS is not continuous, and some points of the MS are singular. We present an exact method for removing self-intersecting parts and smoothing the singular regions of the MS. The singular MS is smoothed by rolling a smoothing probe sphere over the inward side of the singular MS. The MS in the vicinity of singularities is replaced with the reentrant surface of the smoothing probe sphere. The smoothing method does not disturb the topology of a singular MS, and the smooth MS is a better approximation of the dielectric border between high dielectric solvent and the low dielectric molecular interior. The SIMS method generates a smooth molecular dot surface, which has a quasi-uniform dot distribution in two orthogonal directions on the molecular surface, which is invariant with molecular rotation and stable under changes in the molecular conformation, and which can be used in a variety of implicit methods of modeling solvent effects. The SIMS program is faster than the Connolly MS program, and in a matter of seconds generates a smooth dot MS of a 200-residue protein. The program is available from the authors on request (see http:@femto.med.unc.edu/SIMS). PMID:9251789

  9. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Knapp

    2000-04-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  10. Urethane and contraction of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Altura, B. M.; Weinberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    1 In vitro studies were undertaken on rat aortic strips and portal vein segments in order to determine whether or not the anaesthetic, urethane, can exert direct actions on vascular smooth muscle. 2 Urethane was found to inhibit development of spontaneous mechanical activity. This action took place with a urethane concentration as little as one tenth of that found in anaesthetic plasma concentratios, i.e., 10(-3) M. 3 Urethane (10(-3 to 10(-1) M) dose-dependently attenuated contractions induced by adrenaline, angiotensin and KCl. These inhibitory actions were observed with urethane added either before or after the induced contractions. 4 Ca2+-induced contractions of K+-depolarized aortae and portal veins were also attenuated, dose-dependently, by urethane. 5 All of these inhibitory effects were completely, and almost immediately, reversed upon washing out the anaesthetic from the organ baths. 6 A variety of pharmacological antagonists failed to mimic or affect the inhibitory effects induced by urethane. 7 These data suggest that plasma concentrations of urethane commonly associated with induction of surgical anaesthesia can induce, directly, relaxation of vascular muscle. PMID:497529

  11. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Martin R; Sinha, Sanjay; Owens, Gary K

    2016-02-19

    The historical view of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerosis is that aberrant proliferation of VSMCs promotes plaque formation, but that VSMCs in advanced plaques are entirely beneficial, for example preventing rupture of the fibrous cap. However, this view has been based on ideas that there is a homogenous population of VSMCs within the plaque, that can be identified separate from other plaque cells (particularly macrophages) using standard VSMC and macrophage immunohistochemical markers. More recent genetic lineage tracing studies have shown that VSMC phenotypic switching results in less-differentiated forms that lack VSMC markers including macrophage-like cells, and this switching directly promotes atherosclerosis. In addition, VSMC proliferation may be beneficial throughout atherogenesis, and not just in advanced lesions, whereas VSMC apoptosis, cell senescence, and VSMC-derived macrophage-like cells may promote inflammation. We review the effect of embryological origin on VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis, the role, regulation and consequences of phenotypic switching, the evidence for different origins of VSMCs, and the role of individual processes that VSMCs undergo in atherosclerosis in regard to plaque formation and the structure of advanced lesions. We think there is now compelling evidence that a full understanding of VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis is critical to identify therapeutic targets to both prevent and treat atherosclerosis.

  12. Immortalization of primary human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Reyes, N; Halbert, C L; Smith, P P; Benditt, E P; McDougall, J K

    1992-01-01

    Primary human aortic and myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were immortalized using an amphotropic recombinant retroviral construct containing the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs) of human papillomavirus type 16. The SMCs expressing the E6/E7 ORFs have considerably elevated growth rates when compared with nonimmortalized control cells and show no signs of senescence with long-term passage. The first SMC line derived in this study has been maintained in continuous tissue culture for greater than 1 year (greater than 180 population doublings). The immortalized SMCs have decreased cell size and decreased content of muscle-specific alpha-actin filaments as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Southern blot analysis has demonstrated the stable integration of the E6/E7 ORFs in the retrovirally infected cells, and radioimmunoprecipitation has confirmed the continued expression of the E6 and E7 genes. Cytogenetic studies of the SMC lines have revealed essentially diploid populations except for the myometrial clonal line, which became aneuploid at late passage (greater than 125 doublings). These cell lines were not tumorigenic in nude mice. Images PMID:1311088

  13. Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.

    2014-02-14

    Smooth, commensurate alloys of 〈111〉-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.

  14. Smoothing Rotation Curves and Mass Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    We show that spiral activity can erase pronounced features in disk galaxy rotation curves. We present simulations of growing disks, in which the added material has a physically motivated distribution, as well as other examples of physically less realistic accretion. In all cases, attempts to create unrealistic rotation curves were unsuccessful because spiral activity rapidly smoothed away features in the disk mass profile. The added material was redistributed radially by the spiral activity, which was itself provoked by the density feature. In the case of a ridge-like feature in the surface density profile, we show that two unstable spiral modes develop, and the associated angular momentum changes in horseshoe orbits remove particles from the ridge and spread them both inward and outward. This process rapidly erases the density feature from the disk. We also find that the lack of a feature when transitioning from disk to halo dominance in the rotation curves of disk galaxies, the so called "disk-halo conspiracy," could also be accounted for by this mechanism. We do not create perfectly exponential mass profiles in the disk, but suggest that this mechanism contributes to their creation.

  15. PDE Based Algorithms for Smooth Watersheds.

    PubMed

    Hodneland, Erlend; Tai, Xue-Cheng; Kalisch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Watershed segmentation is useful for a number of image segmentation problems with a wide range of practical applications. Traditionally, the tracking of the immersion front is done by applying a fast sorting algorithm. In this work, we explore a continuous approach based on a geometric description of the immersion front which gives rise to a partial differential equation. The main advantage of using a partial differential equation to track the immersion front is that the method becomes versatile and may easily be stabilized by introducing regularization terms. Coupling the geometric approach with a proper "merging strategy" creates a robust algorithm which minimizes over- and under-segmentation even without predefined markers. Since reliable markers defined prior to segmentation can be difficult to construct automatically for various reasons, being able to treat marker-free situations is a major advantage of the proposed method over earlier watershed formulations. The motivation for the methods developed in this paper is taken from high-throughput screening of cells. A fully automated segmentation of single cells enables the extraction of cell properties from large data sets, which can provide substantial insight into a biological model system. Applying smoothing to the boundaries can improve the accuracy in many image analysis tasks requiring a precise delineation of the plasma membrane of the cell. The proposed segmentation method is applied to real images containing fluorescently labeled cells, and the experimental results show that our implementation is robust and reliable for a variety of challenging segmentation tasks.

  16. Nox regulation of smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Ritsick, Darren R; Edens, William A; Finnerty, Victoria; Lambeth, J David

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic subunit gp91phox (Nox2) of the NADPH oxidase of mammalian phagocytes is activated by microbes and immune mediators to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which participate in microbial killing. Homologs of gp91phox, the Nox and Duox enzymes, were recently described in a range of organisms, including plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster. While their enzymology and cell biology are being extensively studied in many laboratories, little is known about in vivo functions of Noxes. Here, we establish and use an inducible system for RNAi to discover functions of dNox, an ortholog of human Nox5 in Drosophila. We report here that depletion of dNox in musculature causes retention of mature eggs within ovaries, leading to female sterility. In dNox-depleted ovaries and ovaries treated with a Nox inhibitor, muscular contractions induced by the neuropeptide proctolin are markedly inhibited. This functional defect results from a requirement for dNox-for the proctolin-induced calcium flux in Drosophila ovaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate a novel biological role for Nox-generated ROS in mediating agonist-induced calcium flux and smooth muscle contraction.

  17. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics approach for poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorno, Maria; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the SHynergie project we look to investigate hydraulic fracturing and crack evolving in poroelastic media. We model biphasic media assuming incompressible solid grain and incompressible pore liquid. Modeling evolving fractures and fracture networks in elastic and poroelastic media by mesh-based numerical approaches, like X-FEM, is especially in 3-dim a challenging task. Therefore, we propose a meshless particle method for fractured media based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach. SPH is a meshless Lagrangian method highly suitable for the simulation of large deformations including free surfaces and/or interfaces. Within the SPH method, the computational domain is discretized with particles, avoiding the computational expenses of meshing. Our SPH solution is implemented in a parallel computational framework, which allows to simulate large domains more representative of the scale of our study cases. Our implementation is carefully validated against classical mesh-based approaches and compared with classical solutions for consolidation problems. Furthermore, we discuss fracture initiation and propagation in poroelastic rocks at the reservoir scale.

  18. Drop splash on a smooth, dry surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Korobkin, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    It is our purpose here to determine the conditions under which a drop of a given liquid with a known radius R impacting against a smooth impermeable surface at a velocity V, will either spread axisymmetrically onto the substrate or will create a splash, giving rise to usually undesired star-shaped patterns. In our experimental setup, drops are generated injecting low viscosity liquids falling under the action of gravity from a stainless steel hypodermic needle. The experimental observations using two high speed cameras operating simultaneously and placed perpendicularly to each other reveal that, initially, the drop deforms axisymmetrically, with A (T) the radius of the wetted area. For high enough values of the drop impact velocity, a thin sheet of liquid starts to be ejected from A (T) at a velocity Vjet > V for instants of time such that T >=Tc . If Vjet is above a certain threshold, which depends on the solid wetting properties as well as on the material properties of both the liquid and the atmospheric gas, the rim of the lamella dewets the solid to finally break into drops. Using Wagner's theory we demonstrate that A (T) =√{ 3 RVT } and our results also reveal that Tc We - 1 / 2 =(ρV2 R / σ) - 1 / 2 and Vjet We 1 / 4 .

  19. SMOOTHING ROTATION CURVES AND MASS PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    We show that spiral activity can erase pronounced features in disk galaxy rotation curves. We present simulations of growing disks, in which the added material has a physically motivated distribution, as well as other examples of physically less realistic accretion. In all cases, attempts to create unrealistic rotation curves were unsuccessful because spiral activity rapidly smoothed away features in the disk mass profile. The added material was redistributed radially by the spiral activity, which was itself provoked by the density feature. In the case of a ridge-like feature in the surface density profile, we show that two unstable spiral modes develop, and the associated angular momentum changes in horseshoe orbits remove particles from the ridge and spread them both inward and outward. This process rapidly erases the density feature from the disk. We also find that the lack of a feature when transitioning from disk to halo dominance in the rotation curves of disk galaxies, the so called ''disk-halo conspiracy'', could also be accounted for by this mechanism. We do not create perfectly exponential mass profiles in the disk, but suggest that this mechanism contributes to their creation.

  20. Hidden Degeneracies in Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Mike R.

    When a flow suffers a discontinuity in its vector field at some switching surface, the flow can cross through or slide along the surface. Sliding along the switching surface can be understood as the flow along an invariant manifold inside a switching layer. It turns out that the usual method for finding sliding modes — the Filippov convex combination or Utkin equivalent control — results in a degeneracy in the switching layer whenever the flow is tangent to the switching surface from both sides. We derive the general result and analyze the simplest case here, where the flow curves parabolically on either side of the switching surface (the so-called fold-fold or two-fold singularities). The result is a set of zeros of the fast switching flow inside the layer, which is structurally unstable to perturbation by terms nonlinear in the switching parameter, terms such as (signx)2 [where the superscript does mean “squared”]. We provide structurally stable forms, and show that in this form the layer system is equivalent to a generic singularity of a two timescale system. Finally we show that the same degeneracy arises when a discontinuity is smoothed using standard regularization methods.

  1. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  2. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  3. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  4. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  5. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  6. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  7. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  8. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  9. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  10. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  11. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  12. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  13. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  14. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  15. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  16. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  17. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  18. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  19. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  20. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  1. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  2. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  3. A Note on the Definition of a Smooth Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Russell; Sadek, Jawad

    2005-01-01

    In many elementary calculus textbooks in use today, the definition of a "smooth curve" is slightly ambiguous from the students' perspective. Even when smoothness is defined carefully, there is a shortage of relevant exercises that would serve to elaborate on related subtle points which many students may find confusing. In this article, the authors…

  4. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  5. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Käferböck, Florian; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application.

