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Sample records for abnormal smooth muscle-like

  1. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  2. Smooth Muscle-Like Tissue Constructs with Circumferentially Oriented Cells Formed by the Cell Fiber Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Amy Y.; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments. PMID:25734774

  3. Smooth-muscle-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells support and augment cord-like structures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vo, Elaine; Hanjaya-Putra, Donny; Zha, Yuanting; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon

    2010-06-01

    Engineering vascularized tissue is crucial for its successful implantation, survival, and integration with the host tissue. Vascular smooth muscle cells (v-SMCs) provide physical support to the vasculature and aid in maintaining endothelial viability. In this study, we show an efficient derivation of v-SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and demonstrate their functionality and ability to support the vasculature in vitro. Human ESCs were differentiated in monolayers and supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Human ESC-derived smooth-muscle-like cells (SMLCs) were found to highly express specific smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers--including alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, SM22, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain--to produce and secrete fibronectin and collagen, and to contract in response to carbachol. In vitro tubulogenesis assays revealed that these hESC-derived SMLCs interacted with human endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) to form longer and thicker cord-like structures in vitro. We have demonstrated a simple protocol for the efficient derivation of highly purified SMLCs from hESCs. These in vitro functional SMLCs interacted with EPCs to support and augment capillary-like structures (CLSs), demonstrating the potential of hESCs as a cell source for therapeutic vascular tissue engineering.

  4. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Juliane; Lutz, Katrin A.; Neumayer, Katharina M. H.; Klein, Gerd; Seeger, Tanja; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Wörgötter, Katharina; Schmid, Sandra; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Hart, Melanie L.

    2015-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late) myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1–2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), calponin (CNN1), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11) according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion channel

  5. A Novel Method for Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Smooth Muscle-Like Cells on Clinically Deliverable Thermally Induced Phase Separation Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Nina; Ahmadi, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Muscle degeneration is a prevalent disease, particularly in aging societies where it has a huge impact on quality of life and incurs colossal health costs. Suitable donor sources of smooth muscle cells are limited and minimally invasive therapeutic approaches are sought that will augment muscle volume by delivering cells to damaged or degenerated areas of muscle. For the first time, we report the use of highly porous microcarriers produced using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) to expand and differentiate adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) into smooth muscle-like cells in a format that requires minimal manipulation before clinical delivery. AdMSCs readily attached to the surface of TIPS microcarriers and proliferated while maintained in suspension culture for 12 days. Switching the incubation medium to a differentiation medium containing 2 ng/mL transforming growth factor beta-1 resulted in a significant increase in both the mRNA and protein expression of cell contractile apparatus components caldesmon, calponin, and myosin heavy chains, indicative of a smooth muscle cell-like phenotype. Growth of smooth muscle cells on the surface of the microcarriers caused no change to the integrity of the polymer microspheres making them suitable for a cell-delivery vehicle. Our results indicate that TIPS microspheres provide an ideal substrate for the expansion and differentiation of AdMSCs into smooth muscle-like cells as well as a microcarrier delivery vehicle for the attached cells ready for therapeutic applications. PMID:25205072

  6. Transdifferentiation of pulmonary arteriolar endothelial cells into smooth muscle-like cells regulated by myocardin involved in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pengcheng; Huang, Lei; Ge, Xiaona; Yan, Fei; Wu, Renliang; Ao, Qilin

    2006-01-01

    Myocardin gene has been identified as a master regulator of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Smooth muscle cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular remodelling (PVR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of myocardin gene expression in the pulmonary vessels of hypoxia-induced PH affected by Sildenafil treatment and the involvement of endothelial cells transdifferentiation into smooth muscle cells in the process of hypoxia-induced PH and PVR. Myocardin and relative markers were investigated in animal models and cultured endothelial cells. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was measured. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to show the expression of smooth muscle α-actin (SMA), in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed respectively to detect the myocardin and SMA expression at mRNA levels. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced suppression of myocardin in cultured cells. We confirmed that hypoxia induced the PH and PVR in rats. Sildenafil could attenuate the hypoxia-induced PH. We found that myocardin mRNA expression is upregulated significantly in the hypoxic pulmonary vessels and cultured cells but downregulated in PH with Sildenafil treatment. The porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) transdifferentiate into smooth muscle-like cells in hypoxic culture while the transdifferentiation did not occur when SiRNA of myocardin was applied. Our results suggest that myocardin gene, as a marker of smooth muscle cell differentiation, was expressed in the pulmonary vessels in hypoxia-induced PH rats, which could be downregulated by Sildenafil treatment, as well as in hypoxic cultured endothelial cells. Hypoxia induced the transdifferentiation of endothelial cells of vessels into smooth muscle-like cells which was regulated by myocardin. PMID:17222214

  7. Differential gene expression profiling of human adipose stem cells differentiating into smooth muscle-like cells by TGFβ1/BMP4.

    PubMed

    Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Dogan, Arin; Seker, Sukran; Durkut, Serap; Dalva, Klara; Elçin, Yaşar Murat

    2017-03-15

    Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). To this end, we first acquired hASCs from lipoaspirate samples. Upon characterization, the cells were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using a variety of inducer combinations. Among all, TGFβ1/BMP4 combination had the highest differentiation efficiency, based on immunohistochemical analyses. hSM-like cell samples were compared to hASCs and to the positive control, human coronary artery-smooth muscle cells (hCA-SMCs) through gene transcription profiling. Microarray findings revealed the activation of gene groups that function in smooth muscle differentiation, signaling pathways, extracellular modeling and cell proliferation. Our results underline the effectiveness of the growth factors and suggest some potential variables for detecting the SM-like cell characteristics. Evidence in transcriptome level was used to evaluate the TGFβ1/BMP4 combination as a previously unexplored effector for the smooth muscle differentiation of adipose stem cells.

  8. Vascular progenitor cells isolated from human embryonic stem cells give rise to endothelial and smooth muscle like cells and form vascular networks in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lino S; Gerecht, Sharon; Shieh, Hester F; Watson, Nicki; Rupnick, Maria A; Dallabrida, Susan M; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Langer, Robert

    2007-08-03

    We report that human embryonic stem cells contain a population of vascular progenitor cells that have the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like and smooth muscle (SM)-like cells. Vascular progenitor cells were isolated from EBs grown in suspension for 10 days and were characterized by expression of the endothelial/hematopoietic marker CD34 (CD34+ cells). When these cells are subsequently cultured in EGM-2 (endothelial growth medium) supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (50 ng/mL), they give rise to endothelial-like cells characterized by a cobblestone cell morphology, expression of endothelial markers (platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1, CD34, KDR/Flk-1, vascular endothelial cadherin, von Willebrand factor), incorporation of acetylated low-density lipoprotein, and formation of capillary-like structures when placed in Matrigel. In contrast, when CD34+ cells are cultured in EGM-2 supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (50 ng/mL), they give rise to SM-like cells characterized by spindle-shape morphology, expression of SM cell markers (alpha-SM actin, SM myosin heavy chain, calponin, caldesmon, SM alpha-22), and the ability to contract and relax in response to common pharmacological agents such as carbachol and atropine but rarely form capillary-like structures when placed in Matrigel. Implantation studies in nude mice show that both cell types contribute to the formation of human microvasculature. Some microvessels contained mouse blood cells, which indicates functional integration with host vasculature. Therefore, the vascular progenitors isolated from human embryonic stem cells using methods established in the present study could provide a means to examine the mechanisms of endothelial and SM cell development, and they could also provide a potential source of cells for vascular tissue engineering.

  9. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  10. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling.

  11. Anisotropic Elastic Properties of Muscle-like Nematic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna, Banahalii; Thomseniii, Donald L.; Shenoy, Devanand; Srinivasan, Amritha; Keller, Patrick

    2001-03-01

    De Gennes suggested in 1997 that the liquid crystal elastomers are an excellent framework to mimic muscular action. We have prepared anisotropic freestanding films of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers that show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When the order parameter drops at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. Dynamic mechanical data along directions parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis, show anisotropic stress-strain behavior. The film exhibits soft elasticity when strained in the perpendicular direction when the liquid crystal mesogens reorient without appreciable stress build up. Thermostrictive studies in the parallel direction show 40constriction at the nematic-isotropic phase transition. Isometric studies show that the elastic energy stored is purely entropic in origin and the elastomer acts like a spring with unusually large spring constant at the NI transition. The maximum stress measured is 300kPa. A strain rate of 5s-1 is estimated from shear relaxation studies.

  12. Acute administration of ivacaftor to people with cystic fibrosis and a G551D-CFTR mutation reveals smooth muscle abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Hisert, Katherine B.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L.; Barnes, Janel K.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Sieren, Jered P.; Gross, Thomas J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McKone, Edward F.; Stoltz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Airflow obstruction is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the underlying pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. People with CF often exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in airway smooth muscle (ASM), and ASM from newborn CF pigs has increased contractile tone, suggesting that loss of CFTR causes a primary defect in ASM function. We hypothesized that restoring CFTR activity would decrease smooth muscle tone in people with CF. METHODS. To increase or potentiate CFTR function, we administered ivacaftor to 12 adults with CF with the G551D-CFTR mutation; ivacaftor stimulates G551D-CFTR function. We studied people before and immediately after initiation of ivacaftor (48 hours) to minimize secondary consequences of CFTR restoration. We tested smooth muscle function by investigating spirometry, airway distensibility, and vascular tone. RESULTS. Ivacaftor rapidly restored CFTR function, indicated by reduced sweat chloride concentration. Airflow obstruction and air trapping also improved. Airway distensibility increased in airways less than 4.5 mm but not in larger-sized airways. To assess smooth muscle function in a tissue outside the lung, we measured vascular pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index, which both decreased following CFTR potentiation. Finally, change in distensibility of <4.5-mm airways correlated with changes in PWV. CONCLUSIONS. Acute CFTR potentiation provided a unique opportunity to investigate CFTR-dependent mechanisms of CF pathogenesis. The rapid effects of ivacaftor on airway distensibility and vascular tone suggest that CFTR dysfunction may directly cause increased smooth muscle tone in people with CF and that ivacaftor may relax smooth muscle. FUNDING. This work was funded in part from an unrestricted grant from the Vertex Investigator-Initiated Studies Program. PMID:27158673

  13. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  14. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  15. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  16. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-10-20

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components.

  17. Muscle-like high-stress dielectric elastomer actuators with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Wei-Yee Tan, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Despite being capable of generating large strains, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are short of strength. Often, they cannot produce enough stress or as much work as that achievable by human elbow muscles. Their maximum actuation capacity is limited by the electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomers. Often, failures of these soft actuators are pre-mature and localized at the weakest spot under high field and high stress. Localized breakdowns, such as electrical arcing, thermal runaway and punctures, could spread to ultimately cause rupture if they were not stopped. This work shows that dielectric oil immersion and self-clearable electrodes nibbed the buds of localized breakdowns from DEAs. Dielectric oil encapsulation in soft-membrane capsules was found to help the DEA sustain an ultra-high electrical breakdown field of 835\\;MV{{m}^{-1}}, which is 46% higher than the electrical breakdown strength of the dry DEA in air at 570\\;MV{\\mkern 1mu} {{m}^{-1}}. Because of the increased apparent dielectric strength, this oil-capsuled DEA realizes a higher maximum isotonic work density of up to 31.51Jk{{g}^{-1}}, which is 43.8% higher than that realized by the DEA in air. Meanwhile, it produces higher maximum isometric stress of up to 1.05 MPa, which is 75% higher than that produced by the DEA in air. Such improved actuator performances are comparable to those achieved by human flexor muscles, which can exert up to 1.2 MPa during elbow flexion. This muscle-like, high-stress dielectric elastomeric actuation is very promising to drive future human-like robots.

  18. Smooth Sailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…

  19. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  20. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  1. Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Musri, Melina Mara; Ivo, Victor; Barberà, Joan Albert; Tura-Ceide, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery remodelling it is a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is characterised by cellular and structural changes of the pulmonary arteries causing higher pulmonar vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Abnormal deposition of smooth muscle-like (SM-like) cells in normally non-muscular, small diameter vessels and a deregulated control of endothelial cells are considered pathological features of PH. The origin of the SM-like cells and the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this remodelling process are not understood. Endothelial cells within the intima may migrate from their organised layer of cells and transition to mesenchymal or SM-like phenotype in a process called endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Traditionally, Waddington’s epigenetic landscape illustrates that fates of somatic cells are progressively determined to compulsorily follow a downhill differentiation pathway. EnMT induces the transformation of cells with stem cell traits, therefore contrasting Waddington’s theory and confirming that cell fate seems to be far more flexible than previously thought. The prospect of therapeutic inhibition of EnMT to delay or prevent PH may represent a promising new treatment modality. PMID:25973327

  2. Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling.

    PubMed

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Musri, Melina Mara; Ivo, Victor; Barberà, Joan Albert; Tura-Ceide, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery remodelling it is a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is characterised by cellular and structural changes of the pulmonary arteries causing higher pulmonar vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Abnormal deposition of smooth muscle-like (SM-like) cells in normally non-muscular, small diameter vessels and a deregulated control of endothelial cells are considered pathological features of PH. The origin of the SM-like cells and the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this remodelling process are not understood. Endothelial cells within the intima may migrate from their organised layer of cells and transition to mesenchymal or SM-like phenotype in a process called endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Traditionally, Waddington's epigenetic landscape illustrates that fates of somatic cells are progressively determined to compulsorily follow a downhill differentiation pathway. EnMT induces the transformation of cells with stem cell traits, therefore contrasting Waddington's theory and confirming that cell fate seems to be far more flexible than previously thought. The prospect of therapeutic inhibition of EnMT to delay or prevent PH may represent a promising new treatment modality.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  5. Revealing highly unbalanced energy barriers in the extension and contraction of the muscle-like motion of a [c2]daisy chain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Minot, Christian; Hermann, Klaus; Van Hove, Michel A

    2015-07-28

    Nanoscale muscle-like materials have aroused great interest as they may provide controllable mechanical operations by artificial actuations. Molecular designs to achieve the desired motion at the macroscopic scale in experiments require atomic level understanding. By systematic quantum chemical and molecular dynamics calculations we reveal that the length change is not only due to the linear telescoping from the dibenzo[24]crown-8 recognition at two docking stations but also the folding/unfolding of two bulky stoppers. The extension and contraction processes of a [c2]daisy chain under acidic vs. basic conditions are exothermic but need to cross very different energy barriers, being at least double the height under acidic compared to basic conditions, hindering balanced cyclic motions at moderate excitation. Our result suggests that to realize the desired muscle-like motion one should adopt sufficiently high external excitation, using for example reasonably high temperature and further optimizing the solution used.

  6. Smoothing error pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Clarmann, T.

    2014-04-01

    The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by the so-called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that the concept of the smoothing error is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is untenable because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully talk about temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the involved a priori covariance matrix has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation. This is, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the effect of smoothing implied by the finite grid on which the measurements are compared, cancels out when the difference is calculated.

  7. Quantum State Smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.

  8. Quantum State Smoothing.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard

    2015-10-30

    Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.

  9. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  10. Smoothing error pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Clarmann, T.

    2014-09-01

    The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by a diagnostic quantity called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that, regardless of the usefulness of the smoothing error as a diagnostic tool in its own right, the concept of the smoothing error as a component of the retrieval error budget is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state; in other words, to characterize the full loss of information with respect to the true atmosphere, the effect of the representation of the atmospheric state on a finite grid also needs to be considered. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is problematic because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help, because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully discuss temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the covariance matrix involved has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation and if the averaging kernel matrices have been evaluated on a grid fine enough to capture all atmospheric variations that the instruments are sensitive to. This is, under the assumptions stated, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the

  11. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  12. Smoothly deformed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Stig

    1993-01-01

    A single mode cavity is deformed smoothly to change its electromagnetic eigenfrequency. The system is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator with a varying period. The Wigner function of the problem is obtained exactly by starting with a squeezed initial state. The result is evaluated for a linear change of the cavity length. The approach to the adiabatic limit is investigated. The maximum squeezing is found to occur for smooth change lasting only a fraction of the oscillational period. However, only a factor of two improvement over the adiabatic result proves to be possible. The sudden limit cannot be investigated meaningfully within the model.

  13. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  16. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  17. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  18. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension and BMP system abnormality].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fumio

    2008-11-01

    Genetic analysis has uncovered that familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is linked to germline mutations in BMP type II receptor (BMPRII). PAH is characterized by enhanced remodeling of pulmonary arteries due to arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. BMPRII mutations contribute to abnormal mitotic responses to BMP ligands in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Unbalanced Smad signaling induced by BMP and TGFbeta is functionally involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. BMPRII mutations also increase the susceptibility of endothelial cell apoptosis. The combination of increased endothelial injury and impaired suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation is critical for the cellular pathogenesis of PAH. However, the detailed molecular mechanism leading to severe vascular remodeling caused by BMPRII mutations has yet to be elucidated.

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  20. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  1. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN SMOOTH MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dale D.

    2008-01-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) network is one of the three cytoskeletal systems in smooth muscle. The type III IF proteins vimentin and desmin are major constituents of the network in smooth muscle cells and tissues. Lack of vimentin or desmin impairs contractile ability of various smooth muscle preparations, implying their important role for smooth muscle force development. The IF framework has long been viewed as a fixed cytostructure that solely provides mechanical integrity for the cell. However, recent studies suggest that the IF cytoskeleton is dynamic in mammalian cells in response to various external stimulation. In this review, the structure and biological properties of IF proteins in smooth muscle are summarized. The role of IF proteins in the modulation of smooth muscle force development and redistribution/translocation of signaling partners (such as p130 Crk-associated substrate, CAS) is depicted. This review also summarizes our latest understanding on how the IF network may be regulated in smooth muscle. PMID:18256275

  2. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  4. Mitogenic effects of vasoactive neuropeptides on cultured smooth muscle cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuhashi, M.; Payan, D.G.

    1987-03-02

    In order to investigate the relationship between the biochemical pathways that characterize contraction and cell growth, the authors have studied both contraction, mitogenesis and protein synthesis induced by the vasoactive neuropeptides, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on four different established vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle cell lines. Contraction in vitro was evaluated by light microscopy and recorded photographically. Mitogenesis and protein synthesis were evaluated by (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into cells and (/sup 3/H)-amino acid incorporation into trichloroacetic acid precipitated materials, respectively. SP stimulated mitogenesis of A7r5 cells (embryonic rat aorta), but failed to induce significant contraction of these cells, whereas, SP induced contraction of cultured adult rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but failed to stimulate mitogenesis. CGRP and VIP stimulated mitogenesis and protein synthesis, respectively, of DDT/sub 1/MF-2 cells (hamster vas deferens), but neither induced contraction of this cell line. All three neuropeptides showed no effect on BC/sub 3/H1 (mouse smooth muscle-like) cells. These results suggest that neuropeptides with vasoactive properties modulate different stages of cellular mitogenic responses which may be regulated by the degree of maturation of smooth muscle cell. 22 references, 5 figures.

  5. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  6. Smooth eigenvalue correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2013-12-01

    Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Marčenko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Marčenko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.

  7. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  8. Astrophysical smooth particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosswog, Stephan

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed review of the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method with particular focus on its astrophysical applications. We start by introducing the basic ideas and concepts and thereby outline all ingredients that are necessary for a practical implementation of the method in a working SPH code. Much of SPH's success relies on its excellent conservation properties and therefore the numerical conservation of physical invariants receives much attention throughout this review. The self-consistent derivation of the SPH equations from the Lagrangian of an ideal fluid is the common theme of the remainder of the text. We derive a modern, Newtonian SPH formulation from the Lagrangian of an ideal fluid. It accounts for changes of the local resolution lengths which result in corrective, so-called "grad-h-terms". We extend this strategy to special relativity for which we derive the corresponding grad-h equation set. The variational approach is further applied to a general-relativistic fluid evolving in a fixed, curved background space-time. Particular care is taken to explicitly derive all relevant equations in a coherent way.

  9. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  10. Ryanodine receptors in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Gómez-Viquez, Leticia; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Rueda, Angélica

    2002-07-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of smooth muscle is endowed with two different types of Ca2+ release channels, i.e. inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In general, both release channels mobilize Ca2+ from the same internal store in smooth muscle. While the importance of IP3Rs in agonist-induced contraction is well established, the role of RyRs in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle is not clear. The participation of smooth muscle RyRs in the amplification of Ca2+ transients induced by either opening of Ca2+-permeable channels or IP3-triggered Ca2+ release has been studied. The efficacy of both processes to activate RyRs by calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is highly variable and not widely present in smooth muscle. Although RyRs in smooth muscle generate Ca2+ sparks that are similar to those observed in striated muscles, the contribution of these local Ca2+ events to depolarization-induced global rise in [Ca2+]i is rather limited. Recent data suggest that RyRs are involved in regulating the luminal [Ca2+] of SR and also in smooth muscle relaxation. This review summarizes studies that were carried out mainly in muscle strips or in freshly isolated myocytes, and that were aimed to determine the physiological role of RyRs in smooth muscle.

  11. A Novel Selectable Islet 1 Positive Progenitor Cell Reprogrammed to Expandable and Functional Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth C; Huang, Chien-Ling; Sawhney, Neha; Govindarajan, Kalaimathi; Clover, Anthony J P; Martin, Kenneth; Browne, Tara C; Whelan, Derek; Kumar, Arun H S; Mackrill, John J; Wang, Shaohua; Schmeckpeper, Jeffrey; Stocca, Alessia; Pierce, William G; Leblond, Anne-Laure; Cai, Liquan; O'Sullivan, Donnchadh M; Buneker, Chirlei K; Choi, Janet; MacSharry, John; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Caplice, Noel M

    2016-05-01

    Disorders affecting smooth muscle structure/function may require technologies that can generate large scale, differentiated and contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC) suitable for cell therapy. To date no clonal precursor population that provides large numbers of differentiated SMC in culture has been identified in a rodent. Identification of such cells may also enhance insight into progenitor cell fate decisions and the relationship between smooth muscle precursors and disease states that implicate differentiated SMC.  In this study, we used classic clonal expansion techniques to identify novel self-renewing Islet 1 (Isl-1) positive primitive progenitor cells (PPC) within rat bone marrow that exhibited canonical stem cell markers and preferential differentiation towards a smooth muscle-like fate. We subsequently used molecular tagging to select Isl-1 positive clonal populations from expanded and de novo marrow cell populations. We refer to these previously undescribed cells as the PPC given its stem cell marker profile, and robust self-renewal capacity. PPC could be directly converted into induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) using single transcription factor (Kruppel-like factor 4) knockdown or transactivator (myocardin) overexpression in contrast to three control cells (HEK 293, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) where such induction was not possible. iSMC exhibited immuno- and cytoskeletal-phenotype, calcium signaling profile and contractile responses similar to bona fide SMC. Passaged iSMC could be expanded to a scale sufficient for large scale tissue replacement.  PPC and reprogramed iSMC so derived may offer future opportunities to investigate molecular, structure/function and cell-based replacement therapy approaches to diverse cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary diseases that have as their basis smooth muscle cell functional aberrancy or numerical loss. Stem Cells 2016;34:1354-1368.

  12. Simple Robust Fixed Lag Smoothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-02

    SIMPLE ROBUST FIXED LAG SMOOTHING by ~N. D. Le R.D. Martin 4 TECHNICAL RlEPORT No. 149 December 1988 Department of Statistics, GN-22 Accesion For...frLsD1ist Special A- Z Simple Robust Fixed Lag Smoothing With Application To Radar Glint Noise * N. D. Le R. D. Martin Department of Statistics, GN...smoothers. The emphasis here is on fixed-lag smoothing , as opposed to the use of existing robust fixed interval smoothers (e.g., as in Martin, 1979

  13. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  14. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  15. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  16. Active controls for ride smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Thompson, G. O.

    1976-01-01

    Active controls technology offers great promise for significantly smoothing the ride, and thus improving public and air carrier acceptance, of certain types of transport aircraft. Recent findings which support this promise are presented in the following three pertinent areas: (1) Ride quality versus degree of traveler satisfaction; (2) significant findings from a feasibility study of a ride smoothing system; and (3) potential ride problems identified for several advanced transport concepts.

  17. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  18. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  19. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  20. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  1. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  2. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  3. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  4. Income Smoothing: Methodology and Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    that managers desire a pattern % of income that has low variability relative to a linear time trend. 2. Industry Trend. Target 2 assumes that firms...R167 55? INCOME SMOOTHING: METHODOLOGY ND NODELS(U) UMVL in1POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA 0 D HOSES "AY S6 UNCLASSIFIED NP5-604FO53 E * I* vu...California oCiD ELEC fl MAY 12 986 INCOME SMOOTHING - METHODOLOGY AND MODELS by 0. Douglas Moses May 1986 *Approved frpublic release; ditibto uniie

  5. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Registration of 'Newell' Smooth Bromegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Newell’ (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI 671851) smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) is a steppe or southern type cultivar that is primarily adapted in the USA to areas north of 40o N lat. and east of 100o W long. that have 500 mm or more annual precipitation or in areas that have similar climate cond...

  8. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  9. Epidermal growth factor controls smooth muscle alpha-isoactin expression in BC3H1 cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet- derived growth factor, and insulin on the differentiation of a mouse vascular smooth muscle-like cell line, the BC3H1 cells. On the basis of cell morphology and smooth muscle alpha-isoactin synthesis, we demonstrate that EGF at physiological concentrations prevents the differentiation of these cells, whereas platelet-derived growth factor has no apparent effect. The induction of alpha-isoactin synthesis by serum deprivation is inhibited by EGF in a dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal effect at 3-5 ng/ml and a maximal inhibition at approximately 30 ng/ml. Northern analysis also shows that EGF blocks the accumulation of alpha-isoactin mRNA normally observed during cell differentiation. Addition of EGF to differentiated cells results in a repression of alpha-isoactin synthesis, a stimulation of beta- and gamma-isoactin synthesis, and the stabilization of the nonmuscle isoactins. The synthesis of creatine phosphokinase, a muscle-specific noncontractile protein, is also regulated by EGF in a similar fashion. Modulation by EGF of alpha-isoactin expression is not affected by aphidicolin and is therefore independent of its mitogenic effect on these cells. Insulin is not required for observation of the EGF- dependent effects but instead seems to promote differentiation. Our results show that EGF can replace serum in controlling the differentiation of BC3H1 cells. PMID:3279054

  10. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  11. Smooth Pursuit in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research since 1993

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Callahan, Brandy L.

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal smooth pursuit eye-tracking is one of the most replicated deficits in the psychophysiological literature in schizophrenia [Levy, D. L., Holzman, P. S., Matthysse, S., & Mendell, N. R. (1993). "Eye tracking dysfunction and schizophrenia: A critical perspective." "Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19", 461-505]. We used meta-analytic procedures to…

  12. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  13. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  14. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  15. Analytic elements of smooth shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, Otto D. L.; Nevison, Patrick R.

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for producing analytic elements of a smooth shape, obtained using conformal mapping. Applications are presented for a case of impermeable analytic elements as well as for head-specified ones. The mathematical operations necessary to use the elements in practical problems can be carried out before modeling of flow problems begins. A catalog of shapes, along with pre-determined coefficients could be established on the basis of the approach presented here, making applications in the field straight forward.

  16. Tape-Smoothing Tool For Adhesion Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1992-01-01

    Small tool smoothes adhesive tape uniformly to ensure consistency and repeatability of tape-peel tests of adhesion of paint to substrate. Includes resilient pad covered with tough, smooth fabric. Internal spring regulates force applied to tape.

  17. Effectiveness of Analytic Smoothing in Equipercentile Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    An analytic procedure for smoothing in equipercentile equating using cubic smoothing splines is described and illustrated. The effectiveness of the procedure is judged by comparing the results from smoothed equipercentile equating with those from other equating methods using multiple cross-validations for a variety of sample sizes. (Author/JKS)

  18. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a...

  19. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a...

  20. Beamline smoothing of the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Zhao, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper outlines a general beamline smoothing concept based on the use of First Principle Component analysis. Bean-dine smoothing is commonly used for the detection of blunders in the positioning of beam elements and to provide a smooth particle beam path with the fewest adjustments to individual beam components. It also provides the data for assessment of the achieved positioning quality.

  1. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  2. Leptogenesis in smooth hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannerot, R.; Khalil, S.; Lazarides, G.

    2001-05-01

    We present a concrete supersymmetric grand unified model based on the Pati-Salam gauge group SU(4)c×SU(2)L×SU(2)R and leading naturally to smooth hybrid inflation, which avoids the cosmological disaster encountered in the standard hybrid inflationary scenario from the overproduction of monopoles at the end of inflation. Successful `reheating' which satisfies the gravitino constraint takes place after the termination of inflation. Also, adequate baryogenesis via a primordial leptogenesis occurs consistently with the solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation data as well as the SU(4)c symmetry.

  3. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  4. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  5. Improving smoothing efficiency of rigid conformal polishing tool using time-dependent smoothing evaluation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Haifei; Zeng, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    A rigid conformal (RC) lap can smooth mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, which are naturally smaller than the tool size, while still removing large-scale errors in a short time. However, the RC-lap smoothing efficiency performance is poorer than expected, and existing smoothing models cannot explicitly specify the methods to improve this efficiency. We presented an explicit time-dependent smoothing evaluation model that contained specific smoothing parameters directly derived from the parametric smoothing model and the Preston equation. Based on the time-dependent model, we proposed a strategy to improve the RC-lap smoothing efficiency, which incorporated the theoretical model, tool optimization, and efficiency limit determination. Two sets of smoothing experiments were performed to demonstrate the smoothing efficiency achieved using the time-dependent smoothing model. A high, theory-like tool influence function and a limiting tool speed of 300 RPM were o

  6. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  7. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ``smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  8. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  9. s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Qin, Jing; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Osher, Stanley; Liu, Wentai

    2016-01-01

    EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ ms). The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of a brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH) method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization and ℓ1−2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV) regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in the image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based Total Generalized Variation (vTGV) regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar images to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the ℓ1−2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that ℓ1−2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than ℓ1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the

  10. Standard-smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-12-15

    We consider the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which, for {mu}>0 and universal boundary conditions, succeeds to yield experimentally acceptable b-quark masses by moderately violating Yukawa unification. It is known that this model can lead to new shifted or new smooth hybrid inflation. We show that a successful two-stage inflationary scenario can be realized within this model based only on renormalizable superpotential interactions. The cosmological scales exit the horizon during the first stage of inflation, which is of the standard hybrid type and takes place along the trivial flat direction with the inflaton driven by radiative corrections. Spectral indices compatible with the recent data can be achieved in global supersymmetry or minimal supergravity by restricting the number of e-foldings of our present horizon during the first inflationary stage. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are naturally provided by a second stage of inflation, which occurs mainly along the built-in new smooth hybrid inflationary path appearing right after the destabilization of the trivial flat direction at its critical point. Monopoles are formed at the end of the first stage of inflation and are, subsequently, diluted by the second stage of inflation to become utterly negligible in the present universe for almost all (for all) the allowed values of the parameters in the case of global supersymmetry (minimal supergravity)

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  13. The evolutionarily conserved RNA binding protein SMOOTH is essential for maintaining normal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Draper, Isabelle; Tabaka, Meg E; Jackson, F Rob; Salomon, Robert N; Kopin, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila smooth gene encodes an RNA binding protein that has been well conserved through evolution. To investigate the pleiotropic functions mediated by the smooth gene, we have selected and characterized two sm mutants, which are viable as adults yet display robust phenotypes (including a significant decrease in lifespan). Utilizing these mutants, we have made the novel observation that disruption of the smooth/CG9218 locus leads to age-dependent muscle degeneration, and motor dysfunction. Histological characterization of adult sm mutants revealed marked abnormalities in the major thoracic tubular muscle: the tergal depressor of the trochanter (TDT). Corresponding defects include extensive loss/disruption of striations and nuclei. These pathological changes are recapitulated in flies that express a smooth RNA interference construct (sm RNAi) in the mesoderm. In contrast, targeting sm RNAi constructs to motor neurons does not alter muscle morphology. In addition to examining the TDT phenotype, we explored whether other muscular abnormalities were evident. Utilizing physiological assays developed in the laboratory, we have found that the thoracic muscle defect is preceded by dysmotility of the gastrointestinal tract. SMOOTH thus joins a growing list of hnRNPs that have previously been linked to muscle physiology/pathophysiology. Our findings in Drosophila set the stage for investigating the role of the corresponding mammalian homolog, hnRNP L, in muscle function.

