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Sample records for abnormal social behaviors

  1. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barak, B; Feng, G

    2016-01-01

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here, we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  2. [Behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities induced by social isolation as a useful animal model of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Luo, Lu; Ma, Shi-Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xi-Hong; Li, Liang

    2013-02-25

    Social isolation influences the development of the brain, causing dysfunctions at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. The present paper summarizes the abnormalities induced by social isolation in behaviors, neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis. At the behavioral level, social isolation induces hyperlocomotion, abnormalities in startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and dysfunctions in conditioned learning, reversal learning and memory. Moreover, social isolation causes changes of neurotransmitters, such as the increase of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala and other brain regions in the limbic system, the decrease of dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex, the decrease of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and the hippocampus, and changes of glutamine in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, social isolation affects cell apoptosis in different brain areas, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Both the changes in neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis may contribute to the behavioral dysfunctions in social isolated rats. Since schizophrenic patients have similar abnormalities in behaviors and neurotransmitters, isolation rearing can be used as a useful animal model of schizophrenia.

  3. Altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors in rats exposed to early life seizures

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Cassane, Gustavo dos Santos Teada; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological dysfunction in the neonate. The prognosis of neonatal seizures is highly variable, and the controversy remains whether the severity, duration, or frequency of seizures may contribute to brain damage independently of its etiology. Animal data indicates that seizures during development are associated with a high probability of long-term adverse effects such as learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes and even epilepsy, which is strongly age dependent, as well as the severity, duration, and frequency of seizures. In preliminary studies, we demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to one-single neonatal status epilepticus (SE) episode showed social behavior impairment, and we proposed the model as relevant for studies of developmental disorders. Based on these facts, the goal of this study was to verify the existence of a persistent deficit and if the anxiety-related behavior could be associated with that impairment. To do so, male Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were submitted to a single episode of SE by pilocarpine injection (380 mg/kg, i.p.) and control animals received saline (0.9%, 0.1 mL/10 g). It was possible to demonstrate that in adulthood, animals exposed to neonatal SE displayed low preference for social novelty, anxiety-related behavior, and increased stereotyped behavior in anxiogenic environment with no locomotor activity changes. On the balance, these data suggests that neonatal SE in rodents leads to altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors. PMID:23675329

  4. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the central nervous system (CNS), the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO) mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI)-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. PMID:22463818

  5. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  6. MEG premotor abnormalities in children with Asperger's syndrome: determinants of social behavior?

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Weisz, Nathan; Bentin, Shlomo; Kissler, Johanna

    2013-07-01

    Children with Asperger's syndrome show deficits in social functioning while their intellectual and language development is intact suggesting a specific dysfunction in mechanisms mediating social cognition. An action observation/execution matching system might be one such mechanism. Recent studies indeed showed that electrophysiological modulation of the "Mu-rhythm" in the 10-12Hz range is weaker when individuals with Asperger's syndrome observe actions performed by others compared to controls. However, electrophysiological studies typically fall short in revealing the neural generators of this activity. To fill this gap we assessed magnetoencephalographic Mu-modulations in Asperger's and typically developed children, while observing grasping movements. Mu-power increased at frontal and central sensors during movement observation. This modulation was stronger in typical than in Asperger children. Source localization revealed stronger sources in premotor cortex, the intraparietal lobule (IPL) and the mid-occipito-temporal gyrus (MOTG) and weaker sources in prefrontal cortex in typical participants compared to Asperger. Activity in premotor regions, IPL and MOTG correlated positively with social competence, whereas prefrontal Mu-sources correlated negatively with social competence. No correlation with intellectual ability was found at any of these sites. These findings localize abnormal Mu-activity in the brain of Asperger children providing evidence which associates motor-system abnormalities with social-function deficits.

  7. Role of social encounter-induced activation of prefrontal serotonergic systems in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Araki, Ryota; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Sasaga, Asuka; Nishiyama, Saki; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    Isolation-reared male rodents show abnormal behaviors such as hyperlocomotion, aggressive behaviors, deficits of prepulse inhibition, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, but the neurochemical mechanism for the effects of psychological stress in these animals is not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social interactions between isolation-reared mice and intruder mice on brain monoaminergic systems. A cage was divided into two compartments by a mesh partition to prevent direct physical interactions. The 20-min encounter with an intruder elicited a restless and hyperexcitable state (hyperactivity) in male, but not in female, isolation-reared mice, whereas encounters with a sleeping intruder or a novel object did not. Although the encounter did not affect prefrontal neuronal-activity-marker c-Fos expression, dopamine (DA) levels, or serotonin (5-HT) levels in male group-reared mice or female isolation-reared mice, it increased prefrontal c-Fos expression, DA levels, and 5-HT levels in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, encounter-induced increases in c-Fos expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus and ventral tegmental area, but not in the nucleus accumbens shell, were much greater in isolation-reared than group-reared male mice. A 5-HT1A receptor agonist, a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonist attenuated isolation-induced aggressive behaviors and encounter-induced hyperactivity, c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe nucleus, and increases in prefrontal 5-HT levels. These findings suggest that the prefrontal DA and 5-HT systems are activated by encounter stimulation in male isolation-reared mice, and the encounter-induced activation of 5-HT system triggers the induction of some abnormal behaviors in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, this study implies that the encounter stimulation-induced signal has a pharmacological significance.

  8. Early Social Enrichment Rescues Adult Behavioral and Brain Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:25348604

  9. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-01-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear. PMID:27053567

  10. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems.

  11. Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  12. Genes and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gene E; Fernald, Russell D; Clayton, David F

    2008-11-07

    What genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of neural circuits and molecular pathways in the brain that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate brain activity? Here, we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key "vectors of influence" that link genes, the brain, and social behavior: (i) Social information alters gene expression in the brain to influence behavior, and (ii) genetic variation influences brain function and social behavior. We also discuss how evolutionary changes in genomic elements influence social behavior and outline prospects for a systems biology of social behavior.

  13. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  14. Social and Abnormal Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)

  15. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  16. Abnormal behavior and associated risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Corrine K; Williams, Priscilla C; Sharp, R Mark

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal behavior, ranging from motor stereotypies to self-injurious behavior, has been documented in captive nonhuman primates, with risk factors including nursery rearing, single housing, and veterinary procedures. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; less is known about the extent of and risk factors for abnormal behavior in baboons. Because abnormal behavior can be indicative of poor welfare, either past or present, the purpose of this study was to survey the presence of abnormal behavior in captive baboons and to identify potential risk factors for these behaviors with an aim of prevention. Subjects were 144 baboons (119 females, 25 males) aged 3-29 (median = 9.18) years temporarily singly housed for research or clinical reasons. A 15-min focal observation was conducted on each subject using the Noldus Observer® program. Abnormal behavior was observed in 26% of the subjects, with motor stereotypy (e.g., pace, rock, swing) being the most common. Motor stereotypy was negatively associated with age when first singly housed (P < 0.005) while self-directed behavior (e.g., hair pull, self-bite) was positively associated with the lifetime number of days singly housed (P < 0.05) and the average number of blood draws per year (P < 0.05). In addition, abnormal appetitive behavior was associated with being male (P < 0.05). Although the baboons in this study exhibited relatively low levels of abnormal behavior, the risk factors for these behaviors (e.g., social restriction, routine veterinary procedures, and sex) appear to remain consistent across primate species.

  17. Post-weaning social isolation induces abnormal forms of aggression in conjunction with increased glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Toth, Mate; Mikics, Eva; Tulogdi, Aron; Aliczki, Mano; Haller, Jozsef

    2011-06-01

    We showed earlier that social isolation from weaning (a paradigm frequently used to model social neglect in children) induces abnormal forms of attack in rats, and assumed that these are associated with hyperarousal. To investigate this hypothesis, we deprived rats of social contacts from weaning and studied their behavior, glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses in the resident-intruder paradigm at the age of 82 days. Social isolation resulted in abnormal attack patterns characterized by attacks on vulnerable targets, deficient social communication and increased defensive behaviors (defensive upright, flight, freezing). During aggressive encounters, socially deprived rats rapidly switched from one behavior to another, i.e. showed an increased number of behavioral transitions as compared to controls. We tentatively term this behavioral feature "behavioral fragmentation" and considered it a form of behavioral arousal. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone regularly assessed by radioimmunoassay between 27 and 78 days of age were not affected. In contrast, aggression-induced glucocorticoid responses were approximately doubled by socially isolation. Diurnal oscillations in heart rate assessed by in vivo biotelemetry were not affected by social isolation. In contrast, the aggression-induced increase in heart rate was higher in socially isolated than in socially housed rats. Thus, post-weaning social isolation induced abnormal forms of aggression that developed on the background of increased behavioral, endocrine and autonomic arousal. We suggest that this paradigm may be used to model aggression-related psychopathologies associated with hyperarousal, particularly those that are triggered by adverse rearing conditions.

  18. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  20. Rationality and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Tullberg, Jan

    2003-10-21

    This article penetrates the relationship between social behavior and rationality. A critical analysis is made of efforts to classify some behaviors as altruistic, as they simultaneously meet criteria of rationality by not truly being self-destructive. Newcomb's paradox is one attempt to create a hybrid behavior that is both irrational and still meets some criterion of rationality. Such dubious rationality is often seen as a source of altruistic behavior. Group selection is a controversial topic. Sober and Wilson (Unto Others--The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998) suggest that a very wide concept of group selection might be used to explain altruism. This concept also includes kin selection and reciprocity, which blurs its focus. The latter mechanisms hardly need further arguments to prove their existence. This article suggests that it is group selection in a strict sense that should be investigated to limit semantic neologism and confusion. In evaluation, the effort to muster a mechanism for altruism out of group selection has not been successful. However, this is not the end to group selection, but rather a good reason to investigate more promising possibilities. There is little reason to burden group selection with the instability of altruism caused by altruistic members of a group having lower fitness than egoistic members. Group selection is much more likely to develop in combination with group egoism. A common project is supported by incitement against free riding, where conformist members joined in solidarity achieve a higher fitness than members pursuing more individualistic options. Group egoism is in no conflict with rationality, and the effects of group selection will be supported rather than threatened by individual selection. Empirical evidence indicates a high level of traits such as conformism and out-group antagonism in line with group egoism. These traits are also likely candidates for

  1. Abnormal Social Reward Responses in Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Via, Esther; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Davey, Christopher G.; Pujol, Jesús; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Cardoner, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) display impaired social interactions, implicated in the development and prognosis of the disorder. Importantly, social behavior is modulated by reward-based processes, and dysfunctional at-brain-level reward responses have been involved in AN neurobiological models. However, no prior evidence exists of whether these neural alterations would be equally present in social contexts. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional social-judgment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 20 restrictive-subtype AN patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Brain activity during acceptance and rejection was investigated and correlated with severity measures (Eating Disorder Inventory -EDI-2) and with personality traits of interest known to modulate social behavior (The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire). Patients showed hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) during social acceptance and hyperactivation of visual areas during social rejection. Ventral striatum activation during rejection was positively correlated in patients with clinical severity scores. During acceptance, activation of the frontal opercula-anterior insula and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was differentially associated with reward sensitivity between groups. These results suggest an abnormal motivational drive for social stimuli, and involve overlapping social cognition and reward systems leading to a disruption of adaptive responses in the processing of social reward. The specific association of reward-related regions with clinical and psychometric measures suggests the putative involvement of reward structures in the maintenance of pathological behaviors in AN. PMID:26197051

  2. Social anhedonia is associated with neural abnormalities during face emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Germine, Laura T; Garrido, Lucia; Bruce, Lori; Hooker, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Human beings are social organisms with an intrinsic desire to seek and participate in social interactions. Social anhedonia is a personality trait characterized by a reduced desire for social affiliation and reduced pleasure derived from interpersonal interactions. Abnormally high levels of social anhedonia prospectively predict the development of schizophrenia and contribute to poorer outcomes for schizophrenia patients. Despite the strong association between social anhedonia and schizophrenia, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in social anhedonia have not been studied and are thus poorly understood. Deficits in face emotion recognition are related to poorer social outcomes in schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that face emotion recognition deficits may be a behavioral marker for schizophrenia liability. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to see whether there are differences in the brain networks underlying basic face emotion processing in a community sample of individuals low vs. high in social anhedonia. We isolated the neural mechanisms related to face emotion processing by comparing face emotion discrimination with four other baseline conditions (identity discrimination of emotional faces, identity discrimination of neutral faces, object discrimination, and pattern discrimination). Results showed a group (high/low social anhedonia) × condition (emotion discrimination/control condition) interaction in the anterior portion of the rostral medial prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex. As predicted, high (relative to low) social anhedonia participants showed less neural activity in face emotion processing regions during emotion discrimination as compared to each control condition. The findings suggest that social anhedonia is associated with abnormalities in networks responsible for basic processes associated with social cognition, and provide a

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.