  6. Cognitive Processes Involved in Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, G. R.

    2008-01-01

    Ocular pursuit movements allow moving objects to be tracked with a combination of smooth movements and saccades. The principal objective is to maintain smooth eye velocity close to object velocity, thus minimising retinal image motion and maintaining acuity. Saccadic movements serve to realign the image if it falls outside the fovea, the area of…

  7. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit: Lesion Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth…

  8. MicroRNA-141 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through targeting PAPP-A

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Chen, Bainan; Ming, Liu; Qin, Hongsong; Zheng, Liu; Yue, Zhang; Cheng, Zhixin; Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Chunmei; Bin, Wang; Hao, Qingzhi; Song, Fuchen; Ji, Bo

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that ox-LDL plays key roles in the development of atherosclerosis, partly by inducing vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. Recent findings have revealed that microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, could regulate cell proliferation in many physiological and pathological conditions. However, the role and function of miRNAs on ox-LDL induced VSMC proliferation are not fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that ox-LDL could suppress miR-141 expression and inhibition of miR-141 could promote VSMCs proliferation. Moreover, we found that PAPPA was the direct target gene of miR-141. Overexpression of PAPPA impaired the miR-141-induced inhibition of proliferation in the VSMCs. Taken together; miR-141 may play important roles in ox-LDL-induced abnormal proliferation of the VSMC. PMID:26823756

  9. Regeneration and Maintenance of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthers, Christopher M.

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical engineering that involves growing artificial organs to replace those lost to disease or injury. Within tissue engineering, there is a demand for artificial smooth muscle to repair tissues of the digestive tract, bladder, and vascular systems. Attempts to develop engineered smooth muscle tissues capable of contracting with sufficient strength to be clinically relevant have so far proven unsatisfactory. The goal of this research was to develop and sustain mature, contractile smooth muscle. Survival of implanted SMCs is critical to sustain the benefits of engineered smooth muscle. Survival of implanted smooth muscle cells was studied with layered, electrospun polycaprolactone implants with lasercut holes ranging from 0--25% porosity. It was found that greater angiogenesis was associated with increased survival of implanted cells, with a large increase at a threshold between 20% and 25% porosity. Heparan sulfate coatings improved the speed of blood vessel infiltration after 14 days of implantation. With these considerations, thicker engineered tissues may be possible. An improved smooth muscle tissue culture technique was utilized. Contracting smooth muscle was produced in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle tissue organization, specifically by sustaining intact smooth muscle strips rather than dissociating tissue in to isolated smooth muscle cells. Isolated cells showed a decrease in maturity and contained fewer enteric neural and glial cells. Muscle strips also exhibited periodic contraction and regular fluctuation of intracellular calclium. The muscle strip maturity persisted after implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds. A low-cost, disposable bioreactor was developed to further improve maturity of cultured smooth muscle cells in an environment of controlled cyclical stress.The bioreactor consistently applied repeated mechanical strain with controllable inputs for strain

  10. Reduction of noise in diffusion tensor images using anisotropic smoothing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C; Anderson, Adam W

    2005-02-01

    To improve the accuracy of tissue structural and architectural characterization with diffusion tensor imaging, a novel smoothing technique is developed for reducing noise in diffusion tensor images. The technique extends the traditional anisotropic diffusion filtering method by allowing isotropic smoothing within homogeneous regions and anisotropic smoothing along structure boundaries. This is particularly useful for smoothing diffusion tensor images in which direction information contained in the tensor needs to be restored following noise corruption and preserved around tissue boundaries. The effectiveness of this technique is quantitatively studied with experiments on simulated and human in vivo diffusion tensor data. Illustrative results demonstrate that the anisotropic smoothing technique developed can significantly reduce the impact of noise on the direction as well as anisotropy measures of the diffusion tensor images.

  11. A smoothness constraint on the development of object recognition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how the brain learns to recognize objects is one of the ultimate goals in the cognitive sciences. To date, however, we have not yet characterized the environmental factors that cause object recognition to emerge in the newborn brain. Here, I present the results of a high-throughput controlled-rearing experiment that examined whether the development of object recognition requires experience with temporally smooth visual objects. When newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) were raised with virtual objects that moved smoothly over time, the chicks developed accurate color recognition, shape recognition, and color-shape binding abilities. In contrast, when newborn chicks were raised with virtual objects that moved non-smoothly over time, the chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. These results provide evidence for a "smoothness constraint" on newborn object recognition. Experience with temporally smooth objects facilitates the development of object recognition. PMID:27208825

  12. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Tikka, Saara

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  13. Mechanotransduction in colonic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Young, S H; Ennes, H S; Mayer, E A

    1997-11-15

    We evaluated mechanisms which mediate alterations in intracellular biochemical events in response to transient mechanical stimulation of colonic smooth muscle cells. Cultured myocytes from the circular muscle layer of the rabbit distal colon responded to brief focal mechanical deformation of the plasma membrane with a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) with peak of 422.7 +/- 43.8 nm above an average resting [Ca2+]i of 104.8 +/- 10.9 nM (n = 57) followed by both rapid and prolonged recovery phases. The peak [Ca2+]i increase was reduced by 50% in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, while the prolonged [Ca2+]i recovery was either abolished or reduced to less than or = 15% of control values. In contrast, no significant effect of gadolinium chloride (100 microM) or lanthanum chloride (25 microM) on either peak transient or prolonged [Ca2+]i recovery was observed. Pretreatment of cells with thapsigargin (1 microM) resulted in a 25% reduction of the mechanically induced peak [Ca2+]i response, while the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 had no effect on the [Ca2+]i transient peak. [Ca2+]i transients were abolished when cells previously treated with thapsigargin were mechanically stimulated in Ca2+-free solution, or when Ca2+ stores were depleted by thapsigargin in Ca2+-free solution. Pretreatment with the microfilament disrupting drug cytochalasin D (10 microM) or microinjection of myocytes with an intracellular saline resulted in complete inhibition of the transient. The effect of cytochalasin D was reversible and did not prevent the [Ca2+]i increases in response to thapsigargin. These results suggest a communication, which may be mediated by direct mechanical link via actin filaments, between the plasma membrane and an internal Ca2+ store.

  14. Caffeine relaxes smooth muscle through actin depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Tazzeo, Tracy; Bates, Genevieve; Roman, Horia Nicolae; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Khasnis, Mukta D; Eto, Masumi; Janssen, Luke J

    2012-08-15

    Caffeine is sometimes used in cell physiological studies to release internally stored Ca(2+). We obtained evidence that caffeine may also act through a different mechanism that has not been previously described and sought to examine this in greater detail. We ruled out a role for phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, since the effect was 1) not reversed by inhibiting PKA or adenylate cyclase; 2) not exacerbated by inhibiting PDE4; and 3) not mimicked by submillimolar caffeine nor theophylline, both of which are sufficient to inhibit PDE. Although caffeine is an agonist of bitter taste receptors, which in turn mediate bronchodilation, its relaxant effect was not mimicked by quinine. After permeabilizing the membrane using β-escin and depleting the internal Ca(2+) store using A23187, we found that 10 mM caffeine reversed tone evoked by direct application of Ca(2+), suggesting it functionally antagonizes the contractile apparatus. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we found that caffeine did not affect phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by MLC kinase, actin-filament motility catalyzed by MLC kinase, phosphorylation of CPI-17 by either protein kinase C or RhoA kinase, nor the activity of MLC-phosphatase. However, we did obtain evidence that caffeine decreased actin filament binding to phosphorylated myosin heads and increased the ratio of globular to filamentous actin in precontracted tissues. We conclude that, in addition to its other non-RyR targets, caffeine also interferes with actin function (decreased binding by myosin, possibly with depolymerization), an effect that should be borne in mind in studies using caffeine to probe excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle.

  15. Neptune's Orbital Migration Was Grainy, Not Smooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David

    2016-07-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a population of icy bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. The complex orbital structure of the Kuiper Belt, including several categories of objects inside and outside of resonances with Neptune, emerged as a result of Neptune’s migration into an outer planetesimal disk. An outstanding problem with the existing migration models is that they invariably predict excessively large resonant populations, while observations show that the non-resonant orbits are in fact common (e.g., the main belt population is ≃2-4 times larger than Plutinos in the 3:2 resonance). Here we show that this problem can be resolved if it is assumed that Neptune’s migration was grainy, as expected from scattering encounters of Neptune with massive planetesimals. The grainy migration acts to destabilize resonant bodies with large libration amplitudes, a fraction of which ends up on stable non-resonant orbits. Thus, the non-resonant-to-resonant ratio obtained with the grainy migration is higher, up to ˜10 times higher for the range of parameters investigated here, than in a model with smooth migration. In addition, the grainy migration leads to a narrower distribution of the libration amplitudes in the 3:2 resonance. The best fit to observations is obtained when it is assumed that the outer planetesimal disk below 30 au contained 1000-4000 Plutos. We estimate that the combined mass of Pluto-class objects in the original disk represented 10%-40% of the estimated disk mass ({M}{{disk}}≃ 20 {M}{{Earth}}). This constraint can be used to better understand the accretion processes in the outer solar system.

  16. Neptune's Orbital Migration Was Grainy, Not Smooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David

    2016-07-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a population of icy bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. The complex orbital structure of the Kuiper Belt, including several categories of objects inside and outside of resonances with Neptune, emerged as a result of Neptune’s migration into an outer planetesimal disk. An outstanding problem with the existing migration models is that they invariably predict excessively large resonant populations, while observations show that the non-resonant orbits are in fact common (e.g., the main belt population is ≃2–4 times larger than Plutinos in the 3:2 resonance). Here we show that this problem can be resolved if it is assumed that Neptune’s migration was grainy, as expected from scattering encounters of Neptune with massive planetesimals. The grainy migration acts to destabilize resonant bodies with large libration amplitudes, a fraction of which ends up on stable non-resonant orbits. Thus, the non-resonant-to-resonant ratio obtained with the grainy migration is higher, up to ˜10 times higher for the range of parameters investigated here, than in a model with smooth migration. In addition, the grainy migration leads to a narrower distribution of the libration amplitudes in the 3:2 resonance. The best fit to observations is obtained when it is assumed that the outer planetesimal disk below 30 au contained 1000–4000 Plutos. We estimate that the combined mass of Pluto-class objects in the original disk represented 10%–40% of the estimated disk mass ({M}{{disk}}≃ 20 {M}{{Earth}}). This constraint can be used to better understand the accretion processes in the outer solar system.

  17. Muscle-like actuators? A comparison between three electroactive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Kenneth; Rosenthal, Marc S.; Full, Robert J.

    2001-07-01

    Muscles fulfill several functions within an animal's body. During locomotion they propel and control the limbs in unstructured environments. Therefore, the functional workspace of muscle needs to be represented by variables describing energy management (i.e. power output, efficiency) as well as control aspects (i.e. stiffness, damping). Muscles in the animal kingdom vary greatly with respect to those variables. To study if ElectroActive Polymer's (EAP) can be considered as artificial muscles we are making a direct comparison between the contractile properties of EAP's and biological muscle. We have measured the functional workspace of EAP actuators using the same setup and techniques that we use to test biological muscle. We evaluated the properties of three different EAP materials; the acrylic and silicone dielectric elastomers developed at SRI International and the high-energy electron-irradiated co-polymers (p(VDF-TrFE)) developed at the MRL laboratory at Penn State University. Initial results indicate that the EAP materials partly capture the functional workspace of natural muscle and sometimes even exceed the capabilities of muscle. Based on the data we have collected it seems that both EAP technologies have characteristics that could qualify them as artificial muscles.

  18. Electrically driven miniature hydrogels as muscle-like actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Yuka; Calvert, Paul D.

    2001-07-01

    Amine-epoxy based gel actuators have been made since this chemistry allows the small volume gels to be made easily and is expected to provide enough strength for practical use with highly crosslinked networks. In this study, a small drop of cationic polyelectrolyte gel was prepared by crosslinking of trifunctional polyetheramines with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. The response of these materials to electrical stimuli, pH and metal ions is controlled by the crosslink density and ionic strength of medium. When the gels contact a platinum anode, positive charges are generated on the amine groups and the ionic repulsion causes the swelling. Reversing current neutralizes amines and the hydrogen bonding interaction causes a volume collapse. These gels show large and rapid swelling in response to an electrical and chemical input on a sub-millimeter scale.

  19. Integrated sensing and actuation of muscle-like actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisby, T. A.; Xie, S.; Calius, E. P.; Anderson, I. A.

    2009-03-01

    The excellent overall performance and compliant nature of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) make them ideal candidates for artificial muscles. Natural muscle however is much more than just an actuator, it provides position feedback to the brain that is essential for the body to maintain balance and correct posture. If DEAs are to truly earn the moniker of "artificial muscles" they need to be able to reproduce, if not improve on, this functionality. Self-sensing DEAs are the ideal solution to this problem. This paper presents a system by which the capacitance of a DEA can be sensed while it is being actuated and used for feedback control. This system has been strongly influenced by the desire for portability i.e. designed for use in a battery operated microcontroller based system. It is capable of controlling multiple independent DEAs using a single high voltage power supply. These features are important developments for artificial muscle devices where accuracy and low mass are important e.g. a prosthetic hand or force-feedback surgical tools. A numerical model of the electrical behaviour of the DEA that incorporates arbitrary leakage currents and the impact of arbitrary variable capacitance has been created to model a DEA system. A robust capacitive self-sensing method that uses a slew-rate controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal and compensates for the effects of leakage current and variable capacitance is presented. The numerical model is then used to compare the performance of this new method with an earlier method previously published by the authors.