  14. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  15. Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dio, Enea

    2017-03-01

    We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z~2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z~2 and 0.2 % for z~4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ~ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.

  16. Autoregressive smoothing of GOMOS transmittances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Bingen, C.; Kyrölä, B.; Tamminen, J.; Sofieva, V.; Hassinen, S.; Seppälä, A.; Verronen, P. T.; Bertaux, J. L.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; d'Andon, O. Fanton; Barrot, G.; Mangin, A.; Theodore, B.; Guirlet, M.; Renard, J. B.; Fraisse, R.; Snoeij, P.; Koopman, R.; Saavedra, L.

    GOMOS is a stellar occultation instrument onboard ENVISAT. It has already measured several hundreds of thousands occultations since March 2002. In some circumstances, the obliqueness of the star setting causes the remote sounding of possible horizontal turbulence that cannot be adequately corrected by using the fast photometer signals, leading to the presence of residual scintillation in the atmospheric transmittance. We investigate the mechanism that produces this spurious signal that may cause the retrieval of wavy constituent profiles. A special algorithm of vertical autoregressive smoothing (VAS) is proposed that takes into account the physical correlation between adjacent measurements at different tangent altitudes. A regularization parameter of the method may be optimized on basis of the minimal correlation between the residuals as prescribed by the Durbin-Watson statistics. The improvements obtained in the retrieval of both O 3 and NO 2 number density profiles is presented and discussed with respect to the results of the official data processing model.

  17. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second-order oscillation-free total -variation-diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusive flux ('smoothing') to a second-order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second-order spatial accuracy was found to have extremely restrictive time-step limitation. Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time-step limitation.

  18. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second order, oscillation free, total variation diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusion flux (smoothing) to a second order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell by cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second order spatial accuracy was found to have an extremely restrictive time step limitation (Delta t less than Delta x squared). Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time step limitation.

  19. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Paul H

    2015-12-15

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction. Viscoelastic materials within, surrounding and attached to VSM cells, comprised largely of polymeric proteins with complex mechanical characteristics, assist the engine with countering loads imposed by the heart pump, and with control of relengthening after constriction. The complexity of this smart material can be reduced by classical mechanical studies combined with circuit modeling using spring and dashpot elements. Evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of VSM requires a more complete understanding of the mechanics and regulation of its biochemical parts, and ultimately, an understanding of how these parts work together to form the machinery of the vascular tree. Current molecular studies provide detailed mechanical data about single polymeric molecules, revealing viscoelasticity and plasticity at the protein domain level, the unique biological slip-catch bond, and a regulated two-step actomyosin power stroke. At the tissue level, new insight into acutely dynamic stress-strain behavior reveals smooth muscle to exhibit adaptive plasticity. At its core, physiology aims to describe the complex interactions of molecular systems, clarifying structure-function relationships and regulation of biological machines. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive presentation of one biomachine, VSM.

  20. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  1. The Smooth Muscle of the Artery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    to keep up with inter- national standards. The German Cancer Research Center as well as the Hax-Planck Inntitutes of Heidelberg are well equipped to...SOMLYO: I plan to briefly review some of the aspects of normal function of vascular smooth muscle with particular ---- I SMOOTH MUSCLE STRUCTURE 35...schematic review of the data on catabolism in connective tissue cells smooth muscle cells. The increasing number of electron microscopic studies of

  2. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Zanaty, Peter

    2013-12-01

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C∞-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  3. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no

    2013-12-18

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  4. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  5. Smooth Passage For The Jetfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Flying Princess is a Boeing Jetfoil, one of a family of commercial waterjets built by Boeing Marine Systems, a division of The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. The new Jetfoil offers a number of advantages over earlier hydrofoils, a major one being a smooth ride in rough waters. NASA technology contributed to jolt-free passenger comfort. Hydrofoils skim the surface at speeds considerably greater than those of conventional ships because there is little friction between hull and water. Hulls are raised above the water by the lift of the foils, which resemble and function like an airplane wing. The foils are attached to the hull by rigid struts, which ordinarily cause a vessel operating in coastal seas to follow the contour of the waves. In wind-whipped waters, this makes for a rough ride. Seeking to increase passenger acceptance, Boeing Marine System engineers looked for ways to improve rough-water ride quality. Langley Research Center conducts continuing ride quality research. Initially, it was aimed at improving aircraft ride; it was later expanded to include all modes of transportation. Research includes studies of vibration, acceleration, temperature, humidity, passenger seats and posture, and the psychological aspects of passenger reaction to vehicle ride. As part of the program, Langley developed instrumentation, ride quality models and methods of data analysis.

  6. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-05-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.

  7. Fourier smoothing of digital photographic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anupama, G. C.

    1990-03-01

    Fourier methods of smoothing one-dimensional data are discussed with particular reference to digital photographic spectra. Data smoothed using lowpass filters with different cut-off frequencies are intercompared. A method to scale densities in order to remove the dependence of grain noise on density is described. Optimal filtering technique which models signal and noise in Fourier domain is also explained.

  8. Smoothing the output from a DAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit smooths stepped waveform from analog-to-digital converter without appreciable phase shift between stepped input signal and smoothed output signal and without any effect from stepping rate. Waveform produced is suitable for driving controls used in manufacturing processes, aerospace systems, and automobiles.

  9. Leiomodin and tropomodulin in smooth muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to suggest that actin filament remodeling is critical for smooth muscle contraction, which implicates actin filament ends as important sites for regulation of contraction. Tropomodulin (Tmod) and smooth muscle leiomodin (SM-Lmod) have been found in many tissues containing smooth muscle by protein immunoblot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Both proteins cofractionate with tropomyosin in the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton of rabbit stomach smooth muscle and are solubilized by high salt. SM-Lmod binds muscle tropomyosin, a biochemical activity characteristic of Tmod proteins. SM-Lmod staining is present along the length of actin filaments in rat intestinal smooth muscle, while Tmod stains in a punctate pattern distinct from that of actin filaments or the dense body marker alpha-actinin. After smooth muscle is hypercontracted by treatment with 10 mM Ca(2+), both SM-Lmod and Tmod are found near alpha-actinin at the periphery of actin-rich contraction bands. These data suggest that SM-Lmod is a novel component of the smooth muscle actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, that the pointed ends of actin filaments in smooth muscle may be capped by Tmod in localized clusters.

  10. Myosin filament structure in vertebrate smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo structure of the myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle is unknown. Evidence from purified smooth muscle myosin and from some studies of intact smooth muscle suggests that they may have a nonhelical, side-polar arrangement of crossbridges. However, the bipolar, helical structure characteristic of myosin filaments in striated muscle has not been disproved for smooth muscle. We have used EM to investigate this question in a functionally diverse group of smooth muscles (from the vascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and visual systems) from mammalian, amphibian, and avian species. Intact muscle under physiological conditions, rapidly frozen and then freeze substituted, shows many myosin filaments with a square backbone in transverse profile. Transverse sections of fixed, chemically skinned muscles also show square backbones and, in addition, reveal projections (crossbridges) on only two opposite sides of the square. Filaments gently isolated from skinned smooth muscles and observed by negative staining show crossbridges with a 14.5-nm repeat projecting in opposite directions on opposite sides of the filament. Such filaments subjected to low ionic strength conditions show bare filament ends and an antiparallel arrangement of myosin tails along the length of the filament. All of these observations are consistent with a side-polar structure and argue against a bipolar, helical crossbridge arrangement. We conclude that myosin filaments in all smooth muscles, regardless of function, are likely to be side-polar. Such a structure could be an important factor in the ability of smooth muscles to contract by large amounts. PMID:8698822

  11. Thermal smoothing of rough surfaces in vacuo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahl, G.

    1986-01-01

    The derivation of equations governing the smoothing of rough surfaces, based on Mullins' (1957, 1960, and 1963) theories of thermal grooving and of capillarity-governed solid surface morphology is presented. As an example, the smoothing of a one-dimensional sine-shaped surface is discussed.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...

  13. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Mahanti, P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy, and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the maria. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted basin impact ejecta, most likely from the Imbrium and possibly Orientale basins. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation, contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100), sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Terrain with slopes less than 2° (1 km baseline) and standard deviation of slope less than 0.75° (1 km x 1 km box, n=9) are defined as smooth plains. Highland smooth plains are distinguished from basaltic smooth plains using the following criteria: LROC WAC 643 nm normalized reflectance > 0.056, LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio < 0.74, and Clementine FeO < 12 wt.% (excluding Clementine non-coverage areas). The remaining smooth plains are classified as maria and are subdivided into two classes: LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio > 0.77 is termed blue maria and a ratio ≤ 0.77 is termed red maria. The automatic classification was limited to the 87% of the Moon covered by photometrically normalized WAC data (60°S to 60°N). The differences between the maria and highland smooth plains

  14. Increased Saccadic Rate during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Patients at Ultra High Risk for Developing a Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tricht, M. J.; Nieman, D. H.; Bour, L. J.; Boeree, T.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in eye tracking are consistently observed in schizophrenia patients and their relatives and have been proposed as an endophenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis on a task of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM). Forty-six UHR…

  15. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  16. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  17. SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  18. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  19. Vascular Smooth Muscle Sirtuin-1 Protects Against Aortic Dissection During Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jessica L; Shiraishi, Yasunaga; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yu, Xunjie; Gao, Yuan Z; Akiki, Rachid; Bachschmid, Markus; Zhang, Yanhang; Morgan, Kathleen G; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background Sirtuin-1 (SirT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+–dependent deacetylase, is a key enzyme in the cellular response to metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stresses; however, the role of endogenous SirT1 in the vasculature has not been fully elucidated. Our goal was to evaluate the role of vascular smooth muscle SirT1 in the physiological response of the aortic wall to angiotensin II, a potent hypertrophic, oxidant, and inflammatory stimulus. Methods and Results Mice lacking SirT1 in vascular smooth muscle (ie, smooth muscle SirT1 knockout) had drastically high mortality (70%) caused by aortic dissection after angiotensin II infusion (1 mg/kg per day) but not after an equipotent dose of norepinephrine, despite comparable blood pressure increases. Smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice did not show any abnormal aortic morphology or blood pressure compared with wild-type littermates. Nonetheless, in response to angiotensin II, aortas from smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice had severely disorganized elastic lamellae with frequent elastin breaks, increased oxidant production, and aortic stiffness compared with angiotensin II–treated wild-type mice. Matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity were increased in the aortas of angiotensin II–treated smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice and were prevented in mice overexpressing SirT1 in vascular smooth muscle or with use of the oxidant scavenger tempol. Conclusions Endogenous SirT1 in aortic smooth muscle is required to maintain the structural integrity of the aortic wall in response to oxidant and inflammatory stimuli, at least in part, by suppressing oxidant-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity. SirT1 activators could potentially be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent aortic dissection and rupture in patients at risk, such as those with hypertension or genetic disorders, such as Marfan’s syndrome. PMID:26376991

  20. Spline-Based Smoothing of Airfoil Curvatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Krist, S.

    2008-01-01

    Constrained fitting for airfoil curvature smoothing (CFACS) is a splinebased method of interpolating airfoil surface coordinates (and, concomitantly, airfoil thicknesses) between specified discrete design points so as to obtain smoothing of surface-curvature profiles in addition to basic smoothing of surfaces. CFACS was developed in recognition of the fact that the performance of a transonic airfoil is directly related to both the curvature profile and the smoothness of the airfoil surface. Older methods of interpolation of airfoil surfaces involve various compromises between smoothing of surfaces and exact fitting of surfaces to specified discrete design points. While some of the older methods take curvature profiles into account, they nevertheless sometimes yield unfavorable results, including curvature oscillations near end points and substantial deviations from desired leading-edge shapes. In CFACS as in most of the older methods, one seeks a compromise between smoothing and exact fitting. Unlike in the older methods, the airfoil surface is modified as little as possible from its original specified form and, instead, is smoothed in such a way that the curvature profile becomes a smooth fit of the curvature profile of the original airfoil specification. CFACS involves a combination of rigorous mathematical modeling and knowledge-based heuristics. Rigorous mathematical formulation provides assurance of removal of undesirable curvature oscillations with minimum modification of the airfoil geometry. Knowledge-based heuristics bridge the gap between theory and designers best practices. In CFACS, one of the measures of the deviation of an airfoil surface from smoothness is the sum of squares of the jumps in the third derivatives of a cubicspline interpolation of the airfoil data. This measure is incorporated into a formulation for minimizing an overall deviation- from-smoothness measure of the airfoil data within a specified fitting error tolerance. CFACS has been

  1. Directional bilateral filters for smoothing fluorescence microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Manasij; Mohan, Kavya; Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Images obtained through fluorescence microscopy at low numerical aperture (NA) are noisy and have poor resolution. Images of specimens such as F-actin filaments obtained using confocal or widefield fluorescence microscopes contain directional information and it is important that an image smoothing or filtering technique preserve the directionality. F-actin filaments are widely studied in pathology because the abnormalities in actin dynamics play a key role in diagnosis of cancer, cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, myofibrillar myopathies, neurological disorders, etc. We develop the directional bilateral filter as a means of filtering out the noise in the image without significantly altering the directionality of the F-actin filaments. The bilateral filter is anisotropic to start with, but we add an additional degree of anisotropy by employing an oriented domain kernel for smoothing. The orientation is locally adapted using a structure tensor and the parameters of the bilateral filter are optimized for within the framework of statistical risk minimization. We show that the directional bilateral filter has better denoising performance than the traditional Gaussian bilateral filter and other denoising techniques such as SURE-LET, non-local means, and guided image filtering at various noise levels in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). We also show quantitative improvements in low NA images of F-actin filaments.

  2. AFSMO/AFSCL- AIRFOIL SMOOTHING AND SCALING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L

    1994-01-01

    Since its early beginnings, NASA has been actively involved in the design and testing of airfoil sections for a wide variety of applications. Recently a set of programs has been developed to smooth and scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program, AFSMO, utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic-spline techniques to iteratively smooth the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. The camber and thickness distribution of the smooth airfoil are also computed. The scaling program, AFSCL, may then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specified maximum thickness. Once the thickness distribution has been scaled, it is combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. The airfoil smoothing and scaling programs are written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and have been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 70K (octal) of 60 bit words. Both programs generate plotted output via CALCOMP type plotting calls. These programs were developed in 1983.

  3. Numerical Convergence In Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qirong; Hernquist, Lars; Li, Yuexing

    2015-02-01

    We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and Nnb → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and Nnb is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding Nnb fixed. We demonstrate that if Nnb is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if Nnb is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for Nnb by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find Nnb vpropN 0.5. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N 1 + δ), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.

  4. Approximation of Bivariate Functions via Smooth Extensions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    For a smooth bivariate function defined on a general domain with arbitrary shape, it is difficult to do Fourier approximation or wavelet approximation. In order to solve these problems, in this paper, we give an extension of the bivariate function on a general domain with arbitrary shape to a smooth, periodic function in the whole space or to a smooth, compactly supported function in the whole space. These smooth extensions have simple and clear representations which are determined by this bivariate function and some polynomials. After that, we expand the smooth, periodic function into a Fourier series or a periodic wavelet series or we expand the smooth, compactly supported function into a wavelet series. Since our extensions are smooth, the obtained Fourier coefficients or wavelet coefficients decay very fast. Since our extension tools are polynomials, the moment theorem shows that a lot of wavelet coefficients vanish. From this, with the help of well-known approximation theorems, using our extension methods, the Fourier approximation and the wavelet approximation of the bivariate function on the general domain with small error are obtained. PMID:24683316

  5. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  6. Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.

    1998-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to

  7. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  8. Nonequilibrium Flows with Smooth Particle Applied Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kum, Oyeon

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows though they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expressions for (urho) and (Trho), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier's heat -flow law and Newton's viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh -Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails. Considerably fewer smooth particles are required than atoms in a corresponding molecular dynamics

  9. Smoothing analysis of HLSII storage ring magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; He, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Zheng; Yao, Qiu-Yang

    2016-12-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) has been upgraded to improve the quality and stability of the synchrotron light, and the new facility is named HLSII. However, a final accurate adjustment is required to smooth the beam orbit after the initial instalment and alignment of the magnets. We implement a reliable smoothing method for the beam orbit of the HLSII storage ring. In addition to greatly smoothing and stabilizing the beam orbit, this method also doubles the work efficiency and significantly reduces the number of magnets adjusted and the range of the adjustments. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275192) and the Upgrade Project of Hefei Light Source

  10. Smoothing spline primordial power spectrum reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sealfon, Carolyn; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2005-11-15

    We reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using a smoothing spline. Our adapted smoothing spline technique provides a complementary method to existing efforts to search for smooth features in the PPS, such as a running spectral index. With this technique we find no significant indication with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe first-year data that the PPS deviates from a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum and no evidence for loss of power on large scales. We also examine the effect on the cosmological parameters of the additional PPS freedom. Smooth variations in the PPS are not significantly degenerate with other cosmological parameters, but the spline reconstruction greatly increases the errors on the optical depth and baryon fraction.

  11. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a central cross section, on grapefruit 41/8... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768...

  12. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a central cross section, on grapefruit 41/8... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768...

  13. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a central cross section, on grapefruit 41/8... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768...

  14. Why is placentation abnormal in preeclampsia?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The causes of preeclampsia remain one of the great medical mysteries of our time. This syndrome is thought to occur in two stages with abnormal placentation leading to a maternal inflammatory response. Specific regions of the placenta have distinct pathological features. During normal pregnancy, cytotrophoblasts emigrate from the chorionic villi and invade the uterus, reaching the inner third of the myometrium. This unusual process is made even more exceptional by the fact that the placental cells are hemi-allogeneic, co-expressing maternal and paternal genomes. Within the uterine wall, cytotrophoblasts deeply invade the spiral arteries. Cytotrophoblasts migrate up these vessels and replace, in a retrograde fashion, the maternal endothelial lining. They also insert themselves amongst the smooth muscle cells that form the tunica media. As a result, the spiral arteries attain the physiological properties that are required to adequately perfuse the placenta. In comparison, invasion of the venous side of the uterine circulation is minimal, sufficient to enable venous return. In preeclampsia, cytotrophoblast invasion of the interstitial uterine compartment is frequently shallow, although not consistently so. In many locations, spiral artery invasion is incomplete. There are many fewer endovascular cytotrophoblasts and some vessels retain portions of their endothelial lining with relatively intact muscular coats while others are not modified. Work from our group showed that these defects mirror deficits in the differentiation program that enables cytotrophoblast invasion of the uterine wall. During normal pregnancy, invasion is accompanied by downregulation of epithelial-like molecules that are indicative of their ectodermal origin and upregulation of numerous receptors and ligands that are typically expressed by endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. For example, the expression of epithelial-cadherin, the cell-cell adhesion molecule that many ectodermal

  15. Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412

  16. A 3D Contact Smoothing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M A; Laursen, T A

    2002-05-02

    Smoothing of contact surfaces can be used to eliminate the chatter typically seen with node on facet contact and give a better representation of the actual contact surface. The latter affect is well demonstrated for problems with interference fits. In this work we present two methods for the smoothing of contact surfaces for 3D finite element contact. In the first method, we employ Gregory patches to smooth the faceted surface in a node on facet implementation. In the second method, we employ a Bezier interpolation of the faceted surface in a mortar method implementation of contact. As is well known, node on facet approaches can exhibit locking due to the failure of the Babuska-Brezzi condition and in some instances fail the patch test. The mortar method implementation is stable and provides optimal convergence in the energy of error. In the this work we demonstrate the superiority of the smoothed versus the non-smoothed node on facet implementations. We also show where the node on facet method fails and some results from the smoothed mortar method implementation.

  17. Beam-smoothing investigation on Heaven I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yi-huai; Gao, Zhi-xing; Tong, Xiao-hui; Dai, Hui; Tang, Xiu-zhang; Shan, Yu-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Directly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) require laser beams with extremely smooth irradiance profiles to prevent hydrodynamic instabilities that destroy the spherical symmetry of the target during implosion. Such instabilities can break up and mix together the target's wall and fuel material, preventing it from reaching the density and temperature required for fusion ignition. 1,2 Measurements in the equation of state (EOS) experiments require laser beams with flat-roofed profiles to generate uniform shockwave 3. Some method for beam smooth, is thus needed. A technique called echelon-free induced spatial incoherence (EFISI) is proposed for producing smooth target beam profiles with large KrF lasers. The idea is basically an image projection technique that projects the desired time-averaged spatial profile onto the target via the laser system, using partially coherent broadband lighe. Utilize the technique, we developing beam- smoothing investigation on "Heaven I". At China Institute of Atomic Energy , a new angular multiplexing providing with beam-smoothing function has been developed, the total energy is 158J, the stability of energy is 4%, the pulse duration is 25ns, the effective diameter of focusing spot is 400um, and the ununiformity is about 1.6%, the power density on the target is about 3.7×10 12W/cm2. At present, the system have provided steady and smooth laser irradiation for EOS experiments.

  18. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  19. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  20. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  1. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  2. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  4. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  5. Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kum, Oyeon

    1995-07-01

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (uρ) and (Tρ), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.

  6. Effects of hydrogen sulphide in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Ralevic, Vera; Roberts, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that the gaseous pollutant, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can be synthesised in the body and has a multitude of biological actions. This review summarizes some of the actions of this 'gasotransmitter' in influencing the smooth muscle that is responsible for controlling muscular activity of hollow organs. In the vasculature, while H2S can cause vasoconstriction by complex interactions with other biologically important gases, such as nitric oxide, the prevailing response is vasorelaxation. While most vasorelaxation responses occur by a direct action of H2S on smooth muscle cells, it has recently been proposed to be an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S also promotes relaxation in other smooth muscle preparations including bronchioles, the bladder, gastrointestinal tract and myometrium, opening up the opportunity of exploiting the pharmacology of H2S in the treatment of conditions where smooth muscle tone is excessive. The original concept, that H2S caused smooth muscle relaxation by activating ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, has been supplemented with observations that H2S can also modify the activity of other potassium channels, intracellular pH, phosphodiesterase activity and transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves. While the enzymes responsible for generating endogenous H2S are widely expressed in smooth muscle preparations, it is much less clear what the physiological role of H2S is in determining smooth muscle contractility. Clarification of this requires the development of potent and selective inhibitors of H2S-generating enzymes.

  7. NUMERICAL CONVERGENCE IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Qirong; Li, Yuexing; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-02-10

    We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and N{sub nb} → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and N{sub nb} is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding N{sub nb} fixed. We demonstrate that if N{sub nb} is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if N{sub nb} is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for N{sub nb} by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find N{sub nb} ∝N {sup 0.5}. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N {sup 1} {sup +} {sup δ}), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.

  8. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  9. Interstitial cells: regulators of smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-07-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα(+) cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues.

  10. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  11. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  12. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  13. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  14. Smooth muscle actin and myosin expression in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Z; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Rippetoe, P; White, S; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Evans, J; McHugh, K M; Low, R B

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the expression of smooth muscle actin and myosin was examined in cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells. Protein and mRNA analyses demonstrated that these cells express alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-B heavy chains. The expression of the smooth muscle specific actin and myosin isoforms was regulated in the same direction when growth conditions were changed. Thus, at confluency in 1 or 10% serum-containing medium as well as for low-density cells (50-60% confluent) deprived of serum, the expression of the smooth muscle forms of actin and myosin was relatively high. Conversely, in rapidly proliferating cultures at low density in 10% serum, smooth muscle contractile protein expression was low. The expression of nonmuscle myosin-B mRNA and protein was more stable and was upregulated only to a small degree in growing cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular basis of differentiation and contractile function in airway smooth muscle cells.

  15. Myofibroblastoma of the breast with smooth muscle differentiation showing deletion of 13q14 region: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Trépant, Anne-Laure; Sibille, Catherine; Frunza, Ana-Maria; Simon, Philippe; Noël, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Breast myofibroblastomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumors belonging to the group of stromal breast tumors composed of spindle-shaped cells and characterized by a broad morphologic spectrum. Among the different morphologic variants described, breast MFBs can show smooth muscle cell differentiation in very rare cases. In terms of the genetic abnormalities found in this type of tumor, a deletion of chromosome 13q14 was recently confirmed by FISH in some cases of mammary MFB. In this paper, we report an unusual case of MFB with smooth muscle differentiation showing a deletion of chromosome 13q14.

  16. Structured mesh generation with smoothness controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoxin; Jia, Yafei; Wang, Sam S. Y.

    2006-08-01

    In geometrically complex domains, the Ryskin and Leal (RL) orthogonal mesh generation system may cause mesh distortion and overlapping problems when using the weak constraint method with specified boundary point distribution for all boundaries. To resolve these problems, an improved RL system with automatic smoothness control is proposed. In this improved RL system, the automatic smoothness control mechanism is based on five types of smoothness conditions and includes the self-adjustment mechanism and the auto-evaluation mechanism for an empirical parameter. The proposed system is illustrated using several test examples. Several applications to natural domains are also demonstrated. It is shown that the improved RL system is capable of resolving the above problems at little cost of orthogonality.

  17. Archetypal oscillator for smooth and discontinuous dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qingjie; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina E; Grebogi, Celso; Thompson, J Michael T

    2006-10-01

    We propose an archetypal system to investigate transitions from smooth to discontinuous dynamics. In the smooth regime, the system bears significant similarities to the Duffing oscillator, exhibiting the standard dynamics governed by the hyperbolic structure associated with the stationary state of the double well. At the discontinuous limit, however, there is a substantial departure in the dynamics from the standard one. In particular, the velocity flow suffers a jump in crossing from one well to another, caused by the loss of local hyperbolicity due to the collapse of the stable and unstable manifolds of the stationary state. In the presence of damping and external excitation, the system has coexisting attractors and also a chaotic saddle which becomes a chaotic attractor when a smoothness parameter drops to zero. This attractor can bifurcate to a high-period periodic attractor or a chaotic sea with islands of quasiperiodic attractors depending on the strength of damping.

  18. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  19. ibr: Iterative bias reduction multivariate smoothing

    SciTech Connect

    Hengartner, Nicholas W; Cornillon, Pierre-andre; Matzner - Lober, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Regression is a fundamental data analysis tool for relating a univariate response variable Y to a multivariate predictor X {element_of} E R{sup d} from the observations (X{sub i}, Y{sub i}), i = 1,...,n. Traditional nonparametric regression use the assumption that the regression function varies smoothly in the independent variable x to locally estimate the conditional expectation m(x) = E[Y|X = x]. The resulting vector of predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} at the observed covariates X{sub i} is called a regression smoother, or simply a smoother, because the predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} are less variable than the original observations Y{sub i}. Linear smoothers are linear in the response variable Y and are operationally written as {cflx m} = X{sub {lambda}}Y, where S{sub {lambda}} is a n x n smoothing matrix. The smoothing matrix S{sub {lambda}} typically depends on a tuning parameter which we denote by {lambda}, and that governs the tradeoff between the smoothness of the estimate and the goodness-of-fit of the smoother to the data by controlling the effective size of the local neighborhood over which the responses are averaged. We parameterize the smoothing matrix such that large values of {lambda} are associated to smoothers that averages over larger neighborhood and produce very smooth curves, while small {lambda} are associated to smoothers that average over smaller neighborhood to produce a more wiggly curve that wants to interpolate the data. The parameter {lambda} is the bandwidth for kernel smoother, the span size for running-mean smoother, bin smoother, and the penalty factor {lambda} for spline smoother.

  20. Airway epithelium stimulates smooth muscle proliferation.

    PubMed

    Malavia, Nikita K; Raub, Christopher B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Panettieri, Reynold A; George, Steven C

    2009-09-01

    Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remodeling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithelium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air-liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal primary human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM) using commercially available Transwells. In some co-cultures, the NHBE were repeatedly (x4) scrape-injured. An in vivo model of tracheal injury consisted of gently denuding the tracheal epithelium (x3) of a rabbit over 5 days and then examining the trachea by histology 3 days after the last injury. Our results show that HASM cell number increases 2.5-fold in the presence of NHBE, and 4.3-fold in the presence of injured NHBE compared with HASM alone after 8 days of in vitro co-culture. In addition, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and, more markedly, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration increased in co-culture correlating with enhanced HASM growth. Inhibiting MMP-9 release significantly attenuated the NHBE-dependent HASM proliferation in co-culture. In vivo, the injured rabbit trachea demonstrated proliferation in the smooth muscle (trachealis) region and significant MMP-9 staining, which was absent in the uninjured control. The airway epithelium modulates smooth muscle cell proliferation via a mechanism that involves secretion of soluble mediators including potential smooth muscle mitogens such as IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, but also through a novel MMP-9-dependent mechanism.

  1. Lower extremity abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

    2003-08-01

    Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.

  2. Normal and abnormal lid function.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).

  3. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1983-03-15

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(Methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  4. Geometrical Wake of a Smooth Flat Collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    A transverse geometrical wake generated by a beam passing through a smooth flat collimator with a gradually varying gap between the upper and lower walls is considered. Based on generalization of the approach recently developed for a smooth circular taper we reduce the electromagnetic problem of the impedance calculation to the solution of two much simpler static problems - a magnetostatic and an electrostatic ones. The solution shows that in the limit of not very large frequencies, the impedance increases with the ratio h/d where h is the width and d is the distance between the collimating jaws. Numerical results are presented for the NLC Post Linac collimator.