  4. Thinking Socially: Teaching Social Knowledge to Foster Social Behavioral Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooke, Pamela J.; Winner, Michelle Garcia; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the complexity of what it means to "be social" from the perspective of social thinking. This perspective recognizes social cognitive processing abilities as the foundation for social knowledge and, in turn, social behaviors. The article further describes variables that influence how one understands how to do what…

  5. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  6. Optogenetic insights into social behavior function.

    PubMed

    Yizhar, Ofer

    2012-06-15

    Cognitive and social deficits lie at the core of many neuropsychiatric diseases and are among the many behavioral symptoms not amenable to pharmacological intervention. Despite significant advances in identifying genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of complex psychiatric conditions such as autism and schizophrenia, knowledge of the physiological functions that are affected (and are therefore potential targets for clinical intervention) is scarce. In psychiatric disorders with a strong genetic component, animal models have provided important links between disease-related genes and behavioral impairment. Social dysfunction, for instance, is commonly observed in transgenic rodent disease models. However, the causal relationships between the behavioral and physiological abnormalities in these models are not well-understood. Optogenetic techniques have evolved to provide a wide range of experimental paradigms in which neural circuit activity can be perturbed with high spatial and temporal precision, enabling causal investigation of the function of defined physiological events in neuronal subgroups. With optogenetics, researchers have begun to elucidate the basic neural mechanisms of social behaviors and of disease-relevant social and cognitive dysfunction. The synthesis of optogenetic technology with genetic animal models will allow forward- and reverse-engineering approaches to investigating the neural correlates of psychiatric disease. This review outlines the neural systems known to be involved in social behavior, illustrates how optogenetic technology has been applied to analyze this circuitry, and imagines how it might be further developed in future studies to elucidate these complex circuits both from a basic science perspective and in the context of psychiatric disease.

  7. [The frontiers of 'abnormality': psychiatry and social control].

    PubMed

    Engel, M G

    1998-01-01

    The article examines some of the main aspects governing psychiatry's role in the Brazilian political and social context at the close of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth. It analyzes certain themes - civilization, race, labor, fanaticism, political dissent, sexuality - that were emphasized by specialists in their construction of a very broad notion of 'mental illness'. Through the analysis of texts produced by psychiatrists and legal experts (including dissertations written at the Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro, reports from the Serviço de Assistência a Alienados, and works and articles by specialists), the relation between the psychiatric definition of the frontiers of 'abnormality' and efforts to implement new strategies of social control is discussed.

  8. Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

  9. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.

  10. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  11. Sniffing behavior communicates social hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Wesson, Daniel W

    2013-04-08

    Sniffing is a specialized respiratory behavior that is essential for the acquisition of odors [1-4]. Perhaps not independent of this, sniffing is commonly displayed during motivated [5-7] and social behaviors [8, 9]. No measures of sniffing among interacting animals are available, however, calling into question the utility of this behavior in the social context. From radiotelemetry recordings of nasal respiration, I found that investigation by one rat toward the facial region of a conspecific often elicits a decrease in sniffing frequency in the conspecific. This reciprocal display of sniffing was found to be dependent upon the rat's social status in two separate paradigms, with subordinates reliably decreasing their sniffing frequency upon being investigated in the face by dominant rats. Failure of subordinates to decrease their sniffing frequency shortened the latency for agonistic behavior by dominant rats, reflecting that decreases in sniffing serve as appeasement signals during social interactions. Rats rendered unable to smell persisted in displaying reciprocal sniffing behavior, demonstrating the independence of this behavior from olfaction. Oxytocin treatment in rats with established social hierarchies abolished agonistic behaviors and reciprocal sniffing displays. Together, these findings demonstrate that rodents utilize sniffing behaviors communicatively, not only to collect [6, 10-14] but also to convey information.

  12. Cortical Thickness and Behavior Abnormalities in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Soria-Pastor, Sara; Junque, Carme; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segarra, Dolors; Bargallo, Nuria; Macaya, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    Aim To identify long-term effects of preterm birth and of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) on cortical thickness (CTh). To study the relationship between CTh and cognitive-behavioral abnormalities. Methods We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 22 preterm children with PVL, 14 preterm children with no evidence of PVL and 22 full-term peers. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software. All participants underwent cognitive and behavioral assessments by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results We did not find global CTh differences between the groups. However, a thinner cortex was found in left postcentral, supramarginal, and caudal middle rostral gyri in preterm children with no evidence of PVL than in the full-term controls, while PVL preterm children showed thicker cortex in right pericalcarine and left rostral middle frontal areas than in preterm children with no evidence of PVL. In the PVL group, internalizing and externalizing scores correlated mainly with CTh in frontal areas. Attentional scores were found to be higher in PVL and correlated with CTh increments in right frontal areas. Interpretation The preterm group with no evidence of PVL, when compared with full-term children, showed evidence of a different pattern of regional thinning in the cortical gray matter. In turn, PVL preterm children exhibited atypical increases in CTh that may underlie their prevalent behavioral problems. PMID:22860067

  13. Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.

  14. Testosterone and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Mazur, Allan; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2006-01-01

    Popular perceptions of the effect of testosterone on "manly" behavior are inaccurate. We need to move away from such simplistic notions by treating testosterone as one component along with other physiological, psychological and sociological variables in interactive and reciprocal models of behavior. Several hormones can now be measured in saliva,…

  15. SOCIAL BEHAVIORISM, MOTIVATION, AND THE CONDITIONING THERAPIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    including an understanding of abnormal behavior in terms of the motivational system, and the present and potential roles of behavior therapy and behavior modification in dealing with personality problems.

  16. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  17. The abnormal behavior analysis of single person on the road based on region and behavior features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Runsheng; Chen, Yiwen

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a method to detect whether the behavior of a single person in video sequence is abnormal is proposed. Firstly, after the pre-processing, the background model is gotten based on the Mixture Gaussian Model(GMM), at the same time the shadow is eliminated; then use the color-shape information and the Random Hough Transform (RHT) to abstract the zebra crossing and segment the background; Lastly, we use the rectangle and the centroid to judge whether the person's behavior is abnormal.

  18. Social goals, social behavior, and social status in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Rodkin, Philip C; Ryan, Allison M; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-06-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and aggressive behavior, and peer nominations of social status (preference, popularity) were examined over the course of an academic year among 980 3rd- to 5th-grade children. Findings support dual-component expectations. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the expected 3-factor structure of social goals and 2-factor structure of social status. Structural equation modeling (SEM) found that (a) social development goals were associated with prosocial behavior and increased preference, and (b) demonstration-approach goals were associated with aggressive behavior and increased popularity. Demonstration-avoid goals were associated with a popularity decrease. SEMs were invariant across grade, gender, and ethnicity. Discussion concerns the potential risks of high social status, extensions to the dual-component model, and the generality of an achievement goal approach to child social development.

  19. Social Interaction Behaviors Discriminate Young Children with Autism and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Alan J.; Searcy, Yvonne M.; Jones, Wendy; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Autistic disorder (AD) and Williams syndrome (WS) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by contrasting abnormal social behavior (the former, socially avoidant; the latter, outwardly social); nonetheless, there are individuals with WS who display some behaviors that are characteristic of AD. We quantified the extent to which…

  20. Sex Differences in Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Therese

    Examining theories from a wide spectrum of disciplines, this paper categorizes research on sex differences in social behavior into four groups and examines the implications of each. The first category of research interprets sex differences as the result of anatomical differences which later affect psychological roles. The implication of this…

  1. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2003-07-22

    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  2. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

    2004-09-14

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis.

  3. Social Context, Social Behavior, and Socialization: Investigating the Child's Developing Organization of the Behavioral Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Philip R.; Siegel, Alexander W.

    1993-01-01

    Gives an overview of the 10 research articles in this issue. Notes that all studies in this issue examine child behavior from a perspective that views behavior as mediated by social context, challenging the logical positivism of conventional experimentation. (MM)

  4. Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Postinstitutionalized children frequently demonstrate persistent socioemotional difficulties. For example, some postinstitutionalized children display an unusual lack of social reserve with unfamiliar adults. This behavior, which has been referred to as indiscriminate friendliness, disinhibited attachment behavior, and disinhibited social behavior, was examined by comparing children internationally adopted from institutional care to children internationally adopted from foster care and children raised by their biological families. Etiological factors and behavioral correlates were also investigated. Both groups of adopted children displayed more disinhibited social behavior than the nonadopted children. Of the etiological factors examined, only the length of time in institutional care was related to disinhibited social behavior. Disinhibited social behavior was not significantly correlated with general cognitive ability, attachment-related behaviors, or basic emotion abilities. However, this behavior was negatively associated with inhibitory control abilities even after controlling for the length of time in institutional care. These results suggest that disinhibited social behavior might reflect underlying deficits in inhibitory control.

  5. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  6. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  7. [Abnormal behavior and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their pharmacologic control].

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W

    1998-11-01

    Small animal practitioners are increasingly confronted with patients showing adaptation related problems (ARP) which are expressed as disturbed or abnormal behavior (DAB). As a result, practitioners are asked increasingly to euthanize animals which seemingly cannot be socialized. In healthy dogs and cats, three main causes for DAB can be detected: refusal of obedience because of the drive for dominance; anxiety and frustration; and geriatric DAB. Increasingly, disease conditions not readily diagnosed can cause DAB, especially hypothyroidism. Influencing and contributing factors to DAB are breed, sex, experiences as a puppy, behavior of owners, changes in the pet's environment. ARPs may also cause disturbances in the condition of skin and fur, e.g. atopic dermatitis, pruritus sine materia, lick granuloma, and of the intestinal organs (vomiting, irritated bowel syndrome) and may result in an immune deficiency. Therapeutic approaches include behavioral therapy, surgical or hormonal castration with progestins or antiandrogens, substitution with thyroxin in cases with hypothyroidism, and/or the use of psychopharmaca, most prominently of modern antidepressiva like amitriptyline; buspirone; clomipramine and fluoxetine, but also of selegiline, a mono-aminoxydase inhibitor. These compounds, among other effects, are elevating prolactin levels. This seems to allow to formulate a working hypothesis: in the canine species, prolactin is obviously a hormone enabling socialization; hence all drugs which safely cause an increase in prolactin production might be suitable to manage or control ARPs and DAB in the dog, but also in the cat. Higher levels of prolactin than those required for socialization, as seen in nursing bitches or some clinically overt cases of pseudopregnancy, may cause maternal aggression and can be controlled with prolactin inhibitors, if needed.

  8. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  9. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings and life domains. This theory-based article explains how social context is conceptualized in the social sciences and how the social science conceptualization differs from and can broaden the analytic approach to health behavior. The authors use qualitative data from the “Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening” study to illustrate our conceptualization of social context. We conclude that the incorporation into health behavior theory of a multidimensional socio-culturally oriented, theoretical approach to social context is critical to understand and redress health disparities in multicultural societies like that in the United States. PMID:19805791

  10. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-15

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior.