  20. On Factorizations of Smooth Nonnegative Matrix-Values Functions and on Smooth Functions with Values in Polyhedra

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, N. V.

    2008-12-15

    We discuss the possibility to represent smooth nonnegative matrix-valued functions as finite linear combinations of fixed matrices with positive real-valued coefficients whose square roots are Lipschitz continuous. This issue is reduced to a similar problem for smooth functions with values in a polyhedron.

  1. Voluntary control of saccadic and smooth-pursuit eye movements in children with learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Junko; Tanaka, Satoshi; Williams, Jeremy D; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2005-12-01

    Eye movement is crucial to humans in allowing them to aim the foveae at objects of interest. We examined the voluntary control of saccadic and smooth-pursuit eye movements in 18 subjects with learning disorders (LDs) (aged 8-16) and 22 normal controls (aged 7-15). The subjects were assigned visually guided, memory-guided, and anti-saccade tasks, and smooth-pursuit eye movements (SPEM). Although, the LD subjects showed normal results in the visually guided saccade task, they showed more errors in the memory-guided saccade task (e.g. they were unable to stop themselves reflexively looking at the cue) and longer latencies, even when they performed correctly. They also showed longer latencies than the controls in the anti-saccade task. These results suggest that they find it difficult to voluntarily suppress reflexive saccades and initiate voluntary saccades when a target is invisible. In SPEM using step-ramp stimuli, the LD subjects showed lower open- and closed-loop gains. These results suggest disturbances of both acceleration of eye movement in the initial state and maintenance of velocity in minimizing retinal slip in the steady state. Recent anatomical studies in LD subjects have suggested abnormalities in the structure of certain brain areas such as the frontal cortex. Frontal eye movement-related areas such as the frontal eye fields and supplementary eye fields may be involved in these disturbances of voluntary control of eye movement in LDs. PMID:15925462

  2. Airway smooth muscle changes in the nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia rat model.

    PubMed

    Belik, Jaques; Davidge, Sandra T; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Jingyi; Greer, John J

    2003-05-01

    In the fetal rat, nitrofen induces congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and pulmonary vascular remodeling similar to what is observed in the human condition. Airway hyperactivity is common in infants with CDH and attributed to the ventilator-induced airway damage. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that airway smooth muscle mechanical properties are altered in the nitrofen-induced CDH rat model. Lungs from nitrofen-exposed fetuses with hernias (CDH) or intact diaphragm (nitrofen) and untreated fetuses (control) were studied on gestation d 21. The left intrapulmonary artery and bronchi were removed and mounted on a wire myograph, and lung expression, content, and immunolocalization of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated. Pulmonary artery muscle in the CDH group had significantly (p < 0.01) lower force generation compared with control and nitrofen groups. In contrast, the same generation bronchial smooth muscle of the CDH and nitrofen groups developed higher force compared with control. Whereas no differences were found in endothelium-dependent pulmonary vascular muscle tone, the epithelium-dependent airway muscle relaxation was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the CDH and nitrofen groups. The lung mRNA levels of COX-1 and COX-2 were increased in the CDH and nitrofen groups. COX-1 vascular and airway immunostaining, as well as COX-1 and COX-2 lung protein content, were increased in the CDH group. This is the first report of airway smooth muscle abnormalities in the nitrofen-induced fetal rat model of CDH. We speculate that congenital airway muscle changes may be present in the human form of this disease. PMID:12612200

  3. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1.

    PubMed

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-09-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors.

  4. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  7. Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

  8. Automated contralateral subtraction of dental panoramic radiographs for detecting abnormalities in paranasal sinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takeshi; Mori, Shintaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Inflammation in the paranasal sinus is often observed in seasonal allergic rhinitis or with colds, but is also an indication for odontogenic tumors, carcinoma of the maxillary sinus or a maxillary cyst. The detection of those findings in dental panoramic radiographs is not difficult for radiologists, but general dentists may miss the findings since they focus on treatments of teeth. The purpose of this work is to develop a contralateral subtraction method for detecting the odontogenic sinusitis region on dental panoramic radiographs. We developed a contralateral subtraction technique in paranasal sinus region, consisting of 1) image filtering of the smoothing and sobel operation for noise reduction and edge extraction, 2) image registration of mirrored image by using mutual information, and 3) image display method of subtracted pixel data. We employed 56 cases (24 normal and 32 abnormal). The abnormal regions and the normal cases were verified by a board-certified radiologist using CT scans. Observer studies with and without subtraction images were performed for 9 readers. The true-positive rate at a 50% confidence level in 7 out of 9 readers was improved, but there was no statistical significance in the difference of area-under-curve (AUC) in each radiologist. In conclusion, the contralateral subtraction images of dental panoramic radiographs may improve the detection rate of abnormal regions in paranasal sinus.

  9. Asymmetric cell-matrix and biomechanical abnormalities in elastin insufficiency induced aortopathy.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Varun K; Evans, Ashlie N; Wansapura, Janaka P; Osinska, Hanna; Maddy, Kelsey E; Biechler, Stefanie V; Narmoneva, Daria A; Goodwin, Richard L; Hinton, Robert B

    2014-10-01

    Aortopathy is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) abnormalities and elastic fiber fragmentation. Elastin insufficient (Eln (+/-)) mice demonstrate latent aortopathy similar to human disease. We hypothesized that aortopathy manifests primarily in the aorto-pulmonary septal (APS) side of the thoracic aorta due to asymmetric cardiac neural crest (CNC) distribution. Anatomic (aortic root vs. ascending aorta) and molecular (APS vs. non-APS) regions of proximal aorta tissue were examined in adult and aged wild type (WT) and mutant (Eln (+/-)) mice. CNC, VSMCs, elastic fiber architecture, proteoglycan expression, morphometrics and biomechanical properties were examined using histology, 3D reconstruction, micropipette aspiration and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the APS side of Eln (+/-) aorta, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is decreased while SM22 is increased. Elastic fiber architecture abnormalities are present in the Eln (+/-) aortic root and APS ascending aorta, and biglycan is increased in the aortic root while aggrecan is increased in the APS aorta. The Eln (+/-) ascending aorta is stiffer than the aortic root, the APS side is thicker and stiffer than the non-APS side, and significant differences in the individual aortic root sinuses are observed. Asymmetric structure-function abnormalities implicate regional CNC dysregulation in the development and progression of aortopathy.

  10. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eye tracking abnormalities in males after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cifu, David X; Hoke, Kathy W; Wetzel, Paul A; Wares, Joanna R; Gitchel, George; Carne, William

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on eye movement abnormalities in 60 military servicemembers with at least one mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from combat were examined in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, prospective study at the Naval Medicine Operational Training Center. During the 10 wk of the study, each subject was delivered a series of 40, once a day, hyperbaric chamber compressions at a pressure of 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA). At each session, subjects breathed one of three preassigned oxygen fractions (10.5%, 75%, or 100%) for 1 h, resulting in an oxygen exposure equivalent to breathing either surface air, 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA, or 100% oxygen at 2.0 ATA, respectively. Using a standardized, validated, computerized eye tracking protocol, fixation, saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements were measured just prior to intervention and immediately postintervention. Between and within groups testing of pre- and postintervention means revealed no significant differences on eye movement abnormalities and no significant main effect for HBO2 at either 1.5 ATA or 2.0 ATA equivalent compared with the sham-control. This study demonstrated that neither 1.5 nor 2.0 ATA equivalent HBO2 had an effect on postconcussive eye movement abnormalities after mild TBI when compared with a sham-control.

  11. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eye tracking abnormalities in males after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cifu, David X; Hoke, Kathy W; Wetzel, Paul A; Wares, Joanna R; Gitchel, George; Carne, William

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on eye movement abnormalities in 60 military servicemembers with at least one mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from combat were examined in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, prospective study at the Naval Medicine Operational Training Center. During the 10 wk of the study, each subject was delivered a series of 40, once a day, hyperbaric chamber compressions at a pressure of 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA). At each session, subjects breathed one of three preassigned oxygen fractions (10.5%, 75%, or 100%) for 1 h, resulting in an oxygen exposure equivalent to breathing either surface air, 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA, or 100% oxygen at 2.0 ATA, respectively. Using a standardized, validated, computerized eye tracking protocol, fixation, saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements were measured just prior to intervention and immediately postintervention. Between and within groups testing of pre- and postintervention means revealed no significant differences on eye movement abnormalities and no significant main effect for HBO2 at either 1.5 ATA or 2.0 ATA equivalent compared with the sham-control. This study demonstrated that neither 1.5 nor 2.0 ATA equivalent HBO2 had an effect on postconcussive eye movement abnormalities after mild TBI when compared with a sham-control. PMID:25436771

  12. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  13. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  14. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  15. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities.
METHODS—The eyes of 17 unrelated individuals with TBMD were studied by slit-lamp, including biomicroscopic fundus examination with a 78 D lens, by direct ophthalmoscopy, and by fundal photographs. The findings were compared with those in patients with IgA glomerulonephritis or Alport syndrome, and in normals.
RESULTS—No patient with TBMD had a dot and fleck retinopathy or anterior lenticonus. A corneal dystrophy (n = 2) or pigmentation (n = 1), and retinal pigment epithelial clumping and maculopathy (n = 1) were noted. Corneal, lens, and retinal dots were found in five (29%), three (18%), and 16 (94%) patients, respectively, but these were also demonstrated in individuals with other renal diseases and in normal individuals.
CONCLUSIONS—The dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus typical of Alport syndrome do not occur in TBMD. The protein abnormality and genetic defect in TBMD are not known, but the lack of ocular lesions suggests that the abnormal protein in this disease is more sparsely distributed or less important in the basement membranes of the eye than of the kidney. Alternatively, the protein may be less affected by the mutations responsible for TBMD.

 PMID:9227202

  16. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  17. Computer programs for smoothing and scaling airfoil coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed descriptions are given of the theoretical methods and associated computer codes of a program to smooth and a program to scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic spline techniques to smooth interatively the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. A technique for computing the camber and thickness distribution of the smoothed airfoil is also discussed. The scaling program can then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specific maximum thickness which is then combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. Computer listings of the smoothing and scaling programs are included.

  18. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  19. Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of smooth pursuit: lesion studies.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, James A

    2008-12-01

    Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth pursuit determines brain structures that are necessary for smooth pursuit. Paretic, low gain, pursuit occurs toward the side of lesions at the junction of the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes (area V5), the frontal eye field and their subcortical projections, including the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the midbrain and the basal pontine nuclei. Paresis of ipsiversive pursuit also results from damage to the ventral paraflocculus and caudal vermis of the cerebellum. Paresis of contraversive pursuit is a feature of damage to the lateral medulla. Retinotopic pursuit paresis consists of low gain pursuit in the visual hemifield contralateral to damage to the optic radiation, striate cortex or area V5. Craniotopic paresis of smooth pursuit consists of impaired smooth eye movement generation contralateral to the orbital midposition after acute unilateral frontal or parietal lobe damage. Omnidirectional saccadic pursuit is a most sensitive sign of bilateral or diffuse cerebral, cerebellar or brainstem disease. The anatomical and physiological bases of defective smooth pursuit are discussed here in the context of the effects of lesion in the human brain.

  20. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  1. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  2. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  3. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  4. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Randall, P L

    1983-03-01

    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  5. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  6. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  7. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  8. Separated flow past smooth slender bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ann Louise

    1991-02-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of the separated flow past slender bodies at high angles of attack. Flows of this type occur on aircraft and missile forebodies and can develop large forces which are important when considering stability and control of the vehicle. The objective of this work is to extend the vortex sheet model, which has previously been implemented for slender wings and circular and elliptic cones, to cones of more general cross-section and to non-conical bodies. The cross-sections of the bodies studied here are basically square or triangular, but with rounded corners. The model is inviscid, so the separation positions must be prescribed. Two distinct families of solutions have been identified. For laterally symmetric configurations with symmetric separation positions and no yaw, the first family solutions are symmetric, whereas the second family solutions are asymmetric. For elliptic cones, it is known that cross-section thickness affects the degree of asymmetry of the flow and this represents a mechanism for the control of side forces. Square or triangular cross-sections with rounded corners are of interest to aerodynamicists and have been investigated to assess the effect on asymmetry of making a circular cross-section 'square' or 'triangular'. For 'square' and 'triangular' cones placed either side, or corner on to the flow, results are obtained which enable the effect of cross-section shape on the degree of asymmetry to be assessed. A non-conical vortex sheet model has been developed for the first time for separation from a smooth body. Previously a non-conical line-vortex model was implemented, however lack of representation of vorticity near the separation line limits the applicability of the results. The solution procedure for the non-conical problem consists of a downstream-marching scheme starting from a known solution at the nose. Starting solutions are available if the flow at the nose is assumed conical. With symmetry

  9. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine inhibits macrophage adhesion to vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wirrig, Christiane; McKean, Jenny S; Wilson, Heather M; Nixon, Graeme F

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation in de-endothelialised arteries contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The process that initiates this inflammatory response is the adhesion of monocytes/macrophages to exposed vascular smooth muscle cells, typically stimulated by cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the sphingolipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on the interaction of monocytes/macrophages with vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages were co-cultured using an in vitro assay following incubation with sphingolipids to assess inter-cellular adhesion. We reveal that SPC inhibits the TNF-induced adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This anti-adhesive effect was the result of SPC-induced changes to the smooth muscle cells (but not the macrophages) and was mediated, at least partly, via the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 2. Lipid raft domains were also required. Although SPC did not alter expression or membrane distribution of the adhesion proteins intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion protein-1 in smooth muscle cells, SPC preincubation inhibited the TNF-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) resulting in a subsequent decrease in nitric oxide production. Inhibiting NOS2 activation in smooth muscle cells led to a decrease in the adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This study has therefore delineated a novel pathway which can inhibit the interaction between macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells via SPC-induced repression of NOS2 expression. This mechanism could represent a potential drug target in vascular disease.