  5. Production of super-smooth articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  6. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  7. Airway hyperresponsiveness; smooth muscle as the principal actor

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Martin, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a defining characteristic of asthma that refers to the capacity of the airways to undergo exaggerated narrowing in response to stimuli that do not result in comparable degrees of airway narrowing in healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction mediates airway narrowing, but it remains uncertain as to whether the smooth muscle is intrinsically altered in asthmatic subjects or is responding abnormally as a result of the milieu in which it sits. ASM in the trachea or major bronchi does not differ in its contractile characteristics in asthmatics, but the more pertinent peripheral airways await complete exploration. The mass of ASM is increased in many but not all asthmatics and therefore cannot be a unifying hypothesis for AHR, although when increased in mass it may contribute to AHR. The inability of a deep breath to reverse or prevent bronchial narrowing in asthma may reflect an intrinsic difference in the mechanisms that lead to softening of contracted ASM when subjected to stretch. Cytokines such as interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α promote a more contractile ASM phenotype. The composition and increased stiffness of the matrix in which ASM is embedded promotes a more proliferative and pro-inflammatory ASM phenotype, but the expected dedifferentiation and loss of contractility have not been shown. Airway epithelium may drive ASM proliferation and/or molecular remodeling in ways that may lead to AHR. In conclusion, AHR is likely multifactorial in origin, reflecting the plasticity of ASM properties in the inflammatory environment of the asthmatic airway. PMID:26998246

  8. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, airway innervation, and smooth muscle are altered in Cftr null mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Luk, Catherine; Kent, Geraldine; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2006-09-01

    The amine- and peptide-producing pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are widely distributed within the airway mucosa of mammalian lung as solitary cells and innervated clusters, neuroepithelial bodies (NEB), which function as airway O2 sensors. These cells express Cftr and hence could play a role in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We performed confocal microscopy and morphometric analysis on lung sections from Cftr-/- (null), Cftr+/+, and Cftr+/- (control) mice at developmental stages E20, P5, P9, and P30 to determine the distribution, frequency, and innervation of PNEC/NEB, innervation and cell mass of airway smooth muscle, and neuromuscular junctions using synaptic vesicle protein 2, smooth muscle actin, and synaptophysin markers, respectively. The mean number of PNEC/NEB in Cftr-/- mice was significantly reduced compared with control mice at E20, whereas comparable or increased numbers were observed postnatally. NEB cells in Cftr null mice showed a significant reduction in intracorpuscular nerve endings compared with control mice, which is consistent with an intrinsic abnormality of the PNEC system. The airways of Cftr-/- mice showed reduced density (approximately 20-30%) of smooth muscle innervation, decreased mean airway smooth muscle mass (approximately 35%), and reduced density (approximately 20%) of nerve endings compared with control mice. We conclude that the airways of Cftr-/- mice exhibit heretofore unappreciated structural alterations affecting cellular and neural components of the PNEC system and airway smooth muscle and its innervation resulting in blunted O2 sensing and reduced airway tonus. Cftr could play a role in the development of the PNEC system, lung innervation, and airway smooth muscle.

  9. Endothelial and smooth muscle histamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, R.S.; Hollis, T.M.

    1986-03-01

    Histamine is produced within the vascular wall and mediates a variety of normal and pathologic vascular responses. The interaction of histamine with its vascular cell receptors has been shown to affect factors such as actin cable formation, cyclase activities, prostacyclin synthesis, cell motility, and proliferation. In addition, abundant evidence exists to implicate an arterial nascent histamine pool in the control of vessel wall permeability under conditions of stress and injury. However, endothelial and smooth muscle cell histamine receptors have been only incompletely characterized. The authors report here the time-dependent, saturable, and trypsin sensitive binding of /sup 3/H-histamine to the endothelial cell surface. The K/sub d/ for endothelial and smooth muscle cell histamine receptors are 0.70 and 2.80 ..mu..M respectively. Histamine binding to smooth muscle cells also exhibited saturation with concentrations of /sup 3/H-histamine up to 4 ..mu..M. While the smooth muscle cell H/sub 1/ receptor binding was negligible, the H/sub 2/ receptor appeared to represent a relatively low affinity, high capacity site for histamine binding. The uptake of /sup 3/H-histamine in both cell types displayed kinetics consistent with that of fluid-phase pinocytosis.

  10. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  11. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a new computational technique uniquely suited to computation of hypervelocity impact phenomena. This paper reviews the characteristics, philosophy, and a bit of the derivation of the method. As illustrations of the technique, several test case computations and several application computations are shown.

  12. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1992-09-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a new computational technique uniquely suited to computation of hypervelocity impact phenomena. This paper reviews the characteristics, philosophy, and a bit of the derivation of the method. As illustrations of the technique, several test case computations and several application computations are shown.

  13. Autonomic modification of intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems.

  14. Resting calcium influx in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Luis M; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca

    2005-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ leak remains the most uncertain of the cellular Ca2+ regulation pathways. During passive Ca2+ influx in non-stimulated smooth muscle cells, basal activity of constitutive Ca2+ channels seems to be involved. In vascular smooth muscle, the 3 following Ca2+ entry pathways contribute to this phenomenon: (i) via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, (ii) receptor gated Ca2+ channels, and (iii) store operated Ca2+ channels, although, in airway smooth muscle it seems only 2 passive Ca2+ influx pathways are implicated, one sensitive to SKF 96365 (receptor gated Ca2+ channels) and the other to Ni2+ (store operated Ca2+ channels). Resting Ca2+ entry could provide a sufficient amount of Ca2+ and contribute to resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), maintenance of the resting membrane potential, myogenic tone, and sarcoplasmic reticulum-Ca2+ refilling. However, further research, especially in airway smooth muscle, is required to better explore the physiological role of this passive Ca2+ influx pathway as it could be involved in airway hyperresponsiveness.

  15. Calcium Sensitization Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscles.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Brian A

    2016-04-30

    An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) is the primary trigger of contraction of gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles. However, increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilaments by elevating myosin light chain phosphorylation also plays an essential role. Inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase activity with protein kinase C-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying myofilament Ca(2+) sensitization. The relative importance of Ca(2+) sensitization mechanisms to the diverse patterns of GI motility is likely related to the varied functional roles of GI smooth muscles. Increases in CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in response to agonist stimulation regulate myosin light chain phosphatase activity in phasic, tonic, and sphincteric GI smooth muscles. Recent evidence suggests that MYPT1 phosphorylation may also contribute to force generation by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms responsible for maintaining constitutive CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in GI smooth muscles are still largely unknown. The characteristics of the cell-types comprising the neuroeffector junction lead to fundamental differences between the effects of exogenous agonists and endogenous neurotransmitters on Ca(2+) sensitization mechanisms. The contribution of various cell-types within the tunica muscularis to the motor responses of GI organs to neurotransmission must be considered when determining the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) sensitization pathways are activated. The signaling pathways regulating Ca(2+) sensitization may provide novel therapeutic strategies for controlling GI motility. This article will provide an overview of the current understanding of the biochemical basis for the regulation of Ca(2+) sensitization, while also discussing the functional importance to different smooth muscles of the GI tract.

  16. Extracellular calcium sensing in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Christoffersen, Tue E.H.

    2006-10-06

    Extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) can act as a first messenger in many cell types through a G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). It is still debated whether the CaR is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we report the expression of CaR mRNA and protein in rat aortic VSMCs and show that Ca2+o stimulates proliferation of the cells. The effects of Ca2+o were attenuated by pre-treatment with MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor, as well as an allosteric modulator, NPS 2390. Furthermore, stimulation of the VSMCs with Ca2+o-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but surprisingly did not cause inositol phosphate accumulation. We were not able to conclusively state that the CaR mediates Ca2+o-induced cell proliferation. Rather, an additional calcium-sensing mechanism may exist. Our findings may be of importance with regard to atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of VSMCs and high local levels of calcium.

  17. Arterial Myogenic Activation through Smooth Muscle Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Arhatte, Malika; Demolombe, Sophie; Peyronnet, Rémi; Baudrie, Véronique; Jodar, Martine; Bourreau, Jennifer; Henrion, Daniel; Offermanns, Stefan; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Feng, Yuanyi; Patel, Amanda; Duprat, Fabrice; Honoré, Eric

    2016-03-08

    Mutations in the filamin A (FlnA) gene are frequently associated with severe arterial abnormalities, although the physiological role for this cytoskeletal element remains poorly understood in vascular cells. We used a conditional mouse model to selectively delete FlnA in smooth muscle (sm) cells at the adult stage, thus avoiding the developmental effects of the knockout. Basal blood pressure was significantly reduced in conscious smFlnA knockout mice. Remarkably, pressure-dependent tone of the resistance caudal artery was lost, whereas reactivity to vasoconstrictors was preserved. Impairment of the myogenic behavior was correlated with a lack of calcium influx in arterial myocytes upon an increase in intraluminal pressure. Notably, the stretch activation of CaV1.2 was blunted in the absence of smFlnA. In conclusion, FlnA is a critical upstream element of the signaling cascade underlying the myogenic tone. These findings allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of arterial autoregulation and associated disease states.

  18. A Generalized Eigensolver based on Smoothed Aggregation (GES-SA) for Initializing Smoothed Aggregation Multigrid (SA)

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S

    2007-05-31

    Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.

  19. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D; Bennett, D; Fisher-Hoch, S P; Farrar, B; McCormick, J B

    1989-10-01

    Electrocardiograms from 32 patients with acute Lassa fever were abnormal in over 70% of cases. The changes noted included non-specific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, ST-segment elevation, generalized low-voltage complexes, and changes reflecting electrolyte disturbance. None of the abnormalities correlated with clinical severity of infection, serum transaminase levels, or eventual outcome. ECG changes are common in Lassa fever, but usually unassociated with clinical manifestations of myocarditis.

  20. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  1. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  2. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  3. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  4. Molecular memory with atomically smooth graphene contacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of bilayer graphene as an atomically smooth contact for nanoscale devices. A two-terminal bucky-ball (C60) based molecular memory is fabricated with bilayer graphene as a contact on the polycrystalline nickel electrode. Graphene provides an atomically smooth covering over an otherwise rough metal surface. The use of graphene additionally prohibits the electromigration of nickel into the C60 layer. The devices exhibit a low-resistance state in the first sweep cycle and irreversibly switch to a high-resistance state at 0.8 to 1.2 V bias. In the subsequent cycles, the devices retain the high-resistance state, thus making it write-once read-many memory. PMID:24225345

  5. SPHGR: Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    SPHGR (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction) is a python based open-source framework for analyzing smoothed-particle hydrodynamic simulations. Its basic form can run a baryonic group finder to identify galaxies and a halo finder to identify dark matter halos; it can also assign said galaxies to their respective halos, calculate halo & galaxy global properties, and iterate through previous time steps to identify the most-massive progenitors of each halo and galaxy. Data about each individual halo and galaxy is collated and easy to access. SPHGR supports a wide range of simulations types including N-body, full cosmological volumes, and zoom-in runs. Support for multiple SPH code outputs is provided by pyGadgetReader (ascl:1411.001), mainly Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and TIPSY (ascl:1111.015).

  6. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  7. A smoothing algorithm using cubic spline functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E., Jr.; Price, J. M.; Howser, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two algorithms are presented for smoothing arbitrary sets of data. They are the explicit variable algorithm and the parametric variable algorithm. The former would be used where large gradients are not encountered because of the smaller amount of calculation required. The latter would be used if the data being smoothed were double valued or experienced large gradients. Both algorithms use a least-squares technique to obtain a cubic spline fit to the data. The advantage of the spline fit is that the first and second derivatives are continuous. This method is best used in an interactive graphics environment so that the junction values for the spline curve can be manipulated to improve the fit.

  8. Generation of Surfaces with Smooth Highlight Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    2 (s)ds/ si. (2) 0=i i=1 §3. Concept of Surface Generation Based on Evolute A surface is generated by moving a generatrix along two directrices . When...Fig. 1(a) shows an object surface Surfaces with Smooth Highlight Lines 147 Sgeneratrices v generated surface S u directrices evoluteseolesufc (a...the directrices , and suffix u denotes partial differentiation. Fig. 1(b) shows an evolute surface and a generated surface satisfying the constraints

  9. Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi

    Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.

  10. Wrench for smooth or damaged fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, R.

    1981-01-01

    Smooth-surfaced or damaged fasteners that cannot be gripped by conventional wrench can be unscrewed by special wrench. It can be used in tight spaces and will not damage adjacent structures. Wrench consists of central handle and 2 independent jaws with serrated teeth. Teeth are placed on fastener to be removed, and handle is rotated until fastener is gripped with positive locking action. Rotation of wrench handle removes fastener.

  11. Variational algorithms for nonlinear smoothing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A variational approach is presented for solving a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem with application to offline processing of noisy data for trajectory reconstruction and parameter estimation. The nonlinear problem is solved as a sequence of linear two-point boundary value problems. Second-order convergence properties are demonstrated. Algorithms for both continuous and discrete versions of the problem are given, and example solutions are provided.

  12. Rotorcraft Smoothing Via Linear Time Periodic Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Optimal Control Methodology for Rotor Vibration Smoothing . . 30 vii Page IV. Mathematic Foundations of Linear Time Periodic Systems . . . . 33 4.1 The...62 6.3 The Maximum Likelihood Estimator . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6.4 The Cramer-Rao Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.4.1 Statistical ...adjustments for vibration reduction. 2.2.2.4 1980’s to late 1990’s. Rotor vibrational reduction methods during the 1980’s began to adopt a mathematical

  13. Fertilization and embryo quality of mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Hyojeong; Lee, Jang Mi; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate fertilization and embryo quality of dysmorphic mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities obtained from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods The fertilization rate (FR) and embryo quality were compared among 58 dysmorphic and 42 normal form oocytes (control 1) obtained from 35 consecutive ICSI cycles, each of which yielded at least one dysmorphic mature oocyte, performed over a period of 5 years. The FR and embryo quality of 441 normal form oocytes from another 119 ICSI cycles that did not involve dysmorphic oocytes served as control 2. Dysmorphic oocytes were classified as having a dark cytoplasm, cytoplasmic granularity, cytoplasmic vacuoles, refractile bodies in the cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, an oval shape, an abnormal zona pellucida, a large perivitelline space, debris in the perivitelline space, or an abnormal polar body (PB). Results The overall FR was significantly lower in dysmorphic oocytes than in normal form oocytes in both the control 1 and control 2 groups. However, embryo quality in the dysmorphic oocyte group and the normal form oocyte groups at day 3 was similar. The FR and embryo quality were similar in the oocyte groups with a single abnormality and multiple abnormalities. Specific abnormalities related with a higher percentage of top-quality embryos were dark cytoplasm (66.7%), abnormal PB (50%), and cytoplasmic vacuoles (25%). Conclusion The fertilization potential of dysmorphic oocytes in our study was lower, but their subsequent embryonic development and embryo quality was relatively good. We were able to define several specific abnormalities related with good or poor embryo quality. PMID:26815385

  14. Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Baeten, J T; Lilly, B

    2017-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease.

  15. On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2016-09-01

    Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.

  16. Smooth muscle tumours of the alimentary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, T.; Danton, M. H.; Parks, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Neoplasms arising from smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are uncommon, comprising only 1% of gastrointestinal tumours. A total of 51 cases of smooth muscle tumour of the GI tract were analysed; 44 leiomyomas and 7 leiomyosarcomas. Lesions occurred in all areas from the oesophagus to the rectum, the stomach being the commonest site. Thirty-six patients had clinical features referable to the tumour. The tumour was detected during investigation or management of an unrelated disease process in 15 patients. The clinical presentation varied depending on tumour location, but abdominal pain and GI bleeding were the commonest presenting symptoms. The lesion was demonstrated preoperatively, mainly by endoscopy and barium studies, in 27 patients. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice, where possible. There was no recurrence in the leiomyoma group but four patients died in the leiomyosarcoma group. Although rare, smooth muscle tumours should be considered in situations where clinical presentation and investigations are not suggestive of any common GI disorder. The preoperative assessment and diagnosis is difficult because of the variability in clinical features and their inaccessibility to routine GI investigation. It is recommended that, where possible, the lesion, whether symptomatic or discovered incidentally, should be excised completely to achieve a cure and prevent future complications. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2221768

  17. Smooth muscle differentiation in scleroderma fibroblastic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sappino, A. P.; Masouyé, I.; Saurat, J. H.; Gabbiani, G.

    1990-01-01

    Using antibodies to alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin on paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue sections, the authors demonstrate that fibroblastic cells of localized and systemic scleroderma lesions express features of smooth muscle differentiation. Eleven of eleven skin specimens of systemic sclerosis patients and two of four skin specimens of localized scleroderma displayed the presence of fibroblasts expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin, a cell population that predominated in areas of prominent collagen deposition. A similar fibroblastic phenotype was found in the esophagus, the liver, and the lung specimens obtained from four patients who died of progressive systemic sclerosis. Immunostaining for desmin, performed on adjacent tissue sections, demonstrated that a minority of these fibroblastic cells present in skin and visceral lesions contained this protein. The authors' observations indicate that scleroderma fibroblasts are phenotypically related to the stromal cells previously identified in hypertrophic scars, fibromatoses, and desmoplasia; they might provide novel criteria for the characterization of scleroderma lesions and help to identify the factors responsible for phenotypic modulations in fibroblastic cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1698026

  18. Symmetric smoothing filters from global consistency constraints.

    PubMed

    Haque, Sheikh Mohammadul; Pai, Gautam P; Govindu, Venu Madhav

    2015-05-01

    Many patch-based image denoising methods can be viewed as data-dependent smoothing filters that carry out a weighted averaging of similar pixels. It has recently been argued that these averaging filters can be improved using their doubly stochastic approximation, which are symmetric and stable smoothing operators. In this paper, we introduce a simple principle of consistency that argues that the relative similarities between pixels as imputed by the averaging matrix should be preserved in the filtered output. The resultant consistency filter has the theoretically desirable properties of being symmetric and stable, and is a generalized doubly stochastic matrix. In addition, we can also interpret our consistency filter as a specific form of Laplacian regularization. Thus, our approach unifies two strands of image denoising methods, i.e., symmetric smoothing filters and spectral graph theory. Our consistency filter provides high-quality image denoising and significantly outperforms the doubly stochastic version. We present a thorough analysis of the properties of our proposed consistency filter and compare its performance with that of other significant methods for image denoising in the literature.

  19. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does...

  20. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does...

  1. A Kalman Filter with Smoothing for Hurricane Tracking and Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    algorithms were categorized into three groups by Meditch [Ref. 51; Fixed Point Smoothing smooths the estimate iox at a fixed point k as K increases... Smoothing , Storm Trackig. I bstract (continue on reiersc if necr!:ry and ldetif by block number) T-he Performance of a Kalmnan filter used to track a...hurricane was substantially improved by implementing a fixed interval smoothing algofitin. This tracking routine was designed and imiplemencrted in a

  2. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  3. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  4. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  5. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved…

  6. Alternative Smoothing and Scaling Strategies for Weighted Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, smoothing and scaling approaches are compared for estimating subscore-to-composite scaling results involving composites computed as rounded and weighted combinations of subscores. The considered smoothing and scaling approaches included those based on raw data, on smoothing the bivariate distribution of the subscores, on smoothing…

  7. The Optimal Degree of Smoothing in Equipercentile Equating with Postsmoothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Lingjia

    1995-01-01

    The effects of different degrees of smoothing on results of equipercentile equating in random groups design using a postsmoothing method based on cubic splines were investigated, and a computer-based procedure was introduced for selecting a desirable degree of smoothing. Results suggest that no particular degree of smoothing was always optimal.…

  8. Infant Attention and the Development of Smooth Pursuit Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.; Holley, Felecia B.

    1999-01-01

    Studied effect of attention on smooth pursuit and saccadic tracking in infants at 8, 14, 20, and 26 weeks old. Found an increase across age in overall tracking, gain of smooth-pursuit eye movements, and increased amplitude of compensatory saccades at faster tracking speeds. Findings show that development of smooth pursuit, targeted saccadic eye…

  9. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  10. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  11. Postnatal lethality and abnormal development of foregut and spleen in Ndrg4 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xianghu; Li, Jing; Baldwin, H. Scott

    2016-01-01

    NDRG4 is a member of the NDRG family (N-myc downstream-regulated gene), which is highly expressed in brain and heart. Previous studies showed that Ndrg1-deficient mice exhibited a progressive demyelinating disorder of peripheral nerves and Ndrg4-deficient mice had spatial learning deficits and vulnerabilities to cerebral ischemia. Here, we report generation of Ndrg4 mutant alleles that exhibit several development defects different from those previously reported. Our homozygous mice showed growth retardation and postnatal lethality. Spleen and thymuses of Ndrg4−/− mice are considerably reduced in size from 3 weeks of age. Histological analysis revealed abnormal hyperkeratosis in the squamous foregut and abnormal loss of erythrocytes in the spleen of Ndrg4−/− mice. In addition, we observed an abnormal hind limb clasping phenotype upon tail suspension suggesting neurological abnormalities. Consistent to these abnormalities, Ndrg4 is expressed in smooth muscle cells of the stomach, macrophages of the spleen and neurons. Availability of the conditional allele for Ndrg4 should facilitate further detailed analyses of the potential roles of Ndrg4 in gut development, nervous system and immune system. PMID:26801554

  12. Airway smooth muscle dynamics: a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma.

    PubMed

    An, S S; Bai, T R; Bates, J H T; Black, J L; Brown, R H; Brusasco, V; Chitano, P; Deng, L; Dowell, M; Eidelman, D H; Fabry, B; Fairbank, N J; Ford, L E; Fredberg, J J; Gerthoffer, W T; Gilbert, S H; Gosens, R; Gunst, S J; Halayko, A J; Ingram, R H; Irvin, C G; James, A L; Janssen, L J; King, G G; Knight, D A; Lauzon, A M; Lakser, O J; Ludwig, M S; Lutchen, K R; Maksym, G N; Martin, J G; Mauad, T; McParland, B E; Mijailovich, S M; Mitchell, H W; Mitchell, R W; Mitzner, W; Murphy, T M; Paré, P D; Pellegrino, R; Sanderson, M J; Schellenberg, R R; Seow, C Y; Silveira, P S P; Smith, P G; Solway, J; Stephens, N L; Sterk, P J; Stewart, A G; Tang, D D; Tepper, R S; Tran, T; Wang, L

    2007-05-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is not certain whether, in asthma, there is a change in the intrinsic properties of ASM, a change in the structure and mechanical properties of the noncontractile components of the airway wall, or a change in the interdependence of the airway wall with the surrounding lung parenchyma. All these potential changes could result from acute or chronic airway inflammation and associated tissue repair and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory therapy, however, does not "cure" asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness can persist in asthmatics, even in the absence of airway inflammation. This is perhaps because the therapy does not directly address a fundamental abnormality of asthma, that of exaggerated airway narrowing due to excessive shortening of ASM. In the present study, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is explored.

  13. Smooth muscle-selective CPI-17 expression increases vascular smooth muscle contraction and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen; Xie, Zhongwen; Liu, Shu; Calderon, Lindsay E.; Guo, Zhenheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent data revealed that protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17), a myosin phosphatase inhibitory protein preferentially expressed in smooth muscle, is upregulated/activated in several diseases but whether this CPI-17 increase plays a causal role in pathologically enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remains unclear. To address this possibility, we generated a smooth muscle-specific CPI-17 transgenic mouse model (CPI-17-Tg) and demonstrated that the CPI-17 transgene was selectively expressed in smooth muscle-enriched tissues, including mesenteric arteries. The isometric contractions in the isolated second-order branch of mesenteric artery helical strips from CPI-17-Tg mice were significantly enhanced compared with controls in response to phenylephrine, U-46619, serotonin, ANG II, high potassium, and calcium. The perfusion pressure increases in isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds in response to norepinephrine were also enhanced in CPI-17-Tg mice. The hypercontractility was associated with increased phosphorylation of CPI-17 and 20-kDa myosin light chain under basal and stimulated conditions. Surprisingly, the protein levels of rho kinase 2 and protein kinase Cα/δ were significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mouse mesenteric arteries. Radiotelemetry measurements demonstrated that blood pressure was significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mice. However, no vascular remodeling was detected by morphometric analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased CPI-17 expression in smooth muscle promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility and increases blood pressure, implicating a pathological significant role of CPI-17 upregulation. PMID:23604714

  14. Irregular Wave Runup on Smooth Slopes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    CERC- CETA -81-17 N. IE D CETA 81-17 Z Irregular Wave Runup on Smooth Slopes by ot John P. Ahrens COASTAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL AID NO. 81-17 DECEMBER...GOVT ACCESSION NO, 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER CETA 811 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Coastal Engineering IRREGULAR...Coastal Engineering Research Center, 1977); CETA 77-2 "Prediction of Irregular Wave Runup" by John P. Ahrens; and CETA 78-2 "Revised Wave Runup

  15. Old Basin Filled by Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Old basin, 190 km in diameter, filled by smooth plains at 43 degrees S, 55 degrees W. The basin's hummocky rim is partly degraded and cratered by later events. Mariner 10 frame 166607.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  16. Workshop on advances in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wingate, C.A.; Miller, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    This proceedings contains viewgraphs presented at the 1993 workshop held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Discussed topics include: negative stress, reactive flow calculations, interface problems, boundaries and interfaces, energy conservation in viscous flows, linked penetration calculations, stability and consistency of the SPH method, instabilities, wall heating and conservative smoothing, tensors, tidal disruption of stars, breaking the 10,000,000 particle limit, modelling relativistic collapse, SPH without H, relativistic KSPH avoidance of velocity based kernels, tidal compression and disruption of stars near a supermassive rotation black hole, and finally relativistic SPH viscosity and energy.

  17. Smoothed Analysis for the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Govind; Trogdon, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish bounds on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm when the underlying matrix is a random positive definite perturbation of a deterministic positive definite matrix. We estimate all finite moments of a natural halting time when the random perturbation is drawn from the Laguerre unitary ensemble in a critical scaling regime explored in Deift et al. (2016). These estimates are used to analyze the expected iteration count in the framework of smoothed analysis, introduced by Spielman and Teng (2001). The rigorous results are compared with numerical calculations in several cases of interest.

  18. Method for producing smooth inner surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Charles A.

    2016-05-17

    The invention provides a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media to tumble by centrifugal barrel polishing within the cavities for a time sufficient to attain a surface smoothness of less than 15 nm root mean square roughness over approximately a 1 mm.sup.2 scan area. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media bound to a carrier to tumble within the cavities. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media in a slurry to tumble within the cavities.

  19. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683

  20. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.

  1. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1993-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.

  2. Airway smooth muscle growth in asthma: proliferation, hypertrophy, and migration.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2008-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle mass is present in fatal and non-fatal asthma. However, little information is available regarding the cellular mechanism (i.e., hyperplasia vs. hypertrophy). Even less information exists regarding the functional consequences of airway smooth muscle remodeling. It would appear that increased airway smooth muscle mass would tend to increase airway narrowing and airflow obstruction. However, the precise effects of increased airway smooth muscle mass on airway narrowing are not known. This review will consider the evidence for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma, potential functional effects, and biochemical mechanisms.

  3. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  4. Biomathematical pattern of EMG signal propagation in smooth muscle of the non-pregnant porcine uterus

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2017-01-01

    Uterine contractions are generated by myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that comprise most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Aberrant uterine motility (i.e., hypo- or hyper-contractility or asynchronous contractions) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infertility due to the failure of implantation, endometriosis and abnormal estrous cycles. The mechanism whereby the non-pregnant uterus initiates spontaneous contractions remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to employ linear synchronization measures for analyzing the pattern of EMG signal propagation (direction and speed) in smooth muscles of the non-pregnant porcine uterus in vivo using telemetry recording system. It has been revealed that the EMG signal conduction in the uterine wall of the non-pregnant sow does not occur at random but it rather exhibits specific directions and speed. All detectable EMG signals moved along the uterine horn in both cervico-tubal and tubo-cervical directions. The signal migration speed could be divided into the three main types or categories: i. slow basic migration rhythm (SBMR); ii. rapid basic migration rhythm (RBMR); and iii. rapid accessory migration rhythm (RAMR). In conclusion, the EMG signal propagation in smooth muscles of the porcine uterus in vivo can be assessed using a linear synchronization model. Physiological pattern of the uterine contractile activity determined in this study provides a basis for future investigations of normal and pathologicall myogenic function of the uterus. PMID:28282410

  5. MicroRNA-182 prevents vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation via FGF9/PDGFRβ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Nana; Wang, Wei; Tian, Jinwei; Xie, Zulong; Lv, Bo; Dai, Jiannan; Jiang, Rui; Huang, Dan; Fang, Shaohong; Tian, Jiangtian; Li, Hulun; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes various proliferative vascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been established to play important roles in SMC biology and phenotypic modulation. This study revealed that the expression of miR-182 was markedly altered during rat vascular SMC phenotypic transformation in vitro. We aimed to investigate the role of miR-182 in the vascular SMC phenotypic switch and to determine the potential molecular mechanisms involved. The expression of miR-182 gene was significantly downregulated in cultured SMCs during dedifferentiation from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. Conversely, the upregulation of miR-182 increased the expression of SMC-specific contractile genes, such as α-smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle 22α and calponin. Additionally, miR-182 overexpression potently inhibited SMC proliferation and migration under both basal conditions and under platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulation. Furthermore, we identified fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) as the target gene of miR-182 for the phenotypic modulation of SMCs mediated through platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling. These data suggest that miR-182 may be a novel SMC phenotypic marker and a modulator that may be used to prevent SMC dedifferentiation via FGF9/PDGFRβ signaling. PMID:28259995

  6. A generalized smoothness criterion for acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    The many-to-one mapping from representations in the speech articulatory space to acoustic space renders the associated acoustic-to-articulatory inverse mapping non-unique. Among various techniques, imposing smoothness constraints on the articulator trajectories is one of the common approaches to handle the non-uniqueness in the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem. This is because, articulators typically move smoothly during speech production. A standard smoothness constraint is to minimize the energy of the difference of the articulatory position sequence so that the articulator trajectory is smooth and low-pass in nature. Such a fixed definition of smoothness is not always realistic or adequate for all articulators because different articulators have different degrees of smoothness. In this paper, an optimization formulation is proposed for the inversion problem, which includes a generalized smoothness criterion. Under such generalized smoothness settings, the smoothness parameter can be chosen depending on the specific articulator in a data-driven fashion. In addition, this formulation allows estimation of articulatory positions recursively over time without any loss in performance. Experiments with the MOCHA TIMIT database show that the estimated articulator trajectories obtained using such a generalized smoothness criterion have lower RMS error and higher correlation with the actual measured trajectories compared to those obtained using a fixed smoothness constraint. PMID:20968386

  7. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  8. Congenital abnormalities of the ovine paramesonephric ducts.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C; Long, S E; Parkinson, T J

    1995-01-01

    A 15 month survey of ovine reproductive tracts was undertaken in slaughterhouses in southwest England. A total of 33506 tracts were examined; 23536 from lambs and 9970 from adults. In total, 3.4% of tracts were pregnant and 3.3% exhibited abnormalities. Twenty cases of uterus unicornis, six of uterus didelphys and 11 of segmental aplasia were encountered, such that partial aplasia of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 3.3% of all abnormalities. Although developmental abnormalities of the ovine female genital system are relatively uncommon, a substantial proportion of these can be accounted for by development defects of the paramesonephric ducts.

  9. [Radionuclide studies of congenital kidney abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Vlakhov, N

    1984-06-01

    Using the potentialities of isotope nephrograms as a screening test a total of 4746 patients suspected of renal abnormalities were examined. The author established pathological deviations in 561 cases (11.8%). During further verification using scintigraphy unsuspected congenital renal abnormalities (aplasia, hypoplasia, dystopia, double kidney, horseshoe kidney, solitary cyst and polycystic renal disease) were found in 46 patients (8.2%). The diagnosis was confirmed at subsequent venous x-ray urography. A conclusion has been made as to the role of comprehensive nephrographic-scintigraphic examination in the diagnosis of congenital renal abnormalities.

  10. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  12. Smooth blasting with the electronic delay detonator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Ichijo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    The authors utilized electronic detonators (EDs) to investigate the effect of high detonator delay accuracy on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness, in comparison with that of long-period delay detonators (0.25 sec interval) PDs. The experiments were conducted in a deep mine, in a test site region composed of very hard granodiorite with a seismic wave velocity of about 6.0 km/sec and a uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and Young`s modulus of 300 MPa, 12 MPa, and 73 GPa, respectively. The blasting design was for a test tunnel excavation of 8 m{sup 2} in cross section, with an advance per round of 2.5 m. Five rounds were performed, each with a large-hole cut and perimeter holes in a 0.4-m spacing charged with 20-mm-diameter water gel explosive to obtain low charge concentration. EDs were used in the holes on the perimeter of the right half, and PDs were used in all other holes. Following each shot, the cross section was measured by laser to determine amount of overbreak and surface smoothness. In situ seismic prospecting was used to estimate the depth of damage in the remaining rock, and the damage was further investigated by boring into both side walls.