  11. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  12. Infant Day Care Facilitates Preschool Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared play, social, and attachment behaviors of 71 preschool children who had entered infant day care at varying ages and received varying amounts of day care. Concluded that continuous infant day care in quality centers appears to facilitate preschool social behavior and does not negatively affect attachment behavior. (NH)

  13. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings…

  14. "Hidden" social networks in behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ruth F; McAneney, Helen; Davis, Michael; Tully, Mark A; Valente, Thomas W; Kee, Frank

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether "hidden" (or unobserved) social networks were evident in a 2011 physical activity behavior change intervention in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Results showed evidence of unobserved social networks in the intervention and illustrated how the network evolved over short periods and affected behavior. Behavior change interventions should account for the interaction among participants (i.e., social networks) and how such interactions affect intervention outcome.

  15. Cetacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cetacean social behavioral response to sonar exposure Dr...TERM GOALS The goal of this effort is to investigate cetacean social behavioral response to sonar signals. OBJECTIVES The scientific objectives...of this effort are to determine: 1) social behavioral responses of cetaceans to sonar and to tagging, to investigate the biological relevance and

  16. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  17. Changing Social Behavior and Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of systematic behavioral analysis as a method for modifying both social and cognitive behaviors through reinforcement. Various techniques are explained: response differentiation, shaping, chaining, fading, extinction, timeout, and response cost. (SJL)

  18. Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

  19. Possible relationships between trichinellosis and abnormal behavior in bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worley, David E.; Greer, Kenneth R.; Palmisciano, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Data compiled from parasite studies of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) in the Yellowstone and Glacier National Park populations and surrounding areas of Montana and Wyoming during 1969-79 are reviewed with reference to the possible influence of infection with the muscleworm Trichinella sp. on bear behavior. In grizzly bears, the high prevalence of this parasite (61% of 254 bears infected), the elevated larval concentrations in sensitive anatomical sites such as the tongue (average, 51 larvae per gram of tissue), and the chronic nature of bear infections as indicated by the tendency for highest infection rates to occur in older age classes (> 16 yrs.), suggest a potential behavior-modifying effect might exist. However, retrospective analysis of recent human attacks by 4 grizzlies and 2 black bears in the northern Rocky Mountain region failed to demonstrate a consistent connection between erratic conduct and levels of Trichinella larvae (trichinae) in bear tissues. Clinical similarities of trichinellosis in bears and humans are hypothesized, and possible behavioral effects of ursine trichinellosis are discussed.

  20. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

  1. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. Citation: Yang KI, Kim HK, Baek J, Kim DE, Park HK. Abnormal nocturnal behavior due to hypoglycemia in a patient with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):627–629. PMID:26943712

  2. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sarah L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  3. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  4. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  5. Who should report abnormal behavior at preschool age? The case of behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ballespí, Sergi; Jané, M Claustre; Riba, M Dolors

    2012-02-01

    Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"-a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension-experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine the relations between ratings made by parents and teachers and assessments made by clinicians and researchers. Parents, teachers and clinicians rated the behavioral inhibition of 365 preschoolers. Seventy-three randomly selected participants were observed using an adaptation of the Behavioral Inhibition Paradigm. Parent-teacher correlations on 34 items and different clusters were, on average, r = .3. The degree of convergence between observational measures and ratings by parents and teachers was moderate-low and did not improve when considering only subsamples from the ends of the distributions. Discriminant analysis suggests that both parents and teachers tend to have a moderate-low ability to detect "inhibited" children.

  6. Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Strack, Fritz; Deutsch, Roland

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a 2-systems model that explains social behavior as a joint function of reflective and impulsive processes. In particular, it is assumed that social behavior is controlled by 2 interacting systems that follow different operating principles. The reflective system generates behavioral decisions that are based on knowledge about facts and values, whereas the impulsive system elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations. The proposed model describes how the 2 systems interact at various stages of processing, and how their outputs may determine behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. It extends previous models by integrating motivational components that allow more precise predictions of behavior. The implications of this reflective-impulsive model are applied to various phenomena from social psychology and beyond. Extending previous dual-process accounts, this model is not limited to specific domains of mental functioning and attempts to integrate cognitive, motivational, and behavioral mechanisms.

  7. Improving Student Behavior through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Staci; And Others

    A program for improving student social skills was implemented in three classrooms of lower-class kindergarten and second grade students at two schools in order to reduce the number of behavior problems. Student behavior is a nationwide educational concern, and the problem of inappropriate behavior at the schools was documented by teacher…

  8. The regulation of social recognition, social communication and aggression: vasopressin in the social behavior neural network.

    PubMed

    Albers, H Elliott

    2012-03-01

    Neuropeptides in the arginine vasotocin/arginine vasopressin (AVT/AVP) family play a major role in the regulation of social behavior by their actions in the brain. In mammals, AVP is found within a circuit of recriprocally connected limbic structures that form the social behavior neural network. This review examines the role played by AVP within this network in controlling social processes that are critical for the formation and maintenance of social relationships: social recognition, social communication and aggression. Studies in a number of mammalian species indicate that AVP and AVP V1a receptors are ideally suited to regulate the expression of social processes because of their plasticity in response to factors that influence social behavior. The pattern of AVP innervation and V1a receptors across the social behavior neural network may determine the potential range and intensity of social responses that individuals display in different social situations. Although fundamental information on how social behavior is wired in the brain is still lacking, it is clear that different social behaviors can be influenced by the actions of AVP in the same region of the network and that AVP can act within multiple regions of this network to regulate the expression of individual social behaviors. The existing data suggest that AVP can influence social behavior by modulating the interpretation of sensory information, by influencing decision making and by triggering complex motor outputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  9. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  10. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  11. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  12. Social Goals, Social Behavior, and Social Status in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and…

  13. Human Behavior, Social Environment, Social Reconstruction, and Social Policy: A System of Linkages, Goals, and Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Brij

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a wholesome relationship between human behavior and the forces of social environment is explored. The goals and foci of the human behavior and social environment component in social work education are reconceptualized in the light of knowledge that underscores the need for social reconstruction. (Author/MLW)

  14. The Double Meaning of Online Social Space: Three-Way Interactions Among Social Anxiety, Online Social Behavior, and Offline Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Woo, Sungbum; Yang, Eunjoo; Kwon, Jung Hye

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how online and offline social behavior interact with each other ultimately to affect the well-being of socially anxious adolescents. Based on previous studies, it was assumed that there might be three-way interactive effects among online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety regarding the relationship with well-being. To measure social anxiety, online and offline social behavior, and mental well-being, self-report questionnaires such as the Korean-Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, Korean version of the Relational Maintenance Behavior Questionnaire, and Korean version of Mental Health Continuum Short Form were administered to 656 Korean adolescents. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the three-way interaction of online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety was indeed significant. First, online social behavior was associated with lower well-being of adolescents with higher social anxiety under conditions of low engagement in offline social behavior. In contrast, a higher level of online social behavior predicted greater well-being for individuals with high social anxiety under conditions of more engagement in offline social behavior. Second, online social behavior was not significantly related to well-being in youths with low social anxiety under conditions of both high and low engagement in offline social behavior. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.

  15. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  16. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  17. Abnormal perilesional BOLD signal is not correlated with stroke patients’ behavior

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Bianca; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2013-01-01

    Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of acute stroke have reported that patients with behavioral deficits show abnormal signal in intact regions of the damaged hemisphere close to the lesion border relative to homologous regions of the patient’s intact hemisphere (causing an interhemispheric imbalance) as well as analogous regions in healthy controls. These effects have been interpreted as demonstrating a causal relationship between the abnormal fMRI signal and the pathological behavior. Here we explore an alternative explanation: perhaps the abnormal Blood-Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal is merely a function of distance from the acute lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined three patients with an acute right hemisphere cortical stroke who did not show any overt behavioral deficits, as well as nine healthy elderly controls. We acquired fMRI data while the participants performed a simple visual orientation judgment task. In patients, we observed an abnormal interhemispheric balance consisting of lower levels of percent signal change in perilesional areas of the damaged hemisphere relative to homologous areas in neurologically healthy controls. This suggests that the physiological changes and corresponding interhemispheric imbalance detected by fMRI BOLD in acute stroke observed close to the lesion border may not necessarily reflect changes in the neural function, nor necessarily influence the individuals’ (e.g., attentional) behavior. PMID:24137123

  18. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  19. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2009-05-01

    Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. The authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 patients with medicated schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia.

  20. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-05

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  1. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Pei, Yang-Yi; Fang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-13

    Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  2. Preschoolers Use Social Allegiances to Predict Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalik, Lisa; Rhodes, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Developing mechanisms for predicting human action is a critical task of early conceptual development. Three studies examined whether 4-year-old children (N = 149) use social allegiances to predict behavior, by testing whether they expect the experiences of social partners to influence individual action. After being exposed to a conflict between…

  3. [The effect of abnormal interests on social ability of mentally ill children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, I I; Deĭch, R V

    2011-01-01

    Authors have studied 62 patients, aged 4-16 years old, who were admitted to the Moscow Children's Psychiatric Hospital №6. Patients had the following types of pathological interests depending on their context: intellectual interests, creative modeling, passionate, animalistic and cult. Three clinical variants of pathological interests depending on their structure have been singled out: «narrow», «overvalued» and «overvalued-delusional». These variants differed by the frequency and severity of basic components: affective, ideatory, specific activity drive. The distinct social-maladaptation effect of abnormal interests in children and adolescents was found. Its intensity depended on above-mentioned variants. Narrow abnormal interests defined moderate social disability which was revealed in the family circle. Overvalued interests were characterized by a considerable disability which included disorders of both family and school life. Overvalued-delusional interests predetermined severe disability of children and adolescent.

  4. Learning About Social Behavior. Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favero, Jane; And Others

    Designed for teaching students in regular and special education classes, the guide provides an instructional approach (as opposed to a counseling approach) to teaching social and behavioral skills. This approach, based on the premise that behavioral skills can be developed through instruction, drills, and applied practice, employs concepts from…

  5. Children's Awareness of Their Social Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Christine D.

    This study examined children's awareness of peers' perception of them in three areas of social behavior: Sociability-Leadership, Aggressive-Disruptive, and Sensitive-Isolated. Subjects were 175 first- through fifth-grade students who evaluated same-sex classmates using the standard version of the Revised Class Play (RCP) behavior nomination…

  6. Academic and social motives and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2009-12-01

    This longitudinal study of 1,447 first-time college students tested separate time-varying covariate models of the relations between academic and social motives/behaviors and alcohol use and related problems from senior year of high school through the end of the second year in college. Structural equation models identified small but significant inverse relations between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all time points, with relations of somewhat larger magnitude between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems across all semesters other than senior year in high school. At all time points, there were much larger positive relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all semesters, with smaller but significant relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Multi-group models found considerable consistency in the relations between motives/behaviors and alcohol-related outcomes across gender, race/ethnicity, and family history of alcohol problems, although academic motives/behaviors played a stronger protective role for women, and social motives were a more robust risk factor for Caucasian and Latino students and individuals with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Implications for alcohol prevention efforts among college students are discussed.

  7. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein.

    PubMed

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M

    2016-07-01

    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population.