  10. AnL1 smoothing spline algorithm with cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Ken W.; Lall, Upmanu

    1993-08-01

    We propose an algorithm for the computation ofL1 (LAD) smoothing splines in the spacesWM(D), with . We assume one is given data of the formyiD(f(ti) +ɛi, iD1,...,N with {itti}iD1N ⊂D, theɛi are errors withE(ɛi)D0, andf is assumed to be inWM. The LAD smoothing spline, for fixed smoothing parameterλ?;0, is defined as the solution,sλ, of the optimization problem (1/N)∑iD1N yi-g(ti +λJM(g), whereJM(g) is the seminorm consisting of the sum of the squaredL2 norms of theMth partial derivatives ofg. Such an LAD smoothing spline,sλ, would be expected to give robust smoothed estimates off in situations where theɛi are from a distribution with heavy tails. The solution to such a problem is a "thin plate spline" of known form. An algorithm for computingsλ is given which is based on considering a sequence of quadratic programming problems whose structure is guided by the optimality conditions for the above convex minimization problem, and which are solved readily, if a good initial point is available. The "data driven" selection of the smoothing parameter is achieved by minimizing aCV(λ) score of the form .The combined LAD-CV smoothing spline algorithm is a continuation scheme in λ↘0 taken on the above SQPs parametrized inλ, with the optimal smoothing parameter taken to be that value ofλ at which theCV(λ) score first begins to increase. The feasibility of constructing the LAD-CV smoothing spline is illustrated by an application to a problem in environment data interpretation.

  11. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine inhibits macrophage adhesion to vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wirrig, Christiane; McKean, Jenny S; Wilson, Heather M; Nixon, Graeme F

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation in de-endothelialised arteries contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The process that initiates this inflammatory response is the adhesion of monocytes/macrophages to exposed vascular smooth muscle cells, typically stimulated by cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the sphingolipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on the interaction of monocytes/macrophages with vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages were co-cultured using an in vitro assay following incubation with sphingolipids to assess inter-cellular adhesion. We reveal that SPC inhibits the TNF-induced adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This anti-adhesive effect was the result of SPC-induced changes to the smooth muscle cells (but not the macrophages) and was mediated, at least partly, via the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 2. Lipid raft domains were also required. Although SPC did not alter expression or membrane distribution of the adhesion proteins intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion protein-1 in smooth muscle cells, SPC preincubation inhibited the TNF-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) resulting in a subsequent decrease in nitric oxide production. Inhibiting NOS2 activation in smooth muscle cells led to a decrease in the adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This study has therefore delineated a novel pathway which can inhibit the interaction between macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells via SPC-induced repression of NOS2 expression. This mechanism could represent a potential drug target in vascular disease. PMID:27402344

  12. Smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhozhaev, S I

    2014-02-28

    We consider smooth solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on the scale of smooth functions which are periodic with respect to x∈R{sup 3}. We obtain existence theorems for global (with respect to t>0) and local solutions of the Cauchy problem. The statements of these depend on the smoothness and the norm of the initial vector function. Upper bounds for the behaviour of solutions in both classes, which depend on t, are also obtained. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  13. Localization of phospholamban in smooth muscle using immunogold electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Phospholamban, the putative regulator of the Ca2+-ATPase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, was immunolocalized in canine visceral and vascular smooth muscle. Gently disrupted tissues were labeled with an affinity-purified phospholamban polyclonal antibody and indirect immunogold, using preembedding techniques. The sarcoplasmic reticulum of smooth muscle cells was specifically labeled with patches of immunogold distributed in a nonuniform fashion, while the sarcolemma did not appear to contain any phospholamban. The outer nuclear envelopes were also observed to be heavily labeled with the affinity- purified phospholamban polyclonal antibody. These findings suggest that phospholamban may play a role in the regulation of cytoplasmic and intranuclear calcium levels in smooth muscle cells. PMID:3417762

  14. Heat kernel smoothing using Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunctions.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seongho; Chung, Moo K; Vorperian, Houri K

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel surface smoothing framework using the Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunctions. The Green's function of an isotropic diffusion equation on a manifold is constructed as a linear combination of the Laplace-Beltraimi operator. The Green's function is then used in constructing heat kernel smoothing. Unlike many previous approaches, diffusion is analytically represented as a series expansion avoiding numerical instability and inaccuracy issues. This proposed framework is illustrated with mandible surfaces, and is compared to a widely used iterative kernel smoothing technique in computational anatomy. The MATLAB source code is freely available at http://brainimaging.waisman.wisc.edu/ chung/lb.

  15. Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Hefton, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP) purified from flue-cured tobacco leaves, tar-derived material (TAR), the water soluble, nondialyzable, delipidized extract of cigarette smoke condensate, rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, but not adventitial fibroblasts. The mitogenicity appears to depend on polyphenol epitopes on carrier molecules. Ellagic acid, another plant polyphenol, inhibited arterial smooth-muscle proliferation. These results suggest that a number of ubiquitous, plant-derived substances may influence smooth-muscle cell proliferation in the arterial wall.

  16. Vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells: building and repairing blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Majesky, Mark W; Dong, Xiu Rong; Regan, Jenna N; Hoglund, Virginia J

    2011-02-01

    Molecular pathways that control the specification, migration, and number of available smooth muscle progenitor cells play key roles in determining blood vessel size and structure, capacity for tissue repair, and progression of age-related disorders. Defects in these pathways produce malformations of developing blood vessels, depletion of smooth muscle progenitor cell pools for vessel wall maintenance and repair, and aberrant activation of alternative differentiation pathways in vascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that uniquely specify and maintain vascular smooth muscle cell precursors is essential if we are to use advances in stem and progenitor cell biology and somatic cell reprogramming for applications directed to the vessel wall.

  17. Stabilizing S.P.H. with conservative smoothing

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Y.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    There is an instability in certain S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method) material dynamics computations. Evidence from analyses and experiments suggests that the instabilities in S.P.H. are not removable with artificial viscosities. However, the analysis shows that a type of conservative smoothing does remove the instability. Also, numerical experiments, on certain test problems, show that SPHCS, and S.P.H. code with conservative smoothing, compares well in accuracy with computations based on the von Neumann-Richtmyer method.

  18. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  19. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  20. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 1/2 inch...

  1. Smooth local subspace projection for nonlinear noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Chelidze, David

    2014-03-15

    Many nonlinear or chaotic time series exhibit an innate broad spectrum, which makes noise reduction difficult. Local projective noise reduction is one of the most effective tools. It is based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and works for both map-like and continuously sampled time series. However, POD only looks at geometrical or topological properties of data and does not take into account the temporal characteristics of time series. Here, we present a new smooth projective noise reduction method. It uses smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of bundles of reconstructed short-time trajectory strands to identify smooth local subspaces. Restricting trajectories to these subspaces imposes temporal smoothness on the filtered time series. It is shown that SOD-based noise reduction significantly outperforms the POD-based method for continuously sampled noisy time series.

  2. Large planer for finishing smooth, flat surfaces of large pieces ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large planer for finishing smooth, flat surfaces of large pieces of metal; in operating condition and used for public demonstrations. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  3. Smooth sailing through board meetings: practical hints for new chairpersons.

    PubMed

    Harney, M K

    1983-11-01

    The author has some practical and useful suggestions for chairpersons to help keep board meetings running smoothly and efficiently, from the physical arrangement of the room to the formulation of and adherence to agendas.

  4. Chemical basis of rough and smooth variation in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Belisle, J T; Brennan, P J

    1989-01-01

    Rough and smooth colony variants of Mycobacterium kansasii were compared with respect to surface glycolipid composition. Thin-layer chromatography of the native glycolipid antigens, gas chromatography of the constituent sugars, and in situ probing with an appropriate monoclonal antibody by colony dot blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunogold labeling demonstrated that all M. kansasii strains of smooth colony morphology contain on their surfaces the recently described trehalose-containing lipooligosaccharides, whereas all rough variants were devoid of such surface antigens. Yet all strains, rough and smooth, contained another glycolipid, the M. kansasii-specific phenolic glycolipid. Previous studies by others had shown that the rough forms of M. kansasii persist longer than smooth variants in experimentally infected mice. Therefore, this study may provide some insight into the question of the chemical basis of pathogenesis in certain mycobacteria. Images PMID:2722755

  5. Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    1993-08-01

    Gingold, Lucy, and Monaghan invented a grid-free version of continuum mechanics ``smoothed-particle hydrodynamics,`` in 1977. It is a likely contributor to ``hybrid`` simulations combining atomistic and continuum simulations. We describe applications of this particle-based continuum technique from the closely-related standpoint of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. We compare chaotic Lyapunov spectra for atomistic solids and fluids with those which characterize a two-dimensional smoothed-particle fluid system.

  6. Neuroblastoma cell lines showing smooth muscle cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, T; Mine, H; Horii, Y; Takahashi, K; Nagai, R; Morishita, R; Komada, M; Asada, Y; Sawada, T

    2000-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is a tumor that is derived from the neural crest. Recent studies demonstrated that several human neuroblastoma cell lines exhibit at least three morphologic types: neuroblastic (N)-type, substrate-adhesive (S)-type and intermediate (I)-type cells. However, the origin of the S-type cells has not been clearly identified. In this study, the expressions of smooth muscle-specific proteins (desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, basic calponin and the smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms of SM1 and SM2) in three parent and four cloned neuroblastoma cell lines, composed of S-type cells, were examined by indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot and/or by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Desmin was found in two of the seven cell lines, and alpha-smooth muscle actin and basic calponin were detected in all of seven of the cell lines. In three parent cell lines and one cloned cell line composed of N-type cells, none of three smooth muscle-specific proteins were detected. In smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms, SM1 was detected in two parent cell lines composed of S-type cells (MP-N-MS and KP-N-YS) by immunofluorescence, Western blot and/or by RT-PCR, whereas the SM2 isoform was detected in one parent cell line (MP-N-MS) by RT-PCR. These findings indicate that S-type cells have either the immature or mature smooth muscle cell phenotype, and neural crest cells very likely have the ability of to differentiate into smooth muscle cells in the human system.

  7. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  9. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  10. Smooth Pursuit in Elderly Adults Studied With Apparent Motion.

    PubMed

    Bozhkova, Valentina P; Surovicheva, Nadezhda S; Nikolaev, Dmitry P; Nikolaev, Ilya P; Bolshakov, Andrey S

    2015-01-01

    The variability of smooth pursuit eye movements was studied in a group of healthy subjects for horizontal apparent motion by a method that does not require direct measurements of eye movements. It was found that the individual smooth pursuit efficiencies for binocular perception in group of healthy elderly subjects (mean age 61 years) as well as in the group of healthy young adults were distinctly differentiated. Furthermore, we have not detected any age-related decrease in the fraction of subjects showing high smooth pursuit efficiencies. This fact demonstrates that the human oculomotor system is relatively resistant to the effects of aging. At the same time, an appreciable increase of percentage of persons with directional asymmetry of smooth pursuit has been found among elderly adults. A higher smooth pursuit efficiency was noticed reliably more often in the direction from left to right rather than in the opposite direction. Subject eye movements were recorded with i-View XTM Hi-Speed 1250 eye tracking system (SMI Inc.). These records confirmed that the smooth pursuit accuracy of older adults is less than that of young persons, at least in some directions of tracking.

  11. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 ..mu..M serotonin with increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 ..mu..M. At a concentration of 1 ..mu..M, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was approx. = 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors.