  13. Sympathetic innervation promotes vascular smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Damon, Deborah H

    2005-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an important modulator of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth and function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the SNS also promotes VSM differentiation. The present study tests this hypothesis. Expression of smooth muscle myosin (SM2) and alpha-actin were assessed by Western analysis as indexes of VSM differentiation. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in adult innervated rat femoral and tail arteries was 479 +/- 115% of that in noninnervated carotid arteries. Expression of alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH or total protein) in 30-day-innervated rat femoral arteries was greater than in corresponding noninnervated femoral arteries from guanethidine-sympathectomized rats. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in neonatal femoral arteries grown in vitro for 7 days in the presence of sympathetic ganglia was greater than SM2 expression in corresponding arteries grown in the absence of sympathetic ganglia. In VSM-endothelial cell cultures grown in the presence of dissociated sympathetic neurons, alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH) was 300 +/- 66% of that in corresponding cultures grown in the absence of neurons. This effect was inhibited by an antibody that neutralized the activity of transforming growth factor-beta2. All of these data indicate that sympathetic innervation increased VSM contractile protein expression and thereby suggest that the SNS promotes and/or maintains VSM differentiation.

  14. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions

  15. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X. X.; Paterson, Ross W.; Slattery, Catherine F.; Ryan, Natalie S.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal ‘visual dementia’ and most common atypical Alzheimer’s disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients’ (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer’s disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer’s disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with ‘sticky fixation’. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer’s disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large

  16. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identified an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1990. The report discusses five abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Two involved significant overexposures to the hands of two radiographers, two involved medical therapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence. 8 refs.

  17. MRI Helps Assess Fetal Brain Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about their pregnancy," said lead author Paul Griffiths. He's a professor of radiology at the University ... the fetus may have a suspected brain abnormality," Griffiths said in a journal news release. In this ...

  18. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interest (Quiz) Breast Cancer (Video) Overview of the Female Reproductive System (News) Study: Plenty of IV Fluids May Make Childbirth Safer, Easier (News) Zejula Approved for Certain Female Cancers Additional Content Medical News Abnormal Position and ...

  19. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  20. Medial medullary infarction: abnormal ocular motor findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Soo; Choi, K-D; Oh, S-Y; Park, S-H; Han, M-K; Yoon, B-W; Roh, J-K

    2005-10-25

    In 20 consecutive patients with isolated medial medullary infarction, abnormal ocular motor findings included nystagmus (n = 8), ocular contrapulsion (n = 5), and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (n = 2). The nystagmus was ipsilesional (n = 4), gaze-evoked (n = 5), upbeating (n = 4), and hemiseesaw (n = 1). The ocular motor abnormalities may be explained by involvements of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial longitudinal fasciculus or efferent fibers from the vestibular nuclei, climbing fibers, and cells of the paramedian tracts.

  1. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  2. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-05-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin.

  3. Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Maytal, J; Libman, R B; Lustrin, E S

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema.

  4. Targeted STIM deletion impairs calcium homeostasis, NFAT activation, and growth of smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mancarella, Salvatore; Potireddy, Santhi; Wang, Youjun; Gao, Hui; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Autieri, Michael; Scalia, Rosario; Cheng, Zhongjian; Wang, Hong; Madesh, Muniswamy; Houser, Steven R.; Gill, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ca2+-sensing stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins are crucial Ca2+ signal coordinators. Cre-lox technology was used to generate smooth muscle (sm)-targeted STIM1-, STIM2-, and double STIM1/STIM2-knockout (KO) mouse models, which reveal the essential role of STIM proteins in Ca2+ homeostasis and their crucial role in controlling function, growth, and development of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Compared to Cre+/− littermates, sm-STIM1-KO mice showed high mortality (50% by 30 d) and reduced bodyweight. While sm-STIM2-KO was without detectable phenotype, the STIM1/STIM double-KO was perinatally lethal, revealing an essential role of STIM1 partially rescued by STIM2. Vascular and intestinal smooth muscle tissues from sm-STIM1-KO mice developed abnormally with distended, thinned morphology. While depolarization-induced aortic contraction was unchanged in sm-STIM1-KO mice, α1-adrenergic-mediated contraction was 26% reduced, and store-dependent contraction almost eliminated. Neointimal formation induced by carotid artery ligation was suppressed by 54%, and in vitro PDGF-induced proliferation was greatly reduced (79%) in sm-STIM1-KO. Notably, the Ca2+ store-refilling rate in STIM1-KO SMCs was substantially reduced, and sustained PDGF-induced Ca2+ entry was abolished. This defective Ca2+ homeostasis prevents PDGF-induced NFAT activation in both contractile and proliferating SMCs. We conclude that STIM1-regulated Ca2+ homeostasis is crucial for NFAT-mediated transcriptional control required for induction of SMC proliferation, development, and growth responses to injury.—Mancarella, S., Potireddy, S., Wang, Y., Gao, H., Gandhirajan, K., Autieri, M., Scalia, R., Cheng, Z., Wang, H., Madesh, M., Houser, S. R., Gill, D. L. Targeted STIM deletion impairs calcium homeostasis, NFAT activation, and growth of smooth muscle. PMID:23159931

  5. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  6. Computational brittle fracture using smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.; Schwalbe, L.A.

    1996-10-01

    We are developing statistically based, brittle-fracture models and are implementing them into hydrocodes that can be used for designing systems with components of ceramics, glass, and/or other brittle materials. Because of the advantages it has simulating fracture, we are working primarily with the smooth particle hydrodynamics code SPBM. We describe a new brittle fracture model that we have implemented into SPBM. To illustrate the code`s current capability, we have simulated a number of experiments. We discuss three of these simulations in this paper. The first experiment consists of a brittle steel sphere impacting a plate. The experimental sphere fragment patterns are compared to the calculations. The second experiment is a steel flyer plate in which the recovered steel target crack patterns are compared to the calculated crack patterns. We also briefly describe a simulation of a tungsten rod impacting a heavily confined alumina target, which has been recently reported on in detail.

  7. Cobalt contraction of vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Dominiczak, A.; Clyde, E.; Bohr, D. )

    1991-03-11

    Although it has been reported that cobalt causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism responsible for this contraction has not been defined. The authors studied these contractions in rat aortic rings. Concentration-response studies indicated that the threshold for contraction was 10{sup {minus}8}M, maximum contraction occurred at 3 {times} 10{sup 7}M and relaxation began at 10{sup {minus}6}M. No contraction occurred in a calcium-free physiological salt solution and the contraction was not inhibited by H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. The authors conclude the cobalt in low concentrations causes contraction by activating calcium channels and that in high concentrations it causes relaxation by inactivating these same channels.

  8. How a Nanodroplet Diffuses on Smooth Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chu; Huang, Jizu; Li, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigate how nanodroplets diffuse on smooth surfaces through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and theoretical analyses. The simulations results show that the surface diffusion of nanodroplet is different from that of single molecules and solid nanoparticles. The dependence of nanodroplet diffusion coefficient on temperature is surface wettability dependent, which undergoes a transition from linear to nonlinear as the surface wettability is weakened due to the coupling of temperature and surface energy. We also develop a simple relation for the diffusion coefficient by using the contact angle and contact radius of the droplet. It works well for different surface wettabilities and sized nanodroplets, as confirmed by MD simulations. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under Grant No. 615312.

  9. An analysis of smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, J.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Mello, F.J.; Hicks, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) is a gridless Lagrangian technique which is appealing as a possible alternative to numerical techniques currently used to analyze high deformation impulsive loading events. In the present study, the SPH algorithm has been subjected to detailed testing and analysis to determine its applicability in the field of solid dynamics. An important result of the work is a rigorous von Neumann stability analysis which provides a simple criterion for the stability or instability of the method in terms of the stress state and the second derivative of the kernel function. Instability, which typically occurs only for solids in tension, results not from the numerical time integration algorithm, but because the SPH algorithm creates an effective stress with a negative modulus. The analysis provides insight into possible methods for removing the instability. Also, SPH has been coupled into the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO, and a weighted residual derivation of the SPH equations has been obtained.

  10. Subjective scaling of smooth surface friction.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Scott, S H

    1996-05-01

    1. Six men and four women, 30-51 yr of age, were asked to use the tip of the washed and dried index finger to stroke six different featureless, flat surfaces mounted on a three-dimensional force platform. The six surfaces were rosin-coated glass, glass, satin-finished aluminum, poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, Teflon, and nyloprint (polyamide plastic). The subjects were requested to indicate where the sensation produced by each surface should be placed on an unidimensional scale represented by an 18cm line labeled at one end by the words "most slippery" and at the other end by the words "most sticky." The coefficients of friction for each surface and for each subject were subsequently assessed by asking each subject to stroke the surfaces as if they were assessing its slipperiness for 5 s. 2. The finger forces normal and tangential to the stroked surfaces were digitized at 250 Hz and stored on a laboratory computer. The ratio of the mean tangential force to the mean perpendicular force during stroking was used to calculate the mean coefficient of kinetic friction. The mean friction for all subjects ranged from 0.43 for the nyloprint surface to 2.79 for the rosin-coated glass. Correlation coefficients calculated between the subjective estimates of friction and the measured coefficients of friction for each subject individually resulted in a mean correlation of 0.85 (n = 10, P < 0.001). 3. These data indicate that subjects can accurately scale relative differences in the friction of macroscopically smooth, flat surfaces, by modulating the tangential force applied to the finger while keeping the normal force relatively constant. The fact that subjects maintained a relatively constant normal force and instead varied the tangential force across different surfaces suggests that receptors sensitive to these tangential forces are important in the perception of smooth surface friction.

  11. Binocular Depth Judgments on Smoothly Curved Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hornsey, Rebecca L.; Scarfe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Binocular disparity is an important cue to depth, allowing us to make very fine discriminations of the relative depth of objects. In complex scenes, this sensitivity depends on the particular shape and layout of the objects viewed. For example, judgments of the relative depths of points on a smoothly curved surface are less accurate than those for points in empty space. It has been argued that this occurs because depth relationships are represented accurately only within a local spatial area. A consequence of this is that, when judging the relative depths of points separated by depth maxima and minima, information must be integrated across separate local representations. This integration, by adding more stages of processing, might be expected to reduce the accuracy of depth judgements. We tested this idea directly by measuring how accurately human participants could report the relative depths of two dots, presented with different binocular disparities. In the first, Two Dot condition the two dots were presented in front of a square grid. In the second, Three Dot condition, an additional dot was presented midway between the target dots, at a range of depths, both nearer and further than the target dots. In the final, Surface condition, the target dots were placed on a smooth surface defined by binocular disparity cues. In some trials, this contained a depth maximum or minimum between the target dots. In the Three Dot condition, performance was impaired when the central dot was presented with a large disparity, in line with predictions. In the Surface condition, performance was worst when the midpoint of the surface was at a similar distance to the targets, and relatively unaffected when there was a large depth maximum or minimum present. These results are not consistent with the idea that depth order is represented only within a local spatial area. PMID:27824895

  12. Smooth Pursuit of Flicker-Defined Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stevenson, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the pursuit response to stimuli defined by space-variant flicker of a dense random dot carrier pattern. On each frame, every element of the pattern could change polarity, with a probability given by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. A normal distribution produces a circular region of twinkle, while inverting the distribution results in a spot of static texture in a twinkling surround. In this latter case, the carrier texture could be stationary, or could move with the twinkle modulator, thereby producing first-order motion in the region of the spot. While the twinkle-defined spot produces a strong sensation of motion, the complementary stimulus defined by the absence of twinkle does not, when viewed peripherally, it appears to move in steps even when the generating distribution moves smoothly. We examined pursuit responses to these stimuli using two techniques: 1) the eye movement correlogram, obtained by cross-correlating eye velocity with the velocity of a randomly-moving stimulus; and 2) delayed visual feedback, where transient stabilization of a target can produce spontaneous oscillations of the eye, with a period empirically observed to vary linearly with the applied delay. Both techniques provide an estimate of the internal processing time, which can be as short as 100 milliseconds for a first-order target. Assessed by the correlogram method, the response to flicker-defined motion is delayed by more than 100 milliseconds, and significantly weaker (especially in the vertical dimension). When initially presented in the delayed feedback condition, purely saccadic oscillation is observed. One subject eventually developed smooth oscillations (albeit with significant saccadic intrusions), showing a period-versus-delay slope similar to that observed for first-order targets. This result is somewhat surprising, given that we interpret the slope of the period-versus-delay-function as reflecting the balance between position- and velocity

  13. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  14. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; ...

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  15. Diffusion tensor smoothing through weighted Karcher means

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Owen; Chen, Jun; Paul, Debashis; Peng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantifies the spatial distribution of water Diffusion at each voxel on a regular grid of locations in a biological specimen by Diffusion tensors– 3 × 3 positive definite matrices. Removal of noise from DTI is an important problem due to the high scientific relevance of DTI and relatively low signal to noise ratio it provides. Leading approaches to this problem amount to estimation of weighted Karcher means of Diffusion tensors within spatial neighborhoods, under various metrics imposed on the space of tensors. However, it is unclear how the behavior of these estimators varies with the magnitude of DTI sensor noise (the noise resulting from the thermal e!ects of MRI scanning) as well as the geometric structure of the underlying Diffusion tensor neighborhoods. In this paper, we combine theoretical analysis, empirical analysis of simulated DTI data, and empirical analysis of real DTI scans to compare the noise removal performance of three kernel-based DTI smoothers that are based on Euclidean, log-Euclidean, and affine-invariant metrics. The results suggest, contrary to conventional wisdom, that imposing a simplistic Euclidean metric may in fact provide comparable or superior noise removal, especially in relatively unstructured regions and/or in the presence of moderate to high levels of sensor noise. On the contrary, log-Euclidean and affine-invariant metrics may lead to better noise removal in highly structured anatomical regions, especially when the sensor noise is of low magnitude. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the interplay of sensor noise magnitude and tensor field geometric structure when assessing Diffusion tensor smoothing options. They also point to the necessity for continued development of smoothing methods that perform well across a large range of scenarios. PMID:25419264

  16. Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua; Elder, Christopher P.; Towse, Theodore F.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and Methods 3T DW-MRI data were used for muscle fiber tractography in the MG of healthy subjects. Anisotropic smoothing was applied at three levels (5%, 10%, 15%), and pennation angle, tract length, fiber tract number, fractional anisotropy, and principal eigenvector orientation were quantified for each smoothing level. Results Fiber tract length increased with pre-fiber tracking smoothing, and local heterogeneities in fiber direction were reduced. However, pennation angle was not affected by smoothing. Conclusion Modest anisotropic smoothing (10%) improved fiber-tracking results, while preserving structural features. PMID:26010830

  17. Image segmentation on adaptive edge-preserving smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Xiuqing

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, typical active contour models are widely applied in image segmentation. However, they perform badly on real images with inhomogeneous subregions. In order to overcome the drawback, this paper proposes an edge-preserving smoothing image segmentation algorithm. At first, this paper analyzes the edge-preserving smoothing conditions for image segmentation and constructs an edge-preserving smoothing model inspired by total variation. The proposed model has the ability to smooth inhomogeneous subregions and preserve edges. Then, a kind of clustering algorithm, which reasonably trades off edge-preserving and subregion-smoothing according to the local information, is employed to learn the edge-preserving parameter adaptively. At last, according to the confidence level of segmentation subregions, this paper constructs a smoothing convergence condition to avoid oversmoothing. Experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in precision, recall, and F-measure compared with other segmentation algorithms, and it is insensitive to noise and inhomogeneous-regions.

  18. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  19. Modulation of the Cholinergic Mechanisms in the Bronchial Smooth Muscle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    STANDARDS 16r A CD in UMODULATION OF THE CHOLINERGICMECHANISMS IN THE BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN FOR THE DOCTOR...MECHANISMS IN THE BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN FOR THE DOCTOR SCIENTIARUM DEGREE by Pi1 An E% LECTE3 NORE/PUBL-84...DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 118 FFITOX/465/001 4) TITLE MODULATION OF THE CHOLINERGIC MECHANISMS IN THE BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE (A thesis submitted to

  20. I-spline Smoothing for Calibrating Predictive Models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Jihoon; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    We proposed the I-spline Smoothing approach for calibrating predictive models by solving a nonlinear monotone regression problem. We took advantage of I-spline properties to obtain globally optimal solutions while keeping the computational cost low. Numerical studies based on three data sets showed the empirical evidences of I-spline Smoothing in improving calibration (i.e.,1.6x, 1.4x, and 1.4x on the three datasets compared to the average of competitors-Binning, Platt Scaling, Isotonic Regression, Monotone Spline Smoothing, Smooth Isotonic Regression) without deterioration of discrimination.

  1. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH...

  2. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant...

  3. The Existence of Smooth Densities for the Prediction, Filtering and Smoothing Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-20

    identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Prediction, filtering, smoothing, stochastic control,I adjoint process, minimum principle, minimum risk ...minimize expected risk . Using integration by parts reverse time representations of Jump processes are obtained. These results have applications in, for...optimal control. Martingale representation results to minimize expected risk are described in [14] and [26]. Full details of results obtained during

  4. Smooth Muscle Titin Zq Domain Interaction with the Smooth Muscle α-Actinin Central Rod*

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Richard J.; Simon, Alanna R.; Bienkiewicz, Ewa A.; Felix, Augustine; Keller, Thomas C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Actin-myosin II filament-based contractile structures in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells contain the actin filament-cross-linking protein α-actinin. In striated muscle Z-disks, α-actinin interacts with N-terminal domains of titin to provide a structural linkage crucial for the integrity of the sarcomere. We previously discovered a long titin isoform, originally smitin, hereafter sm-titin, in smooth muscle and demonstrated that native sm-titin interacts with C-terminal EF hand region and central rod R2-R3 spectrin-like repeat region sites in α-actinin. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA from human adult smooth muscles and cultured rat smooth muscle cells and Western blot analysis with a domain-specific antibody presented here revealed that sm-titin contains the titin gene-encoded Zq domain that may bind to the α-actinin R2-R3 central rod domain as well as Z-repeat domains that bind to the EF hand region. We investigated whether the sm-titin Zq domain binds to α-actinin R2 and R3 spectrin repeat-like domain loops that lie in proximity with two-fold symmetry on the surface of the central rod. Mutations in α-actinin R2 and R3 domain loop residues decreased interaction with expressed sm-titin Zq domain in glutathione S-transferase pull-down and solid phase binding assays. Alanine mutation of a region of the Zq domain with high propensity for α-helix formation decreased apparent Zq domain dimer formation and decreased Zq interaction with the α-actinin R2-R3 region in surface plasmon resonance assays. We present a model in which two sm-titin Zq domains interact with each other and with the two R2-R3 sites in the α-actinin central rod. PMID:18519573

  5. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  6. Comparison of smoothing methods for the development of a smoothed seismicity model for Alaska and the implications for seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mueller, Charles S.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood

  7. Loss of LMOD1 impairs smooth muscle cytocontractility and causes megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Danny; Wilson, Michael P.; Oliver, Daniel; Brosens, Erwin; Verheij, Joke B. G. M.; Han, Yu; Nanda, Vivek; Lyu, Qing; Doukas, Michael; Stoop, Hans; Brouwer, Rutger W. W.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Slivano, Orazio J.; Burns, Alan J.; Christie, Christine K.; de Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; Brooks, Alice S.; Tibboel, Dick; Xu, Suowen; Jin, Zheng Gen; Djuwantono, Tono; Yan, Wei; Alves, Maria M.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Miano, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital visceral myopathy characterized by severe dilation of the urinary bladder and defective intestinal motility. The genetic basis of MMIHS has been ascribed to spontaneous and autosomal dominant mutations in actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a smooth muscle contractile gene. However, evidence suggesting a recessive origin of the disease also exists. Using combined homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing, a genetically isolated family was found to carry a premature termination codon in Leiomodin1 (LMOD1), a gene preferentially expressed in vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells. Parents heterozygous for the mutation exhibited no abnormalities, but a child homozygous for the premature termination codon displayed symptoms consistent with MMIHS. We used CRISPR-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein) genome editing of Lmod1 to generate a similar premature termination codon. Mice homozygous for the mutation showed loss of LMOD1 protein and pathology consistent with MMIHS, including late gestation expansion of the bladder, hydronephrosis, and rapid demise after parturition. Loss of LMOD1 resulted in a reduction of filamentous actin, elongated cytoskeletal dense bodies, and impaired intestinal smooth muscle contractility. These results define LMOD1 as a disease gene for MMIHS and suggest its role in establishing normal smooth muscle cytoskeletal–contractile coupling. PMID:28292896

  8. Loss of LMOD1 impairs smooth muscle cytocontractility and causes megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Halim, Danny; Wilson, Michael P; Oliver, Daniel; Brosens, Erwin; Verheij, Joke B G M; Han, Yu; Nanda, Vivek; Lyu, Qing; Doukas, Michael; Stoop, Hans; Brouwer, Rutger W W; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Slivano, Orazio J; Burns, Alan J; Christie, Christine K; de Mesy Bentley, Karen L; Brooks, Alice S; Tibboel, Dick; Xu, Suowen; Jin, Zheng Gen; Djuwantono, Tono; Yan, Wei; Alves, Maria M; Hofstra, Robert M W; Miano, Joseph M

    2017-03-28

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital visceral myopathy characterized by severe dilation of the urinary bladder and defective intestinal motility. The genetic basis of MMIHS has been ascribed to spontaneous and autosomal dominant mutations in actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a smooth muscle contractile gene. However, evidence suggesting a recessive origin of the disease also exists. Using combined homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing, a genetically isolated family was found to carry a premature termination codon in Leiomodin1 (LMOD1), a gene preferentially expressed in vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells. Parents heterozygous for the mutation exhibited no abnormalities, but a child homozygous for the premature termination codon displayed symptoms consistent with MMIHS. We used CRISPR-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein) genome editing of Lmod1 to generate a similar premature termination codon. Mice homozygous for the mutation showed loss of LMOD1 protein and pathology consistent with MMIHS, including late gestation expansion of the bladder, hydronephrosis, and rapid demise after parturition. Loss of LMOD1 resulted in a reduction of filamentous actin, elongated cytoskeletal dense bodies, and impaired intestinal smooth muscle contractility. These results define LMOD1 as a disease gene for MMIHS and suggest its role in establishing normal smooth muscle cytoskeletal-contractile coupling.

  9. XYY chromosome abnormality in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2006-03-05

    In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.

  10. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  11. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  12. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  13. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  14. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  15. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  16. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  17. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  18. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion.

  19. Chromosome abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Less information is available on the cytogenetic abnormalities in marrow cells of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) than on abnormalities in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL); nonetheless, some patterns of karyotypic change in ALL are evident. Even with banding, about 50% of patients appear to have a normal karyotype. The modal chromosome number tends to be higher in ALL than in ANLL. Every patient with B-cell ALL has had an abnormality of one chromosome No. 14 that involved the translocation of material to the end of the long arm. Among seven reported cases, the translocation was from 8q in three patients and 11q in one. Cells with a haploid or near-haploid (24 to 35) chromosome number have been reported in five patients with ALL and in four patients in a lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myelogeneous leukemia. The karyotype in the four ALL patients whose cells were analyzed with banding was remarkably consistent. All patients had the haploid number, usually with both sex chromosomes, plus an additional No. 10, 18, and 21. Evolution of the karyotype, which occurs in the leukemic cells of about 50% of patients, involves cells of patients who had an initially normal or an initially abnormal karyotype. The evidence regarding a correlation between the presence of an abnormal clone prior to treatment and response to treatment is contradictory at present. Some chromosome abnormalities, such as the presence of a Philadelphia (Ph/sup 1/) chromosome, a 14q+chromosome, or a haploid clone, are associated with a relatively short survival.

  20. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  1. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  2. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  3. Roentgenographic abnormalities in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    McCook, T A; Briley, C; Ravin, C E

    1982-02-01

    Rock Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease which produces a widespread vasculitis. A mortality of 7% to 13% has been reported in the United States which is due at least in part to delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The classic features of this disease include a history of tick bite with the clinical presentation of skin rash and fever in association with thrombocytopenia. Few reports have emphasized the radiologic chest abnormalities in this disease or their relationship to thrombocytopenia. We review 70 cases of RMSF with abnormal roentgenographic features and their pathologic correlation.

  4. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  5. Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.

    2014-02-14

    Smooth, commensurate alloys of 〈111〉-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.

  6. Neuroeffector apparatus in gastrointestinal smooth muscle organs.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Hwang, Sung Jin; Ward, Sean M

    2010-12-01

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) movements by enteric motoneurons is critical for orderly processing of food, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes. Work over the past several years has suggested that motor neurotransmission is more complicated than simple release of transmitter from nerve terminals and binding of receptors on smooth muscle cells. In fact the 'neuro-effector' junction in the tunica muscularis might consist of synaptic-like connectivity with specialized cells, and contributions from multiple cell types in integrated post-junctional responses. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were proposed as potential mediators in motor neurotransmission based on reduced post-junctional responses observed in W mutants that have reduced populations of ICC. More recent studies on W mutants have contradicted the original findings, and suggested that ICC may not be significant players in motor neurotransmission. This review examines the evidence for and against the role of ICC in motor neurotransmission and outlines areas for additional investigation that would help further resolve this controversy.

  7. Cl− channels in smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Bulley, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In smooth muscle cells (SMCs), the intracellular chloride ion (Cl−) concentration is high due to accumulation by Cl−/HCO3− exchange and Na+, K+, Cl− cotransportation. The equilibrium potential for Cl− (ECl) is more positive than physiological membrane potentials (Em), with Cl− efflux inducing membrane depolarization. Early studies used electrophysiology and non-specific antagonists to study the physiological relevance of Cl− channels in SMCs. More recent reports have incorporated molecular biological approaches to identify and determine the functional significance of several different Cl− channels. Both “classic” and cGMP-dependent calcium (Ca2+)-activated (ClCa) channels and volume-sensitive Cl− channels are present, with TMEM16A/ANO1, bestrophins and ClC-3, respectively, proposed as molecular candidates for these channels. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has also been described in SMCs. This review will focus on discussing recent progress made in identifying each of these Cl− channels in SMCs, their physiological functions, and contribution to diseases that modify contraction, apoptosis and cell proliferation. PMID:24077695

  8. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics approach for poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorno, Maria; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the SHynergie project we look to investigate hydraulic fracturing and crack evolving in poroelastic media. We model biphasic media assuming incompressible solid grain and incompressible pore liquid. Modeling evolving fractures and fracture networks in elastic and poroelastic media by mesh-based numerical approaches, like X-FEM, is especially in 3-dim a challenging task. Therefore, we propose a meshless particle method for fractured media based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach. SPH is a meshless Lagrangian method highly suitable for the simulation of large deformations including free surfaces and/or interfaces. Within the SPH method, the computational domain is discretized with particles, avoiding the computational expenses of meshing. Our SPH solution is implemented in a parallel computational framework, which allows to simulate large domains more representative of the scale of our study cases. Our implementation is carefully validated against classical mesh-based approaches and compared with classical solutions for consolidation problems. Furthermore, we discuss fracture initiation and propagation in poroelastic rocks at the reservoir scale.

  9. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Charles E.

    2000-05-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  10. Programming smooth muscle plasticity with chromatin dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Oliver G; Owens, Gary K

    2007-05-25

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) possess remarkable phenotypic plasticity that allows rapid adaptation to fluctuating environmental cues. For example, vascular SMCs undergo profound changes in their phenotype during neointimal formation in response to vessel injury or within atherosclerotic plaques. Recent studies have shown that interaction of serum response factor (SRF) and its numerous accessory cofactors with CArG box DNA sequences within promoter chromatin of SMC genes is a nexus for integrating signals that influence SMC differentiation in development and disease. During development, SMC-restricted sets of posttranslational histone modifications are acquired within the CArG box chromatin of SMC genes. These modifications in turn control the chromatin-binding properties of SRF. The histone modifications appear to encode a SMC-specific epigenetic program that is used by extracellular cues to influence SMC differentiation, by regulating binding of SRF and its partners to the chromatin template. Thus, SMC differentiation is dynamically regulated by the interplay between SRF accessory cofactors, the SRF-CArG interaction, and the underlying histone modification program. As such, the inherent plasticity of the SMC lineage offers unique glimpses into how cellular differentiation is dynamically controlled at the level of chromatin within the context of changing microenvironments. Further elucidation of how chromatin regulates SMC differentiation will undoubtedly yield valuable insights into both normal developmental processes and the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases that display detrimental SMC phenotypic behavior.

  11. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  12. Immortalization of primary human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Reyes, N; Halbert, C L; Smith, P P; Benditt, E P; McDougall, J K

    1992-01-01

    Primary human aortic and myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were immortalized using an amphotropic recombinant retroviral construct containing the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs) of human papillomavirus type 16. The SMCs expressing the E6/E7 ORFs have considerably elevated growth rates when compared with nonimmortalized control cells and show no signs of senescence with long-term passage. The first SMC line derived in this study has been maintained in continuous tissue culture for greater than 1 year (greater than 180 population doublings). The immortalized SMCs have decreased cell size and decreased content of muscle-specific alpha-actin filaments as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Southern blot analysis has demonstrated the stable integration of the E6/E7 ORFs in the retrovirally infected cells, and radioimmunoprecipitation has confirmed the continued expression of the E6 and E7 genes. Cytogenetic studies of the SMC lines have revealed essentially diploid populations except for the myometrial clonal line, which became aneuploid at late passage (greater than 125 doublings). These cell lines were not tumorigenic in nude mice. Images PMID:1311088

  13. Drop splash on a smooth, dry surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Korobkin, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    It is our purpose here to determine the conditions under which a drop of a given liquid with a known radius R impacting against a smooth impermeable surface at a velocity V, will either spread axisymmetrically onto the substrate or will create a splash, giving rise to usually undesired star-shaped patterns. In our experimental setup, drops are generated injecting low viscosity liquids falling under the action of gravity from a stainless steel hypodermic needle. The experimental observations using two high speed cameras operating simultaneously and placed perpendicularly to each other reveal that, initially, the drop deforms axisymmetrically, with A (T) the radius of the wetted area. For high enough values of the drop impact velocity, a thin sheet of liquid starts to be ejected from A (T) at a velocity Vjet > V for instants of time such that T >=Tc . If Vjet is above a certain threshold, which depends on the solid wetting properties as well as on the material properties of both the liquid and the atmospheric gas, the rim of the lamella dewets the solid to finally break into drops. Using Wagner's theory we demonstrate that A (T) =√{ 3 RVT } and our results also reveal that Tc We - 1 / 2 =(ρV2 R / σ) - 1 / 2 and Vjet We 1 / 4 .

  14. Hidden Degeneracies in Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Mike R.

    When a flow suffers a discontinuity in its vector field at some switching surface, the flow can cross through or slide along the surface. Sliding along the switching surface can be understood as the flow along an invariant manifold inside a switching layer. It turns out that the usual method for finding sliding modes — the Filippov convex combination or Utkin equivalent control — results in a degeneracy in the switching layer whenever the flow is tangent to the switching surface from both sides. We derive the general result and analyze the simplest case here, where the flow curves parabolically on either side of the switching surface (the so-called fold-fold or two-fold singularities). The result is a set of zeros of the fast switching flow inside the layer, which is structurally unstable to perturbation by terms nonlinear in the switching parameter, terms such as (signx)2 [where the superscript does mean “squared”]. We provide structurally stable forms, and show that in this form the layer system is equivalent to a generic singularity of a two timescale system. Finally we show that the same degeneracy arises when a discontinuity is smoothed using standard regularization methods.