  8. Social behavior in context: Hormonal modulation of behavioral plasticity and social competence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui F

    2009-10-01

    In social species animals should fine-tune the expression of their social behavior to social environments in order to avoid the costs of engaging in costly social interactions. Therefore, social competence, defined as the ability of an animal to optimize the expression of its social behavior as a function of the available social information, should be considered as a performance trait that impacts on the Darwinian fitness of the animal. Social competence is based on behavioral plasticity which, in turn, can be achieved by different neural mechanisms of plasticity, namely by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of a putative neural network underlying social behavior. Since steroid hormones respond to social interactions and have receptors extensively expressed in the social behavioral neural network, it is proposed that steroids play a key role in the hormonal modulation of social plasticity. Here, we propose a reciprocal model for the action of androgens on short-term behavioral plasticity and review a set of studies conducted in our laboratory using an African cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) that provide support for it. Androgens are shown to be implicated as physiological mediators in a wide range of social phenomena that promote social competence, namely by adjusting the behavioral response to the nature of the intruder and the presence of third parties (dear enemy and audience effects), by anticipating territorial intrusions (bystander effect and conditioning of the territorial response), and by modifying future behavior according to prior experience of winning (winner effect). The rapid behavioral actions of socially induced short-term transient changes in androgens indicate that these effects are most likely mediated by nongenomic mechanisms. The fact that the modulation of rapid changes in behavior is open to the influence of circulating levels of androgens, and is not exclusively achieved by changes in central neuromodulators, suggests

  9. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430....430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  10. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  11. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  12. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  13. Development of social behavior in young zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dreosti, Elena; Lopes, Gonçalo; Kampff, Adam R.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish are robustly social animals whereas larva is not. We designed an assay to determine at what stage of development zebrafish begin to interact with and prefer other fish. One week old zebrafish do not show significant social preference whereas most 3 weeks old zebrafish strongly prefer to remain in a compartment where they can view conspecifics. However, for some individuals, the presence of conspecifics drives avoidance instead of attraction. Social preference is dependent on vision and requires viewing fish of a similar age/size. In addition, over the same 1–3 weeks period larval zebrafish increasingly tend to coordinate their movements, a simple form of social interaction. Finally, social preference and coupled interactions are differentially modified by an NMDAR antagonist and acute exposure to ethanol, both of which are known to alter social behavior in adult zebrafish. PMID:26347614

  14. Cnga2 Knockout Mice Display Alzheimer's-Like Behavior Abnormities and Pathological Changes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ao-Ji; Liu, En-Jie; Huang, He-Zhou; Hu, Yu; Li, Ke; Lu, Youming; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is recognized as a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have reported previously that olfactory deprivation by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induced Alzheimer's-like pathological changes and behavioral abnormalities. However, the acute OBX model undergoes surgical-induced brain parenchyma loss and unexpected massive hemorrhage so that it cannot fully mimic the progressive olfactory loss and neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we employed the mice loss of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 2 (Cnga2) which is critical for olfactory sensory transduction, to investigate the role of olfactory dysfunction in AD pathological process. We found that impaired learning and memory abilities, loss of dendrite spines, as well as decrement of synaptic proteins were displayed in Cnga2 knockout mice. Moreover, Aβ overproduction, tau hyperphosphorylation, and somatodendritic translocation were also found in Cnga2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that progressive olfactory loss leads to Alzheimer's-like behavior abnormities and pathological changes.

  15. The social behavior of myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Dorado, J; Arias, J M

    1995-12-01

    Myxobacteria are social microorganisms that undergo a spectacular cell cycle. Under starvation conditions, cells aggregate to certain points originating macroscopic fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into myxospores. To accomplish this developmental cycle, cells must communicate. The signals that cells exchange during development as well as the signal transduction systems used by myxobacteria have been intensively studied during the last years. A family of eukaryotic-like protein serine/threonine kinases has been identified in Myxococcus xanthus, indicating that signal transduction systems similar to those used by eukaryotic cells may also function in myxobacteria.

  16. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  17. Social Isolation Alters Social and Mating Behavior in the R451C Neuroligin Mouse Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, A. F.; May, C.; Hill, T.; McLachlan, N. M.; Churilov, L.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder typified by impaired social communication and restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Mice serve as an ideal candidate organism for studying the neural mechanisms that subserve these symptoms. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3) mouse, expressing a R451C mutation discovered in two Swedish brothers with ASD, exhibits impaired social interactions and heightened aggressive behavior towards male mice. Social interactions with female mice have not been characterized and in the present study were assessed in male NL3R451C and WT mice. Mice were housed in social and isolation conditions to test for isolation-induced increases in social interaction. Tests were repeated to investigate potential differences in interaction in naïve and experienced mice. We identified heightened interest in mating and atypical aggressive behavior in NL3R451C mice. NL3R451C mice exhibited normal social interaction with WT females, indicating that abnormal aggressive behavior towards females is not due to altered motivation to engage. Social isolation rearing heightened interest in social behavior in all mice. Isolation housing selectively modulated the response to female pheromones in NL3R451C mice. This study is the first to show altered mating behavior in the NL3R451C mouse and has provided new insights into the aggressive phenotype in this model. PMID:28255463

  18. Reproductive Neuroendocrine Pathways of Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parhar, Ishwar S.; Ogawa, Satoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are key components of reproduction, because they are essential for successful fertilization. Social behaviors, such as courtship, mating, and aggression, are strongly associated with sex steroids, such as testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. Secretion of sex steroids from the gonads is regulated by the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in vertebrates. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a pivotal hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates gonadotropin release from the pituitary. In recent years, the role of neuropeptides containing the C-terminal Arg–Phe–NH2 (RFamide peptides) has been emphasized in vertebrate reproduction. In particular, two key RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), emerged as critical accelerator and suppressor of gonadotropin secretion. Kisspeptin stimulates GnRH release by directly acting on GnRH neurons, whereas GnIH inhibits gonadotropin release by inhibiting kisspeptin, GnRH neurons, or pituitary gonadotropes. These neuropeptides can regulate social behavior by regulating the HPG axis. However, distribution of neuronal fibers of GnRH, kisspeptin, and GnIH neurons is not limited within the hypothalamus, and the existence of extrahypothalamic neuronal fibers suggests direct control of social behavior within the brain. It has traditionally been shown that central administration of GnRH can stimulate female sexual behavior in rats. Recently, it was shown that Kiss1, one of the paralogs of kisspeptin peptide family, regulates fear responses in zebrafish and GnIH inhibits sociosexual behavior in birds. Here, we highlight recent findings regarding the role of GnRH, kisspeptin, and GnIH in the regulation of social behaviors in fish, birds, and mammals and discuss their importance in future biological and biomedical research. PMID:27065948

  19. Updating biological bases of social behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-09-01

    This month's collation of papers deals with social behaviors that operationalize key constructs in fields covered by the journal, including attachment theory and parenting; emotional regulation; psychopathology of several forms; general and specific cognitive abilities. Notably, many examples are offered of how these social behaviors link with biology. That is an obvious and important direction for clinical research insofar as it helps to erase a perceptual chasm and artificial duality between 'behavior' and 'biology'. But, although it must be the case that social behavior has biological connections of one sort or other, identifying reliable connections with practical application has proved to be a non-trivial challenge. In particular, the challenge seems to be in measuring social behavior meaningfully enough that it could be expected to have a biological pulse, and in measuring biological markers systematically enough that emergent-downstream effects would surface. Associations are not especially uncommon, but it has been a frustrating task in constructing a practically broad model from a bricolage of scattered and disconnected parts and findings in the literature. Several reports in this issue offer contrasts that may help move along this line of study.

  20. Treatment of social behavior in autism through the modification of pivotal social skills.

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, R I; Frea, W D

    1993-01-01

    We examined acquisition of individual social communicative behaviors and generalization across other social behaviors in 2 children with autism. The results of a multiple baseline design showed that the children's treated social behaviors improved rapidly and that there were generalized changes in untreated social behaviors. These improvements were accompanied by increases in subjective ratings of the overall appropriateness of the children's social interactions. The results suggest the possibility of identifying pivotal response classes of social communicative behavior that may facilitate the understanding of social behavior in autism as well as improve peer interactions, social integration, and social development. PMID:8407685

  1. Oxytocin facilitates social approach behavior in women

    PubMed Central

    Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M.; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2014-01-01

    In challenging environments including both numerous threats and scarce resources, the survival of an organism depends on its ability to quickly escape from dangers and to seize opportunities to gain rewards. The phylogenetically ancient neurohormonal oxytocin (OXT) system has been shown to influence both approach and avoidance (AA) behavior in men, but evidence for comparable effects in women is still lacking. We thus conducted a series of pharmacological behavioral experiments in a randomized double-blind study involving 76 healthy heterosexual women treated with either OXT (24 IU) or placebo intranasally. In Experiment 1, we tested how OXT influenced the social distance subjects maintained between themselves and either a female or male experimenter. In Experiment 2, we applied a reaction time based AA task. In Experiment 3 we investigated effects on peri-personal space by measuring the lateral attentional bias in a line bisection task. We found that OXT specifically decreased the distance maintained between subjects and the male but not the female experimenter and also accelerated approach toward pleasant social stimuli in the AA task. However, OXT did not influence the size of peri-personal space, suggesting that it does not alter perception of personal space per se, but rather that a social element is necessary for OXT's effects on AA behavior to become evident. Taken together, our results point to an evolutionarily adaptive mechanism by which OXT in women selectively promotes approach behavior in positive social contexts. PMID:24904342

  2. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  3. The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan H., Ed.; Fischer, John L., Ed.

    This book is one of a series prepared in connection with the Survey of Behavioral and Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The primary goal of the report is to provide a balanced statement of the past accomplishments, present status, and future prospects of anthropology. Although selective, the report attempts a great deal: 1)…

  4. Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention.

  5. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathic Features and Abnormalities in Reward and Punishment Processing in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention. PMID:24357109

  6. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  7. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior.

  8. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members’ contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. PMID:20212120

  9. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. ); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. )

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  10. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  11. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  12. Immune Deficiency Influences Juvenile Social Behavior and Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Quinnies, Kayla M.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2017-01-01

    Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) lack functional T and B-lymphocytes, and have impaired cognitive abilities. Here, we assessed social behaviors in male SCID and C57BL/6 (B6) juvenile mice. In a social preference task, SCID mice spent more time than B6 mice investigating a novel adult male mouse. In a social recognition task, SCID mice habituated to a novel ovariectomized mouse, but failed to show dishabituation when presented with an unfamiliar individual. We hypothesized that partial immune restoration could normalize behaviors. SCID pups (postnatal day 7) received either saline or splenocytes from normal donors. Splenocyte-replaced SCID mice spent less time interacting with a novel mouse than saline-injected SCID or B6 control mice. Again, control SCID mice failed to dishabituate to a novel mouse, but splenocyte-replaced SCID mice showed dishabituation. In both of these studies B6 and SCID pairs were used to produce offspring that remained with their dams until weaning. There are no studies of maternal behavior in SCID dams; therefore to investigate the potential role for this factor we quantified maternal behavior in SCID and B6 dams; several significant differences were found. To control for differences in maternal care we mated heterozygous SCIDs to produce offspring. These homozygous SCID and WT offspring reared by dams of the same genotypes displayed similar responses to a novel mouse; however, in the social recognition task SCID males did not display dishabituation to a novel mouse. Taken together, our data indicate that gene by environment interactions influence social interactions in immune deficient mice. PMID:26030431

  13. Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions.

  14. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  15. Classification of group behaviors in social media via social behavior grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Getoor, Lise; Smith, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The increasing use of online collaboration and information sharing in the last decade has resulted in explosion of criminal and anti-social activities in online communities. Detection of such behaviors are of interest to commercial enterprises who want to guard themselves from cyber criminals, and the military intelligence analysts who desire to detect and counteract cyberwars waged by adversarial states and organizations. The most challenging behaviors to detect are those involving multiple individuals who share actions and roles in the hostile activities and individually appear benign. To detect these behaviors, the theories of group behaviors and interactions must be developed. In this paper we describe our exploration of the data from collaborative social platform to categorize the behaviors of multiple individuals. We applied graph matching algorithms to explore consistent social interactions. Our research led us to a conclusion that complex collaborative behaviors can be modeled and detected using a concept of group behavior grammars, in a manner analogous to natural language processing. These grammars capture constraints on how people take on roles in virtual environments, form groups, and interact over time, providing the building blocks for scalable and accurate multi-entity interaction analysis and social behavior hypothesis testing.