  12. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  13. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  14. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

    2005-11-01

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  15. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  16. Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

    1978-01-01

    Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

  17. Index finger abnormalities in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Day, Ruth; Fryer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X linked recessive overgrowth disorder in which digital abnormalities are a well-described aspect of the phenotype. We report a case with marked index finger hypoplasia and a congenital abnormality of the proximal phalanx and review the literature detailing index finger abnormalities in this condition.

  18. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  19. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  20. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  1. Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Küpker, W; Demirel, C; Schöpper, B; Blasig, C; Sturm, R; Felberbaum, R; Bauer, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    1999-09-01

    One of the best discriminators for the fertilization potential of human spermatozoa is sperm morphology. The problem in the assessment of the sperm morphological characteristics is their pleiomorphism. Examination of spermatozoa with the light microscope can provide only limited information on their internal structure. More detailed examination of sperm structure using electron microscopy can reveal major, often unsuspected ultrastructural abnormalities. Results and cut-off values for sperm analysis depend on the criteria for normal morphology. World Health Organization recommendations provide a classification suitable for clinical practice. Clinically reliable cut-off limits for normal sperm morphology according to strict Tygerberg criteria were suggested to be 4% in in-vitro fertilization procedures. Patients with severe sperm head abnormalities have a lower chance of establishing successful pregnancies, even though fertilization may be achieved. The outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is not related to any of the standard semen parameters or to sperm morphology. Sperm decondensation defects and DNA anomalies may be underlying factors for the unrecognized derangements of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, regardless of sperm morphology. Centrosome dysfunction may also represent a class of sperm defects that cannot be overcome simply by the insertion of a spermatozoon into the ooplasm. In this article an overview on the composition and ultrastructure of spermatozoa is presented, while emphasizing sperm ultrastructural and sperm DNA anomalies and their effects on fertilization.

  2. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  4. Karyotypic abnormalities in tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, G.; Johansson, B.; Pandis, N.; Mandahl, N.; Bak-Jensen, E.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Mitelman, F.; Heim, S.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term cultures from 20 pancreatic tumours, three endocrine and 17 exocrine, were cytogenetically analysed. All three endocrine tumours had a normal chromosome complement. Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 13 of the 17 exocrine tumours: simple karyotypic changes were found in five carcinomas and numerous numerical and/or structural changes in eight. When the present findings and those previously reported by our group were viewed in conjunction, the most common numerical imbalances among the 22 karyotypically abnormal pancreatic carcinomas thus available for evaluation turned out to be, in order of falling frequency, -18, -Y, +20, +7, +11 and -12. Imbalances brought about by structural changes most frequently affected chromosomes 1 (losses in 1p but especially gains of 1q), 8 (in particular 8q gains but also 8p losses), and 17 (mostly 17q gain but also loss of 17p). Chromosomal bands 1p32, 1q10, 6q21, 7p22, 8p21, 8q11, 14p11, 15q10-11, and 17q11 were the most common breakpoint sites affected by the structural rearrangements. Abnormal karyotypes were detected more frequently in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas than in moderately and well differentiated tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494707

  5. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  6. Subjective Visual Vertical and Horizontal Abnormalities in a Patient with Lateral Medullary Syndrome-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Ashish, Gaurav; Lepcha, Anjali; Balraj, Achamma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of persistent vertigo in post infarct patients is very important as the management depends on whether the cause is purely of central origin or due to associated vestibular affliction. Case Report: A patient with left sided dorsolateral medullary syndrome and persistent vestibular symptoms was evaluated. Vestibular test battery showed abnormal smooth pursuit, bilateral hyperactive caloric responses, and abnormal dynamic subjective visual vertical and dynamic subjective visual horizontal tests. Conclusion: Dorsolateral medullary infarctions (Wallenberg’s syndrome) typically cause a central vestibular tonus imbalance in the roll plane with ipsilateral deviations of perceived vertical orientation. The SVV and SVH tests may have a role in localizing the pathology in a patient with lateral medullary syndrome. PMID:25745615

  7. Characterizing the Pressure Smoothing Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-10-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 6 constrains the nature and timing of cosmic reionization events, but its inference from the Lyα forest is degenerate with the 3D structure of the IGM on ∼100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T ≃ 104 K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z < 6, the gas density power spectrum does not exhibit the expected filtering scale cutoff, because dense gas in collapsed halos dominates the small-scale power masking pressure smoothing effects. We introduce a new statistic, the real-space Lyα flux, Freal, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The Freal power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at λF, allowing us to rigorously quantify the pressure smoothing scale for the first time: we find λF = 79 kpc (comoving) at z = 3 for our fiducial thermal model. This statistic has the added advantage that it directly relates to observations of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, recently proposed as a method to measure the pressure smoothing scale. Our results enable one to quantify the pressure smoothing scale in simulations, and ask meaningful questions about its dependence on reionization and thermal history. Accordingly, the standard description of the IGM in terms of the amplitude T0 and slope γ of the temperature–density relation T={T}0{(ρ /\\bar{ρ })}γ -1 should be augmented with a third pressure smoothing scale parameter λF.

  8. Structural and Functional Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Patients With Vasospastic Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Prescott, Eva; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Coronary spasm is involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and syncope. In recent years, imaging tools such as computerized tomographic angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography have been applied to study the coronary pathology in patients with vasospastic angina. Patients with vasospastic angina represent a heterogeneous cohort of patients with regard to the extent of concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. They share the common pathophysiological phenomenon of vascular smooth muscle hyperreactivity leading to spasm caused by various factors that may also overlap. Focal coronary spasm is related to epicardial atherosclerosis and in the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease it may be useful to treat the lesion to prevent further spasm. The aim of this article is to review structural and functional coronary artery abnormalities in patients with vasospastic angina.

  9. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  10. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    DOE PAGES

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f,more » ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.« less

  11. Smooth Muscle Enriched Long Noncoding RNA (SMILR) Regulates Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, Margaret D.; Pinel, Karine; Dakin, Rachel; Vesey, Alex T.; Diver, Louise; Mackenzie, Ruth; Garcia, Raquel; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Hamilton, Graham; Joshi, Nikhil; Dweck, Marc R.; Miano, Joseph M.; McBride, Martin W.; Newby, David E.; McDonald, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile to a synthetic state is implicated in diverse vascular pathologies, including atherogenesis, plaque stabilization, and neointimal hyperplasia. However, very little is known about the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during this process. Here, we investigated a role for lncRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cell biology and pathology. Methods and Results— Using RNA sequencing, we identified >300 lncRNAs whose expression was altered in human saphenous vein vascular smooth muscle cells following stimulation with interleukin-1α and platelet-derived growth factor. We focused on a novel lncRNA (Ensembl: RP11-94A24.1), which we termed smooth muscle–induced lncRNA enhances replication (SMILR). Following stimulation, SMILR expression was increased in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and was detected in conditioned media. Furthermore, knockdown of SMILR markedly reduced cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we noted that expression of genes proximal to SMILR was also altered by interleukin-1α/platelet-derived growth factor treatment, and HAS2 expression was reduced by SMILR knockdown. In human samples, we observed increased expression of SMILR in unstable atherosclerotic plaques and detected increased levels in plasma from patients with high plasma C-reactive protein. Conclusions— These results identify SMILR as a driver of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and suggest that modulation of SMILR may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce vascular pathologies. PMID:27052414

  12. Research of beam smoothing technologies using CPP, SSD, and PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Li, Ping; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Tian, Xiaocheng; Xu, Dangpeng; Dong, Jun; Zhu, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    Precise physical experiments place strict requirements on target illumination uniformity in Inertial Confinement Fusion. To obtain a smoother focal spot and suppress transverse SBS in large aperture optics, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) was studied combined with continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS). New ways of PS are being developed to improve the laser irradiation uniformity and solve LPI problems in indirect-drive laser fusion. The near field and far field properties of beams using polarization smoothing were studied and compared, including birefringent wedge and polarization control array. As more parameters can be manipulated in a combined beam smoothing scheme, quad beam smoothing was also studies. Simulation results indicate through adjusting dispersion directions of one-dimensional (1-D) SSD beams in a quad, two-dimensional SSD can be obtained. Experiments have been done on SG-III laser facility using CPP and Multi-FM SSD. The research provides some theoretical and experimental basis for the application of CPP, SSD and PS on high-power laser facilities.

  13. Benzydamine Oral Spray Inhibiting Parasympathetic Function of Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Benzydamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents agent with anti-inflammatory and local anesthesia properties that is available in the entire world as an oral spray for oral mucositis patients who are suffering from radiation effects. The effect of benzydamine on oral mucositis in vivo is well known; however, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. During administration of the benzydamine for oral symptoms, it might affect the trachea via oral intake or inhalation. Methods We examined the effectiveness of benzydamine on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle. The following assessments of benzydamine were performed: effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; effect on contraction caused by 10-6M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; and effect of the drug on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results Addition of methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of benzydamine at doses of 10-5M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10-6M methacholine-induced contraction. Benzydamine could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. Conclusion This study indicated that high concentrations of benzydamine might actually inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Benzydamine might reduce asthma attacks in oral mucositis patients because it could inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:25729498

  14. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Yun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  15. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  16. Role of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ding, You-Ming; Wang, Chun-Tao; Wang, Wei-Xing

    2015-08-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common medical condition whose incidence rate is increasing yearly, while its pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The present study assessed the expression of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in gallbladder smooth muscles and its effect on the contractile function of gallbladder smooth muscles during gallstone formation. Thirty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: The control group, the gallstone model group and the fasudil interference group. The fasting volume (FV) and bile capacity of the gallbladder (FB) as well as the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the gallbladder bile were determined. In addition, the gallbladder was dissected to identify whether any gallstones had formed. Part of the gallbladder tissue specimens were used for immunohistochemical analysis of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscles. The results showed that four guinea pigs in the model group and eight in the fasudil group displayed gallstone formation, while there was no gallstone formation in the control group. The FV and FB were significantly increased in the model and fasudil groups. Similarly, the TC and TG contents of gallbladder bile were increased in these groups. The positive expression rate of ROCK in gallbladder smooth muscles in the model and fasudil groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that the reduction of ROCK expression in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscles weakened gallbladder contraction and thereby promoted gallstone formation.

  17. Quick phases control ocular torsion during smooth pursuit.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard J M; Thomassen, Jakob S

    2011-11-01

    One of the open questions in oculomotor control of visually guided eye movements is whether it is possible to smoothly track a target along a curvilinear path across the visual field without changing the torsional stance of the eye. We show in an experimental study of three-dimensional eye movements in subhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) that although the pursuit system is able to smoothly change the orbital orientation of the eye's rotation axis, the smooth ocular motion was interrupted every few hundred milliseconds by a small quick phase with amplitude <1.5° while the animal tracked a target along a circle or ellipse. Specifically, during circular pursuit of targets moving at different angular eccentricities (5°, 10°, and 15°) relative to straight ahead at spatial frequencies of 0.067 and 0.1 Hz, the torsional amplitude of the intervening quick phases was typically around 1° or smaller and changed direction for clockwise vs. counterclockwise tracking. Reverse computations of the eye rotation based on the recorded angular eye velocity showed that the quick phases facilitate the overall control of ocular orientation in the roll plane, thereby minimizing torsional disturbances of the visual field. On the basis of a detailed kinematic analysis, we suggest that quick phases during curvilinear smooth tracking serve to minimize deviations from Donders' law, which are inevitable due to the spherical configuration space of smooth eye movements.

  18. Saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements attenuate postural sway similarly.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Tosi; Polastri, Paula Fávaro; Carvalho, Jamile Cristina; Barela, José Angelo; Moraes, Renato; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements reduce body sway, yet visually pursuing a moving dot seems to increase body sway. However, how these two types of eye movements affect postural control remains ambiguous, particularly for smooth pursuit eye movements. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of saccade and smooth pursuit eye movements on body sway magnitude during low and high frequencies. Ten young adults (19.5 ± 1.9 years) participants were required to stand upright, barefoot for 70s using a bipedal stance, with feet hip width apart, fixating or pursuing a target that was displayed on a monitor positioned 100 cm away from their eyes. Each participant performed three trials using both types of eye movements, in particular, slow and fast saccades, and slow and fast smooth pursuit movements. Body sway was obtained using reflective markers attached to a participant's head and trunk, which were recorded by two video cameras. The results indicated that body sway was reduced during both saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit movements when compared to fixation, independent of visual frequencies. These results suggested similarities in the control of saccades and smooth pursuit on postural control. PMID:25450141

  19. Calibrating an updated smoothed particle hydrodynamics scheme within gcd+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, D.; Okamoto, T.; Gibson, B. K.; Barnes, D. J.; Cen, R.