  15. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit: Lesion Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth…

  16. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Function by Interstitial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Kito, Yoshihiko; Hwang, Sung Jin; Ward, Sean M

    2016-09-01

    Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin form gap junctions with smooth muscle cells in visceral smooth muscles and provide important regulatory functions. In gastrointestinal (GI) muscles, there are two distinct classes of interstitial cells, c-Kit(+) interstitial cells of Cajal and PDGFRα(+) cells, that regulate motility patterns. Loss of these cells may contribute to symptoms in GI motility disorders.

  17. Cognitive Processes Involved in Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, G. R.

    2008-01-01

    Ocular pursuit movements allow moving objects to be tracked with a combination of smooth movements and saccades. The principal objective is to maintain smooth eye velocity close to object velocity, thus minimising retinal image motion and maintaining acuity. Saccadic movements serve to realign the image if it falls outside the fovea, the area of…

  18. Regeneration and Maintenance of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthers, Christopher M.

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical engineering that involves growing artificial organs to replace those lost to disease or injury. Within tissue engineering, there is a demand for artificial smooth muscle to repair tissues of the digestive tract, bladder, and vascular systems. Attempts to develop engineered smooth muscle tissues capable of contracting with sufficient strength to be clinically relevant have so far proven unsatisfactory. The goal of this research was to develop and sustain mature, contractile smooth muscle. Survival of implanted SMCs is critical to sustain the benefits of engineered smooth muscle. Survival of implanted smooth muscle cells was studied with layered, electrospun polycaprolactone implants with lasercut holes ranging from 0--25% porosity. It was found that greater angiogenesis was associated with increased survival of implanted cells, with a large increase at a threshold between 20% and 25% porosity. Heparan sulfate coatings improved the speed of blood vessel infiltration after 14 days of implantation. With these considerations, thicker engineered tissues may be possible. An improved smooth muscle tissue culture technique was utilized. Contracting smooth muscle was produced in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle tissue organization, specifically by sustaining intact smooth muscle strips rather than dissociating tissue in to isolated smooth muscle cells. Isolated cells showed a decrease in maturity and contained fewer enteric neural and glial cells. Muscle strips also exhibited periodic contraction and regular fluctuation of intracellular calclium. The muscle strip maturity persisted after implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds. A low-cost, disposable bioreactor was developed to further improve maturity of cultured smooth muscle cells in an environment of controlled cyclical stress.The bioreactor consistently applied repeated mechanical strain with controllable inputs for strain

  19. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L

    1998-04-01

    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  20. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  1. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  2. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  3. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  4. Abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Delicata, M; Hambley, H

    2011-08-01

    Malignancy often results in clotting abnormalities. The aetiology of haemostasis problems in cancer is complex, and is still not completely understood. We describe a case of a patient with malignant mesothelioma, who was found to have elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, due to lupus anticoagulant. We suggest that patients with malignancy should have their coagulation checked prior to any invasive procedures.

  5. First-Trimester Detection of Surface Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rousian, Melek; Koning, Anton H. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Cornette, Jérôme M. J.; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Teunissen, Katinka K.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Exalto, Niek

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D_VR_US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D_US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22 normal, 26 abnormal) were evaluated offline using both techniques by 5 experienced, blinded sonographers. In each case, we analyzed whether each organ category was correctly indicated as normal or abnormal and whether the specific diagnosis was correctly made. Sensitivity in terms of normal or abnormal was comparable for both techniques (P = .24). The general sensitivity for specific diagnoses was 62.6% using 3D_VR_US and 52.2% using 2D/3D_US (P = .075). The 3D_VR_US more often correctly diagnosed skeleton/limb malformations (36.7% vs 10%; P = .013). Mean evaluation time in 3D_VR_US was 4:24 minutes and in 2D/3D_US 2:53 minutes (P < .001). General diagnostic performance of 3D_VR_US and 2D/3D_US apparently is comparable. Malformations of skeleton and limbs are more often detected using 3D_VR_US. Evaluation time is longer in 3D_VR_US. PMID:24440996

  6. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  7. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  8. Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.

    PubMed

    Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2011-05-14

    Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.

  9. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  10. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  11. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness.

  12. Meiotic chromosome abnormalities in human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Renée H

    2006-08-01

    The last few years have witnessed an explosion in the information about chromosome abnormalities in human sperm and the meiotic events that predispose to these abnormalities. We have determined that all chromosomes are susceptible to nondisjunction, but chromosomes 21 and 22 and, especially, the sex chromosomes have an increased frequency of aneuploidy. Studies are just beginning on the effects of potential mutagens on the chromosomal constitution of human sperm. The effects of pesticides and cancer therapeutic agents have been reviewed. In the last decade, there has been a great impetus to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm from infertile men because the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) made it possible for these men to father pregnancies. A large number of studies have demonstrated that infertile men have an increased frequency of chromosomally abnormal sperm and children, even when they have a normal somatic karyotype. Meiotic studies on the pachytene stage of spermatogenesis have demonstrated that infertile men have impaired chromosome synapsis, a significantly decreased frequency of recombination, and an increased frequency of chromosomes completely lacking a recombination site. Such errors make these cells susceptible to meiotic arrest and the production of aneuploid gametes.

  13. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  14. [Y chromosome structural abnormalities and Turner's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ravel, C; Siffroi, J-P

    2009-06-01

    Although specifically male, the human Y chromosome may be observed in female karyotypes, mostly in women with Turner syndrome stigmata. In women with isolated gonadal dysgenesis but otherwise normal stature, the testis determining factor or SRY gene may have been removed from the Y chromosome or may be mutated. In other women with Turner syndrome, the karyotype is usually abnormal and shows a frequent 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. In these cases, the phenotype depends on the ratio between Y positive and 45,X cell lines in the body. When in mosaicism, Y chromosomes are likely to carry structural abnormalities which explain mitotic instability, such as the existence of two centromeres. Dicentric Y isochromosomes for the short arm (idic[Yp]) or ring Y chromosomes (r[Y]) are the most frequent abnormal Y chromosomes found in infertile patients and in Turner syndrome in mosaic with 45,X cells. Although monocentric, deleted Y chromosomes for the long arm and those carrying microdeletions in the AZF region are also instable and are frequently associated with a 45,X cell line. Management of infertile patients carrying such abnormal Y chromosomes must take into account the risk and the consequences of a mosaicism in the offspring.

  15. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-06

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  16. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  17. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  18. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Tikka, Saara

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  19. Anoctamins and gastrointestinal smooth muscle excitability.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Zhu, Mei Hong; Britton, Fiona; Koh, Sang Don; Ward, Sean M

    2012-02-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) generate electrical pacemaker activity in gastrointestinal smooth muscles. We investigated whether Tmem16a, which encodes anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, might be involved in pacemaker activity in ICC. The Tmem16a transcripts and ANO1 were expressed robustly in GI muscles, specifically in ICC in murine, non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and human GI tracts. Splice variants of Tmem16a, as well as other paralogues of the Tmem16 family, were expressed in gastrointestinal muscles. Calcium-activated Cl(-) channel blocking drugs, niflumic acid and DIDS blocked slow waves in intact muscles of mouse, primate and human small intestine and stomach. Slow waves failed to develop in Tmem16a knock-out mice (Tmem16a(tm1Bdh/tm1Bdh)). The pacemaker mechanism was investigated in isolated ICC from transgenic mice with constitutive expression of copepod super green fluorescent protein (copGFP). Depolarization of ICC activated inward currents due to a Cl(-)-selective conductance. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+), replacement of Ca(2+) with Ba(2+), or extracellular Ni(2+) (30 μM) blocked the inward current. Single Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels with a unitary conductance of 7.8 pS were resolved in excised patches from ICC. The inward current was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by niflumic acid (IC(50) = 4.8 μM). The role of ANO1 in cholinergic responses in ICC was also investigated. Carbachol activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in ICC, and responses to cholinergic nerve stimulation were blocked by niflumic acid in intact muscles. Anoctamin 1 is a prominent conductance in ICC, and these channels appear to be involved in pacemaker activity and in responses to enteric excitatory neurotransmitters.

  20. Neptune's Orbital Migration Was Grainy, Not Smooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David

    2016-07-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a population of icy bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. The complex orbital structure of the Kuiper Belt, including several categories of objects inside and outside of resonances with Neptune, emerged as a result of Neptune’s migration into an outer planetesimal disk. An outstanding problem with the existing migration models is that they invariably predict excessively large resonant populations, while observations show that the non-resonant orbits are in fact common (e.g., the main belt population is ≃2-4 times larger than Plutinos in the 3:2 resonance). Here we show that this problem can be resolved if it is assumed that Neptune’s migration was grainy, as expected from scattering encounters of Neptune with massive planetesimals. The grainy migration acts to destabilize resonant bodies with large libration amplitudes, a fraction of which ends up on stable non-resonant orbits. Thus, the non-resonant-to-resonant ratio obtained with the grainy migration is higher, up to ˜10 times higher for the range of parameters investigated here, than in a model with smooth migration. In addition, the grainy migration leads to a narrower distribution of the libration amplitudes in the 3:2 resonance. The best fit to observations is obtained when it is assumed that the outer planetesimal disk below 30 au contained 1000-4000 Plutos. We estimate that the combined mass of Pluto-class objects in the original disk represented 10%-40% of the estimated disk mass ({M}{{disk}}≃ 20 {M}{{Earth}}). This constraint can be used to better understand the accretion processes in the outer solar system.

  1. Smoothing the crescent curve: sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Talano, Julie-An; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2014-12-05

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder secondary to a point mutation at the sixth position of the beta chain of human hemoglobin that results in the replacement of valine for glutamic acid. This recessive genetic abnormality precipitates the polymerization of the deoxygenated form of hemoglobin S that induces a major distortion of red blood cells (sickle red blood cells), which decreases sickle red blood cell deformability, leading to chronic hemolysis and vasoocclusion. These processes can result in severe complications, including chronic pain, end organ dysfunction, stroke, and early mortality. The only proven curative therapy for patients with SCD is myeloablative conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched sibling donors. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in allogeneic stem cell transplantation in SCD, including more novel approaches such as reduced toxicity conditioning and the use of alternative allogeneic donors (matched unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood transplantation, haploidentical donors) and autologous gene correction stem cell strategies. Prospects are bright for new stem cell approaches for patients with SCD that will enable curative stem and genetic correction therapies for a greater number of patients suffering from this chronic and debilitating condition.

  2. Coinfection with Helicobacter pylori and Opisthorchis viverrini Enhances the Severity of Hepatobiliary Abnormalities in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Dangtakot, Rungtiwa; Pinlaor, Somchai; Itthitaetrakool, Upsornsawan; Chaidee, Apisit; Chomvarin, Chariya; Sangka, Arunnee; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Pinlaor, Porntip

    2017-04-01

    Persistent infection with Opisthorchis viverrini causes hepatobiliary abnormalities, predisposing infected individuals to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). In addition, Helicobacter pylori is highly prevalent in most countries and is a possible risk factor for CCA; however, its role in enhancing hepatobiliary abnormality is unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of coinfection with H. pylori and O. viverrini on hepatobiliary abnormality. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (i) normal, (ii) H. pylori infected (HP), (iii) O. viverrini infected (OV), and (iv) O. viverrini and H. pylori infected (OV+HP). At 6 months postinfection, PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to test for the presence of H. pylori in the stomach, gallbladder, and liver. In the liver, H. pylori was detected in the following order: OV+HP, 5 of 8 (62.5%); HP, 2 of 5 (40%); OV, 2 of 8 (25%). H. pylori was not detected in normal (control) liver tissues. Coinfection induced the most severe hepatobiliary abnormalities, including periductal fibrosis, cholangitis, and bile duct hyperplasia, leading to a significantly decreased survival rate of experimental animals. The greatest thickness of periductal fibrosis was associated with a significant increase in fibrogenesis markers (expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor beta). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that the highest expression levels of genes for proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) were also observed in the OV+HP group. These results suggest that coinfection with H. pylori and O. viverrini increased the severity of hepatobiliary abnormalities to a greater extent than either single infection did.

  3. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Poyhonen, Minna; Tikka, Saara; Behbahani, Homira

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology.

  4. Co-cultivation of human aortic smooth muscle cells with epicardial adipocytes affects their proliferation rate.

    PubMed

    Ždychová, J; Čejková, S; Králová Lesná, I; Králová, A; Malušková, J; Janoušek, L; Kazdová, L

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Adipocytes produce several bioactive paracrine substances that can affect the growth and migration of VSMCs. Our study focuses on the direct effect of the bioactive substances in conditioned media (CM) that was obtained by incubation with primary adipocyte-derived cell lines, including cell lines derived from both preadipocytes and from more mature cells, on the proliferation rate of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). We used a Luminex assay to measure the adipokine content of the CM and showed that there was a higher concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in renal preadipocyte-CM compared with the HAoSMC control (p<0.5). The addition of both renal preadipocyte- and epicardial adipocyte- CM resulted in the elevated production of vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the control HASoSMC CM (p<0.001). The adiponectin content in renal adipocyte-CM was increased compared to all the remaining adipocyte-CM (p<0.01). Moreover, the results showed a higher proliferation rate of HAoSMCs after co-culture with epicardial adipocyte-CM compared to the HAoSMC control (p<0.05). These results suggest that bioactive substances produced by adipocytes have a stimulatory effect on the proliferation of VSMCs.

  5. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1.

    PubMed

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-09-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors.

  6. High pulsatility flow stimulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and contractile protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Devon; Tan, Yan; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    Proximal arterial stiffening is an important predictor of events in systemic and pulmonary hypertension, partly through its contribution to downstream vascular abnormalities. However, much remains undetermined regarding the mechanisms involved in the vascular changes induced by arterial stiffening. We therefore addressed the hypothesis that high pulsatility flow, caused by proximal arterial stiffening, induces downstream pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction that in turn leads to phenotypic change of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To test the hypothesis, we employed a model pulmonary circulation in which upstream compliance regulates the pulsatility of flow waves imposed onto a downstream vascular mimetic coculture composed of pulmonary ECs and SMCs. The effects of high pulsatility flow on SMCs were determined both in the presence and absence of ECs. In the presence of ECs, high pulsatility flow increased SMC size and expression of the contractile proteins, smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), without affecting proliferation. In the absence of ECs, high pulsatility flow decreased SMC expression of SMA and SM-MHC, without affecting SMC size or proliferation. To identify the molecular signals involved in the EC-mediated SMC responses, mRNA and/or protein expression of vasoconstrictors [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and endothelin (ET)-1], vasodilator (eNOS), and growth factor (TGF-β1) in EC were examined. Results showed high pulsatility flow decreased eNOS and increased ACE, ET-1, and TGF-β1 expression. ACE inhibition with ramiprilat, ET-1 receptor inhibition with bosentan, and treatment with the vasodilator bradykinin prevented flow-induced, EC-dependent SMC changes. In conclusion, high pulsatility flow stimulated SMC hypertrophy and contractile protein expression by altering EC production of vasoactive mediators and cytokines, supporting the idea of a coupling between proximal vascular stiffening, flow

  7. Computer programs for smoothing and scaling airfoil coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed descriptions are given of the theoretical methods and associated computer codes of a program to smooth and a program to scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic spline techniques to smooth interatively the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. A technique for computing the camber and thickness distribution of the smoothed airfoil is also discussed. The scaling program can then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specific maximum thickness which is then combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. Computer listings of the smoothing and scaling programs are included.

  8. AnL1 smoothing spline algorithm with cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Ken W.; Lall, Upmanu

    1993-08-01

    We propose an algorithm for the computation ofL1 (LAD) smoothing splines in the spacesWM(D), with . We assume one is given data of the formyiD(f(ti) +ɛi, iD1,...,N with {itti}iD1N ⊂D, theɛi are errors withE(ɛi)D0, andf is assumed to be inWM. The LAD smoothing spline, for fixed smoothing parameterλ?;0, is defined as the solution,sλ, of the optimization problem (1/N)∑iD1N yi-g(ti +λJM(g), whereJM(g) is the seminorm consisting of the sum of the squaredL2 norms of theMth partial derivatives ofg. Such an LAD smoothing spline,sλ, would be expected to give robust smoothed estimates off in situations where theɛi are from a distribution with heavy tails. The solution to such a problem is a "thin plate spline" of known form. An algorithm for computingsλ is given which is based on considering a sequence of quadratic programming problems whose structure is guided by the optimality conditions for the above convex minimization problem, and which are solved readily, if a good initial point is available. The "data driven" selection of the smoothing parameter is achieved by minimizing aCV(λ) score of the form .The combined LAD-CV smoothing spline algorithm is a continuation scheme in λ↘0 taken on the above SQPs parametrized inλ, with the optimal smoothing parameter taken to be that value ofλ at which theCV(λ) score first begins to increase. The feasibility of constructing the LAD-CV smoothing spline is illustrated by an application to a problem in environment data interpretation.

  9. Proteomic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells in physiological condition and in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Toward contractile versus synthetic phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Régent, Alexis; Ly, Kim Heang; Lofek, Sébastien; Clary, Guilhem; Tamby, Mathieu; Tamas, Nicolas; Federici, Christian; Broussard, Cédric; Chafey, Philippe; Liaudet-Coopman, Emmanuelle; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric; Mouthon, Luc

    2016-10-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are highly specialized cells that regulate vascular tone and participate in vessel remodeling in physiological and pathological conditions. It is unclear why certain vascular pathologies involve one type of vessel and spare others. Our objective was to compare the proteomes of normal human VSMC from aorta (human aortic smooth muscle cells, HAoSMC), umbilical artery (human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells, HUASMC), pulmonary artery (HPASMC), or pulmonary artery VSMC from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH-SMC). Proteomes of VSMC were compared by 2D DIGE and MS. Only 19 proteins were differentially expressed between HAoSMC and HPASMC while 132 and 124 were differentially expressed between HUASMC and HAoSMC or HPASMC, respectively (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). As much as 336 proteins were differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). HUASMC expressed increased amount of α-smooth muscle actin compared to either HPASMC or HAoSMC (although not statistically significant). In addition, PAH-SMC expressed decreased amount of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and proliferation rate was increased compared to HPASMC thus supporting that PAH-SMC have a more synthetic phenotype. Analysis with Ingenuity identified paxillin and (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, drosophila) like 1 (ELAVL1) as molecules linked with a lot of proteins differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC. There was a trend toward reduced proliferation of PAH-SMC with paxillin-si-RNA and increased proliferation with ELAVL1-siRNA. Thus, VSMCs have very diverse protein content depending on their origin and this is in link with phenotypic differentiation. Paxillin targeting may be a promising treatment of PAH. ELAVL1 also participate in the regulation of PAH-SMC proliferation.

  10. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation--a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie H; Campbell, Gordon R

    2012-08-01

    The idea that smooth muscle cells can exist in multiple phenotypic states depending on the functional demands placed upon them has been around for >5 decades. However, much of the literature today refers to only recent articles, giving the impression that it is a new idea. At the same time, the current trend is to delve deeper and deeper into transcriptional regulation of smooth muscle genes, and much of the work describing the change in biology of the cells in the different phenotypic states does not appear to be known. This loss of historical perspective regarding the biology of smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is what the current article has tried to mitigate.

  11. Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Hefton, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP) purified from flue-cured tobacco leaves, tar-derived material (TAR), the water soluble, nondialyzable, delipidized extract of cigarette smoke condensate, rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, but not adventitial fibroblasts. The mitogenicity appears to depend on polyphenol epitopes on carrier molecules. Ellagic acid, another plant polyphenol, inhibited arterial smooth-muscle proliferation. These results suggest that a number of ubiquitous, plant-derived substances may influence smooth-muscle cell proliferation in the arterial wall.

  12. Smooth Potential Chaos and N-Body Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandrup, Henry E.; Sideris, Ioannis V.

    2003-03-01

    Integrations in fixed N-body realizations of smooth density distributions corresponding to a chaotic galactic potential can be used to derive reliable estimates of the largest (finite-time) Lyapunov exponent χS associated with an orbit in the smooth potential generated from the same initial condition, even though the N-body orbit is typically characterized by an N-body exponent χN>>χS. This can be accomplished by either comparing initially nearby orbits in a single N-body system or tracking orbits with the same initial condition evolved in two different N-body realizations of the same smooth density.

  13. Smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhozhaev, S I

    2014-02-28

    We consider smooth solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on the scale of smooth functions which are periodic with respect to x∈R{sup 3}. We obtain existence theorems for global (with respect to t>0) and local solutions of the Cauchy problem. The statements of these depend on the smoothness and the norm of the initial vector function. Upper bounds for the behaviour of solutions in both classes, which depend on t, are also obtained. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  14. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eye tracking abnormalities in males after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cifu, David X; Hoke, Kathy W; Wetzel, Paul A; Wares, Joanna R; Gitchel, George; Carne, William

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on eye movement abnormalities in 60 military servicemembers with at least one mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from combat were examined in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, prospective study at the Naval Medicine Operational Training Center. During the 10 wk of the study, each subject was delivered a series of 40, once a day, hyperbaric chamber compressions at a pressure of 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA). At each session, subjects breathed one of three preassigned oxygen fractions (10.5%, 75%, or 100%) for 1 h, resulting in an oxygen exposure equivalent to breathing either surface air, 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA, or 100% oxygen at 2.0 ATA, respectively. Using a standardized, validated, computerized eye tracking protocol, fixation, saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements were measured just prior to intervention and immediately postintervention. Between and within groups testing of pre- and postintervention means revealed no significant differences on eye movement abnormalities and no significant main effect for HBO2 at either 1.5 ATA or 2.0 ATA equivalent compared with the sham-control. This study demonstrated that neither 1.5 nor 2.0 ATA equivalent HBO2 had an effect on postconcussive eye movement abnormalities after mild TBI when compared with a sham-control.

  15. Normal and abnormal development of pulmonary veins: state of the art and correlation with clinical entities.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Yvonne L; Jongbloed, Monique R M; Deruiter, Marco C; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C

    2011-02-17

    Interest for the pulmonary veins has increased in the past decade after the potential arrhythmogenicity of the myocardial sleeve surrounding these structures has been recognized. Furthermore, there are several clinical entities, such as anomalous connection pattern and pulmonary vein stenosis, that are related to abnormal pulmonary vein development. In this review, we will describe current literature and aim to elucidate and reorganize current opinions on normal and abnormal pulmonary vein development in relation to clinical (management of) diseases. Several unresolved questions will be addressed, as well as current conceptual controversies. First, a general overview of development of structures at the venous pole of the heart, including normal development of the pulmonary vein from a primitive Anlage, will be provided. Recent insights indicate an important contributory role of the mesoderm behind the heart, the so-called second heart field, to this area. Subsequently, the formation of a myocardial and smooth muscle vascular wall of the pulmonary veins and the left atrium is described, as well as current insights in the mechanisms involved in the differentiation of these different cell types in this area. Next, developmental concepts of normal pulmonary venous drainage patterns are reviewed, and an overview is provided of clinical entities related to abnormal development at several anatomical levels. Lastly, attention is paid to arrhythmogenesis in relation to pulmonary vein development, as well the consequences for clinical management.

  16. Automated contralateral subtraction of dental panoramic radiographs for detecting abnormalities in paranasal sinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takeshi; Mori, Shintaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Inflammation in the paranasal sinus is often observed in seasonal allergic rhinitis or with colds, but is also an indication for odontogenic tumors, carcinoma of the maxillary sinus or a maxillary cyst. The detection of those findings in dental panoramic radiographs is not difficult for radiologists, but general dentists may miss the findings since they focus on treatments of teeth. The purpose of this work is to develop a contralateral subtraction method for detecting the odontogenic sinusitis region on dental panoramic radiographs. We developed a contralateral subtraction technique in paranasal sinus region, consisting of 1) image filtering of the smoothing and sobel operation for noise reduction and edge extraction, 2) image registration of mirrored image by using mutual information, and 3) image display method of subtracted pixel data. We employed 56 cases (24 normal and 32 abnormal). The abnormal regions and the normal cases were verified by a board-certified radiologist using CT scans. Observer studies with and without subtraction images were performed for 9 readers. The true-positive rate at a 50% confidence level in 7 out of 9 readers was improved, but there was no statistical significance in the difference of area-under-curve (AUC) in each radiologist. In conclusion, the contralateral subtraction images of dental panoramic radiographs may improve the detection rate of abnormal regions in paranasal sinus.

  17. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  18. Abnormal single or composite dissipative solitons generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xianqiong; Liu, Dingyao; Cheng, Ke; Sheng, Jianan

    2016-12-01

    The evolution dynamics of the initial finite energy Airy pulses and Airy pulse pairs are numerically investigated in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzberg-Laudau equation governed dissipative system. Depending on different initial excitations and system parameters, abnormal double, triple, and quadruple composite dissipative solitons as well as single dissipative solitons can be observed. The composite dissipative solitons may consist of identical or different types of pulsating solitons. Moreover, the creeping solitons and the single ordinary pulsating solitons can even appear in the parameter regions where originally the other types of pulsating solitons exist. Besides, before evolving into each abnormal dissipative soliton, the initial finite energy Airy pulse or pulse pairs generally exhibit very interesting and unique early evolution behavior.

  19. [Abnormal hemoglobins in Negroid Ecuadorian populations].

    PubMed

    Jara, N O; Guevara Espinoza, A; Guderian, R H

    1989-02-01

    The prevalence of hemoglobinopathies was determined in the black race located in two distinct geographical areas in Ecuador; in the coastal province of Esmeraldas, particularly the Santiago basin (Rio Cayapas and Rio Onzoles) and in the province of Imbabura, particularly in the intermoutain valley, Valle de Chota. A total of 2038 blood samples were analyzed, 1734 in Esmeraldas and 304 in Inbabura, of which 23.2% (473 individuals) were found to be carriers of abnormal hemoglobins, 25.4% (441) in Esmeraldas and 10.5% (32) in Imbabura. The abnormal hemoglobins found in Esmeraldas were Hb AS (19.2%), Hb AC (5.0%), Hb SS (0.6%) and Hb SC (0.5%) while in Imbabura only Hb AS (9.5%) and Hb AC (0.9%) were found. The factors that could influence the difference in prevalence found in the two geographical areas are discussed.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role.

  2. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  3. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  4. Computed tomography of the abnormal pericardium

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Harell, G.S.; Korobkin, M.

    1983-06-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 18 patients with documented pericardial disease are reported. The pericardium appears as a thin, curvilinear, 1- to 2-mm-thick density best seen anterior to the right ventricular part of the heart. Pericardial abnormalities detected by CT include effusions, thickening, calcification, and cystic and solid masses. Computed tomography is complimentary to echocardiography in its ability to more accurately characterize pericardial effusions, masses, and pericardial thickening.

  5. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  6. Ultrasonographic appearance of bony abnormalities at the dorsal aspect of the fetlock joint in geriatric cadaver horses.

    PubMed

    Vanderperren, K; Gielen, I; Van Caelenberg, A; Van der Vekens, E; Raes, E V; Hauspie, S; van Bree, H; Saunders, J H

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the ultrasonographic (US) appearance of bony abnormalities on the dorsal aspect of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone of the equine fetlock in cadavers with radiographic signs of osteoarthrosis. After US, computed tomography was undertaken to better characterise the lesions. Twelve fetlock joints were collected and all had more than one bone abnormality on US. Normal subchondral bone appeared on US as a well-defined and regular hyperechoic line with distal acoustic shadowing. Bone abnormalities detected on US included (1) gaps in the proximal subchondral bone filled with material of heterogeneous echogenicity, (2) bone fragments represented as small straight smoothly delineated hyperechoic lines with distal shadowing located superficial to the surface of the adjacent bone, (3) proximal new bone formation visible as mild to severe cortical protrusions, (4) marginal osteophytoses seen as an elevation of the hyperechoic surface of the subchondral bone at the edges of the joint surfaces, (5) indentations in subchondral bone seen as a concave deviation of the hyperechoic line without interruption, (6) focal or diffuse irregularities of the subchondral bone seen as disruptions of the normal smooth bony contours, and (7) focal hyperechoic spikes originating from the subchondral plate and invading the articular cartilage. These findings are discussed.

  7. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V.

  8. Abnormal parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fen; Wang, Jun-Yuan; Xu, Yi; Huang, Man-Li

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: It is widely believed that structural abnormalities of the brain contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The parietal lobe is a central hub of multisensory integration, and abnormities in this region might account for the clinical features of schizophrenia. However, few cases of parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia have been described. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: In this paper, we present a case of a 25-year-old schizophrenia patient with abnormal parietal encephalomalacia. The patient had poor nutrition and frequently had upper respiratory infections during childhood and adolescence. She showed severe schizophrenic symptoms such as visual hallucinations for 2 years. After examining all her possible medical conditions, we found that the patient had a lesion consistent with the diagnosis of encephalomalacia in her right parietal lobe and slight brain atrophy. Interventions: The patient was prescribed olanzapine (10 mg per day). Outcomes: Her symptoms significantly improved after antipsychotic treatment and were still well controlled 1 year later. Lessons: This case suggested that parietal encephalomalacia, which might be caused by inflammatory and infectious conditions in early life and be aggravated by undernutrition, might be implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:28272261

  9. Abnormal hippocampal shape in offenders with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari

    2010-03-01

    Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning.

  10. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-06-03

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  11. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  12. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  13. Abnormal asymmetry of brain connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia.

  14. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  15. Muscle-like actuators? A comparison between three electroactive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Kenneth; Rosenthal, Marc S.; Full, Robert J.

    2001-07-01

    Muscles fulfill several functions within an animal's body. During locomotion they propel and control the limbs in unstructured environments. Therefore, the functional workspace of muscle needs to be represented by variables describing energy management (i.e. power output, efficiency) as well as control aspects (i.e. stiffness, damping). Muscles in the animal kingdom vary greatly with respect to those variables. To study if ElectroActive Polymer's (EAP) can be considered as artificial muscles we are making a direct comparison between the contractile properties of EAP's and biological muscle. We have measured the functional workspace of EAP actuators using the same setup and techniques that we use to test biological muscle. We evaluated the properties of three different EAP materials; the acrylic and silicone dielectric elastomers developed at SRI International and the high-energy electron-irradiated co-polymers (p(VDF-TrFE)) developed at the MRL laboratory at Penn State University. Initial results indicate that the EAP materials partly capture the functional workspace of natural muscle and sometimes even exceed the capabilities of muscle. Based on the data we have collected it seems that both EAP technologies have characteristics that could qualify them as artificial muscles.

  16. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  17. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 1/2 inch...

  18. Restoration of noisy blurred images by a smoothing spline filter.

    PubMed

    Peyrovian, M J; Sawchuk, A A

    1977-12-01

    For the restoration of noisy blurred images, a controllable smoothing criterion based on the locally variable statistics and minimization of the second derivative is defined, and the corresponding filter, applicable to both space-variant and space-invariant degradations, is obtained. The output of this filter is a cubic spline function. The parameters of the filter determine the local smoothing window and over-all extent of smoothing, and thus the tradeoff between resolution and smoothing is controllable in a spatially nonstationary manner. The interesting properties of this filter have made it capable of restoring signal-dependent noisy images, and it has been successfully applied for filtering images degraded by film-grain noise. Since the matrices of this filter are banded circulant or Toeplitz, efficient algorithms are used for matrix manipulations.

  19. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 1/2 inch...