  16. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Regrettable Drinking-Related Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Katz, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Research has shown that alcohol outcome expectancies are predictive of heavy alcohol consumption, which can lead to risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of various low-risk social behaviors while drinking among college students. Such social behaviors may later be regretted (referred to as regrettable social behaviors) and include electronic and in-person communications. Methods College students (N = 236) completed measures of alcohol outcome expectancies and regrettable social behaviors. Results Regrettable social behaviors were reported by 66.1% of participants, suggesting that they may occur at a much higher rate than more serious drinking-related consequences (e.g. drinking and driving, violence, etc.). Expectancies for social facilitation predicted regrettable social behavior. Further, this relationship was mediated by amount of alcohol consumed. Conclusion Given the high incidence, regrettable social behaviors may be effective targets in alcohol prevention programming. PMID:25820611

  17. Ceteacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    experimental sonar exposure in SOCAL-BRS (Risso’s dolphin )  Data-collection: Baseline social behavior - SOCAL-BRS projects (Risso’s dolphin ...playbacks using visual observation techniques 3 - Species evaluated: long-beaked common dolphin , bottlenose dolphin , killer whale - 2014: Design...data processing and analysis for Risso’s dolphin sonar response (SOCAL-BRS, Azores-Baseline) - Cross-study cooperation in data processing and analysis

  18. The microbiota modulates gut physiology and behavioral abnormalities associated with autism

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Elaine Y.; McBride, Sara W.; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R.; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A.; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Patterson, Paul H.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by core behavioral impairments, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly reported. Subsets of ASD individuals display dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and some exhibit increased intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in a mouse model displaying features of ASD, maternal immune activation (MIA). Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition and ameliorates ASD-related defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naïve mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:24315484

  19. Response to an abnormal ovarian cancer-screening test result: test of the social cognitive processing and cognitive social health information processing models.

    PubMed

    Andrykowski, Michael A; Pavlik, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow up. Consequently, the cancer-screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioural response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the social cognitive processing and cognitive-social health information processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n = 278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events.

  20. An autopsy case of cortical superficial siderosis with persistent abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Torii, Youta; Iritani, Shuji; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Habuchi, Chikako; Umeda, Kentaro; Matsunaga, Shinji; Mimuro, Maya; Ozaki, Norio; Yoshida, Mari; Fujita, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, MRI has revealed cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), which exhibits hemosiderin deposition in only the cortical surface. However, the associations between the histological findings and clinical symptoms of cSS remain unclear. We herein report an autopsy case of a 75-year-old Japanese man with cSS with persistent abnormal behavior according to cognitive impairment, hallucination and delusion. At 73 years of age, the patient presented with unusual behavior that indicated auditory hallucination and delusion. One year later, he was admitted to the hospital for malignant lymphoma. On admission, cognitive impairment was detected by a screening test. Soon after hospitalization, he presented with active delirium including visual hallucination and delusion. The patient's excited behavior was improved by the administration of a major tranquilizer. However, the abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment persisted. At 75 years of age, he died of heart failure. A neuropathological investigation revealed hemosiderin depositions in the superficial layer of the cortex in the medial and lateral frontal lobe, the lateral temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the medial and lateral occipital lobe. Neuritic plaques and diffuse plaques were extensively observed, which corresponded to Braak stage C and CERAD B, although NFTs were observed that corresponded to Braak stage II. Cortical amyloid angiopathy was not observed in any regions. Ischemic change of brain was also mild. Our report suggests that localized deposition of hemosiderin in the cortex might affect the manifestation of cognitive impairments and hallucination. Further clinicopathological studies are needed to clarify the clinical manifestations of patients with cSS.

  1. Rare E196K mutation in the PRNP gene of a patient exhibiting behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Béjot, Yannick; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Caillier, Marie; Moreau, Thibault; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Giroud, Maurice

    2010-04-01

    Genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) account for approximately 10-15% of overall human prion diseases worldwide, but genotype-phenotype correlations remain incomplete. Here we report the case of an 80-year-old man who developed rapidly progressive behavioral abnormalities and myoclonus following a stroke. Repeated electroencephalography (EEG) revealed a general slowing of the basic activity, as well as several episodes of triphasic waves, with neither periodic activity nor recorded seizure. 14.3.3 protein was detected in cerebral cerebrospinal fluid, and direct sequencing of the PRNP gene showed an E196K mutation associated with homozygosity for methionine at codon 129. The patient was diagnosed with probable genetic prion disease with a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-like phenotype. The PRNP E196K mutation has only rarely been described in the literature, and generally patients exhibited an atypical initial phenotype, mainly involving abnormal behavioral features. Further observations are needed to confirm this particular clinical pattern associated with the mutation.

  2. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity.

  3. Abnormal behavior of supercooled liquid region in bulk-forming metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, E. S.; Na, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2010-09-01

    A metallic glass is often viewed as an amorphous alloy exhibiting a single endothermic reaction in the supercooled liquid region (SCLR, ΔTx=Tx-Tg). Here we discuss the origin and consequences of abnormal behavior of SCLR in various bulk-forming metallic glasses (BMGs). The two-stage-like endothermic reaction in Ni-based, Cu-based, Zr-based, and Mg-based BMGs can originate from the local immiscibility of liquids, which is closely related to chemical heterogeneity in as-cast BMG. These inflections can be attributed to the overlap of the exothermic reaction for the formation and growth of clusters in SCLR. The abnormal behavior of SCLR can be modulated by controlling cooling rate as well as by tailoring alloy composition, with the consequence that the modulated local heterogeneity in these BMGs can lead to enhanced flexibility of the BMGs. This correlation assists in understanding toughening mechanism and in guiding alloy design to alleviate brittleness of BMGs.

  4. Emergence of social behavior deficit, blunted corticolimbic activity and adult depression-like behavior in a rodent model of maternal maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cortés, M; Sullivan, R M

    2016-10-25

    Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown. We used a naturalistic rodent model of maternal maltreatment during a sensitive period, postnatal days 8-12 (PN8-12), which produces social behavior deficits that precede adolescent depressive-like behavior and amygdala dysfunction, to examine social behavior in infancy, periweaning and adolescence. Neural activity in response to the social behavior test was assessed via c-Fos immunohistochemistry at these ages. A separate group of animals was tested for adult depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Maltreatment spared infant (PN16-18) social behavior but disrupted periweaning (PN20-22) and adolescent (PN42-48) social behavior. Maltreated rats exhibited blunted neural activation in the amygdala and other areas implicated in social functioning, including the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, at these ages and increased adult depressive-like behavior. These findings may suggest corticolimbic involvement in the emergence of maltreatment-induced social deficits that are linked to adult depressive-like behavior, thereby highlighting potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Understanding how infant experiences influence social behavior and age-specific expression across development may provide insights into basic neural mechanisms of social behaviors and disease-relevant social dysfunction exacerbated by early-life stress.

  5. Emergence of social behavior deficit, blunted corticolimbic activity and adult depression-like behavior in a rodent model of maternal maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Cortés, M; Sullivan, R M

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown. We used a naturalistic rodent model of maternal maltreatment during a sensitive period, postnatal days 8–12 (PN8–12), which produces social behavior deficits that precede adolescent depressive-like behavior and amygdala dysfunction, to examine social behavior in infancy, periweaning and adolescence. Neural activity in response to the social behavior test was assessed via c-Fos immunohistochemistry at these ages. A separate group of animals was tested for adult depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Maltreatment spared infant (PN16–18) social behavior but disrupted periweaning (PN20–22) and adolescent (PN42–48) social behavior. Maltreated rats exhibited blunted neural activation in the amygdala and other areas implicated in social functioning, including the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, at these ages and increased adult depressive-like behavior. These findings may suggest corticolimbic involvement in the emergence of maltreatment-induced social deficits that are linked to adult depressive-like behavior, thereby highlighting potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Understanding how infant experiences influence social behavior and age-specific expression across development may provide insights into basic neural mechanisms of social behaviors and disease-relevant social dysfunction exacerbated by early-life stress. PMID:27779623

  6. A Brief Social Skills Intervention to Reduce Challenging Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Troughton, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Social skills instruction has been recommended as a way of improving behavioral and social outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A brief social skills intervention ("Stop and Think" (Knoff in "The stop & think social skills program," Sopris West, Longmont, CO, 2001) was used to extend the…

  7. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.

  8. Individual differences in toddlers' social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed

    Gross, Rebekkah L; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18-30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers' social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents' increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children's early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior.

  9. Inactivation of Ceramide Synthase 6 in Mice Results in an Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities*

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Philipp; vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain. PMID:23760501

  10. Inactivation of ceramide synthase 6 in mice results in an altered sphingolipid metabolism and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Philipp; Vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-07-19

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain.

  11. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  12. G.H. Mead's social behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Cook, G A

    1977-10-01

    This paper seeks to clarify those conceptual foundations of G.H. Mead's social behaviorism which are assumed, but not made explicit, in that writer's well-known volume Mind, Self and Society. These foundations are shown to be an outgrowth of Mead's early commitment to the organic conception of conduct underlying the psychological functionalism of the Chicago School. Further light is shed upon Mead's position by pointing out the fundamental differences between his model of conduct and that characteristic of the behaviorist tradition in American psychology.

  13. Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.; Moll, Christian K.

    2013-01-01

    Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a “first” and “second gear” of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

  14. Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Alsaeed, Ibrahim; Al-Somali, Faisal; Sakhnini, Lama; Aljarallah, Omar S; Hamdan, Rayan M M; Bubishate, Saleh A; Sarfaraz, Ziyab Khan; Kamal, Amer

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rising, but the causes of ASD remain largely unidentified. Collective data have implicated the increased human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the increasing incidence of ASD. There are established biological effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF, but the relation to ASD is not investigated enough. In this study we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to ELF EMF on some ASD-relevant behavioral parameters in mice. The EMF was delivered via a Helmholtz coil pair. Male BALB/C mice were used and divided into exposed and control groups (n=8 and n=9, respectively). Tests were used to assess sociability, preference for social novelty, locomotion, anxiety, exploratory behavior, motor coordination, and olfaction. The examined mice were all males and exposed to EMF during the last week of gestation and for 7 days after delivery. The exposed mice demonstrated a lack of normal sociability and preference for social novelty while maintaining normal anxiety-like behavior, locomotion, motor coordination, and olfaction. Exposed mice also demonstrated decreased exploratory activity. We concluded that these results are supportive of the hypothesis of a causal link between exposure to ELF-EMF and ASD; however, replications of the study with further tests are recommended.

  15. Modification of feeding circuits in the evolution of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Eva K; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors. We include examples from diverse taxa to highlight that the independent evolution of complex social behaviors is a variation on the theme of feeding circuit modification.

  16. Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Walter E; Cortell, Ranon; Kau, Alice S M; Bukelis, Irena; Tierney, Elaine; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane; Capone, George T; Stanard, Pia

    2004-09-01

    The present study extends our previous work on social behavior impairment in young males with fragile X syndrome (FraX). Specifically, we evaluated whether the autistic phenomenon in FraX is expressed as a range of behavioral impairments as in idiopathic autism (Aut). We also examined whether there are behaviors, identified as items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), that in FraX predispose to or differentiate subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Finally, regression models were utilized to test the relative contribution of reduced communication and socialization skills to ADI-R scores and diagnoses. A cohort of 56 boys (3-8 years) with FraX was examined in terms of scores on measures of cognition (IQ was a co-variate in most analyses.), autistic behavior, problem/aberrant behavior, adaptive behavior, and language development. We found that, indeed, in terms of problem behavior and adaptive skills, there is a range of severity from FraX + Aut to FraX + PDD (Pervasive Developmental Disorder) to FraX + none. ADI-R items representing "Play" types of interaction appear to be "susceptibility" factors since they were abnormal across the FraX cohort. Integrated regression models demonstrated that items reflecting complex social interaction differentiated the FraX + ASD (Aut + PDD) subgroup from the rest of the FraX cohort, while abnormalities in basic verbal and non-verbal communication distinguished the most severely affected boys with FraX + Aut from the milder FraX + PDD cohort. Models incorporating language, adaptive communication, and adaptive socialization skills revealed that socialization was not only the main influence on scores but also a predictor of ASD diagnosis. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the diagnosis of ASD in FraX reflects, to a large extent, an impairment in social interaction that is expressed with variable severity in young males with FraX.

  17. Teacher Reports of Social Behavior and Peer Acceptance in Early Childhood: Sex and Social Status Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sue

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between sex, social status and social behavior in a sample of Australian preschool-aged children. Social behavior has emerged as an important predictor of social status for children in middle childhood however, although early childhood may be an optimum period for implementation of…

  18. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors in both adult and immature stages. Multiple pheromones and neural pathways that underlie adult social behavior have been described in the genetic model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, but there is no...