    2013-01-01

    We adapt a modern scheme of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to our tree N-body/SPH galactic chemodynamics code gcd+. The applied scheme includes implementations of the artificial viscosity switch and artificial thermal conductivity proposed by Morris & Monaghan, Rosswog & Price and Price to model discontinuities and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities more accurately. We first present hydrodynamics test simulations and contrast the results to runs undertaken without artificial viscosity switch or thermal conduction. In addition, we also explore the different levels of smoothing by adopting larger or smaller smoothing lengths, i.e. a larger or smaller number of neighbour particles, Nnb. We demonstrate that the new version of gcd+ is capable of modelling Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities to a similar level as the mesh code, athena. From the Gresho vortex, point-like explosion and self-similar collapse tests, we conclude that setting the smoothing length to keep Nnb as high as ˜58 is preferable to adopting smaller smoothing lengths. We present our optimized parameter sets from the hydrodynamics tests.

  20. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for droplet and film flow on smooth and rough fracture surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Geyer, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    Flow on fracture surfaces has been identified by many authors as an important flow process in unsaturated fractured rock formations. Given the complexity of flow dynamics on such small scales, robust numerical methods have to be employed in order to capture the highly dynamic interfaces and flow intermittency. In this work we present microscale free-surface flow simulations using a three-dimensional multiphase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Pairwise solid-fluid and fluid-fluid interaction forces are used to control the wetting behavior and cover a wide range of static and transient contact angles as well as Reynolds numbers encountered in droplet flow on rock surfaces. We validate our model via comparison with existing empirical and semi-analyical solutions for droplet flow. We use the model to investigate the occurence of adsorbed trailing films of droplets under various flow conditions and its importance for the flow dynamics when films and droplets coexist. We show that flow velocities are higher on prewetted surfaces covered by a thin film which is qualitatively attributed to the enhanced dynamic wetting and dewetting at the trailing and advancing contact line.

  1. Residual gait abnormalities in surgically treated spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Shelokov, A; Haideri, N; Roach, J

    1993-11-01

    The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who had in situ fusion as adolescents for high-grade (IV, V) spondylolisthesis unresponsive to more conservative means. All patients achieved solid bony union; their pain was relieved; and hamstring spasm had resolved. The authors sought to determine whether crouch gait or any other abnormalities could be demonstrated in patients exhibiting clinical parameters of success. Each patient underwent gait analysis, radiographic analysis, and a physical examination. Four of seven patients demonstrated slight degrees of forward trunk lean during varying phases of gait accompanied by increased hip flexion. One patient demonstrated increased trunk extension accompanied by limited hip flexion. Two patients were essentially normal. The authors were unable to quantify residual crouch in these patients with solidly fused high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  2. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  3. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  4. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence.

  5. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. PMID:25590398

  6. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition. PMID:20152051

  7. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    1-2% of women has abnormal uterine development due to nonunification of the Müllerian ducts in the embryonal period. At the RWTH Aachen, in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics, between January and June 1987, we had searched systematically for maldevelopment of the uterus in 2299 echosonografies. In 13 cases we found maldevelopment of internal genital; 5 of these cases were diagnosed by an echosonografic routine-examination. The echografic criteria of the different grades of uterine malformations have been determined, systematized and discussed in relation to the symptoms. The most frequent malformations as uterus subseptus, uterus septus, uterus bicornis and uterus duplex are subject of a detailed discussion. This work demonstrates that echosonografic is a very efficient instrument to diagnose uterine malformations and gives us a very exact anatomic interpretation of malformations.

  8. Abnormal branch of the testicular artery.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, P Vijaya; Bhasin, Vishu; Kumar, Sushil

    2006-09-01

    We present a case report of an abnormal course and branching of the right testicular artery, which was uncovered during routine dissection of the abdomen in our first year medical class. It arose from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and immediately divided into two branches; one branch coursed inferiorly behind the inferior vena cava as the testicular artery proper, while the other branch passed behind the inferior vena cava and emerged on the anterior surface of the right kidney. After crossing the anterior surface of the kidney, it bifurcated into an ascending branch that went to the right suprarenal gland and a descending branch that ended in the posterior abdominal wall. The left testicular artery was normal in its course and distribution. This is a very rare variation.

  9. Is assisted reproduction associated with abnormal placentation?

    PubMed

    Joy, Jolly; Gannon, Caroline; McClure, Neil; Cooke, Inez

    2012-01-01

    Artificial reproductive technologies (ART) and conception following a period of untreated infertility (>1 year) are independently associated with increased pregnancy complications in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. It is unknown if placental dysfunction associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic histological discrepancies might explain some of these variances. Our aim was to compare the histopathology of placentae from singleton pregnancies belonging to 3 groups, as follows: conception as a result of ART; spontaneous conception (<1 year of trying); and conception following untreated infertility (>1 year). Pathological examination of placentae from singleton pregnancies of nonsmoking, age-matched primiparous women with no significant medical history and no known uterine congenital anomalies was performed by a single pathologist blinded to the groups. Features were compared using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. A total of 89 placental pathology reports were available (control  =  39, infertility  =  17, ART  =  33). The mean placental thickness was significantly higher in the ART group when compared to the spontaneous conception group (P  =  0.02). There were significantly more placental hematomas in the ART group (P  =  0.04) compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in rates of abnormal placental shapes or abnormal cord insertions. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of microscopic placental lesions, nor were there any statistically significant differences in the incidence of macroscopic and microscopic placental lesions between the infertility group and the other groups. Placentae of ART pregnancies show significantly increased thickness and a higher incidence of hematomas. Increased placental thickness has previously been linked to increased perinatal risk.

  10. Karyotypic abnormalities in myelofibrosis following polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Joris; Demory, Jean Loup; Caulier, Marie Thérèse; Agape, Philippe; Wetterwald, Marc; Bauters, Francis; Laï, Jean Luc

    2003-01-15

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by an increase of total red cell volume; in 10% to 15% of cases, bone marrow fibrosis complicates the course of the disease after several years, resulting in a hematologic picture mimicking myelofibrosis with myelocytic metaplasia (MMM). This condition is known as post polycythemic myelofibrosis (PPMF). Among 30 patients with PPMF followed in Northern France, 27 (90%) expressed one or two abnormal clones in myelocytic cell cultures. Of these, 19 (70%) had partial or complete trisomy 1q. This common anomaly either resulted from unbalanced translocations with acrocentric chromosomes, that is, 13, 14, and 15, or other chromosomes, that is, 1, 6, 7, 9, 16, 19, and Y, or from partial or total duplication of long arm of chromosome 1. A single patient had an isochromosome 1q leading to tetrasomy 1q. In all cases, a common trisomic region spanning 1q21 to 1q32 has been identified. Given that most patients had previously received chemotherapy or radio-phosphorus to control the polycythemic phase of their disease, this study illustrates the increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities after such treatments: 90% versus 50% in de novo MMM. Moreover, karyotype can be used to distinguish PPMF-where trisomy 1q is the main anomaly-from primary MMM where trisomy 1q is rare and deletions 13q or 20q are far more common. Whether trisomy 1q is or is not a secondary event remains a matter of debate, as well as the role of cytotoxic treatments. PMID:12645649

  11. Eye-Head Coordination Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Simon; Würmle, Othmar; Razavi, Nadja; Müri, René M.; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. Methodology/Principal Findings Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view). Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. Conclusions/Significance Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients with schizophrenia. PMID

  12. Abnormal strain changes of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The tenth Five-Year Project of China Earthquake Administration installed about 40 YRY-4 type high-resolution borehole strainmeters over the mainland China in order to enhance its capability of earthquake-forecasting attempt. The strainmeters are installed in rocks at a depth around 40m and resolve strain changes to the order of 10-11. Measurements are sampled every minute. There are four gauges horizontally placed, 45-degree apart, in an YRY-4 strainmeter, whose measurements are denoted as Si (i=1, 2, 3, 4) in our study. The similarity of the two curves of S1 +S3 and S2 +S4 of Guza recordings gives sufficient credit to the data. Among the sites, Guza is located the nearest (about 140km), from the epicentral area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Even months before the earthquake, it had already been noticed at Guza that the initially smooth curves had become badly interfered from time to time by minor steps or unsymmetrical pulses with periods of minutes~hours. The interferences were dominantly compressional and mostly on the order of 10-9. They were not corresponding to weather changes. Other sites are at least 300km away and did not observe such anomalies. A comparison of the interferences with the long-term and coseismic changes shows a good consistence in the sense of strain variety among them, which suggests a tectonic cause of the abnormal signals. High-passed data show obvious relevance of the abnormal signals to the Wenchuan quake in time. They became stronger as the great event approached, reached the highest at the main shock and diminishing while aftershocks have been dying away. We put forth an Overrun Rate Analysis (ORA) to give out a quantitative description of the interferences. The high-passed interferences can be depicted as positive or negative big values overrunning the normal level. Overrun Rate of Numbers, denoted as Ron, is defined as the total number of overrun points in one day, and Overrun Rate of Strength Ros the daily sum of amplitudes of

  13. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants.

  14. RSSI-based smooth localization for indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujian; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) technique, for its better penetrability over traditional techniques such as infrared or ultrasound, is widely used for indoor localization and tracking. In this paper, three novel measurements, point decision accuracy, path matching error and wrong jumping ratio, are firstly defined to express the localization efficiency. Then, a novel RSSI-based smooth localization (RSL) algorithm is designed, implemented, and evaluated on the WiFi networks. The tree-based mechanism determines the current position and track of the entity by assigning the weights and accumulative weights for all collected RSSI information of reference points so as to make the localization smooth. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed algorithm brings better localization smoothness of reducing 10% path matching error and 30% wrong jumping ratio over the RADAR system. PMID:25143988

  15. A method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics using spheroidal kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, Michael S.; Benz, Willy; Davies, Melvyn B.

    1995-01-01

    We present a new method of three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) designed to model systems dominated by deformation along a preferential axis. These systems cause severe problems for SPH codes using spherical kernels, which are best suited for modeling systems which retain rough spherical symmetry. Our method allows the smoothing length in the direction of the deformation to evolve independently of the smoothing length in the perpendicular plane, resulting in a kernel with a spheroidal shape. As a result the spatial resolution in the direction of deformation is significantly improved. As a test case we present the one-dimensional homologous collapse of a zero-temperature, uniform-density cloud, which serves to demonstrate the advantages of spheroidal kernels. We also present new results on the problem of the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole.

  16. Excitation energy after a smooth quench in a Luttinger liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Tylutki, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Low-energy physics of quasi-one-dimensional ultracold atomic gases is often described by a gapless Luttinger liquid (LL). It is nowadays routine to manipulate these systems by changing their parameters in time but, no matter how slow the manipulation is, it must excite a gapless system. We study a smooth change of parameters of the LL (a smooth ''quench'') with a variable quench time and find that the excitation energy decays with an inverse power of the quench time. This universal exponent is -2 at zero temperature and -1 for slow enough quenches at finite temperature. The smooth quench does not excite beyond the range of validity of the low-energy LL description.

  17. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  18. Motion dependence of smooth pursuit eye movements in the marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Nicholas J.; Miller, Cory T.

    2015-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements stabilize slow-moving objects on the retina by matching eye velocity with target velocity. Two critical components are required to generate smooth pursuit: first, because it is a voluntary eye movement, the subject must select a target to pursue to engage the tracking system; and second, generating smooth pursuit requires a moving stimulus. We examined whether this behavior also exists in the common marmoset, a New World primate that is increasingly attracting attention as a genetic model for mental disease and systems neuroscience. We measured smooth pursuit in two marmosets, previously trained to perform fixation tasks, using the standard Rashbass step-ramp pursuit paradigm. We first measured the aspects of visual motion that drive pursuit eye movements. Smooth eye movements were in the same direction as target motion, indicating that pursuit was driven by target movement rather than by displacement. Both the open-loop acceleration and closed-loop eye velocity exhibited a linear relationship with target velocity for slow-moving targets, but this relationship declined for higher speeds. We next examined whether marmoset pursuit eye movements depend on an active engagement of the pursuit system by measuring smooth eye movements evoked by small perturbations of motion from fixation or during pursuit. Pursuit eye movements were much larger during pursuit than from fixation, indicating that pursuit is actively gated. Several practical advantages of the marmoset brain, including the accessibility of the middle temporal (MT) area and frontal eye fields at the cortical surface, merit its utilization for studying pursuit movements. PMID:25867740

  19. A User Guide for Smoothing Air Traffic Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E.; Paielli, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Matlab software was written to provide smoothing of radar tracking data to simulate ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) data in order to test a tactical conflict probe. The probe, called TSAFE (Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment), is designed to handle air-traffic conflicts left undetected or unresolved when loss-of-separation is predicted to occur within approximately two minutes. The data stream that is down-linked from an aircraft equipped with an ADS-B system would include accurate GPS-derived position and velocity information at sample rates of 1 Hz. Nation-wide ADS-B equipage (mandated by 2020) should improve surveillance accuracy and TSAFE performance. Currently, position data are provided by Center radar (nominal 12-sec samples) and Terminal radar (nominal 4.8-sec samples). Aircraft ground speed and ground track are estimated using real-time filtering, causing lags up to 60 sec, compromising performance of a tactical resolution tool. Offline smoothing of radar data reduces wild-point errors, provides a sample rate as high as 1 Hz, and yields more accurate and lag-free estimates of ground speed, ground track, and climb rate. Until full ADS-B implementation is available, smoothed radar data should provide reasonable track estimates for testing TSAFE in an ADS-B-like environment. An example illustrates the smoothing of radar data and shows a comparison of smoothed-radar and ADS-B tracking. This document is intended to serve as a guide for using the smoothing software.