  20. Smooth local subspace projection for nonlinear noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Chelidze, David

    2014-03-15

    Many nonlinear or chaotic time series exhibit an innate broad spectrum, which makes noise reduction difficult. Local projective noise reduction is one of the most effective tools. It is based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and works for both map-like and continuously sampled time series. However, POD only looks at geometrical or topological properties of data and does not take into account the temporal characteristics of time series. Here, we present a new smooth projective noise reduction method. It uses smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of bundles of reconstructed short-time trajectory strands to identify smooth local subspaces. Restricting trajectories to these subspaces imposes temporal smoothness on the filtered time series. It is shown that SOD-based noise reduction significantly outperforms the POD-based method for continuously sampled noisy time series.

  1. Nonparametric Model of Smooth Muscle Force Production During Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marc; Eikenberry, Steffen; Kato, Takahide; Sandler, Roman A; Yamashiro, Stanley M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z

    2017-03-01

    A nonparametric model of smooth muscle tension response to electrical stimulation was estimated using the Laguerre expansion technique of nonlinear system kernel estimation. The experimental data consisted of force responses of smooth muscle to energy-matched alternating single pulse and burst current stimuli. The burst stimuli led to at least a 10-fold increase in peak force in smooth muscle from Mytilus edulis, despite the constant energy constraint. A linear model did not fit the data. However, a second-order model fit the data accurately, so the higher-order models were not required to fit the data. Results showed that smooth muscle force response is not linearly related to the stimulation power.

  2. Construction of spline functions in spreadsheets to smooth experimental data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous manuscript detailed how spreadsheet software can be programmed to smooth experimental data via cubic splines. This addendum corrects a few errors in the previous manuscript and provides additional necessary programming steps. ...

  3. Optimal smoothing of site-energy distributions from adsorption isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F.; Travis, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The equation for the adsorption isotherm on a heterogeneous surface is a Fredholm integral equation. In solving it for the site-energy distribution (SED), some sort of smoothing must be carried out. The optimal amount of smoothing will give the most information that is possible without introducing nonexistent structure into the SED. Recently, Butler, Reeds, and Dawson proposed a criterion (the BRD criterion) for choosing the optimal smoothing parameter when using regularization to solve Fredholm equations. The BRD criterion is tested for its suitability in obtaining optimal SED's. This criterion is found to be too conservative. While using it never introduces nonexistent structure into the SED, significant information is often lost. At present, no simple criterion for choosing the optimal smoothing parameter exists, and a modeling approach is recommended.

  4. Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    1993-08-01

    Gingold, Lucy, and Monaghan invented a grid-free version of continuum mechanics ``smoothed-particle hydrodynamics,`` in 1977. It is a likely contributor to ``hybrid`` simulations combining atomistic and continuum simulations. We describe applications of this particle-based continuum technique from the closely-related standpoint of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. We compare chaotic Lyapunov spectra for atomistic solids and fluids with those which characterize a two-dimensional smoothed-particle fluid system.

  5. Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, W. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    1993-08-01

    Gingold, Lucy, and Monaghan invented a grid-free version of continuum mechanics 'smoothed-particle hydrodynamics,' in 1977. It is a likely contributor to 'hybrid' simulations combining atomistic and continuum simulations. We describe applications of this particle-based continuum technique from the closely-related standpoint of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. We compare chaotic Lyapunov spectra for atomistic solids and fluids with those which characterize a two-dimensional smoothed-particle fluid system.

  6. Airway smooth muscle in exercise-induced bronchospasm: some speculations.

    PubMed

    Middleton, E

    1975-11-01

    Some possible neurophysiological, biochemical, and pharmacological pathways affecting the state of contractility if airway smooth muscle in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) are described. No unifying hypothesis can be set forth at this time. Indeed, it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of EIB is a reflection of the numerous biochemical loci in smooth muscle cells that could be affected by the various metabolic changes accompanying heavy exertion.

  7. Smooth muscle alpha-actinin interaction with smitin.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard J; Olenych, Scott G; Kim, Kyoungtae; Keller, Thomas C S

    2005-07-01

    Actin-myosin II filament-based contractile structures in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells also contain the actin filament-crosslinking protein alpha-actinin. In striated muscle sarcomeres, interactions between the myosin-binding protein titin and alpha-actinin in the Z-line provide an important structural linkage. We previously discovered a titin-like protein, smitin, associated with the contractile apparatus of smooth muscle cells. Purified native smooth muscle alpha-actinin binds with nanomolar affinity to smitin in smitin-myosin coassemblies in vitro. Smooth muscle alpha-actinin also interacts with striated muscle titin. In contrast to striated muscle alpha-actinin interaction with titin and smitin, which is significantly enhanced by PIP2, smooth muscle alpha-actinin interacts with smitin and titin equally well in the presence and absence of PIP2. Using expressed regions of smooth muscle alpha-actinin, we have demonstrated smitin-binding sites in the smooth muscle alpha-actinin R2-R3 spectrin-like repeat rod domain and a C-terminal domain formed by cryptic EF-hand structures. These smitin-binding sites are highly homologous to the titin-binding sites of striated muscle alpha-actinin. Our results suggest that direct interaction between alpha-actinin and titin or titin-like proteins is a common feature of actin-myosin II contractile structures in striated muscle and smooth muscle cells and that the molecular bases for alpha-actinin interaction with these proteins are similar, although regulation of these interactions may differ according to tissue.

  8. Towards autonomous locomotion: CPG-based control of smooth 3D slithering gait transition of a snake-like robot.

    PubMed

    Bing, Zhenshan; Cheng, Long; Chen, Guang; Röhrbein, Florian; Huang, Kai; Knoll, Alois

    2017-04-04

    Snake-like robots with 3D locomotion ability have significant advantages of adaptive travelling in diverse complex terrain over traditional legged or wheeled mobile robots. Despite numerous developed gaits, these snake-like robots suffer from unsmooth gait transitions by changing the locomotion speed, direction, and body shape, which would potentially cause undesired movement and abnormal torque. Hence, there exists a knowledge gap for snake-like robots to achieve autonomous locomotion. To address this problem, this paper presents the smooth slithering gait transition control based on a lightweight central pattern generator (CPG) model for snake-like robots. First, based on the convergence behavior of the gradient system, a lightweight CPG model with fast computing time was designed and compared with other widely adopted CPG models. Then, by reshaping the body into a more stable geometry, the slithering gait was modified, and studied based on the proposed CPG model, including the gait transition of locomotion speed, moving direction, and body shape. In contrast to sinusoid-based method, extensive simulations and prototype experiments finally demonstrated that smooth slithering gait transition can be effectively achieved using the proposed CPG-based control method without generating undesired locomotion and abnormal torque.

  9. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  10. Regulation of gastrointestinal motility--insights from smooth muscle biology.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don; Ro, Seungil; Ward, Sean M

    2012-11-01

    Gastrointestinal motility results from coordinated contractions of the tunica muscularis, the muscular layers of the alimentary canal. Throughout most of the gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscles are organized into two layers of circularly or longitudinally oriented muscle bundles. Smooth muscle cells form electrical and mechanical junctions between cells that facilitate coordination of contractions. Excitation-contraction coupling occurs by Ca(2+) entry via ion channels in the plasma membrane, leading to a rise in intracellular Ca(2+). Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin activates myosin light chain kinase; subsequent phosphorylation of myosin initiates cross-bridge cycling. Myosin phosphatase dephosphorylates myosin to relax muscles, and a process known as Ca(2+) sensitization regulates the activity of the phosphatase. Gastrointestinal smooth muscles are 'autonomous' and generate spontaneous electrical activity (slow waves) that does not depend upon input from nerves. Intrinsic pacemaker activity comes from interstitial cells of Cajal, which are electrically coupled to smooth muscle cells. Patterns of contractile activity in gastrointestinal muscles are determined by inputs from enteric motor neurons that innervate smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells. Here we provide an overview of the cells and mechanisms that generate smooth muscle contractile behaviour and gastrointestinal motility.

  11. The evolutionary origin of bilaterian smooth and striated myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Thibaut; Fischer, Antje HL; Steinmetz, Patrick RH; Lauri, Antonella; Bertucci, Paola; Arendt, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed and nervous control. Our data suggest that both visceral smooth and somatic striated myocytes were present in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor and that smooth myocytes later co-opted the striated contractile module repeatedly – for example, in vertebrate heart evolution. During these smooth-to-striated myocyte conversions, the core regulatory complex of transcription factors conveying myocyte identity remained unchanged, reflecting a general principle in cell type evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19607.001 PMID:27906129

  12. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 ..mu..M serotonin with increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 ..mu..M. At a concentration of 1 ..mu..M, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was approx. = 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors.

  13. Smooth Vibrotactile Flow Generation Using Two Piezoelectric Actuators.

    PubMed

    Jeonggoo Kang; Jongsuh Lee; Heewon Kim; Kwangsu Cho; Semyung Wang; Jeha Ryu

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for generating a smooth directional vibrotactile flow on a thin plate. While actuating two piezoelectric actuators spatially across the plate, temporal sweeping of the input excitation frequency from zero to the first mode of the resonance frequency can smooth the perceived directional vibrotactile flow, as compared to a vibrotactile flow generated by conventional apparent tactile movement and phantom sensation methods. In order to ascertain important factors in the excitation pattern, a user study was conducted for three factors (amplitude (constant versus modulated), frequency (constant versus swept), and ending shape (sharp versus smooth)). The results showed that frequency sweeping in addition to amplitude modulation and smooth ending were the most important factors in smoothing vibrotactile flows. Moreover, an excitation signal with a smooth ending shape was important for generating nonspiky flows at the midpoint. In this study, a vibration isolation design is also proposed in order to substantially decrease the transmission of the actuator vibration to the mockup housing. As such, it is expected that the proposed vibrotactile flow generation method and vibration isolation design may be useful in applications including generating directional information in navigation maps or for identifying callers in mobile devices.

  14. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  15. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  16. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

    2005-11-01

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  17. Novel brain MRI abnormalities in Gitelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Norbash, Alexander; Vattoth, Surjith

    2015-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. The syndrome is caused by a defective thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidneys. Gitelman syndrome could be confused with Bartter syndrome; the main differentiating feature is the presence of low urinary calcium excretion in the former. Descriptions of neuroradiological imaging findings associated with Gitelman syndrome are very scarce in the literature and include basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and sclerochoroidal calcification. Cauda equina syndrome-like presentation has been reported, but without any corresponding imaging findings on lumbar spine MRI. We report a 13-year-old male with Gitelman syndrome who presented with altered mental status following a fall and scalp laceration and unremarkable brain CT, followed during hospitalization by somnolence and seizures. Metabolically the patient demonstrated hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. MRI demonstrated features of encephalopathy including predominantly right-sided cerebral hemispheric signal abnormality and cytotoxic edema, with bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalami, midbrain tegmentum and tectum and cerebellar dentate nuclei. MRI after five months obtained during a later episode of encephalopathy showed resolution of the signal abnormalities with setting in of brain atrophy and also areas of newly developed cytotoxic edema in the left thalamus, bilateral dorsal midbrain and right greater than left dentate nuclei. The described abnormalities, either recurrent or in isolation, have not previously been published in patients with Gitelman syndrome. We believe that the findings are due to alteration of respiratory chain function secondary to the metabolic derangement and hence have a similar imaging appearance as encephalopathy related to mitochondrial cytopathy or

  18. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective Individuals born before 33 weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term‐born controls at 17–18 years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub‐divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8 years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18 years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term‐born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term‐born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

  19. Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

  20. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia with associated platelet abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soslau, G; Brodsky, I

    1989-12-01

    A 62 year old male (R.H.) presented with a mild anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) and a history of multiple hemorrhagic episodes. The marrow had 40-50% sideroblasts. Marrow chromosomes were normal. His wife was hematologically normal, while one daughter, age 30 years, had a sideroblastic anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) with 40-50% sideroblasts in the marrow. Her anemia was first noted at age 15 years. Administration of vitamin B6 did not correct the anemia in either the father or daughter. Platelet abnormalities inherited jointly with this disorder are described for the first time. Both R.H. and his daughter had prolonged bleeding times, with normal PTT, PT times, fVIII:C, fVIII:Ag levels, and vWF multimers, which may rule out a von Willebrand's disease. They have normal platelet numbers but abnormally low platelet adhesiveness and greatly depressed ADP, collagen, and epinephrine responsiveness. Response to ristocetin was in the low normal range, and aggregation with thrombin was normal. While desmopressin completely normalized R.H.'s bleeding time, none of these platelet parameters were improved. No differences in the SDS PAGE protein patterns of RH platelets could be detected in comparison to normal samples. His platelets took up and released serotonin (5HT) normally, and electron micrographs defined no morphological abnormalities. However, no ATP was released from platelets activated with collagen, and when followed by thrombin about fourfold greater ATP was released by control platelets as compared to RH platelets. The dense granule fraction derived from RH platelets contained about 20% the level of ATP, 40% the level of ADP, and 50% the level of 5HT detected in a normal sample. The results indicate that the bleeding disorder is related to a non-classical heritable storage pool defect. The connection between the inherited sideroblastic anemia and platelet defects is obscure.

  1. [Abnormal daytime drowsiness--attempt at typology].

    PubMed

    Meier-Ewert, K

    1991-11-01

    Abnormal drowsiness during the day is defined on the basis of three criteria: 1. subjective feeling of increased tiredness, 2. objective observation of attacks of falling asleep, 3. detection of premature falling asleep in the multiple sleep latency test. About 3 to 4% of the population of modern industrial countries complain of this symptom which very quickly leads to inability to work in numerous occupations (driving instructors, lorry drivers, airline pilots). In many cases, the symptoms can be eliminated by effective methods of treatment. Early diagnosis and therapy is hence an important task of physicians. Clinically suitable tools and methods of measurement for appraising the phenomena are at present: 1. the multiple sleep latency test (Richardson et al., 1978), 2. the multiple staying awake test (Mitler et al., 1982), 3. the vigilance test according to Quatember and Maly from the Vienna test system. In neurophysiological terms, an attempt is made to differentiate between: REM drowsiness, non-REM drowsiness, hypofunction of the arousal systems of the reticular formation, and hyperfunction and overstimulation of the arousal systems of the reticular formation (over-aroused tiredness). Approaches to a clinical typology of abnormal drowsiness are available from two points of departure: 1. Forms of permanent somnolence which are not alleviated but intensified by a brief restorative sleep and resemble the 'oversleeping syndrome' of the healthy individual. 2. Attacks of imperative falling asleep in narcoleptic patients. The characteristic of this form of abnormal drowsiness during the day is that in the interval between the attacks of falling asleep patients can take on any healthy person with regard to alertness, reaction capacity and ready wit. After a brief restorative sleep of less than 5 min., they immediately feel fresh, alert and fit again.

  2. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  3. Unusual and abnormal canine estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Meyers-Wallen, V N

    2007-12-01

    Preovulatory serum progesterone concentrations are used to estimate the day of LH peak (day 0), not only to accurately time insemination and predict parturition, but to identify abnormal or unusual estrous cycles due to ovarian dysfunction. Early identification of these disorders is of therapeutic and economic importance. This review discusses anovulation, slow preovulatory progesterone rise, "split heat", insufficient luteal phase, and persistent estrus in the bitch. Some of these were temporary dysfunctions; with appropriate breeding management, pregnancy can be achieved. However, in other cases, these were signs of severe, permanent ovarian dysfunction associated with infertility, with potentially lethal sequelae.

  4. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  5. Intestinal smooth muscle cell maintenance by basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min; Wu, Benjamin M; Stelzner, Matthias; Reichardt, Holger M; Dunn, James C Y

    2008-08-01

    Intestinal tissue engineering is a potential therapy for patients with short bowel syndrome. Tissue engineering scaffolds that promote smooth muscle cell proliferation and angiogenesis are essential toward the regeneration of functional smooth muscles for peristalsis and motility. Since basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can stimulate smooth muscle proliferation and angiogenesis, the delivery of bFGF was employed to stimulate proliferation and survival of primary intestinal smooth muscle cells. Two methods of local bFGF delivery were examined: the incorporation of bFGF into the collagen coating and the encapsulation of bFGF into poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres. Cell-seeded scaffolds were implanted into the omentum and were retrieved after 4, 14, and 28 days. The seeded cells proliferated from day 4 to day 14 in all implants; however, at 28 days, significantly higher density of implanted cells and blood vessels was observed, when 10 microg of bFGF was incorporated into the collagen coating of scaffolds as compared to scaffolds with either no bFGF or 1 microg of bFGF in collagen. Microsphere encapsulation of 1 microg of bFGF produced similar effects as 10 microg of bFGF mixed in collagen and was more effective than the delivery of 1 microg of bFGF by collagen incorporation. The majority of the implanted cells also expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin. Scaffolds coated with microsphere-encapsulated bFGF and seeded with smooth muscle cells may be a useful platform for the regeneration of the intestinal smooth muscle.

  6. Characterizing the Pressure Smoothing Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-10-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 6 constrains the nature and timing of cosmic reionization events, but its inference from the Lyα forest is degenerate with the 3D structure of the IGM on ˜100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T ≃ 104 K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z < 6, the gas density power spectrum does not exhibit the expected filtering scale cutoff, because dense gas in collapsed halos dominates the small-scale power masking pressure smoothing effects. We introduce a new statistic, the real-space Lyα flux, Freal, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The Freal power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at λF, allowing us to rigorously quantify the pressure smoothing scale for the first time: we find λF = 79 kpc (comoving) at z = 3 for our fiducial thermal model. This statistic has the added advantage that it directly relates to observations of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, recently proposed as a method to measure the pressure smoothing scale. Our results enable one to quantify the pressure smoothing scale in simulations, and ask meaningful questions about its dependence on reionization and thermal history. Accordingly, the standard description of the IGM in terms of the amplitude T0 and slope γ of the temperature-density relation T={T}0{(ρ /\\bar{ρ })}γ -1 should be augmented with a third pressure smoothing scale parameter λF.

  7. Genetic abnormality of the visual pathways in a "white" tiger.

    PubMed

    Guillery, R W; Kaas, J H

    1973-06-22

    "White"tigers show an inherited reduction of pigment, produced by an autosomal recessive gene. The brain of one of these tigers shows an abnormality of the visual pathways similar to abnormalities that are associated with albinism in many other mammals. There is a close relationship between the reduced pigment formation, the pathway abnormality, and strabismus.

  8. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  9. Lipid abnormalities in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Erum, Uzma; Ahsan, Tasnim; Khowaja, Danish

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of dyslipidemia in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted at the ‘Rheumatology Clinic’ of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from November 2013 to May 2014. A total of 200 patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), diagnosed according to the ACR/EULAR criteria 2010, were included in the study. Laboratory investigations including creatinine, ALT, CBC, TSH and fasting lipid profile (LDL, HDL, and Total cholesterol) were done for all patients. Results: Out of 200 patients, 23 (11.5%) were male and 177 (88.5%) were female. The mean age was 36.31±10.46 years and the mean duration of disease was 3.82±3.03 years. A total of 107 (53.5%) patients had dyslipidemia, and the commonest abnormality was a low HDL, seen in 83 (41.5 %) patients. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia was frequently observed in Rheumatoid Arthritis. This may be considered as a secondary impact of chronic inflammatory state, seen in RA. Lipid abnormalities should be sought at regular intervals, and corrective actions taken to mitigate increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:28367205

  10. Acquired and congenital coronary artery abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ming-Lon; McLeary, Michael; Chan, Kak-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Sudden unexpected cardiac deaths in approximately 20% of young athletes are due to acquired or congenital coronary artery abnormalities. Kawasaki disease is the leading cause for acquired coronary artery abnormalities, which can cause late coronary artery sequelae including aneurysms, stenosis, and thrombosis, leading to myocardial ischaemia and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery can develop adequate collateral circulation from the right coronary artery in the newborn period, which remains asymptomatic only to manifest in adulthood with myocardial ischaemia, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the opposite sinus occurs in 0.7% of the young general population aged between 11 and 15 years. If the anomalous coronary artery courses between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, sudden cardiac death may occur during or shortly after vigorous exercise, especially in patients where the anomalous left coronary artery originates from the right sinus of Valsalva. Symptomatic patients with evidence of ischaemia should have surgical correction. No treatment is needed for asymptomatic patients with an anomalous right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. At present, there is no consensus regarding how to manage asymptomatic patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva and interarterial course. Myocardial bridging is commonly observed in cardiac catheterisation and it rarely causes exercise-induced coronary syndrome or cardiac death. In symptomatic patients, refractory or β-blocker treatment and surgical un-bridging may be considered.

  11. Klinefelter syndrome: cardiovascular abnormalities and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Calogero, A E; Giagulli, V A; Mongioì, L M; Triggiani, V; Radicioni, A F; Jannini, E A; Pasquali, D

    2017-03-03

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common genetic causes of male infertility. This condition is associated with much comorbidity and with a lower life expectancy. The aim of this review is to explore more in depth cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated to KS. KS patients have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (standardized mortality ratio, SMR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.6-3.0), but it is not clear whether the cause of the death is of thrombotic or hemorrhagic nature. Cardiovascular congenital anomalies (SMR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.4-17.1) and the development of thrombosis or leg ulcers (SMR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.9-17.2) are also more frequent in these subjects. Moreover, cardiovascular abnormalities may be at least partially reversed by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). KS patients have also an increased probability of endocrine and/or metabolic disease, especially obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effects of TRT on these abnormalities are not entirely clear.

  12. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  13. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-10-26

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  14. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%. PMID:27792181

  15. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Müller, Lukas; Luder, Hans U

    2009-02-01

    Deviations in the growth of the mandibular condyle can affect both the functional occlusion and the aesthetic appearance of the face. The reasons for these growth deviations are numerous and often entail complex sequences of malfunction at the cellular level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the understanding of pathological alterations occurring during childhood and adolescence that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and, hence, result in disorders of mandibular growth. Pathological conditions taken into account are subdivided into (1) congenital malformations with associated growth disorders, (2) primary growth disorders, and (3) acquired diseases or trauma with associated growth disorders. Among the congenital malformations, hemifacial microsomia (HFM) appears to be the principal syndrome entailing severe growth disturbances, whereas growth abnormalities occurring in conjunction with other craniofacial dysplasias seem far less prominent than could be anticipated based on their often disfiguring nature. Hemimandibular hyperplasia and elongation undoubtedly constitute the most obscure conditions that are associated with prominent, often unilateral, abnormalities of condylar, and mandibular growth. Finally, disturbances of mandibular growth as a result of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and condylar fractures seem to be direct consequences of inflammatory and/or mechanical damage to the condylar cartilage.

  16. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  17. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  18. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  20. Protruding labia minora: abnormal or just uncool?

    PubMed

    Michala, Lina; Koliantzaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-09-01

    There is a wide variety in the appearance of normal female external genitalia. Nevertheless a specific prototype is promoted by the media, leading to a false sense that all other appearances are abnormal. As adolescents become sexually aware at an earlier age, most of them are worried about the appearance of their genitalia, especially when labia minora protrude beyond labia majora. This is a prospective audit of adolescents presenting for assessment of their perceived abnormal genitalia. Sixteen girls aged 10.2 to 17.8 years presented between June 2009 and December 2010 to a specialist adolescent gynecology service. Their mean labial width was 36 mm (range: 20-55 mm). In six girls, the reason for attending the service was inequality of the size of labia ranging between 6 mm and 35 mm (mean of 20 mm). Among the remaining 10 girls, the concern had arisen through comparison with a prepubescent sibling (one case), change of genitalia during puberty (four cases), looking at internet pictures (four cases), and looking at an anatomy book (one case). Risks of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS) have not been adequately documented, especially with regards to sexual function and long-term patient satisfaction. External genitalia are likely to change during puberty and therefore, any genital operation in the absence of clear pathology should be deferred until adulthood. Even then, women should have clear expectations of what will be achieved with the operation in terms of appearance and function.

  1. Accuracy of eye position for saccades and smooth pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Shanidze, Natela; Ghahghaei, Saeideh; Verghese, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we address the question of whether a target is foveated during smooth pursuit. Specifically, we examine whether smooth pursuit eye movements land near the center-of-mass of the target, as is the case for saccades. To that end, we instructed eight untrained, healthy participants to follow moving targets, presented monocularly in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Stimuli moved either in a modified step-ramp (smooth pursuit), or made a single step (saccade), stepping 6° from the center. Targets were ring-shaped and either 0.6° or 1.7° in diameter. In an additional set of experiments, two participants collected more extensive data on smooth pursuit and saccades for a larger range of target sizes (0.6°, 1.7°, or 4.3°). During pursuit, eyes were rarely placed at target center, even when participants' fixational stability was taken into account. Furthermore, there was a clear tendency for distance from target center to increase with target size. This outcome was in contrast to saccades, where there was no effect of target size across participants. The difference in foveal placement between the two types of eye movements is consistent with their different purposes: closer inspection of the target for saccades versus maintenance of the target in the visual field for smooth pursuit. PMID:28006073

  2. Muscarinic receptor size on smooth muscle cells and membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.M.; Jung, C.Y.; Grover, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    The loss of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) binding following high-energy radiation was used to compare the muscarinic receptor size on single smooth muscle cells isolated by collagenase digestion from the canine stomach and on plasma membranes derived from intact gastric smooth muscle without exposure to exogenous proteolysis. Radiation inactivation of galactose oxidase (68 kdaltons), yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (160 kdaltons), and pyruvate kinase (224 kdaltons) activities were used as molecular-weight standards. Radiation inactivation of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to rat brain membranes, which gave a target size of 86 kdaltons, served as an additional control. In isolated smooth muscle cells, the calculated size of the muscarinic receptor was 80 +/- 8 kdaltons. In contrast, in a smooth muscle enriched plasma membrane preparation, muscarinic receptor size was significantly smaller at 45 +/- 3 kdaltons. Larger molecular sizes were obtained either in the presence of protease inhibitors (62 +/- 4 kdaltons) or by using a crude membrane preparation of gastric smooth muscle 86 +/- 7 kdaltons).

  3. [Electrophysiology and calcium signalling in human bronchial smooth muscle].

    PubMed

    Marthan, R; Hyvelin, J M; Roux, E; Savineau, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recently, cells isolated from airways have been used to characterize precisely the electrophysiological properties of this smooth muscle and to describe the changes in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) occurring upon agonist stimulation. Although most studies have produced consistent results in terms of types of ion channel and pathways of calcium signalling implicated in the mechanical activity of airways, there are differences according to (i) the site along the bronchial tree (trachea vs. bronchi); (ii) the proliferating status of the cells (freshly isolated vs. cultured) and (iii) the species (human vs. animals). With regard to the electrophysiological properties of airway smooth muscle, the contribution to [Ca2+]i rise of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels depends on the balance between depolarization related to non-specific cation channel and/or chloride channel activation and hyperpolarization related to activation of a variety of potassium channels. Most of the above-mentioned channels appear to be controlled, directly or indirectly, by agonists in human bronchial smooth muscle. With regard to calcium signalling, the pattern of agonist-induced [Ca2+]i responses, the so-called [Ca2+]i oscillations, has been observed recently in freshly isolated airway smooth muscle cells. The role and the calcium sources involved in these oscillations in human bronchial smooth muscle are currently being investigated.

  4. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  5. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: results from Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-10-01

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log-log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from {f}-1.23 to {f}-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a {f}-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an {f}-1.76 spectrum. This suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  6. Smooth Muscle Enriched Long Noncoding RNA (SMILR) Regulates Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, Margaret D.; Pinel, Karine; Dakin, Rachel; Vesey, Alex T.; Diver, Louise; Mackenzie, Ruth; Garcia, Raquel; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Hamilton, Graham; Joshi, Nikhil; Dweck, Marc R.; Miano, Joseph M.; McBride, Martin W.; Newby, David E.; McDonald, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile to a synthetic state is implicated in diverse vascular pathologies, including atherogenesis, plaque stabilization, and neointimal hyperplasia. However, very little is known about the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during this process. Here, we investigated a role for lncRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cell biology and pathology. Methods and Results— Using RNA sequencing, we identified >300 lncRNAs whose expression was altered in human saphenous vein vascular smooth muscle cells following stimulation with interleukin-1α and platelet-derived growth factor. We focused on a novel lncRNA (Ensembl: RP11-94A24.1), which we termed smooth muscle–induced lncRNA enhances replication (SMILR). Following stimulation, SMILR expression was increased in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and was detected in conditioned media. Furthermore, knockdown of SMILR markedly reduced cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we noted that expression of genes proximal to SMILR was also altered by interleukin-1α/platelet-derived growth factor treatment, and HAS2 expression was reduced by SMILR knockdown. In human samples, we observed increased expression of SMILR in unstable atherosclerotic plaques and detected increased levels in plasma from patients with high plasma C-reactive protein. Conclusions— These results identify SMILR as a driver of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and suggest that modulation of SMILR may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce vascular pathologies. PMID:27052414

  7. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    DOE PAGES

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f,more » ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.« less

  8. Vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin-1 on hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle involves Rho-kinase and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Barman, Scott A

    2007-08-01

    Although one of the common characteristics of pulmonary hypertension is abnormal sustained vasoconstriction, the signaling pathways that mediate this heightened pulmonary vascular response are still not well defined. Protein kinase C (PKC) and Rho-kinase are regulators of smooth muscle contraction induced by G protein-coupled receptor agonists including endothelin-1 (ET-1), which has been implicated as a signaling pathway in pulmonary hypertension. Toward this end, it was hypothesized that both Rho-kinase and PKC mediate the pulmonary vascular response to ET-1 in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of PKC and Rho-kinase signaling in ET-1-induced vasoconstriction in both normotensive (Sprague-Dawley) and hypertensive (Fawn-Hooded) rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Results indicate that ET-1 caused greater vasoconstriction in hypertensive pulmonary arteries compared with the normal vessels, and treatment with the PKC antagonists chelerythrine, rottlerin, and Gö 6983 inhibited the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 in the hypertensive vessels. In addition, the specific Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 significantly attenuated the effect of ET-1 in both normotensive and hypertensive phenotypes, with greater inhibition occurring in the hypertensive arteries. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that ET-1 increased RhoA expression in both normotensive and hypertensive pulmonary arteries, with expression being greater in the hypertensive state. These results suggest that both PKC and Rho/Rho-kinase mediate the heightened pulmonary vascular response to ET-1 in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.

  9. [Current gene study in etiological analysis of congenital craniofacial abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi-miao; Fang, Bing

    2007-04-01

    The cause of congenital craniofacial abnormalities are very complicated. Understanding of the gene mechanisms of abnormalities taking place are very important for prevention and therapy.DNA sequence analysis provides the fundaments of gene study of the congenital craniofacial abnormalities. Human genome project (HGP) paved the confirmation of candidate gene of the congenital craniofacial abnormalities.Transgenic animal models and gene knockout techniques are effective methods in study of gene function. This paper reviews current gene study in etiopathogenisis analysis of the congenital craniofacial abnormalities.

  10. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities. PMID:22439035

  12. Abnormal selective attention normalizes P3 amplitudes in PDD.

    PubMed

    Hoeksma, Marco R; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-07-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in selective attention. Adolescents with PDD showed abnormal selective attention, as reflected by larger auditory Processing Negativity (PN) and visual N2b, but no P3 abnormalities. Dipole localizations revealed that the locations of PN generators in subjects with PDD differed from controls. It was concluded that the abnormalities in selective attention in adolescents with PDD have a normalizing effect on P3, and possibly act as a compensatory process.

  13. A method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics using spheroidal kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, Michael S.; Benz, Willy; Davies, Melvyn B.