  19. Development of Preschoolers' Social-Cognitive Play Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the development of preschoolers' social-cognitive play behaviors, ten preschoolers (two, three and four years old) were observed in their classrooms on 15 occasions by a time-sampling schedule. Social-cognitive behavior coding (Parten and Smilansky) indicates that children's play became more social as they grew older. (Author/PN)

  20. Normal and Abnormal Development of Motor Behavior: Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2001-01-01

    In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human. PMID:11530886

  1. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  2. Social Escape Behaviors in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors…

  3. Individual behavior, culture, and social change

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    2004-01-01

    The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena. Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as metacontingencies. Both of these types of contingency relations result in evolving lineages of recurrences that can become increasingly complex in the number and organization of their elements. In addition to its role in the recurring interlocking behavioral contingencies that constitute cultural organization, operant behavior plays another role in cultures. Although the operants of individuals are functionally independent of one another, the behavior of each person may contribute to a cumulative effect that is relevant to the well-being of many people. Similarly, the outcomes of metacontingencies may also contribute to a cumulative effect. The relation between independently evolving operant lineages, or between independently evolving cultural lineages, and their cumulative effect is identified as a macrocontingency. Macrocontingencies do not involve cultural-level selection per se. Effective cultural engineering requires identifying the macrocontingencies that produce less than desirable effects and altering the relevant operant contingencies or metacontingencies to produce change in the cumulative effects. PMID:22478424

  4. Zebrafish Social Behavior in the Wild.

    PubMed

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S; Shelton, Delia S; Shukla, Rohitashva; Roy, Tamal; Bhat, Anuradha; Martins, Emília P

    2016-02-01

    Wild zebrafish exhibit a wide range of behavior. We found abundant wild zebrafish in flowing rivers and still water, in large, tightly-knit groups of hundreds of individuals, as well as in small, loose shoals. In two still-water populations, zebrafish were quite small in body size, common, and in tight groups of up to 22 fish. As in earlier laboratory studies, these zebrafish exhibited very low levels of aggression. In slowly flowing water in central India, zebrafish were relatively rare and gathered in small shoals (4-12 fish), often with other small fish, such as Rasbora daniconius. These stream zebrafish were larger in body size (27 mm TL) and much more aggressive than those in still water. In a second river population with much faster flowing water, zebrafish were abundant and again relatively large (21 mm TL). These zebrafish occurred in very large (up to 300 individuals) and tightly-knit (nearest-neighbor distances up to 21 mm) groups that exhibited collective rheotaxis and almost no aggression. This remarkable variation in social behavior of wild zebrafish offers an opportunity for future studies of behavioral genetics, development, and neuroscience.

  5. Examining the social, emotional and behavioral needs of youth involved in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems.

    PubMed

    Neely-Barnes, Susan; Whitted, Katheryn

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the social, emotional and behavioral symptoms of 2,575 youth who were receiving behavioral health services from a private provider agency, either in an out of home placement (e.g., foster care home, a group home or a residential treatment facility) or in their own home (through the In-Home Services Program). The findings suggest the prevalence of symptoms in each of the domains (i.e., conduct problems, emotional problems, ADHD, and peer problems) were relatively high compared to the general population. Over 50% of the youth had conduct problems in the borderline or abnormal range, more than 35% had hyperactivity and peer problems subscale scores in the borderline or abnormal range, and almost 25% of the youth reported symptoms of emotional problems in the borderline or abnormal range. Youth's social, emotional and behavioral problems varied by gender, race/ethnicity and age group.

  6. Psychological Distress, Social Withdrawal, and Coping Following Receipt of an Abnormal Mammogram Among Different Ethnicities: A Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Espinoza, Noah; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore ethnic differences in psychological distress and social withdrawal after receiving an abnormal mammogram result and to assess if coping strategies mediate ethnic differences. Design Descriptive correlational. Setting Two urban mobile mammography units and a rural community hospital in the state of Washington. Sample 41 Latina and 41 non-Latina Caucasian (NLC) women who had received an abnormal mammogram result. Methods Women completed standard sociodemographic questions, Impact of Event Scale–Revised, the social dimension of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire, and the Brief COPE. Main Research Variables Ethnicity, psychological distress, social withdrawal, and coping. Findings Latinas experienced greater psychological distress and social withdrawal compared to NLC counterparts. Denial as a coping strategy mediated ethnic differences in psychological distress. Religious coping mediated ethnic differences in social withdrawal. Conclusions Larger population-based studies are necessary to understand how ethnic differences in coping strategies can influence psychological outcomes. This is an important finding that warrants additional study among women who are and are not diagnosed with breast cancer following an abnormal mammogram. Implications for Nursing Nurses may be able to work with Latina patients to diminish denial coping and consequent distress. Nurses may be particularly effective, given cultural values concerning strong interpersonal relationships and respect for authority figures. PMID:25158657

  7. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish.

    PubMed

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA(A)R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0.1 microg/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 microg/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA(A)ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p<0.05) and great (p<0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p<0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA(A)R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS+BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA(A)R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  8. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) associated with isolation-induced abnormal responses to social stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Hiraki, Yosuke; Nishida, Shoji; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Yabe, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    In isolation-reared mice, social encounter stimulation induces locomotor hyperactivity and activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), suggesting that dysregulation of dorsal raphe function may be involved in abnormal behaviors. In this study, we examined the involvement of dorsal raphe GABAergic dysregulation in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice. We also studied an epigenetic mechanism underlying abnormalities of the dorsal raphe GABAergic system. Both mRNA and protein levels of GABA(B1a), a GABA(B) receptor subunit, were increased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice, compared with these levels in group-reared mice. In contrast, mRNA levels for other GABAergic system-related genes (GABA(A) receptor α1, β2 and γ2 subunits, GABA(B) receptor 1b and 2 subunits, and glutamate decarboxylase 67 and 65) were unchanged. Intra-DRN microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) exacerbated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior, while microinjection of 0.3 nmol phaclofen (a GABA(B) receptor antagonist) attenuated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen elicited encounter-induced hyperactivity in group-reared mice. Neither baclofen nor phaclofen affected immobility time in the forced swim test and hyperactivity in a novel environment of isolation reared mice. Bisulfite sequence analyses revealed that the DNA methylation level of the CpG island around the transcription start site (TSS) of GABA(B1a) was decreased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that histone H3 was hyperacetylated around the TSS of GABA(B1a) in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. These findings indicate that an increase in dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) expression via epigenetic regulation is associated with abnormal responses to social stimulation such as encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation

  10. “Hidden” Social Networks in Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McAneney, Helen; Davis, Michael; Tully, Mark A.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether “hidden” (or unobserved) social networks were evident in a 2011 physical activity behavior change intervention in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Results showed evidence of unobserved social networks in the intervention and illustrated how the network evolved over short periods and affected behavior. Behavior change interventions should account for the interaction among participants (i.e., social networks) and how such interactions affect intervention outcome. PMID:25602895

  11. ["Quorum sensing" or social behavior of bacteria].

    PubMed

    Gintsburg, A L; Il'ina, T S; Romanova, Iu M

    2003-01-01

    The review deals with the data of literature on the role of the "quorum sensing" (QS) system ensuring the social behavior of bacteria in the regulation of virulence genes. The mechanisms of the action of these systems in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as the influence of acyl-homoserine lactones, one of the components of the QS system, on the immune response of the infected host are discussed. In addition, in this review the data of literature on the existence of bacteria in the form of biofilms are presented. The methods of the identification of biofilms, the methods of their experimental preparation and the role of the QS system in the process of their formation are considered.

  12. Motherless quail mothers display impaired maternal behavior and produce more fearful and less socially motivated offspring.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Le Bot, Océane; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    Early maternal deprivation impairs the behavioral development of young individuals. Recently, strong differences between mothered and maternally deprived chicks have been reported concerning their emotionality, sociality, and spatial skills. Here we investigated long-term and cross-generational impacts of maternal deprivation by comparing the characteristics of the non-reproductive and the maternal behavior of 22 mothered and 22 non-mothered adult female Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and by comparing the behavior of their respective fostered chicks. We reveal that non-brooded mothers were more fearful and less competent in spatial tasks and expressed impaired maternal care, characterized by more aggression towards chicks, higher activity rates, and more abnormal pacing during the first days of the care period. Chicks' behavior was clearly affected by maternal care inducing strong differences in their fearfulness and social motivation. Our results show both long-term and cross-generational impacts of early maternal deprivation in precocial birds.

  13. New developments in cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia.

    PubMed

    Heimberg, R G; Barlow, D H

    1991-11-01

    Significant advances in cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia have occurred during the past 5 years. A new psychobiological model of social anxiety is described, and recent controlled clinical trials are reviewed. An effective cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy for social phobia developed in the authors' setting is described with case studies. Finally, future directions in cognitive-behavioral approaches to therapy for social anxiety, including clinical trials of interactive approaches that combine drug therapy with behavioral therapy and of intensive treatment of patients with avoidant personality disorder, are described briefly.

  14. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Marin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  15. Behavioral and Neurotransmitter Abnormalities in Mice Deficient for Parkin, DJ-1 and Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Hennis, Meghan R.; Seamans, Katherine W.; Marvin, Marian A.; Casey, Bradford H.; Goldberg, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine. The cause of PD remains uncertain, however, evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although most cases of PD are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are caused by inherited mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 were the first to be linked to recessively inherited Parkinsonism. Surprisingly, mice bearing similar loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 do not show age-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or depletion of dopamine in the striatum. Although the normal cellular functions of Parkin and DJ-1 are not fully understood, we hypothesized that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 render cells more sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we crossed mice deficient for Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Aged Parkin-/-DJ-1-/- and Mn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have enhanced performance on the rotorod behavior test. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum in the absence of nigral cell loss. Our studies demonstrate that on a Parkin/DJ-1 null background, mice that are also deficient for major antioxidant proteins do not have progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons but have behavioral and striatal dopamine abnormalities. PMID:24386432

  16. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  17. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  18. Escape behavior in task situations: task versus social antecedents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Ekdahl, M M; Romanczyk, R G; Miller, M L

    1994-06-01

    We designed an investigation to differentiate two types of challenging behaviors occurring in teaching situations: those evoked by task stimuli (i.e., task avoidance), and those evoked by social stimuli present in teaching situations (i.e., social avoidance). Four students with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to social interaction in a play situation and task demands in a teaching situation. Results indicated that the students exhibited two distinct behavior patterns. Two of the students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with task avoidance and the other two students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with social avoidance. Implications concerning task versus social avoidance and the need for more fine-grained analyses of the stimuli associated with escape behavior are discussed.

  19. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Konova, Anna B; Moeller, Scott J; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2012-10-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie the maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) that was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both the function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction.

  20. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

  1. Social escape behaviors in children with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

    2006-10-01

    Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors were significantly more likely to occur during the interview and singing conditions. Higher levels of salivary cortisol were predictive of higher levels of fidgeting behavior and lower levels of eye contact in male participants. There were no associations between level of FMRP expression and social escape behaviors. These data suggest that specific antecedent biological and environmental factors evoke social escape behaviors in fragile X syndrome.

  2. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  3. The CRF system and social behavior: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Caroline M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI) test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social behaviors. PMID

  4. Social Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: Observations and Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    The author was favorably impressed with the breadth, scope, and quality of the articles in this issue that dealt with the various aspects and correlates of social behavioral functioning as well as assessment and intervention considerations. Each of these articles dealt with a unique aspect of social behavioral functioning in children and youth and…

  5. Children's Behavioral Characteristics and Their Ability to Detect Social Contingency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normandeau, Sylvie; Cantin, Stephane

    Studies have suggested that the presence of individual differences in children's ability to detect social contingencies may be related to their behavioral characteristics, as a result of cumulative transactions with their physical and social environments. This study sought to identify behavioral characteristics associated with children's ability…

  6. Homophily and health behavior in social networks of older adults.

    PubMed

    Flatt, Jason D; Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steve M

    2012-01-01

    A common network phenomenon, homophily, involves developing relationships with others who are similar to you. The intent of this study was to determine if older adults' health behaviors were shared within social networks. We interviewed older adults from low-income senior housing (egos) on egocentric social network characteristics and key health behaviors for themselves and for named social ties (alters). Findings suggest strong effects for homophily, especially for those who smoked and were physically inactive. Public health interventions for older adults should consider the influence that social relationships have on personal health behaviors. Network-based interventions may be required.