  20. The Initiation of Smooth Pursuit is Delayed in Anisometropic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Raashid, Rana Arham; Liu, Ivy Ziqian; Blakeman, Alan; Goltz, Herbert C.; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several behavioral studies have shown that the reaction times of visually guided movements are slower in people with amblyopia, particularly during amblyopic eye viewing. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements, which are responsible for accurately keeping moving objects on the fovea, is delayed in people with anisometropic amblyopia. Methods Eleven participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 14 visually normal observers were asked to track a step-ramp target moving at ±15°/s horizontally as quickly and as accurately as possible. The experiment was conducted under three viewing conditions: amblyopic/nondominant eye, binocular, and fellow/dominant eye viewing. Outcome measures were smooth pursuit latency, open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency. Results Participants with anisometropic amblyopia initiated smooth pursuit significantly slower during amblyopic eye viewing (206 ± 20 ms) than visually normal observers viewing with their nondominant eye (183 ± 17 ms, P = 0.002). However, mean pursuit latency in the anisometropic amblyopia group during binocular and monocular fellow eye viewing was comparable to the visually normal group. Mean open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency were similar between the two groups, but participants with anisometropic amblyopia exhibited more variable steady state gain (P = 0.045). Conclusions This study provides evidence of temporally delayed smooth pursuit initiation in anisometropic amblyopia. After initiation, the smooth pursuit velocity profile in anisometropic amblyopia participants is similar to visually normal controls. This finding differs from what has been observed previously in participants with strabismic amblyopia who exhibit reduced smooth pursuit velocity gains with more catch-up saccades. PMID:27070109

  1. Geology of Smooth Ridge: MARS-IODP Cabled Observatory Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordahl, K. A.; Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.; Aiello, I. W.; Mitts, P.; Greene, H. G.; Gibbs, S.

    2004-12-01

    We document the geologic environment of Smooth Ridge, off shore Central California, where the deep-water node associated with the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research Site) scientific research cable is to be deployed. The MARS cable will provide internet connections and electric power at a node in 890 m of water in support of scientific observatory development and experiments. IODP boreholes are proposed which will be connected to the MARS cable. The deeply incised channels of Monterey and Soquel Canyons flank Smooth Ridge to the SW and NE and the San Gregorio faults marks its NW and upslope boundary. However, the top of Smooth Ridge, as its name implies, only has subdued bathymetric features. These include a subtle downslope channel and one distinct slump scar. A patch of acoustically reflective seafloor on the west side of the ridge, over 5 km from the MARS site, is associated with the only known large-scale biological community on the crest of Smooth Ridge. A reflection seismic survey conducted in 2003 with a high-resolution electrical sparker source reveals the stratigraphy of the Smooth Ridge in unprecedented detail. In conjunction with previously collected widely-spaced multichannnel seismic data, observations and samples obtained using remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) dives, and piston cores, this new survey reveals the erosional and depositional history of Smooth Ridge. The continuity of seismic reflections indicates nearly undisturbed deposition occurred until at least the mid-Miocene. Since that time, and especially since the upper Pliocene, the record is marked by unconformities and infill due to shifting channels, large slumps and landslides, and sediment waves. Several crossing seismic lines provide a quasi-three-dimensional view of a distinct slump scar's structure, and reveal a history of multiple headwall failures. Other subsurface structures, including a much larger, and older, slump feature, have no bathymetric expression at all. 14C dated piston

  2. Methods and electrolytes for electrodeposition of smooth films

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Shao, Yuyan

    2015-03-17

    Electrodeposition involving an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and/or film surface. For electrodeposition of a first conductive material (C1) on a substrate from one or more reactants in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second conductive material (C2), wherein cations of C2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the reactants.

  3. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  4. Generating Optimal Initial Conditions for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, S.; Rockefeller, G.; Fryer, C. L.; Riethmiller, D.; Statler, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    We review existing smoothed particle hydrodynamics setup methods and outline their advantages, limitations, and drawbacks. We present a new method for constructing initial conditions for smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, which may also be of interest for N-body simulations, and demonstrate this method on a number of applications. This new method is inspired by adaptive binning techniques using weighted Voronoi tessellations. Particles are placed and iteratively moved based on their proximity to neighbouring particles and the desired spatial resolution. This new method can satisfy arbitrarily complex spatial resolution requirements.

  5. Application of smoothed particle hydrodynamics method in aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless Lagrangian method in which the domain is represented by particles. Each particle is assigned properties such as mass, pressure, density, temperature, and velocity. These properties are then evaluated at the particle positions using a smoothing kernel that integrates over the values of the surrounding particles. In the present study the SPH method is first used to obtain numerical solutions for fluid flows over a cylinder and then we are going to apply the same principle over an airfoil obstacle.

  6. Digital smoothing of the Langmuir probe I-V characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Magnus, F.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2008-07-15

    Electrostatic probes or Langmuir probes are the most common diagnostic tools in plasma discharges. The second derivative of the Langmuir probe I-V characteristic is proportional to the electron energy distribution function. Determining the second derivative accurately requires some method of noise suppression. We compare the Savitzky-Golay filter, the Gaussian filter, and polynomial fitting to the Blackman filter for digitally smoothing simulated and measured I-V characteristics. We find that the Blackman filter achieves the most smoothing with minimal distortion for noisy data.

  7. A Non-smooth Newton Method for Multibody Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Erleben, K.; Ortiz, R.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we deal with the simulation of rigid bodies. Rigid body dynamics have become very important for simulating rigid body motion in interactive applications, such as computer games or virtual reality. We present a novel way of computing contact forces using a Newton method. The contact problem is reformulated as a system of non-linear and non-smooth equations, and we solve this system using a non-smooth version of Newton's method. One of the main contribution of this paper is the reformulation of the complementarity problems, used to model impacts, as a system of equations that can be solved using traditional methods.

  8. Numerical heat conductivity in smooth particle applied mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.G. |; Posch, H.A.

    1996-11-01

    Smooth particle applied mechanics provides a method for solving the basic equations of continuum mechanics, interpolating these equations onto a grid made up of moving particles. The moving particle grid gives rise to a thoroughly artificial numerical heat conductivity, analogous to the numerical viscosities associated with finite-difference schemes. We exploit an isomorphism linking the smooth-particle method to conventional molecular dynamics, and evaluate this numerical heat conductivity. We find that the corresponding thermal diffusivity is comparable in value to the numerical kinematic viscosity, and that neither is described very well by the Enskog theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Flow and Transport in Smooth and Rough Unsaturated Wide Aperture Fractures with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordilla, J.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Geyer, T.

    2014-12-01

    Unsaturated flow in fractured porous media exhibits highly complex flow dynamics and a wide range of intermittent flow processes. Especially in wide aperture fractures, flow processes may be dominated by gravitational instead of capillary forces leading to a deviation from the classical volume effective approaches (Richard's equation, Van Genuchten type relationships). The existence of various flow modes such as droplets, rivulets, turbulent and adsorbed films is well known, however, their spatial and temporal distribution within fracture networks is still an open question partially due to the lack of appropriate modeling tools. With our work we want to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying flow and transport dynamics in unsaturated fractured media in order to support the development of more refined upscaled methods, applicable on catchment scales. We present pore- and fracture-scale flow simulations obtained with a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model. The model allows to simulate free-surface flow dynamics including the effect of surface tension for a wide range of wetting conditions. Several empirical and semi-analytical solutions are used to verify the model. We show that our results satisfy the empirical scaling laws for droplet velocity and critical contact angle. Due to the efficient generation of surface tension via particle-particle interaction forces the dynamic wetting of surfaces as well as the velocity enhancement of droplets on saturated surfaces can readily be obtained. Furthermore, we study the effect of surface roughness on droplet velocities. Lastly, we present flow and transport simulations in the presence of an adjacent porous matrix in order to investigate its influence on the fracture surface flow dynamics and transport across the matrix-fracture interface.

  10. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  11. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  12. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  13. Pathogenesis and management of abnormal puberty.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, N J

    1985-01-01

    In the prepubertal child, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis is functional and extremely sensitive to negative feedback inhibition by low circulating levels of sex steroids. This feedback system may be under the control of unknown CNS inhibitory mechanisms. Clinical signs of puberty are preceded by increased pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Gonadotropin secretion, particularly LH, increases in both sexes, especially during sleep, resulting in gonadal stimulation, secretion of sex steroids, and progressive physical maturation. When any phase of the H-P-G axis malfunctions, abnormal puberty can result. Abnormal puberty may be precocious or delayed. When puberty is precocious it may be isosexual or heterosexual, complete or partial, intermittent (unsustained), or progressive. True (central) precocious puberty is usually progressive, and hormonally reflective of normal puberty, although occurring at an earlier age, whereas intermittent or unsustained precocious puberty usually is associated with immature patterns of gonadotropin secretion, or with complete gonadotropin suppression as in precocious pseudopuberty (ovarian or adrenal tumors). Cranial axial tomography, gonadotropin response to GnRH, and pelvic ultrasound in girls are useful tools to aid in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. Intermittent, or unsustained, puberty in girls is usually self-limited, requiring no medical or surgical intervention. True progressive central precocity may now be managed with GnRH analogues, which effectively arrest pubertal changes as well as slow rapid linear growth and skeletal maturation. Although a maturation lag usually explains most patterns of delayed puberty, it is often challenging to exclude other conditions that may contribute to slow pubertal progression, such as chronic illness, excessive exercise, emotional stress, anorexia, or drug use. Elevated

  14. Potassium channels in the regulation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis: pharmacotherapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Burg, E D; Remillard, C V; Yuan, J X-J

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining the proper balance between cell apoptosis and proliferation is required for normal tissue homeostasis; when this balance is disrupted, disease such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can result. Activity of K+ channels plays a major role in regulating the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) population in the pulmonary vasculature, as they are involved in cell apoptosis, survival and proliferation. PASMCs from PAH patients demonstrate many cellular abnormalities linked to K+ channels, including decreased K+ current, downregulated expression of various K+ channels, and inhibited apoptosis. K+ is the major intracellular cation, and the K+ current is a major determinant of cell volume. Apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), an early hallmark and prerequisite of programmed cell death, is characterized by K+ and Cl− efflux. In addition to its role in AVD, cytosolic K+ can be inhibitory toward endogenous caspases and nucleases and can suppress mitochondrial cytochrome c release. In PASMC, K+ channel activation accelerates AVD and enhances apoptosis, while K+ channel inhibition decelerates AVD and inhibits apoptosis. Finally, inhibition of K+ channels, by increasing cytosolic [Ca2+] as a result of membrane depolarization-mediated opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, leads to PASMC contraction and proliferation. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) to elucidate the role of K+ ions and K+ channels in the proliferation and apoptosis of PASMC, with an emphasis on abnormal cell growth in human and animal models of PAH, and (2) to elaborate upon the targeting of K+ flux pathways for pharmacological treatment of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:18084317

  15. Easy Songs for Smooth Transitions in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Nina; Aghayan, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Young children in school go through 16 to 20 transitions every day. What can make 10 children settle down, clean up, and move from room to room without protest? Even if you are uncomfortable singing in public, the simple songs in this book will help you glide smoothly through tough transitions such as greetings and good-byes, calling attention,…

  16. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the palpebral conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Mora, L Evelyn; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A; Vera, Ana M; Rubio, Rosa Isela; Mayorquín-Ruiz, Mariana; Salcedo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Smooth muscle hamartoma is defined as a disorganized focus or an overgrowth of mature smooth muscle, generally with low capacity of autonomous growth and benign behavior. The implicated tissues are mature and proliferate in a disorganized fashion. A healthy 5-day-old Mexican boy was referred to the authors' hospital in México city for evaluation of a "cystic" lesion of the right eye that had been noted since birth. The pregnancy and delivery were unremarkable. On physical examination, there was a reddish-pink soft lesion with a tender "cystic" appearance, which was probably emerging from the upper eyelid conjunctiva, which measured 2.7 cm in its widest diameter and transilluminated. Ultrasound imaging revealed an anterior "cystic" lesion with normally formed phakic eye. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the lesion was dissected from the upper tarsal subconjunctival space. Subsequent histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of congenital smooth muscle hamartoma (CSMH) of the tarsal conjunctiva. The authors' research revealed that only one case of CSMH localized in the conjunctiva (Roper GJ, Smith MS, Lueder GT. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the conjunctival fornix. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:643-4) has been reported to date in the literature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this current case would be the second case reported of CSMH in this anatomic location. Therefore, the authors' recommendation is to include CSMH in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass that presents in the fornix and palpebral conjunctiva.