    1995-01-01

    We present a new method of three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) designed to model systems dominated by deformation along a preferential axis. These systems cause severe problems for SPH codes using spherical kernels, which are best suited for modeling systems which retain rough spherical symmetry. Our method allows the smoothing length in the direction of the deformation to evolve independently of the smoothing length in the perpendicular plane, resulting in a kernel with a spheroidal shape. As a result the spatial resolution in the direction of deformation is significantly improved. As a test case we present the one-dimensional homologous collapse of a zero-temperature, uniform-density cloud, which serves to demonstrate the advantages of spheroidal kernels. We also present new results on the problem of the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole.

  14. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants.

  15. Stochastic optimization with randomized smoothing for image registration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Poot, Dirk H J; Smal, Ihor; Yang, Xuan; Niessen, Wiro J; Klein, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Image registration is typically formulated as an optimization process, which aims to find the optimal transformation parameters of a given transformation model by minimizing a cost function. Local minima may exist in the optimization landscape, which could hamper the optimization process. To eliminate local minima, smoothing the cost function would be desirable. In this paper, we investigate the use of a randomized smoothing (RS) technique for stochastic gradient descent (SGD) optimization, to effectively smooth the cost function. In this approach, Gaussian noise is added to the transformation parameters prior to computing the cost function gradient in each iteration of the SGD optimizer. The approach is suitable for both rigid and nonrigid registrations. Experiments on synthetic images, cell images, public CT lung data, and public MR brain data demonstrate the effectiveness of the novel RS technique in terms of registration accuracy and robustness.

  16. Surface smoothness: cartilage biomarkers for knee OA beyond the radiologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Dam, Erik B.

    2010-03-01

    Fully automatic imaging biomarkers may allow quantification of patho-physiological processes that a radiologist would not be able to assess reliably. This can introduce new insight but is problematic to validate due to lack of meaningful ground truth expert measurements. Rather than quantification accuracy, such novel markers must therefore be validated against clinically meaningful end-goals such as the ability to allow correct diagnosis. We present a method for automatic cartilage surface smoothness quantification in the knee joint. The quantification is based on a curvature flow method used on tibial and femoral cartilage compartments resulting from an automatic segmentation scheme. These smoothness estimates are validated for their ability to diagnose osteoarthritis and compared to smoothness estimates based on manual expert segmentations and to conventional cartilage volume quantification. We demonstrate that the fully automatic markers eliminate the time required for radiologist annotations, and in addition provide a diagnostic marker superior to the evaluated semi-manual markers.

  17. Characteristics of Three-Node Smoothing Element under Penalty Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, Seth S.

    1995-01-01

    The project is based upon research of Tessler et al. (1994) on an improved variational formulation for post-processing stress predictions in Finite Element Analysis. The methodology, called Smoothing Element Analysis (SEA), employs a three-node smoothing finite element. The present effort focused on verifying the basic constant strain criterion for the three-node smoothing element subject to a set of internal penalty constraints. The convergence characteristics of the element are assessed by first deriving the constrained form of the assumed element stress and stress gradient fields, and then by verifying the validity of the constant strain criterion once the element penalty constraints are explicitly imposed. The analytical investigation is carried out with the use of the symbolic manipulation code 'Mathematica'.

  18. A User Guide for Smoothing Air Traffic Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E.; Paielli, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Matlab software was written to provide smoothing of radar tracking data to simulate ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) data in order to test a tactical conflict probe. The probe, called TSAFE (Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment), is designed to handle air-traffic conflicts left undetected or unresolved when loss-of-separation is predicted to occur within approximately two minutes. The data stream that is down-linked from an aircraft equipped with an ADS-B system would include accurate GPS-derived position and velocity information at sample rates of 1 Hz. Nation-wide ADS-B equipage (mandated by 2020) should improve surveillance accuracy and TSAFE performance. Currently, position data are provided by Center radar (nominal 12-sec samples) and Terminal radar (nominal 4.8-sec samples). Aircraft ground speed and ground track are estimated using real-time filtering, causing lags up to 60 sec, compromising performance of a tactical resolution tool. Offline smoothing of radar data reduces wild-point errors, provides a sample rate as high as 1 Hz, and yields more accurate and lag-free estimates of ground speed, ground track, and climb rate. Until full ADS-B implementation is available, smoothed radar data should provide reasonable track estimates for testing TSAFE in an ADS-B-like environment. An example illustrates the smoothing of radar data and shows a comparison of smoothed-radar and ADS-B tracking. This document is intended to serve as a guide for using the smoothing software.

  19. Monocular and binocular smooth pursuit in central field loss.

    PubMed

    Shanidze, Natela; Heinen, Stephen; Verghese, Preeti

    2017-01-09

    Macular degeneration results in heterogeneous central field loss (CFL) and often has asymmetrical effects in the two eyes. As such, it is not clear to what degree the movements of the two eyes are coordinated. To address this issue, we examined smooth pursuit quantitatively in CFL participants during binocular viewing and compared it to the monocular viewing case. We also examined coordination of the two eyes during smooth pursuit and how this coordination was affected by interocular ratios of acuity and contrast, as well as CFL-specific interocular differences, such as scotoma sizes and degree of binocular overlap. We hypothesized that the coordination of eye movements would depend on the binocularity of the two eyes. To test our hypotheses, we used a modified step-ramp paradigm, and measured pursuit in both eyes while viewing was binocular, or monocular with the dominant or non-dominant eye. Data for CFL participants and age-matched controls were examined at the group, within-group, and individual levels. We found that CFL participants had a broader range of smooth pursuit gains and a significantly lower correlation between the two eyes, as compared to controls. Across both CFL and control groups, smooth pursuit gain and correlation between the eyes are best predicted by the ratio of contrast sensitivity between the eyes. For the subgroup of participants with measurable stereopsis, both smooth pursuit gain and correlation are best predicted by stereoacuity. Therefore, our results suggest that coordination between the eyes during smooth pursuit depends on binocular cooperation between the eyes.

  20. The Initiation of Smooth Pursuit is Delayed in Anisometropic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Raashid, Rana Arham; Liu, Ivy Ziqian; Blakeman, Alan; Goltz, Herbert C.; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several behavioral studies have shown that the reaction times of visually guided movements are slower in people with amblyopia, particularly during amblyopic eye viewing. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements, which are responsible for accurately keeping moving objects on the fovea, is delayed in people with anisometropic amblyopia. Methods Eleven participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 14 visually normal observers were asked to track a step-ramp target moving at ±15°/s horizontally as quickly and as accurately as possible. The experiment was conducted under three viewing conditions: amblyopic/nondominant eye, binocular, and fellow/dominant eye viewing. Outcome measures were smooth pursuit latency, open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency. Results Participants with anisometropic amblyopia initiated smooth pursuit significantly slower during amblyopic eye viewing (206 ± 20 ms) than visually normal observers viewing with their nondominant eye (183 ± 17 ms, P = 0.002). However, mean pursuit latency in the anisometropic amblyopia group during binocular and monocular fellow eye viewing was comparable to the visually normal group. Mean open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency were similar between the two groups, but participants with anisometropic amblyopia exhibited more variable steady state gain (P = 0.045). Conclusions This study provides evidence of temporally delayed smooth pursuit initiation in anisometropic amblyopia. After initiation, the smooth pursuit velocity profile in anisometropic amblyopia participants is similar to visually normal controls. This finding differs from what has been observed previously in participants with strabismic amblyopia who exhibit reduced smooth pursuit velocity gains with more catch-up saccades. PMID:27070109

  1. Optimization by Smoothed Bandpass Calibration in Radio Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameno, S.; Yamaki, H.; Mizuno, I.; Beppu, H.; Imai, H.; Kuno, N.; Akashi, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have developed the Smoothed Bandpass Calibration (SBC) method and the best suitable scan pattern to optimize radio spectroscopic observations. Adequate spectral smoothing is applied to the spectrum toward OFF-source blank sky adjacent to a target source direction for the purpose of bandpass correction. Because the smoothing process reduces noise, the integration time for OFF-source scans can be reduced keeping the signal-to-noise ratio. Since the smoothing is not applied to ON-source scans, the spectral resolution for line features is kept. An optimal smoothing window is determined by bandpass flatness evaluated by Spectral Allan Variance (SAV). An efficient scan pattern is designed to the OFF-source scans within the bandpass stability timescale estimated by Time-based Allan Variance (TAV). We have tested the SBC using the digital spectrometer, SAM45, on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The optimal smoothing windows were determined as 501, 28, 18, and 4 ch for bandwidths of 2000, 500, 125, and 15.6 MHz, respectively. The optimal scan pattern was designed as sequences of [60-s ON + 10-s OFF] and [48-s ON + 16-s OFF] scan pairs for narrow and wide bandwidth, respectively. The noise level with the SBC was reduced by factors of 1.8 and 1.3 compared with the conventional method. We also found sporadic instability (bursts) in the total power and spectra in IF during the test observations. Although the bursts significantly distorts the resultant spectra, we found a solution to cancel the spectral variation by decomposing them into static and burst components. This solution can be a hint to ease spectral flagging processes and to bring better efficiency in integration time.

  2. Kidney abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    López Revuelta, K; Ricard Andrés, M P

    2011-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease exhibits numerous kidney structural and functional abnormalities, changes that are seen along the entire length of the nephron. Changes are most marked in patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia, but are also seen in those with compound heterozygous states and the sickle cell trait. The renal features of sickle cell disease include some of the most common reasons for referral to nephrologists, such as hematuria, proteinuria, tubular disturbances and chronic kidney disease. Therapy of these conditions requires specialized knowledge of their distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Spanish Haemathology and Hemotherapy Association has recently publicated their Clinical Practice Guidelines of SCD management. Renal chapter is reproduced in this article for Nefrología difussion.

  3. Cardiac abnormalities and sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Joanna; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Many factors have been implicated in SIDS cases including environmental influences such as sleeping arrangements and smoking. Most recently, cardiac abnormalities have been hypothesised to play a role in some cases, particularly the primary genetic arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). Both post-mortem and clinical studies of SIDS cases have provided supporting evidence for the involvement of cardiac genetic disorders in SIDS. This review provides a summary of this evidence focussing particularly on the primary hypothesis related to underlying familial LQTS. In addition, the current literature relating to other cardiac genetic conditions such as Brugada syndrome (BrS) and structural heart diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is briefly presented. Finally, the implications of a possible cardiac genetic cause of SIDS is discussed with reference to the need for genetic testing in SIDS cases and subsequent clinical and genetic testing in family members.

  4. Liver abnormalities in drug and substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    Drug and substance abuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substance abuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine.

  5. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  6. Abnormal epidermal changes after argon laser treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.A.; Knobler, R.M.; Aberer, E.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Ott, E. )

    1991-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a congenital port-wine stain on the forehead was treated three times at 2-month intervals with an argon laser. Six months after the last treatment, moderate blanching and mild scaling confined to the treated area was observed. A biopsy specimen of the treated area revealed a significant decrease in ectatic vessels. However, epidermal changes similar to those of actinic keratosis with disorganized cell layers and marked cytologic abnormalities were seen. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes for a defect in DNA repair was negative. Multiple, argon laser-induced photothermal effects may be responsible for the changes observed in our case and may lead to premalignant epidermal transformation.

  7. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    1-2% of women has abnormal uterine development due to nonunification of the Müllerian ducts in the embryonal period. At the RWTH Aachen, in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics, between January and June 1987, we had searched systematically for maldevelopment of the uterus in 2299 echosonografies. In 13 cases we found maldevelopment of internal genital; 5 of these cases were diagnosed by an echosonografic routine-examination. The echografic criteria of the different grades of uterine malformations have been determined, systematized and discussed in relation to the symptoms. The most frequent malformations as uterus subseptus, uterus septus, uterus bicornis and uterus duplex are subject of a detailed discussion. This work demonstrates that echosonografic is a very efficient instrument to diagnose uterine malformations and gives us a very exact anatomic interpretation of malformations.

  8. Near atomically smooth alkali antimonide photocathode thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Nasiatka, James; Schubert, Susanne; Smedley, John; Padmore, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Nano-roughness is one of the major factors degrading the emittance of electron beams that can be generated by high efficiency photocathodes, such as the thermally reacted alkali antimonide thin films. In this paper, we demonstrate a co-deposition based method for producing alkali antimonide cathodes that produce near atomic smoothness with high reproducibility. We calculate the effect of the surface roughness on the emittance and show that such smooth cathode surfaces are essential for operation of alkali antimonide cathodes in high field, low emittance radio frequency electron guns and to obtain ultracold electrons for ultrafast electron diffraction applications.

  9. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  10. Peaked and smooth solitons for K *(3, 1) equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H.; Tang, Y.; Tang, S.; Yan, H.; Liu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative theory of differential equations is applied to K *(3, 1) equation, u t = u x u + 2α( uu xxx + 2 u x u xx ). Our procedure shows that K *(3, 1) equation has the regular peakon soliton, cuspon soliton and smooth soliton solutions when sitting on non-zero constant pedestal lim_{x→±∞}u=A≠ 0, or possesses compacton solutions only when lim_{x→±∞}u=A=0. In particular, mathematical analysis and numerical graph are provided for those peakon, cuspon, compacton and smooth soliton solutions.

  11. A Non-smooth Newton Method for Multibody Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Erleben, K.; Ortiz, R.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we deal with the simulation of rigid bodies. Rigid body dynamics have become very important for simulating rigid body motion in interactive applications, such as computer games or virtual reality. We present a novel way of computing contact forces using a Newton method. The contact problem is reformulated as a system of non-linear and non-smooth equations, and we solve this system using a non-smooth version of Newton's method. One of the main contribution of this paper is the reformulation of the complementarity problems, used to model impacts, as a system of equations that can be solved using traditional methods.

  12. Digital smoothing of the Langmuir probe I-V characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Magnus, F.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2008-07-15

    Electrostatic probes or Langmuir probes are the most common diagnostic tools in plasma discharges. The second derivative of the Langmuir probe I-V characteristic is proportional to the electron energy distribution function. Determining the second derivative accurately requires some method of noise suppression. We compare the Savitzky-Golay filter, the Gaussian filter, and polynomial fitting to the Blackman filter for digitally smoothing simulated and measured I-V characteristics. We find that the Blackman filter achieves the most smoothing with minimal distortion for noisy data.

  13. Geology of Smooth Ridge: MARS-IODP Cabled Observatory Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordahl, K. A.; Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.; Aiello, I. W.; Mitts, P.; Greene, H. G.; Gibbs, S.

    2004-12-01

    We document the geologic environment of Smooth Ridge, off shore Central California, where the deep-water node associated with the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research Site) scientific research cable is to be deployed. The MARS cable will provide internet connections and electric power at a node in 890 m of water in support of scientific observatory development and experiments. IODP boreholes are proposed which will be connected to the MARS cable. The deeply incised channels of Monterey and Soquel Canyons flank Smooth Ridge to the SW and NE and the San Gregorio faults marks its NW and upslope boundary. However, the top of Smooth Ridge, as its name implies, only has subdued bathymetric features. These include a subtle downslope channel and one distinct slump scar. A patch of acoustically reflective seafloor on the west side of the ridge, over 5 km from the MARS site, is associated with the only known large-scale biological community on the crest of Smooth Ridge. A reflection seismic survey conducted in 2003 with a high-resolution electrical sparker source reveals the stratigraphy of the Smooth Ridge in unprecedented detail. In conjunction with previously collected widely-spaced multichannnel seismic data, observations and samples obtained using remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) dives, and piston cores, this new survey reveals the erosional and depositional history of Smooth Ridge. The continuity of seismic reflections indicates nearly undisturbed deposition occurred until at least the mid-Miocene. Since that time, and especially since the upper Pliocene, the record is marked by unconformities and infill due to shifting channels, large slumps and landslides, and sediment waves. Several crossing seismic lines provide a quasi-three-dimensional view of a distinct slump scar's structure, and reveal a history of multiple headwall failures. Other subsurface structures, including a much larger, and older, slump feature, have no bathymetric expression at all. 14C dated piston

  14. Inhibitory action of relaxin on human cervical smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Wiqvist, N; Sahni, S; Lindblom, B

    1984-09-01

    The influence of purified porcine relaxin on contractility of human cervical smooth muscle was investigated in vitro. Strips of cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy from pregnant and nonpregnant women and were mounted in a superfused organ chamber for isometric measurement of contractile activity. Relaxin (0.005-25 micrograms/ml) inhibited the spontaneous contractions in cervical strips from 18% of nonpregnant, 68% of early pregnant, and in 100% of term pregnant women. These results indicate that relaxin has an inhibitory action on cervical smooth muscle and that this effect is more constantly detected as pregnancy proceeds.

  15. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-15

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  16. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Architects and acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. It is currently finding application in many architectural applications, including museums. A recent installation in the New Pinakothek Museum in Munich will be illustrated.

  17. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ataga, K I; Orringer, E P

    2000-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia and the related hemoglobinopathies are associated with a large spectrum of renal abnormalities. The patients have impaired urinary concentrating ability, defects in urinary acidification and potassium excretion, and supranormal proximal tubular function. The latter is manifest by increased secretion of creatinine and by reabsorption of phosphorus and beta(2)-microglobulin. Young patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have supranormal renal hemodynamics with elevations in both effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). These parameters decrease with age as well as following the administration of prostaglandin inhibitors. Proteinuria, a common finding in adults with sickle cell disease, may progress to the nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria, hypertension, and increasing anemia predict end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While ESRD can be managed by dialysis and/or renal transplantation, there may be an increased rate of complications in renal transplant recipients with SCD. Hematuria is seen in individuals with all of the SCDs as well as with sickle cell trait. In most cases the etiology of the hematuria turns out to be benign. However, there does appear to be an increased association between SCD and renal medullary carcinoma. Therefore, those SCD patients who present with hematuria should initially undergo a thorough evaluation in order to exclude this aggressive neoplasm. Papillary necrosis may occur due to medullary ischemia and infarction. Erythropoietin levels are usually lower than expected for their degree of anemia and decrease further as renal function deteriorates. An abnormal balance of renal prostaglandins may be responsible for some of the changes in sickle cell nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a component of the acute multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS). Finally, progression of sickle cell nephropathy to ESRD may be slowed by adequate control of hypertension and proteinuria. However, the prevention of the

  18. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  19. Carotid Vascular Abnormalities in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M. D.; Fleischer, J.; Rundek, T.; McMahon, D. J.; Homma, S.; Sacco, R.; Silverberg, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Data on the presence, extent, and reversibility of cardiovascular disease in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are conflicting. Objective: This study evaluated carotid structure and function in PHPT patients compared with population-based controls. Design: This is a case-control study. Setting: The study was conducted in a university hospital metabolic bone disease unit. Participants: Forty-nine men and women with PHPT and 991 controls without PHPT were studied. Outcome Measures: We measured carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque presence and thickness, and carotid stiffness, strain, and distensibility. Results: IMT, carotid plaque thickness, carotid stiffness, and distensibility were abnormal in PHPT patients, and IMT was higher in patients than controls (0.959 vs. 0.907 mm, P < 0.0001). In PHPT, PTH levels, but not calcium concentration, predicted carotid stiffness (P = 0.04), strain (P = 0.06), and distensibility (P = 0.07). Patients with increased carotid stiffness had significantly higher PTH levels than did those with normal stiffness (141 ± 48 vs. 94.9 ± 44 pg/ml, P = 0.002), and odds of abnormal stiffness increased 1.91 (confidence interval = 1.09–3.35; P = 0.024) for every 10 pg/ml increase in PTH, adjusted for age, creatinine, and albumin-corrected calcium. Conclusions: Mild PHPT is associated with subclinical carotid vascular manifestations. IMT, a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, is increased. Measures of carotid stiffness are associated with extent of PTH elevation, suggesting that those with more severe PHPT may have impaired vascular compliance and that PTH, rather than calcium, is the mediator. PMID:19755478

  20. Flow and Transport in Smooth and Rough Unsaturated Wide Aperture Fractures with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordilla, J.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Geyer, T.

    2014-12-01

    Unsaturated flow in fractured porous media exhibits highly complex flow dynamics and a wide range of intermittent flow processes. Especially in wide aperture fractures, flow processes may be dominated by gravitational instead of capillary forces leading to a deviation from the classical volume effective approaches (Richard's equation, Van Genuchten type relationships). The existence of various flow modes such as droplets, rivulets, turbulent and adsorbed films is well known, however, their spatial and temporal distribution within fracture networks is still an open question partially due to the lack of appropriate modeling tools. With our work we want to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying flow and transport dynamics in unsaturated fractured media in order to support the development of more refined upscaled methods, applicable on catchment scales. We present pore- and fracture-scale flow simulations obtained with a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model. The model allows to simulate free-surface flow dynamics including the effect of surface tension for a wide range of wetting conditions. Several empirical and semi-analytical solutions are used to verify the model. We show that our results satisfy the empirical scaling laws for droplet velocity and critical contact angle. Due to the efficient generation of surface tension via particle-particle interaction forces the dynamic wetting of surfaces as well as the velocity enhancement of droplets on saturated surfaces can readily be obtained. Furthermore, we study the effect of surface roughness on droplet velocities. Lastly, we present flow and transport simulations in the presence of an adjacent porous matrix in order to investigate its influence on the fracture surface flow dynamics and transport across the matrix-fracture interface.

  1. Abnormal strain changes of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The tenth Five-Year Project of China Earthquake Administration installed about 40 YRY-4 type high-resolution borehole strainmeters over the mainland China in order to enhance its capability of earthquake-forecasting attempt. The strainmeters are installed in rocks at a depth around 40m and resolve strain changes to the order of 10-11. Measurements are sampled every minute. There are four gauges horizontally placed, 45-degree apart, in an YRY-4 strainmeter, whose measurements are denoted as Si (i=1, 2, 3, 4) in our study. The similarity of the two curves of S1 +S3 and S2 +S4 of Guza recordings gives sufficient credit to the data. Among the sites, Guza is located the nearest (about 140km), from the epicentral area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Even months before the earthquake, it had already been noticed at Guza that the initially smooth curves had become badly interfered from time to time by minor steps or unsymmetrical pulses with periods of minutes~hours. The interferences were dominantly compressional and mostly on the order of 10-9. They were not corresponding to weather changes. Other sites are at least 300km away and did not observe such anomalies. A comparison of the interferences with the long-term and coseismic changes shows a good consistence in the sense of strain variety among them, which suggests a tectonic cause of the abnormal signals. High-passed data show obvious relevance of the abnormal signals to the Wenchuan quake in time. They became stronger as the great event approached, reached the highest at the main shock and diminishing while aftershocks have been dying away. We put forth an Overrun Rate Analysis (ORA) to give out a quantitative description of the interferences. The high-passed interferences can be depicted as positive or negative big values overrunning the normal level. Overrun Rate of Numbers, denoted as Ron, is defined as the total number of overrun points in one day, and Overrun Rate of Strength Ros the daily sum of amplitudes of

  2. Efficient recovery-based error estimation for the smoothed finite element method for smooth and singular linear elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Estrada, Octavio A.; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ródenas, Juan José; Nguyen-Xuan, Hung; Bordas, Stéphane P. A.

    2013-07-01

    An error control technique aimed to assess the quality of smoothed finite element approximations is presented in this paper. Finite element techniques based on strain smoothing appeared in 2007 were shown to provide significant advantages compared to conventional finite element approximations. In particular, a widely cited strength of such methods is improved accuracy for the same computational cost. Yet, few attempts have been made to directly assess the quality of the results obtained during the simulation by evaluating an estimate of the discretization error. Here we propose a recovery type error estimator based on an enhanced recovery technique. The salient features of the recovery are: enforcement of local equilibrium and, for singular problems a "smooth + singular" decomposition of the recovered stress. We evaluate the proposed estimator on a number of test cases from linear elastic structural mechanics and obtain efficient error estimations whose effectivities, both at local and global levels, are improved compared to recovery procedures not implementing these features.

  3. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  4. Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.

  5. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reductions in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

  6. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reduction in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

  7. Notice of Release: 'Stress tolerant smooth bromegrass STSB'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of a stress tolerant smooth bromegrass (STSB) [Bromus inermys, Leyss.] germplasm (PI xxxx) developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK 73036. STSB is release...

  8. Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.

  9. Image Rotation Does Not Rotate Smooth Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stone, Leland S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Subjects viewing a drifting noise pattern make reflexive smooth eye movements in the direction of motion, which follow rapid changes in movement direction. These responses are unaffected by rotations of the pattern, suggesting that there is no coupling between visually sensed rotation and the direction of ocular following.

  10. Smoothing of, and Parameter Estimation from, Noisy Biophysical Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Paninski, Liam

    2009-01-01

    Biophysically detailed models of single cells are difficult to fit to real data. Recent advances in imaging techniques allow simultaneous access to various intracellular variables, and these data can be used to significantly facilitate the modelling task. These data, however, are noisy, and current approaches to building biophysically detailed models are not designed to deal with this. We extend previous techniques to take the noisy nature of the measurements into account. Sequential Monte Carlo (“particle filtering”) methods, in combination with a detailed biophysical description of a cell, are used for principled, model-based smoothing of noisy recording data. We also provide an alternative formulation of smoothing where the neural nonlinearities are estimated in a non-parametric manner. Biophysically important parameters of detailed models (such as channel densities, intercompartmental conductances, input resistances, and observation noise) are inferred automatically from noisy data via expectation-maximisation. Overall, we find that model-based smoothing is a powerful, robust technique for smoothing of noisy biophysical data and for inference of biophysical parameters in the face of recording noise. PMID:19424506

  11. Caveolin-1 regulates contractility in differentiated vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Je, Hyun-Dong; Gallant, Cynthia; Leavis, Paul C; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2004-01-01

    Caveolin is a principal component of caveolar membranes. In the present study, we utilized a decoy peptide approach to define the degree of involvement of caveolin in PKC-dependent regulation of contractility of differentiated vascular smooth muscle. The primary isoform of caveolin in ferret aorta vascular smooth muscle is caveolin-1. Chemical loading of contractile vascular smooth muscle tissue with a synthetic caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide inhibited PKC-dependent increases in contractility induced by a phorbol ester or an alpha agonist. Peptide loading also resulted in a significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced adducin Ser662 phosphorylation, an intracellular monitor of PKC kinase activity, ERK1/2 activation, and Ser789 phosphorylation of the actin binding protein caldesmon. alpha-Agonist-induced ERK1-1/2 activation was also inhibited by the caveolin-1 peptide. Scrambled peptide-loaded tissues or sham-loaded tissues were unaffected with respect to both contractility and signaling. Depolarization-induced activation of contraction was not affected by caveolin peptide loading. Similar results with respect to contractility and ERK1/2 activation during exposure to the phorbol ester or the alpha-agonist were obtained with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. These results are consistent with a role for caveolin-1 in the coordination of signaling leading to the regulation of contractility of smooth muscle.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... characteristic of the fruit, especially that from young trees. ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND.... Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is...

  13. Current spread in the smooth muscle of the rabbit aorta

    PubMed Central

    Mekata, F.

    1974-01-01

    1. The electrical responses of the smooth muscle cells of the rabbit aorta to both extracellular and intracellular stimulation were studied using the partitioned chamber and Wheatstone bridge method. 2. No spontaneous electrical activity was recorded when the tissue was soaked in either isotonic or hypertonic Krebs solutions, and strong depolarizing currents also failed to trigger action potentials in either solution. 3. The circular muscle of the aorta has cable properties. Mean values in isotonic Krebs solution were 2·1 mm for space constant and 433 msec for time constant. 4. The input resistance (mean 12 MΩ) measured with the Wheatstone bridge method was considerably smaller than that calculated from values measured with the partitioned chamber method. 5. Electrotonic potentials could be recorded from the smooth muscle of `injury bundles' although their amplitude was smaller than that from the intact bundle. 6. High concentrations of noradrenaline readily induce oscillatory potentials from the aorta in both isotonic and hypertonic Krebs solutions. It was estimated by simultaneous recording with two micro-electrodes that noradrenaline-induced oscillatory potential can conduct in both longitudinal and transverse directions of the smooth muscle. 7. These results suggest that the smooth muscle of the aorta behaves like a syncytium or single unit muscle and activation of cells on the inner surface of the media can be induced both by electrotonic current spread and by propagation of oscillatory potentials from the outer cells directly activated by the transmitter. PMID:4436818

  14. Likelihood Methods for Adaptive Filtering and Smoothing. Technical Report #455.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ronald W.

    The dynamic linear model or Kalman filtering model provides a useful methodology for predicting the past, present, and future states of a dynamic system, such as an object in motion or an economic or social indicator that is changing systematically with time. Recursive likelihood methods for adaptive Kalman filtering and smoothing are developed.…

  15. An adaptive filter for smoothing noisy radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Smith, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    A spatial domain adaptive Wiener filter for smoothing radar images corrupted by multiplicative noise is presented. The filter is optimum in a minimum mean squared error sense, computationally efficient, and preserves edges in the image better than other filters. The proposed algorithm can also be used for processing optical images with illumination variations that have a multiplicative effect.

  16. Weight Factor Selection in Double Exponential Smoothing Enrollment Forecasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Don E.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of double exponential smoothing are discussed relative to other types of pattern-based enrollment forecasting methods. The basic assumptions and formulas for its use are outlined. The difficulties associated with selecting an appropriate weight factor are discussed, and the potential effect on prediction results is illustrated.…

  17. An Investigation of Two Procedures for Smoothing Test Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patricia B.; Sabers, Darrell L.

    Several techniques have been developed for creating continuous smooth distributions of test norms. This paper describes two studies that explore the behavior of cubic splines in order to determine their appropriateness for use in test norming. The first study uses data from the Curriculum Referenced Tests of Mastery (CRTM) and employs two…

  18. Postprocessing Fourier spectral methods: The case of smooth solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Archilla, B.; Novo, J.; Titi, E.S.

    1998-11-01

    A postprocessing technique to improve the accuracy of Galerkin methods, when applied to dissipative partial differential equations, is examined in the particular case of smooth solutions. Pseudospectral methods are shown to perform poorly. This performance is analyzed and a refined postprocessing technique is proposed.

  19. An Error Detection and Smoothing Algorithm for Infrared Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    34A Dynamic Programming Technique for Nonlinear ’R. L. Lucke, A. P. Schaum , J. C. Kershenstein, J. Michalo- Smoothing", Proc. IEEE International Conf...UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY LAUREL. MARYLAND REFERENCES 1R. L. Lucke, A. P. Schaum , J. C. Kershenstein, J. 7 H. Ney, "A Dynamic Programming

  20. Convergence rate of spherical harmonic expansions of smooth functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Feng; Wang, Kunyang

    2008-12-01

    We extend a well-known result of Bonami and Clerc on the almost everywhere (a.e.) convergence of Cesàro means of spherical harmonic expansions. For smooth functions measured in terms of [phi]-derivatives on the unit sphere, we obtained the sharp a.e. convergence rate of Cesàro means of their spherical harmonic expansions.

  1. Easy Songs for Smooth Transitions in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Nina; Aghayan, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Young children in school go through 16 to 20 transitions every day. What can make 10 children settle down, clean up, and move from room to room without protest? Even if you are uncomfortable singing in public, the simple songs in this book will help you glide smoothly through tough transitions such as greetings and good-byes, calling attention,…

  2. Calderón's problem for Lipschitz piecewise smooth conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun Kim, Sung

    2008-10-01

    We consider Lipschitz conductivities which are piecewise smooth across polyhedral boundaries in {\\bb R}^3 . Using complex geometrical optics solutions for Schrödinger operators with certain δ-function potentials, we obtain global uniqueness for Calderón's inverse conductivity problem.