  7. Prefrontal cortical control of a brainstem social behavior circuit.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Tamara B; Silva, Bianca A; Perova, Zinaida; Marrone, Livia; Masferrer, Maria E; Zhan, Yang; Kaplan, Angie; Greetham, Louise; Verrechia, Violaine; Halman, Andreas; Pagella, Sara; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Illarionova, Anna; Grinevich, Valery; Branco, Tiago; Gross, Cornelius T

    2017-02-01

    The prefrontal cortex helps adjust an organism's behavior to its environment. In particular, numerous studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex in the control of social behavior, but the neural circuits that mediate these effects remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral adaptation to social defeat in mice and uncovered a critical contribution of neural projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the dorsal periaqueductal gray, a brainstem area vital for defensive responses. Social defeat caused a weakening of functional connectivity between these two areas, and selective inhibition of these projections mimicked the behavioral effects of social defeat. These findings define a specific neural projection by which the prefrontal cortex can control and adapt social behavior.

  8. The spread of behavior in an online social network experiment.

    PubMed

    Centola, Damon

    2010-09-03

    How do social networks affect the spread of behavior? A popular hypothesis states that networks with many clustered ties and a high degree of separation will be less effective for behavioral diffusion than networks in which locally redundant ties are rewired to provide shortcuts across the social space. A competing hypothesis argues that when behaviors require social reinforcement, a network with more clustering may be more advantageous, even if the network as a whole has a larger diameter. I investigated the effects of network structure on diffusion by studying the spread of health behavior through artificially structured online communities. Individual adoption was much more likely when participants received social reinforcement from multiple neighbors in the social network. The behavior spread farther and faster across clustered-lattice networks than across corresponding random networks.

  9. Adolescents' social status goals: relationships to social status insecurity, aggression, and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wright, Michelle F

    2014-01-01

    Peer status is an important aspect of adolescents' social lives and is pursued actively by them. Although extensive research has examined how social behaviors are related to peer status (e.g., social preference, popularity), little attention has been given to adolescents' social goals to obtain a desired peer status. Thus, this study examined two types of social status goals, popularity goal and social preference goal, and their relationships to social status insecurity and social behaviors among 405 ethnically diverse early adolescents (267 girls; M age = 12.92 years; age range = 11-15 years). After accounting for adolescents' attained peer statuses (popularity and social preference), both social status goals were related distinctly to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as measured by self reports and peer nominations. Specifically, higher endorsement of the popularity goal was related to more self-reported relational aggression, but less peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In contrast, higher endorsement of the social preference goal was linked to less self-reported overt and relational aggression, but more self-reported and peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In addition, this study reveals that adolescents' social status insecurity was related positively to both social status goals and had an indirect effect on adolescents' social behaviors through the mediation of popularity goal endorsement. There were variations in goal endorsement as shown by groups of adolescents endorsing different levels of each goal. The group comparison results on social behaviors were largely consistent with the correlational findings. This study provides new insights into adolescents' social cognitive processes about peer status and the implications of the two social status goals on adolescents' behavioral development.

  10. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…

  11. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs.

  12. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the α₇ nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the α₄β₂ nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  13. Reducing children's behavior problems through social capital: A causal assessment.

    PubMed

    Turley, Ruth N López; Gamoran, Adam; McCarty, Alyn Turner; Fish, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Behavior problems among young children have serious detrimental effects on short and long-term educational outcomes. An especially promising prevention strategy may be one that focuses on strengthening the relationships among families in schools, or social capital. However, empirical research on social capital has been constrained by conceptual and causal ambiguity. This study attempts to construct a more focused conceptualization of social capital and aims to determine the causal effects of social capital on children's behavior. Using data from a cluster randomized trial of 52 elementary schools, we apply several multilevel models to assess the causal relationship, including intent to treat and treatment on the treated analyses. Taken together, these analyses provide stronger evidence than previous studies that social capital improves children's behavioral outcomes and that these improvements are not simply a result of selection into social relations but result from the social relations themselves.

  14. Behavioral abnormalities are common and severe in patients with distal 22q11.2 microdeletions and microduplications

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Valerie; McRae, Anne; Dineen, Richard; Saulsberry, Alexandria; Hoganson, George; Schrift, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe six individuals with microdeletions and microduplications in the distal 22q11.2 region detected by microarray. Five of the abnormalities have breakpoints in the low-copy repeats (LCR) in this region and one patient has an atypical rearrangement. Two of the six patients with abnormalities in the region between LCR22 D–E have hearing loss, which has previously been reported only once in association with these abnormalities. We especially note the behavioral/neuropsychiatric problems, including the severity and early onset, in patients with distal 22q11.2 rearrangements. Our patients add to the genotype–phenotype correlations which are still being generated for these chromosomal anomalies. PMID:26247050

  15. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    PubMed

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  16. Teachers' Perspectives on Student Problematic Behavior and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riney, Summer Sides; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined program outcomes of student problem behavior and social skills, based on teachers' perspectives, before and after early behavioral intervention services. The study targeted students in kindergarten through grade 5 who were identified by the school system as being at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Students…

  17. Brain Evolution: The Origins of Social and Cognitive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Argues that common anatomical and functional characteristics exist among the brains of reptiles, mammals, and man--the most significant commonality for educators being social behavior. Illustrates inherited behavior, including behavior observed in classroom and believed to be learned by placing it in context of a model "triune"…

  18. Assessment of Social Behavior in Children with Autism: The Development of the Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Emily H.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2011-01-01

    There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is a…

  19. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    PubMed

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  20. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    PubMed Central

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p < .001), net of controls. These results are suggestive of a behavior modeling mechanism in obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  1. Ts1Cje, a partial trisomy 16 mouse model for Down syndrome, exhibits learning and behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sago, Haruhiko; Carlson, Elaine J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Kilbridge, Joshua; Rubin, Edward M.; Mobley, William C.; Epstein, Charles J.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    1998-01-01

    A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called “Down syndrome region” of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity reveal distinct learning and behavioral abnormalities, some of which are indicative of hippocampal dysfunction. The triplicated region in Ts1Cje, from Sod1 to Mx1, is smaller than that in Ts65Dn, another segmental trisomy 16 mouse, and the learning deficits in Ts1Cje are less severe than those in Ts65Dn. In addition, degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, which was observed in Ts65Dn, was absent in Ts1Cje. PMID:9600952

  2. The role of the striatum in social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Mendoza, Raymundo; Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Where and how does the brain code reward during social behavior? Almost all elements of the brain's reward circuit are modulated during social behavior. The striatum in particular is activated by rewards in social situations. However, its role in social behavior is still poorly understood. Here, we attempt to review its participation in social behaviors of different species ranging from voles to humans. Human fMRI experiments show that the striatum is reliably active in relation to others' rewards, to reward inequity and also while learning about social agents. Social contact and rearing conditions have long-lasting effects on behavior, striatal anatomy and physiology in rodents and primates. The striatum also plays a critical role in pair-bond formation and maintenance in monogamous voles. We review recent findings from single neuron recordings showing that the striatum contains cells that link own reward to self or others' actions. These signals might be used to solve the agency-credit assignment problem: the question of whose action was responsible for the reward. Activity in the striatum has been hypothesized to integrate actions with rewards. The picture that emerges from this review is that the striatum is a general-purpose subcortical region capable of integrating social information into coding of social action and reward. PMID:24339801

  3. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes’ behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes’ connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  4. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions.

  5. Ethical, legal, social, and policy implications of behavioral genetics.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M; Cho, Mildred K

    2013-01-01

    The field of behavioral genetics has engendered a host of moral and social concerns virtually since its inception. The policy implications of a genetic basis for behaviors are widespread and extend beyond the clinic to the socially important realms of education, criminal justice, childbearing, and child rearing. The development of new techniques and analytic approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, noninvasive prenatal genetic testing, and optogenetics, has clearly changed the study of behavioral genetics. However, the social context of biomedical research has also changed profoundly over the past few decades, and in ways that are especially relevant to behavioral genetics. The ever-widening scope of behavioral genetics raises ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the potential new applications to criminal justice, education, the military, and reproduction. These issues are especially critical to address because of their potentially disproportionate effects on vulnerable populations such as children, the unborn, and the incarcerated.

  6. Ethical, Legal, Social, and Policy Implications of Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2015-01-01

    The field of behavioral genetics has engendered a host of moral and social concerns virtually since its inception. The policy implications of a genetic basis for behaviors are widespread and extend beyond the clinic to the socially important realms of education, criminal justice, childbearing, and child rearing. The development of new techniques and analytic approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, noninvasive prenatal genetic testing, and optogenetics, has clearly changed the study of behavioral genetics. However, the social context of biomedical research has also changed profoundly over the past few decades, and in ways that are especially relevant to behavioral genetics. The ever-widening scope of behavioral genetics raises ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the potential new applications to criminal justice, education, the military, and reproduction. These issues are especially critical to address because of their potentially disproportionate effects on vulnerable populations such as children, the unborn, and the incarcerated. PMID:23452225

  7. The role of the hippocampus in flexible cognition and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Rachael D; Watson, Patrick D; Duff, Melissa C; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Successful behavior requires actively acquiring and representing information about the environment and people, and manipulating and using those acquired representations flexibly to optimally act in and on the world. The frontal lobes have figured prominently in most accounts of flexible or goal-directed behavior, as evidenced by often-reported behavioral inflexibility in individuals with frontal lobe dysfunction. Here, we propose that the hippocampus also plays a critical role by forming and reconstructing relational memory representations that underlie flexible cognition and social behavior. There is mounting evidence that damage to the hippocampus can produce inflexible and maladaptive behavior when such behavior places high demands on the generation, recombination, and flexible use of information. This is seen in abilities as diverse as memory, navigation, exploration, imagination, creativity, decision-making, character judgments, establishing and maintaining social bonds, empathy, social discourse, and language use. Thus, the hippocampus, together with its extensive interconnections with other neural systems, supports the flexible use of information in general. Further, we suggest that this understanding has important clinical implications. Hippocampal abnormalities can produce profound deficits in real-world situations, which typically place high demands on the flexible use of information, but are not always obvious on diagnostic tools tuned to frontal lobe function. This review documents the role of the hippocampus in supporting flexible representations and aims to expand our understanding of the dynamic networks that operate as we move through and create meaning of our world.

  8. The role of the hippocampus in flexible cognition and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Rachael D.; Watson, Patrick D.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Successful behavior requires actively acquiring and representing information about the environment and people, and manipulating and using those acquired representations flexibly to optimally act in and on the world. The frontal lobes have figured prominently in most accounts of flexible or goal-directed behavior, as evidenced by often-reported behavioral inflexibility in individuals with frontal lobe dysfunction. Here, we propose that the hippocampus also plays a critical role by forming and reconstructing relational memory representations that underlie flexible cognition and social behavior. There is mounting evidence that damage to the hippocampus can produce inflexible and maladaptive behavior when such behavior places high demands on the generation, recombination, and flexible use of information. This is seen in abilities as diverse as memory, navigation, exploration, imagination, creativity, decision-making, character judgments, establishing and maintaining social bonds, empathy, social discourse, and language use. Thus, the hippocampus, together with its extensive interconnections with other neural systems, supports the flexible use of information in general. Further, we suggest that this understanding has important clinical implications. Hippocampal abnormalities can produce profound deficits in real-world situations, which typically place high demands on the flexible use of information, but are not always obvious on diagnostic tools tuned to frontal lobe function. This review documents the role of the hippocampus in supporting flexible representations and aims to expand our understanding of the dynamic networks that operate as we move through and create meaning of our world. PMID:25324753

  9. Social anhedonia and affiliation: examining behavior and subjective reactions within a social interaction.

    PubMed

    Llerena, Katiah; Park, Stephanie G; Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J

    2012-12-30

    Social anhedonia is a promising indicator for the vulnerability towards developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and is an important determinant of the social impairment associated with these disorders. It is unknown if social anhedonia is associated with true deficits in experiential reactions or if lower social functioning in social anhedonia reflects behavioral deficits in social skill or initiation of social contact. Using a novel social interaction task, the current study compared controls (n=60) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=49) on observer-rated social skill and facial affect and participant self-reports of their experiential reactions to an affiliative interaction. Compared to the control group, the social anhedonia group was rated as behaviorally less affiliative and less socially skilled during the affiliative interaction. In response to the social interaction, the social anhedonia group reported less change in positive affect, less willingness to engage in future social interactions with the interaction partner, and less positive reactions toward the interaction partner compared to controls. There were no group differences in facial displays of emotion. Using a standardized affiliative stimulus, it was demonstrated that individuals high in social anhedonia have alterations in both their social skill and in their self-reported experiential reactions during a social interaction.