  17. Wide-band array signal processing via spectral smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Guanghan; Kailath, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A novel algorithm for the estimation of direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of multiple wide-band sources via spectral smoothing is presented. The proposed algorithm does not require an initial DOA estimate or a specific signal model. The advantages of replacing the MUSIC search with an ESPRIT search are discussed.

  18. Image Rotation Does Not Rotate Smooth Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stone, Leland S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Subjects viewing a drifting noise pattern make reflexive smooth eye movements in the direction of motion, which follow rapid changes in movement direction. These responses are unaffected by rotations of the pattern, suggesting that there is no coupling between visually sensed rotation and the direction of ocular following.

  19. Airway smooth muscle in the pathophysiology and treatment of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Solway, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays an integral part in the pathophysiology of asthma. It is responsible for acute bronchoconstriction, which is potentiated by constrictor hyperresponsiveness, impaired relaxation and length adaptation. ASM also contributes to airway remodeling and inflammation in asthma. In light of this, ASM is an important target in the treatment of asthma. PMID:23305987

  20. Marked renewal model of smoothed VBR MPEG coded traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Xiaoshi; Li, Jiaoyang; Liu, Xiande

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, a method of smoothing variable bit-rate (VBR) MPEG traffic is proposed. A buffer, which has capacity over the peak bandwidth of group of picture (GOP) sequence of an MPEG traffic and which output rate is controlled by the distribution of GOP sequence, is connected to a source. The degree of burst of output stream from the buffer is deceased, and the stream's autocorrelation function characterizes non-increased and non-convex property. For smoothed MPEG traffic stream, the GOP sequence is the element target source traffic using for modeling. We applied a marked renewal process to model the GOP smoothed VBR MPEG traffics. The numerical study of simulating target VBR MPEG video source with a marked renewal model shows that not only the model's bandwidth distribution can match accurately that of target source sequence, but also its leading autocorrelation can approximate the long-range dependence of a VBR MPEG traffic as well as the short-range dependence. In addition to that, the model's parameters estimation is very easy. We conclude that GOP smoothed VBR MPEG video traffic could be not only transferred more efficiently but also analyzed perfectly with a marked renewal traffic model.

  1. Global smoothing and continuation for large-scale molecular optimization

    SciTech Connect

    More, J.J.; Wu, Zhijun

    1995-10-01

    We discuss the formulation of optimization problems that arise in the study of distance geometry, ionic systems, and molecular clusters. We show that continuation techniques based on global smoothing are applicable to these molecular optimization problems, and we outline the issues that must be resolved in the solution of large-scale molecular optimization problems.

  2. Smooth plains on Mercury. A comparison with Vesta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Carli, C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Filacchione, G.; Giacomini, L.

    Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, has been visited by the MESSENGER spacecraft \\citet{solomon2007}. After 3 years of orbit around Mercury a global coverage of the surface has been done revealing that ∼27% of Mercury's surface is covered by smooth plains \\citet{denevi2013}. Large part of Mercury's smooth plain (SP) seems to have volcanic origin. Different composition has been observed, most of the SP have a magnesian alkali-basalt-like composition, while some of them have been interpreted as ultramafic. A further 2% of smooth plains have been identified as Odin-type plains and represent the knobby and hummocky plains surrounding the Caloris basin \\citet{denevi2013}. Application of classification methods \\citet{adams2006} applied to color image data of the MESSENGER wide angle camera (MDIS-WAC) \\citet{MDIS} and a spectral analysis of the spec- trometer data (MASCS-VIRS) \\citet{MASCS} are useful to highlight the differences in composition of the smooth planes. A compa rison between Mercury's SP and those of other solar system bodies, such as Vesta \\citet{desanctis2012}, reveals useful to obtain information on the origin and the evolution of this bodies.

  3. Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.

  4. Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.

  5. Boiling incipience and heat transfer on smooth and enhanced surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shakir, S.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental study in nucleate pool boiling of binary mixtures was carried out to investigate the effects of mixture composition on boiling incipient and deactivation superheats and heat-transfer coefficients. All experiments were performed at a pressure of 1.01 bar on conventional smooth surfaces and an enhanced surface (High Flux of Union Carbide Corporation). Contact angles were also measured for the same mixtures on the smooth surfaces of brass and copper. The incipience and deactivation of boiling sites on the enhanced surface occurred at much lower wall superheats than on the smooth ones. For the mixture systems investigated, the incipient superheats were observed to be higher than the corresponding deactivation superheats. The classical boiling nucleation criterion was found to be inadequate in predicting the measured incipient superheats. The boiling-heat-transfer coefficients obtained on the smooth surfaces showed a deterioration when compared with the values obtained from a simple linear mixing law between the single-component values. The enhanced surface-heat-transfer coefficients for boiling of the same mixtures showed both positive and negative deviations from the linear mixing law between the pure component values.

  6. Smoothing Polymer Surfaces by Solvent-Vapor Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2003-03-01

    Ultra-smooth polymer surfaces are of great importance in a large body of technical applications such as optical coatings, supermirrors, waveguides, paints, and fusion targets. We are investigating a simple approach to controlling surface roughness: by temporarily swelling the polymer with solvent molecules. As the solvent penetrates into the polymer, its viscosity is lowered, and surface tension forces drive surface flattening. To investigate sorption kinetics and surface-smoothing phenomena, a series of vapor-deposited poly(amic acid) films were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide vapors. During solvent exposure, the surface topology was continuously monitored using light interference microscopy. The resulting power spectra indicate that high-frequency defects smooth faster than low-frequency defects. This frequency dependence was studied by depositing polymer films onto a series of 2D sinusoidal surfaces and performing smoothing experiments. Results show that the amplitudes of the sinusoidal surfaces decay exponentially with solvent exposure time, and the exponential decay constants are proportional to surface frequency. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  7. Improving convergence in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations without pairing instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehnen, Walter; Aly, Hossam

    2012-09-01

    The numerical convergence of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) can be severely restricted by random force errors induced by particle disorder, especially in shear flows, which are ubiquitous in astrophysics. The increase in the number NH of neighbours when switching to more extended smoothing kernels at fixed resolution (using an appropriate definition for the SPH resolution scale) is insufficient to combat these errors. Consequently, trading resolution for better convergence is necessary, but for traditional smoothing kernels this option is limited by the pairing (or clumping) instability. Therefore, we investigate the suitability of the Wendland functions as smoothing kernels and compare them with the traditional B-splines. Linear stability analysis in three dimensions and test simulations demonstrate that the Wendland kernels avoid the pairing instability for all NH, despite having vanishing derivative at the origin (disproving traditional ideas about the origin of this instability; instead, we uncover a relation with the kernel Fourier transform and give an explanation in terms of the SPH density estimator). The Wendland kernels are computationally more convenient than the higher order B-splines, allowing large NH and hence better numerical convergence (note that computational costs rise sublinear with NH). Our analysis also shows that at low NH the quartic spline kernel with NH ≈ 60 obtains much better convergence than the standard cubic spline.

  8. Adjusting the Census of 1990: The Smoothing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for adjusting census figures are discussed, with a focus on sampling error, uncertainty of estimates resulting from the luck of sample choice. Computer simulations illustrate the ways in which the smoothing algorithm may make adjustments less, rather than more, accurate. (SLD)

  9. Notice of Release: 'Stress tolerant smooth bromegrass STSB'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of a stress tolerant smooth bromegrass (STSB) [Bromus inermys, Leyss.] germplasm (PI xxxx) developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK 73036. STSB is release...

  10. Modified Kneser-Ney Smoothing of n-Gram Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Frankie

    2000-01-01

    This report examines a series of tests that were performed on variations of the modified Kneser Ney smoothing model outlined in a study by Chen and Goodman. We explore several different ways of choosing and setting the discounting parameters, as well as the exclusion of singleton contexts at various levels of the model.

  11. Carbon monoxide effects on calcium levels in vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.; McGrath, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Previously the authors showed that carbon monoxide (CO) relaxes vascular smooth muscle in the working heart and thoracic aorta preparation perfused with hemoglobin-free, Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution. The CO-induced relaxation was not caused by hypoxia, nor was it mediated by adrenergic influences, adenosine, or prostaglandins. In these studies the effect of CO on calcium (Ca/sup + +/) concentrations in vascular smooth muscle was determined using /sup 45/Ca as a tracer. Isolated rat thoracic aorta segments were incubated with /sup 45/Ca and gassed with O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, or CO for 60 min. Verapamil was used to verify the effectiveness of the test system. Ca/sup + +/ concentrations were 488 /+ -/ 35 and 515 /+ -/ 26 mM/g tissue (X /+ -/ SE) in aortic rings gassed with O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/, respectively. CO reduced Ca/sup + +/ concentrations significantly (P<0.01) by 29% to 369 /+ -/ 18 mM/g tissue. Verapamil treatment reduced Ca/sup + +/ concentrations by 40% to 314 /+ -/ 23 mM/g tissue. These results suggest that CO relaxes vascular smooth muscle and dilates blood vessels by decreasing Ca/sup + +/ concentrations in vascular smooth muscle.

  12. Likelihood Methods for Adaptive Filtering and Smoothing. Technical Report #455.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ronald W.

    The dynamic linear model or Kalman filtering model provides a useful methodology for predicting the past, present, and future states of a dynamic system, such as an object in motion or an economic or social indicator that is changing systematically with time. Recursive likelihood methods for adaptive Kalman filtering and smoothing are developed.…

  13. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reductions in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

  14. New insights in endothelial and smooth muscle cell communication.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Víctor Arana; De Haro, Roberto; Sosa-Melgarejo, Jorge; Méndez, José D

    2007-01-01

    Based on immunohistochemical techniques against connexins and the intercellular flux of staining molecules, it has previously been shown that electrotonic communication occurs among endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, this due to the presence of myoendothelial gap junctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the density of myoendothelial contacts in the left coronary and internal mammary arteries as well as in the left saphenous vein by means of electron microscopy, the distance between both cells participating in an myoendothelial contact with a semi-automatic image analysis system and the presence of homocellular and heterocellular gap junctions between endothelial and smooth muscle cells by using the immunohistochemical technique and confocal microscopy in thoracic aorta were also analyzed. The results are that all blood vessels studied present myoendothelial contacts, while density studies show that they are more abundant in the saphenous vein. The myoendothelial contact distance is constant and in no case the cytoplasmic processes reach the plasma membrane of the partner cell toward which they are advanced. Homocellular gap junctions were found between smooth muscle cells and between endothelial cells. Heterocellular gap junctions were absent, evidencing the possibility that signaling molecules between endothelial and smooth muscle cells may be transferred through plasma membranes as was once thought and not necessarily by electrotonic communication. PMID:17383847

  15. Smooth-Surfaced Carbon/Carbon Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitigal, Wesley P.; Jacoy, Paul J.; Porter, Christopher C.; Hickey, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    Surface-densification technique integral to fabrication of reflective, lightweight, low-outgassing radio-antenna-reflector panels including carbon/carbon surface laminates supported by carbon/carbon core structures. Densification prevents "print-through" of carbon fibers on surface. When properly densified, surface polished to smooth finish.

  16. Weight Factor Selection in Double Exponential Smoothing Enrollment Forecasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Don E.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of double exponential smoothing are discussed relative to other types of pattern-based enrollment forecasting methods. The basic assumptions and formulas for its use are outlined. The difficulties associated with selecting an appropriate weight factor are discussed, and the potential effect on prediction results is illustrated.…

  17. Targeting the airway smooth muscle for asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca

    2009-10-01

    Asthma is a complex respiratory disease whose incidence has increased worldwide in the last decade. Currently there is no cure for asthma. Although bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory medications are effective medicines in some asthmatic patients, it is clear that an unmet therapeutic need persists for a subpopulation of individuals with severe asthma. This chronic lung disease is characterized by airflow limitation, lung inflammation, and remodeling that includes increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. In addition to its contractile properties, the ASM also contributes to the inflammatory process by producing active mediators, which modify the extracellular matrix composition and interact with inflammatory cells. These undesirable functions make interventions aimed at reducing ASM abundance an attractive strategy for novel asthma therapies. The following three mechanisms could limit the accumulation of smooth muscle: decreased cell proliferation, augmented cell apoptosis, and reduced cell migration into the smooth muscle layer. Inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway or statins hold promise for asthma treatment, because they exhibit anti-inflammatory, antimigratory, and antiproliferative effects in preclinical and clinical studies, and they can target the smooth muscle. This review will discuss current knowledge of ASM biology and identify gaps in the field to stimulate future investigations of the cellular mechanisms that control ASM overabundance in asthma. Targeting ASM has the potential to be an innovative venue of treatment for patients with asthma.

  18. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  19. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.

  20. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.