  3. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the palpebral conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Mora, L Evelyn; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A; Vera, Ana M; Rubio, Rosa Isela; Mayorquín-Ruiz, Mariana; Salcedo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Smooth muscle hamartoma is defined as a disorganized focus or an overgrowth of mature smooth muscle, generally with low capacity of autonomous growth and benign behavior. The implicated tissues are mature and proliferate in a disorganized fashion. A healthy 5-day-old Mexican boy was referred to the authors' hospital in México city for evaluation of a "cystic" lesion of the right eye that had been noted since birth. The pregnancy and delivery were unremarkable. On physical examination, there was a reddish-pink soft lesion with a tender "cystic" appearance, which was probably emerging from the upper eyelid conjunctiva, which measured 2.7 cm in its widest diameter and transilluminated. Ultrasound imaging revealed an anterior "cystic" lesion with normally formed phakic eye. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the lesion was dissected from the upper tarsal subconjunctival space. Subsequent histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of congenital smooth muscle hamartoma (CSMH) of the tarsal conjunctiva. The authors' research revealed that only one case of CSMH localized in the conjunctiva (Roper GJ, Smith MS, Lueder GT. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the conjunctival fornix. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:643-4) has been reported to date in the literature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this current case would be the second case reported of CSMH in this anatomic location. Therefore, the authors' recommendation is to include CSMH in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass that presents in the fornix and palpebral conjunctiva.

  4. Fractalkine-induced smooth muscle cell proliferation in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Perros, F; Dorfmüller, P; Souza, R; Durand-Gasselin, I; Godot, V; Capel, F; Adnot, S; Eddahibi, S; Mazmanian, M; Fadel, E; Hervé, P; Simonneau, G; Emilie, D; Humbert, M

    2007-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary arterial resistance due to endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting in chronic obstruction of small pulmonary arteries. There is evidence that inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of human and experimental pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the study was to address the role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in the inflammatory responses and pulmonary vascular remodelling of a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension model. The expression of CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 was studied in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension by means of immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR on laser-captured microdissected pulmonary arteries. It was demonstrated that CX3CL1 was expressed by inflammatory cells surrounding pulmonary arterial lesions and that smooth muscle cells from these vessels had increased CX3CR1 expression. It was then shown that cultured rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells expressed CX3CR1 and that CX3CL1 induced proliferation but not migration of these cells. In conclusion, the current authors proposed that fractalkine may act as a growth factor for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Chemokines may thus play a role in pulmonary artery remodelling.

  5. Wide-band array signal processing via spectral smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Guanghan; Kailath, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A novel algorithm for the estimation of direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of multiple wide-band sources via spectral smoothing is presented. The proposed algorithm does not require an initial DOA estimate or a specific signal model. The advantages of replacing the MUSIC search with an ESPRIT search are discussed.

  6. Older Smooth Plains on Mercury Obscured by Impact Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    On the basis of morphology and spectral reflectance, the surface of Mercury can be broadly divided into three major terrain types: low-reflectance material, intermediate terrain, and smooth plains. This last terrain type is distinguished morphologically by a comparatively smooth and gently rolling surface, has a lower density of impact craters and basins than other surface units on the planet, and typically occupies low-lying areas. Their smooth texture, embayment of other landforms, and distinctive partial to complete burial of older impact features suggests that most of these plains are probably volcanic in nature. Recent mapping work has shown that smooth plains younger than the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) occupy ~30% of Mercury's surface. An outstanding question concerns the distribution and nature of older plains units on the planet, especially those that underlie large impact features and may correspond morphologically to smooth plains but have not yet been mapped accordingly. A preliminary survey of such terrain yielded five exemplar sites: at the Amaral (26.5°S, 117.8°E; 101 km diameter), Mickiewicz (23.2°N, 256.7°E; 103 km), and Vivaldi (13.8°N, 274.1°E; 212 km) basins and at two unnamed features at 53.1°S, 38.6°E (83 km in diameter) and 7.1°N, 38.3°E (118 km). We expect that more thorough mapping will uncover additional candidate areas. In each of the example sites, an extensive continuous ejecta deposit and secondary impact field characterize the proximal and distal facies, respectively, of the impact feature; and in each case, the secondaries field (and impact-sculpted terrain in the case of Vivaldi) is superposed upon patches of plains that otherwise appear smooth and host numerous, flooded antecedent craters tens of kilometers in diameter. Moreover, these smooth patches occur at several ranges of azimuths surrounding each crater or basin, suggesting that they may have formed contiguous units prior to formation of the younger

  7. Congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities in patients with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Westcott, M A; Dynes, M C; Remer, E M; Donaldson, J S; Dias, L S

    1992-11-01

    This article presents a radiologic review of the spectrum of acquired and congenital orthopedic abnormalities found in patients with myelomeningocele. These abnormalities are caused predominantly by muscle imbalance, paralysis, and decreased sensation in the lower extremity. Iatrogenic injury, such as a postoperative tethered cord, may also cause bone abnormalities. Selected images were obtained from more than 800 children. Important entities presented include spinal curvatures such as kyphosis, scoliosis, and lordosis; subluxation and dislocation of the hip, coxa valga, contractures of the hip, and femoral torsion; knee deformities; rotational abnormalities of the lower extremity and external and internal torsion; ankle and foot abnormalities such as ankle valgus, calcaneus foot, congenital vertical talus (rocker-bottom deformity), and talipes equinovarus; and metaphyseal, diaphyseal, and physeal fractures. Familiarity with congenital abnormalities and an understanding of the pathogenesis of acquired disorders in patients with myelomeningocele are essential for proper radiologic interpretation and timely therapy.

  8. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    SciTech Connect

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  9. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered.

  10. Review of congenital inner ear abnormalities on CT temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Yiin, R S Z; Tang, P H; Tan, T Y

    2011-09-01

    The aetiology of profound hearing loss in children is complex and multifactorial. Congenital inner ear abnormality is a major cause of hearing loss in children. CT temporal bone imaging is the modality of choice in the investigation of hearing loss. Recognising the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear guides the clinician's management of the condition. This pictorial essay illustrates the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear on high resolution CT temporal bone images and correlation with developmental arrest during embryology.

  11. Abnormal Breathing Patterns Predict Extubation Failure in Neurocritically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Punj, Pragya; Nattanmai, Premkumar; George, Pravin

    2017-01-01

    In neurologically injured patients, predictors for extubation success are not well defined. Abnormal breathing patterns may result from the underlying neurological injury. We present three patients with abnormal breathing patterns highlighting failure of successful extubation as a result of these neurologically driven breathing patterns. Recognizing abnormal breathing patterns may be predictive of extubation failure and thus need to be considered as part of extubation readiness. PMID:28348899

  12. [Thymic abnormalities in patients with myasthenia gravis].

    PubMed

    Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Nagane, Yuriko

    2011-07-01

    Thymic abnormalities were first noticed at autopsies of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) more than 100 years ago. The thymus is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of MG, an autoimmune disease mediated by antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of skeletal muscles. Production of these antibodies in B cells is T cell dependent. T cells potentially specific for AChR are probably generated in the thymus via nontolerogenic thymopoiesis by an aberrant function of thymic epithelial cells. However, generation of these AChR-specific T cells is not the cause of MG, because these cells are also found in healthy individuals. The pathogenetic step in MG involves the activation of these potentially AChR-specific T cells; this activation is the trigger to develop the disease and a therapeutic target. The intra-thymic activation of AChR-specific T cells is probably limited to particular types of MG patients: those with early-onset MG in whom the thymus exhibits lymphofollicular hyperplasia (TLFH) and a few patients in whom MG is associated with a thymoma. The majority of thymomas and atrophic thymuses of patients with late-onset MG, an increasingly common condition, do not exhibit this T cell-activation process. In this paper, we review the available literature on thymic changes (TLFH, thymoma, and atrophic thymus) and the relationship of these changes to the pathogenesis of MG.

  13. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    PubMed

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  14. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = −0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  15. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making.

  16. Abnormal osmotic regulation in trpv4-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Wolfgang; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Osmotic homeostasis is one of the most aggressively defended physiological parameters in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying osmotic regulation are poorly understood. The transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily (TRPV4), is an osmotically activated ion channel that is expressed in circumventricular organs in the mammalian CNS, which is an important site of osmotic sensing. We have generated trpv4-null mice and observed abnormalities of their osmotic regulation. trpv4-/- mice drank less water and became more hyperosmolar than did wild-type littermates, a finding that was seen with and without administration of hypertonic saline. In addition, plasma levels of antidiuretic hormone were significantly lower in trpv4-/- mice than in wild-type littermates after a hyperosmotic challenge. Continuous s.c. infusion of the antidiuretic hormone analogue, dDAVP, resulted in systemic hypotonicity in trpv4-/- mice, despite the fact that their renal water reabsorption capacity was normal. Thus, the response to both hyper- and hypoosmolar stimuli is impaired in trpv4-/- mice. After a hyperosmolar challenge, there was markedly reduced expression of c-FOS in the circumventricular organ, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, of trpv4-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. This finding suggests that there is an impairment of osmotic sensing in the CNS of trpv4-/- mice. These data indicate that TRPV4 is necessary for the normal response to changes in osmotic pressure and functions as an osmotic sensor in the CNS. PMID:14581612

  17. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  18. Abnormal hopping conduction in semiconducting polycrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeongho; Mitchel, William C.; Elhamri, Said; Grazulis, Larry; Altfeder, Igor

    2013-07-01

    We report the observation of an abnormal carrier transport phenomenon in polycrystalline semiconducting graphene grown by solid carbon source molecular beam epitaxy. At the lowest temperatures in samples with small grain size, the conduction does not obey the two-dimensional Mott-type variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction often reported in semiconducting graphene. The hopping exponent p is found to deviate from the 1/3 value expected for Mott VRH with several samples exhibiting a p=2/5 dependence. We also show that the maximum energy difference between hopping sites is larger than the activation energy for nearest-neighbor hopping, violating the assumptions of the Mott model. The 2/5 dependence more closely agrees with the quasi-one-dimensional VRH model proposed by Fogler, Teber, and Shklovskii (FTS). In the FTS model, conduction occurs by tunneling between neighboring metallic wires. We suggest that metallic edge states and conductive grain boundaries play the role of the metallic wires in the FTS model.

  19. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  20. Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Sachdev, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury to multiple vital organ systems and a chronic hemolytic anemia, both contributing to progressive organ dysfunction. The introduction of treatments that induce protective fetal hemoglobin and reduce infectious complications has greatly prolonged survival. However, with increased longevity, cardiovascular complications are increasingly evident, with the notable development of a progressive proliferative systemic vasculopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is reported in autopsy studies and numerous clinical studies have shown that increased pulmonary pressures are an important risk marker for mortality in these patients. In epidemiological studies, the development of PH is associated with intravascular hemolysis, cutaneous leg ulceration, renal insufficiency, iron overload and liver dysfunction. Chronic anemia in sickle cell disease results in cardiac chamber dilation and a compensatory increase in left ventricular mass. This is often accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction which has also been a strong independent predictor of mortality patients with sickle cell disease. Both PH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with marked abnormalities in exercise capacity in these patients. Sudden death is an increasingly recognized problem and further cardiac investigations are necessary to recognize and treat high-risk patients. PMID:22440212

  1. Abnormal tyrosine metabolism in chronic cluster headache.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Giovanni; Leone, Massimo; Bussone, Gennaro; Fiore, Paola Di; Bolner, Andrea; Aguggia, Marco; Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Perini, Francesco; Giordano, Giuseppe; Gucciardi, Antonina; Leon, Alberta

    2017-02-01

    Objective Episodic cluster headache is characterized by abnormalities in tyrosine metabolism (i.e. elevated levels of dopamine, tyramine, octopamine and synephrine and low levels of noradrenalin in plasma and platelets.) It is unknown, however, if such biochemical anomalies are present and/or constitute a predisposing factor in chronic cluster headache. To test this hypothesis, we measured the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline together with those of elusive amines, such as tyramine, octopamine and synephrine, in plasma of chronic cluster patients and control individuals. Methods Plasma levels of dopamine, noradrenaline and trace amines, including tyramine, octopamine and synephrine, were measured in a group of 23 chronic cluster headache patients (10 chronic cluster ab initio and 13 transformed from episodic cluster), and 16 control participants. Results The plasma levels of dopamine, noradrenaline and tyramine were several times higher in chronic cluster headache patients compared with controls. The levels of octopamine and synephrine were significantly lower in plasma of these patients with respect to control individuals. Conclusions These results suggest that anomalies in tyrosine metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic cluster headache and constitute a predisposing factor for the transformation of the episodic into a chronic form of this primary headache.

  2. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  3. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  4. Cytogenetic Analysis for Suspected Chromosomal Abnormalities; A Five Years Experience

    PubMed Central

    Karra, Vijay Kumar; Jindal, Ankur; Puppala, Madhavi; Singh, Pratiksha; Rawat, Kanchan; Kapoor, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chromosomal abnormalities are the results of alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes causing significant human morbidity and mortality. They are responsible for a large proportion of miscarriages, developmental delay, disorders of sexual development, congenital malformations and mental retardation. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of different chromosomal abnormalities in North Indian patients referred for cytogenetic analysis. Materials and Methods Total of 859 patients ranging from newborn to 37 years of age were referred to the division of genetics, Department of Paediatrics between 2010 and 2015, with a variety of clinical disorders; Down syndrome (DS), Turner’s syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome; amenorrhea; ambiguous sex and multiple congenital malformations. Chromosomal analysis was performed on lymphocyte culture according to standard methods. Results Of the 859 cases studied, 371 (43.1%) had chromosomal abnormalities. The most common autosomal abnormalities were DS 302 (81.4%) and sex chromosomal abnormalities were TS 51 (13.7%). Numerical abnormalities were accounted for 353 (41.0%) and structural abnormalities 18 (2.0%), respectively. Various other chromosomal anomalies were also reported. Conclusion We have reviewed the incidence and distribution of chromosomal abnormalities and found higher rate of chromosomal abnormalities 43.1% in the referred cases. Our data suggest that chromosomal analysis is important tool in the evaluation of genetic disorders and helps clinicians to provide accurate diagnosis and proper genetic counselling. PMID:27790464

  5. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  6. Carvacrol induces the apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianlong; Fan, Kai; Wang, Peng; Yu, Juan; Liu, Ruxia; Qi, Hanping; Sun, Hongli; Cao, Yonggang

    2016-01-05

    The abnormal apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is an important pathophysiological process in pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Carvacrol, an essential oil compound from oregano and thyme, has displayed antimicrobial, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. Although carvacrol has pro-apoptosis properties in tumor cells, the underlying mechanisms of carvacrol in PASMC apoptosis remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we aim to investigate the role of carvacrol in pulmonary vascular remodeling and PASMC apoptosis in hypoxia. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Measurements and pulmonary pathomorphology data show that the ratio of the heart weight/tibia length (HW/TL), the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) and the medial width of the pulmonary artery increased in chronic hypoxia and were reversed by carvacrol treatment under hypoxia. Additionally, carvacrol inhibited PASMC viability, attenuated oxidative stress, induced mitochondria membrane depolarization, increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, suppressed Bcl-2 expression, decreased procaspase-3 expression, promoted caspase-3 activation, and inhibited the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that carvacrol attenuates the pulmonary vascular remodeling and promotes PASMC apoptosis by acting on, at least in part, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This process might provide us new insight into the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Diffuse and uncontrolled vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in rapidly progressing pediatric moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Reid, Amy J; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B; Regalado, Ellen S; Milewicz, Allen L; El-Hakam, Lisa M; Dauser, Robert C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2010-09-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare stroke syndrome of unknown etiology resulting from stenosis or occlusion of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) in association with an abnormal vascular network in the basal ganglia. Although the highest incidence of moyamoya disease is in pediatric patients, pathology reports have been primarily limited to adult samples and describe occlusive fibrocellular lesions in the intimae of affected arteries. We describe the case of a young girl with primary moyamoya disease who presented at 18 months of age with right hemiparesis following an ischemic stroke. Angiography showed stenosis of the distal left ICA, left middle cerebral artery, and right ICA. An emergent left-sided dural inversion was performed. Recurrent strokes and alternating hemiplegia necessitated a right dural inversion 6 months later. Nonetheless, her aggressive disease proved uniquely refractory to surgical revascularization, and she succumbed to recurrent strokes and neurological deterioration at 2.5 years of age. Pathological specimens revealed a striking bilateral occlusion of the anterior carotid circulation resulting from intimal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Most strikingly, the ascending aorta and the superior mesenteric artery demonstrated similar intimal proliferation, along with SMC proliferation in the media. The systemic pathology involving multiple arteries in this extremely young child, the first case of its kind available for autopsy, suggests that globally uncontrolled SMC proliferation, in the absence of environmental risk factors and likely resulting from an underlying genetic alteration, may be a primary etiologic event leading to moyamoya disease.

  8. Olfactory Receptors Modulate Physiological Processes in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalbe, Benjamin; Knobloch, Jürgen; Schulz, Viola M.; Wecker, Christine; Schlimm, Marian; Scholz, Paul; Jansen, Fabian; Stoelben, Erich; Philippou, Stathis; Hecker, Erich; Lübbert, Hermann; Koch, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) significantly contribute to the progression of chronic inflammatory airway diseases with limited therapeutic options, such as severe asthma and COPD. These abnormalities include the contractility and hyperproduction of inflammatory proteins. To develop therapeutic strategies, key pathological mechanisms, and putative clinical targets need to be identified. In the present study, we demonstrated that the human olfactory receptors (ORs) OR1D2 and OR2AG1 are expressed at the RNA and protein levels in HASMCs. Using fluorometric calcium imaging, specific agonists for OR2AG1 and OR1D2 were identified to trigger transient Ca2+ increases in HASMCs via a cAMP-dependent signal transduction cascade. Furthermore, the activation of OR2AG1 via amyl butyrate inhibited the histamine-induced contraction of HASMCs, whereas the stimulation of OR1D2 with bourgeonal led to an increase in cell contractility. In addition, OR1D2 activation induced the secretion of IL-8 and GM-CSF. Both effects were inhibited by the specific OR1D2 antagonist undecanal. We herein provide the first evidence to show that ORs are functionally expressed in HASMCs and regulate pathophysiological processes. Therefore, ORs might be new therapeutic targets for these diseases, and blocking ORs could be an auspicious strategy for the treatment of early-stage chronic inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:27540365

  9. Identification of BPIFA1/SPLUNC1 as an epithelium-derived smooth muscle relaxing factor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tongde; Huang, Julianne; Moore, Patrick J.; Little, Michael S.; Walton, William G.; Fellner, Robert C.; Alexis, Neil E.; Peter Di, Y.; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Tilley, Stephen L.; Tarran, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and abnormal airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. Bacterial permeability family member A1, BPIFA1, is a secreted innate defence protein. Here we show that BPIFA1 levels are reduced in sputum samples from asthmatic patients and that BPIFA1 is secreted basolaterally from healthy, but not asthmatic human bronchial epithelial cultures (HBECs), where it suppresses ASM contractility by binding to and inhibiting the Ca2+ influx channel Orai1. We have localized this effect to a specific, C-terminal α-helical region of BPIFA1. Furthermore, tracheas from Bpifa1−/− mice are hypercontractile, and this phenotype is reversed by the addition of recombinant BPIFA1. Our data suggest that BPIFA1 deficiency in asthmatic airways promotes Orai1 hyperactivity, increased ASM contraction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Strategies that target Orai1 or the BPIFA1 deficiency in asthma may lead to novel therapies to treat this disease. PMID:28165446

  10. A human iPSC model of Hutchinson Gilford Progeria reveals vascular smooth muscle and mesenchymal stem cell defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinqiu; Lian, Qizhou; Zhu, Guili; Zhou, Fan; Sui, Lin; Tan, Cindy; Mutalif, Rafidah Abdul; Navasankari, Raju; Zhang, Yuelin; Tse, Hung-Fat; Stewart, Colin L; Colman, Alan

    2011-01-07

    The segmental premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a truncated and farnesylated form of Lamin A called progerin. HGPS affects mesenchymal lineages, including the skeletal system, dermis, and vascular smooth muscle (VSMC). To understand the underlying molecular pathology of HGPS, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from HGPS dermal fibroblasts. The iPSCs were differentiated into neural progenitors, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, VSMCs, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Progerin levels were highest in MSCs, VSMCs, and fibroblasts, in that order, with these lineages displaying increased DNA damage, nuclear abnormalities, and HGPS-VSMC accumulating numerous calponin-staining inclusion bodies. Both HGPS-MSC and -VSMC viability was compromised by stress and hypoxia in vitro and in vivo (MSC). Because MSCs reside in low oxygen niches in vivo, we propose that, in HGPS, this causes additional depletion of the MSC pool responsible for replacing differentiated cells lost to progerin toxicity.

  11. Vascular smooth muscle G(q) signaling is involved in high blood pressure in both induced renal and genetic vascular smooth muscle-derived models of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Harris, David M; Cohn, Heather I; Pesant, Stéphanie; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Eckhart, Andrea D

    2007-11-01

    More than 30% of the US population has high blood pressure (BP), and less than a third of people treated for hypertension have it controlled. In addition, the etiology of most high BP is not known. Having a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying hypertension could potentially increase the effectiveness of treatment. Because G(q) signaling mediates vasoconstriction and vascular function can cause BP abnormalities, we were interested in determining the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) G(q) signaling in two divergent models of hypertension: a renovascular model of hypertension through renal artery stenosis and a genetic model of hypertension using mice with VSM-derived high BP. Inhibition of VSM G(q) signaling attenuated BP increases induced by renal artery stenosis to a similar extent as losartan, an ANG II receptor blocker and current antihypertensive therapy. Inhibition of G(q) signaling also attenuated high BP in our genetic VSM-derived hypertensive model. In contrast, BP remained elevated 25% following treatment with losartan, and prazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, only decreased BP by 35%. Inhibition of G(q) signaling attenuated VSM reactivity to ANG II and resulted in a 2.4-fold rightward shift in EC(50). We also determined that inhibition of G(q) signaling was able to reverse VSM hypertrophy in the genetic VSM-derived hypertensive model. These results suggest that G(q) signaling is an important signaling pathway in two divergent models of hypertension and, perhaps, optimization of antihypertensive therapy could occur with the identification of particular G(q)-coupled receptors involved.

  12. Overexpression of Smooth Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Leads to Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response and Autophagic Turnover of Thick Filament-associated Proteins in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kwartler, Callie S.; Chen, Jiyuan; Thakur, Dhananjay; Li, Shumin; Baskin, Kedryn; Wang, Shanzhi; Wang, Zhao V.; Walker, Lori; Hill, Joseph A.; Epstein, Henry F.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Duplications spanning nine genes at the genomic locus 16p13.1 predispose individuals to acute aortic dissections. The most likely candidate gene in this region leading to the predisposition for dissection is MYH11, which encodes smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). The effects of increased expression of MYH11 on smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypes were explored using mouse aortic SMCs with transgenic overexpression of one isoform of SM-MHC. We found that these cells show increased expression of Myh11 and myosin filament-associated contractile genes at the message level when compared with control SMCs, but not at the protein level due to increased protein degradation. Increased expression of Myh11 resulted in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in SMCs, which led to a paradoxical decrease of protein levels through increased autophagic degradation. An additional consequence of ER stress in SMCs was increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, resulting in increased contractile signaling and contraction. The increased signals for contraction further promote transcription of contractile genes, leading to a feedback loop of metabolic abnormalities in these SMCs. We suggest that overexpression of MYH11 can lead to increased ER stress and autophagy, findings that may be globally implicated in disease processes associated with genomic duplications. PMID:24711452

  13. Overexpression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain leads to activation of the unfolded protein response and autophagic turnover of thick filament-associated proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kwartler, Callie S; Chen, Jiyuan; Thakur, Dhananjay; Li, Shumin; Baskin, Kedryn; Wang, Shanzhi; Wang, Zhao V; Walker, Lori; Hill, Joseph A; Epstein, Henry F; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2014-05-16

    Duplications spanning nine genes at the genomic locus 16p13.1 predispose individuals to acute aortic dissections. The most likely candidate gene in this region leading to the predisposition for dissection is MYH11, which encodes smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). The effects of increased expression of MYH11 on smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypes were explored using mouse aortic SMCs with transgenic overexpression of one isoform of SM-MHC. We found that these cells show increased expression of Myh11 and myosin filament-associated contractile genes at the message level when compared with control SMCs, but not at the protein level due to increased protein degradation. Increased expression of Myh11 resulted in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in SMCs, which led to a paradoxical decrease of protein levels through increased autophagic degradation. An additional consequence of ER stress in SMCs was increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, resulting in increased contractile signaling and contraction. The increased signals for contraction further promote transcription of contractile genes, leading to a feedback loop of metabolic abnormalities in these SMCs. We suggest that overexpression of MYH11 can lead to increased ER stress and autophagy, findings that may be globally implicated in disease processes associated with genomic duplications.

  14. Ultrasound diagnosis of fetal renal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tiran; Sairam, Shanthi; Kumarasiri, Shanya

    2014-04-01

    Development of the urogenital system in humans is a complex process; consequently, renal anomalies are among the most common congenital anomalies. The fetal urinary tract can be visualised ultrasonically from 11 weeks onwards, allowing recognition of megacystis at 11-14 weeks, which warrants comprehensive risk assessment of possible underlying chromosomal aneuploidy or obstructive uropathy. A mid-trimester anomaly scan enables detection of most renal anomalies with higher sensitivity. Bilateral renal agenesis can be confirmed ultrasonically, with empty renal fossae and absent bladder filling, along with severe oligohydramnios or anhydramnios. Dysplastic kidneys are recognised as they appear large, hyperechoic, and with or without cystic spaces, which occurs within the renal cortex. Presence of dilated ureters without obvious dilatation of the collecting system needs careful examination of the upper urinary tract to exclude duplex kidney system. Sonographically, it is also possible to differentiate between infantile type and adult type of polycystic kidney diseases, which are usually single gene disorders. Upper urinary tract dilatation is one of the most common abnormalities diagnosed prenatally. It is usually caused by transient urine flow impairment at the level of the pelvi-ureteric junction and vesico-ureteric junction, which improves with time in most cases. Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction is mainly caused by posterior urethral valves and urethral atresia. Thick bladder walls and a dilated posterior urethra (keyhole sign) are suggestive of posterior urethral valves. Prenatal ultrasounds cannot be used confidently to assess renal function. Liquor volume and echogenicity of renal parenchyma, however, can be used as a guide to indirectly assess the underlying renal reserve. Renal tract anomalies may be isolated but can also be associated with other congenital anomalies. Therefore, a thorough examination of the other systems is mandatory to exclude possible

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Lipid Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Karkinski, Dimitar; Georgievski, Oliver; Dzekova-Vidimliski, Pavlina; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Dokic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a great interest in the interaction between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic dysfunction, but there is no consistent data suggesting that OSA is a risk factor for dyslipidemia. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in patients suspected of OSA, referred to our sleep laboratory for polysomnography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred patients referred to our hospital with suspected OSA, and all of them underwent for standard polysomnography. All patients with respiratory disturbance index (RDI) above 15 were diagnosed with OSA. In the morning after 12 hours fasting, the blood sample was collected from all patients. Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), were determined in all study patients. In the study, both OSA positive and OSA negative patients were divided according to the body mass index (BMI) in two groups. The first group with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 and the second group with BMI > 30 kg/m^2. RESULTS: OSA positive patients with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and statistically significant lower level of HDL compared to OSA negative patients with BMI ≤ 30. There were no statistically significant differences in age and LDL levels between these groups. OSA positive patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2 had higher levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and lower levels of HDL versus OSA negative patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2, but without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: OSA and obesity are potent risk factors for dyslipidemias. OSA could play a significant role in worsening of lipid metabolism in non-obese patients. But in obese patients, the extra weight makes the metabolic changes of lipid metabolism, and the role of OSA is not that very important like in non-obese patients. PMID

  16. Myocardial bioenergetic abnormalities in experimental uremia

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758

  17. Smooth Horizonless Geometries Deep Inside the Black-Hole Regime.

    PubMed

    Bena, Iosif; Giusto, Stefano; Martinec, Emil J; Russo, Rodolfo; Shigemori, Masaki; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P

    2016-11-11

    We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges, and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D1-D5-P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Deep in this throat, the black-hole singularity is resolved into a smooth cap. We also identify the holographically dual states in the N=(4,4) D1-D5 orbifold conformal field theory (CFT). Our solutions are among the states counted by the CFT elliptic genus, and provide examples of smooth microstate geometries within the ensemble of supersymmetric black-hole microstates.

  18. Smooth plains on Mercury. A comparison with Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, Francesca; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Carli, Cristian; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ferrari, Sabrina; Benkhoff, Johannes; Massironi, Matteo; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Lorenza; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, has been visited by MESSENGER spacecraft and it is the target of the future BepiColombo mission. After 3 years of orbit around Mercury a global coverage of the surface has been done. A recent work by Denevi et al. (2014), based on the MESSENGER data, revels that ~27% of Mercury's surface is covered by smooth plains (SP). Large part of Mercury's SP seems to have volcanic origin, while a further 2% have been identified as Odin-type plains which are of difficult interpretation and represent the knobby and hummocky plains surrounding the Caloris basin. SPs are widespread on Mercury's surface and they have an uneven distribution. Large part of SPs are mainly concentrated in the northern hemisphere, within the Caloris basins and in the circum-Caloris plains. Moreover has been observed that differences in material correspond to spectral slope variations. High-reflectance red plains (HRP) are characterized by spectral slope values greater than the average while low-reflectance blue plains (LBP) are identified thanks to their lower-than-average spectral slopes. X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) data show that HRP-type areas are associated with a low-Fe (<4wt% Fe) basalt-like composition, while the LBP are Fe poor ultramafic composition (high Mg/Si and Ca/Si and low Al/Si)(Nittler et al., 2011; Weider et al., 2012; Denevi at al., 2014). Vesta, explored by Dawn in 2011, does not show Mercury-like smooth plain, but it presents highly localized smooth material, such as in the Marcia crater floor and rim (Yingst et al., 2014). This unit is characterized by low albedo and has been interpreted as very young impact melt. Another example of smooth terrain on Vesta has been found in the Rheasilvia basin. This area occurs in irregularly-bounded of very smooth material, located on slopes or topographically lower regions (Yingst et al., 2014). This unit has been interpreted as ejecta emplaced during the Rheasilvia impact event, which could be modified by

  19. Spatially recursive filtering and smoothing for multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Methods developed recently by the author to solve the problem of forward dynamics for nonlinear joint-connected multibody systems are summarized. Solution of this problem is of interest in such application areas as robotics, deploying structures, ground vehicles, and pointing of antennas and instrumented platforms. The problem is solved by the recursive filtering and smoothing techniques of state estimation theory. The filtering stage takes the applied joint moments as inputs to produce a sequence of spatial constraint forces acting at the joints of the system. The smoothing stage takes the innovations process resulting from the filter as an input and produces a set of spatial accelerations and a corresponding set of joint-angle accelerations.

  20. Consistent scaling of thermal fluctuations in smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Ellero, Marco; Español, Pep

    2009-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as a model of fluid particles suffers from the problem that it has no physical scale associated with the particles. Therefore, a DPD simulation requires an ambiguous fine-tuning of the model parameters with the physical parameters. A corrected version of DPD that does not suffer from this problem is smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) [P. Español and M. Revenga, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026705 (2003)]. SDPD is, in fact, a version of the well-known smoothed particle hydrodynamics method, albeit with the proper inclusion of thermal fluctuations. Here, we show that SDPD produces the proper scaling of the fluctuations as the resolution of the simulation is varied. This is investigated in two problems: the Brownian motion of a spherical colloidal particle and a polymer molecule in suspension.