  10. Dynamic Socialized Gaussian Process Models for Human Behavior Prediction in a Health Social Network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yelong; Phan, NhatHai; Xiao, Xiao; Jin, Ruoming; Sun, Junfeng; Piniewski, Brigitte; Kil, David; Dou, Dejing

    2016-11-01

    Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence. The SGP model naturally incorporates personal behavior factor and social correlation factor (i.e., the homophily principle: Friends tend to perform similar behaviors) into a unified model. And it models the social influence factor (i.e., an individual's behavior can be affected by his/her friends) implicitly in dynamic social correlation schemes. The detailed experimental evaluation has shown the SGP model achieves better prediction accuracy compared with most of baseline methods. However, a Socialized Random Forest model may perform better at the beginning compared with the SGP model. One of the main reasons is the dynamic social correlation function is purely based on the users' sequential behaviors without considering other physical activity-related features. To address this issue, we further propose a novel "multi-feature SGP model" (mfSGP) which improves the SGP model by using multiple physical activity-related features in the dynamic social correlation learning. Extensive experimental results illustrate that the mfSGP model clearly outperforms all other models in terms of prediction accuracy and running time.

  11. Chronic social instability in adult female rats alters social behavior, maternal aggression and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder. CSI females were quicker to attack prey and did not differ from control females in their saccharin consumption indicating, respectively, no stress-induced sensory-motor or reward system impairments. Offspring of CSI females exhibited slower growth and expressed more anxiety in social encounters. This study demonstrates continued adult vulnerability to social challenges with an impact specific to social situations for mothers and offspring.

  12. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  13. Social marketing: a behavior change technology for infection control.

    PubMed

    Mah, Manuel W; Deshpande, Sameer; Rothschild, Michael L

    2006-09-01

    Changing health care worker behaviors is a core function of infection control programs. The social change technologies of education and institutional policy are limited in their capacity to achieve desired behaviors on a sustained basis because they do not address the importance of opportunity and ability in practice enhancement. Social marketing addresses the health care worker's lack of opportunity and ability by offering a bundle of benefits at low cost with high accessibility and by doing this better than the behavioral status quo. This article introduces some social marketing concepts and explicates them in the context of hand hygiene promotion.

  14. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  15. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances.

    PubMed

    Short, Susan E; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-10-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied "social determinants" approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity.

  16. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Short, Susan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied “social determinants” approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity. PMID:26213711

  17. Social behaviors and acoustic vocalizations in different strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Faure, Alexis; Pittaras, Elsa; Nosjean, Anne; Chabout, Jonathan; Cressant, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    Proposing a framework for the study of core functions is valuable for understanding how they are altered in multiple mental disorders involving prefrontal dysfunction, for understanding genetic influences and for testing therapeutic compounds. Social and communication disabilities are reported in several major psychiatric disorders, and social communication disorders also can occur independently. Being able to study social communication involving interactions and associated acoustic vocalizations in animal models is thus important. All rodents display extensive social behaviors, including interactions and acoustic vocalizations. It is therefore important to pinpoint potential genetic-related strain differences -and similarities- in social behavior and vocalization. One approach is to compare different mouse strains, and this may be useful in choosing which strains may be best suitable in modeling psychiatric disorders where social and communication deficits are core symptoms. We compared social behavior and ultrasonic acoustic vocalization profiles in males of four mouse strains (129S2/Sv, C57BL/6J, DBA/2, and CD-1) using a social interaction task that we previously showed to rely on prefrontal network activity. Our social interaction task promotes a high level of ultrasonic vocalization with both social and acoustic parameters, and further allows other measures of social behaviors. The duration of social contact, dominance and aggressiveness varied with the mouse strains. Only C57BL/6J mice showed no attacks, with social contact being highly affiliative, whereas others strains emitted aggressive attacks. C57BL/6J mice also exhibited a significantly higher rate of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), especially during social interaction.

  18. Characterization of Social Behaviors in caspase-3 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Sheng, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder that shows a strong male preponderance in prevalence. Studies have identified neural circuits, neuromodulators and genetic factors involved in social behaviors, but mechanistic understanding of gender-specific social deficits is lacking. We report that deletion of the caspase-3 gene, encoding a protease with functions in apoptosis and neural plasticity, alters specific social behaviors in male mice, while leaving females unaffected. Casp3−/− mice showed normal behavioral responses to olfactory cues from food, neutral chemical and biological sources. Both Casp3−/− males and females displayed robust social exploration, sociability, recognition and preference for an enclosed novel mouse in the three-chamber test. However, Casp3−/− males showed significantly reduced social interaction behaviors when exposed to a freely moving novel mouse, including decreased interaction time and diminished mounting. Thus caspase-3 is essential for a subset of social behaviors, but despite similar hyper-locomotion in both sexes, only male Casp3−/− mice exhibited social interaction deficits, which is interesting given the male bias of autism. PMID:26783106

  19. Integrative approaches utilizing oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: from animal and human social behavior to autistic social dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Yee, Jason R; Hurlemann, René; Rilling, James K; Chen, Frances S; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Tost, Heike

    2012-10-10

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is as high as 1 in 100 individuals and is a heavy burden to society. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. Here, we briefly review the topics covered in our 2012 Society for Neuroscience Mini-Symposium entitled "Integrative Approaches Using Oxytocin to Enhance Prosocial Behavior: From Animal and Human Social Behavior to ASD's Social Dysfunction." This work is not meant to be a comprehensive review of oxytocin and prosocial behavior. Instead, we wish to share the newest findings on the effects of oxytocin on social behavior, the brain, and the social dysfunction of ASD at the molecular, genetic, systemic, and behavior levels, in varied subjects ranging from animal models to humans suffering from autism for the purpose of promoting further study for developing the clinical use of oxytocin in treating ASD.

  20. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual’s behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone–behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated

  1. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P

    2015-08-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual's behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone-behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated with

  2. Self-Perceived Social Acceptance and Peer Social Standing in Children with Aggressive-Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Barth, Joan M.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    Examining children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with others' ratings of their peer social standing can enhance our understanding of the heterogeneity in children exhibiting disruptive behavior problems. Using a sample of 213 youth rated in the top 31 percent of their class on aggressive-disruptive behaviors, the current…

  3. Induction of social behavior in zebrafish: live versus computer animated fish as stimuli.

    PubMed

    Qin, Meiying; Wong, Albert; Seguin, Diane; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The zebrafish offers an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity and has been suggested as a translational research tool for the analysis of human brain disorders associated with abnormalities of social behavior. Unlike laboratory rodents zebrafish are diurnal, thus visual cues may be easily utilized in the analysis of their behavior and brain function. Visual cues, including the sight of conspecifics, have been employed to induce social behavior in zebrafish. However, the method of presentation of these cues and the question of whether computer animated images versus live stimulus fish have differential effects have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we compare the effects of five stimulus presentation types: live conspecifics in the experimental tank or outside the tank, playback of video-recorded live conspecifics, computer animated images of conspecifics presented by two software applications, the previously employed General Fish Animator, and a new application Zebrafish Presenter. We report that all stimuli were equally effective and induced a robust social response (shoaling) manifesting as reduced distance between stimulus and experimental fish. We conclude that presentation of live stimulus fish, or 3D images, is not required and 2D computer animated images are sufficient to induce robust and consistent social behavioral responses in zebrafish.

  4. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  5. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  6. Using "I Will" Cards and Social Coaches to Improve Social Behaviors of Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have examined ways to improve social functioning of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some common strategies include: (1) social stories strategy; (2) social scripts strategy; (3) power card strategy; (4) cognitive behavioral modification; and (5) the "I Will" card strategy. The "I Will" card strategy utilizes components…

  7. Empirical Analysis of Attention Behaviors in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fang; Xuan, Qi; Wu, Tie-Jun

    Studying attention behavior has its social significance because such behavior is considered to lead the evolution of the friendship network. However, this type of behavior in social networks has attracted relatively little attention before, which is mainly because, in reality, such behaviors are always transitory and rarely recorded. In this paper, we collected the attention behaviors as well as the friendship network from Douban database and then carefully studied the attention behaviors in the friendship network as a latent metric space. The revealed similar patterns of attention behavior and friendship suggest that attention behavior may be the pre-stage of friendship to a certain extent, which can be further validated by the fact that pairwise nodes in Douban network connected by attention links beforehand are indeed far more likely to be connected by friendship links in the near future. This phenomenon can also be used to explain the high clustering of many social networks. More interestingly, it seems that attention behaviors are more likely to take place between individuals who have more mutual friends as well as more different friends, which seems a little different from the principles of many link prediction algorithms. Moreover, it is also found that forward attention is preferred to inverse attention, which is quite natural because, usually, an individual must be more interested in others that he is paying attention to than those paying attention to him. All of these findings can be used to guide the design of more appropriate social network models in the future.

  8. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  9. Social inclusion facilitates risky mating behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2011-07-01

    Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies.

  10. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-04-20

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species' reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets' behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets' social behavior and cognition are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are among only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this Primer, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and signaling. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C.; McFarland, Ashley M.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation–dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  12. Opiate effects on social behavior of juvenile dogs as a function of social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Knowles, P A; Conner, R L; Panksepp, J

    1989-07-01

    The relationship between opioids and social behavior was examined by administering morphine (an opioid agonist) and naloxone (an opioid antagonist) to juvenile dogs and measuring various social behaviors (e.g., tail wagging) in a large room. Drugs were administered following social deprivation and nondeprivation. It was hypothesized that morphine would ease effects of social deprivation while naloxone would result in behavior typical of untreated socially-deprived dogs. Social deprivation (24 hr) resulted in more contact with the experimenter and increased tail wagging relative to nondeprivation. Morphine (0.25 mg/kg) resulted in more contacts with the experimenter and entrances into the "experimenter's area" relative to vehicle injections. Further, morphine decreased and naloxone increased tail wagging in the dog's area and there was a significant social condition X drug interaction for that measure. Naloxone (0.25 mg/kg) increased wagging following nondeprivation while morphine decreased wagging following deprivation. These data support the hypotheses that social deprivation can increase social behaviors, and that social behavior is regulated by activity in brain opioid systems.

  13. Temperament and Peer Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterry, Terry W.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Gartstein, Maria A.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether children's social behavior mediated the associations between specific dimensions of temperament and peer acceptance, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. We also explored the role of child's age on the associations between temperament and social functioning. Primary caregiver reports of temperament…

  14. Vagal Regulation and Observed Social Behavior in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Corey, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between vagal regulation and infant social behavior. Assessed 1-year-olds' social responses toward an unfamiliar adult, then measured their regulation of cardiac vagal tone during a later test of mental development. Results suggest that infants capable of regulating vagal tone have a greater capacity for social…

  15. Social Motives Underlying Antisocial Behavior across Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaana; Ho, Alice Y.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether social motives (social mimicry, mutual attraction, and unreciprocated attraction) predict changes in antisocial behavior across middle school grades. The 2,003 initial participants (55% girls) were drawn from a larger longitudinal study of urban public school students: 44% Latino, 26% African-American,…

  16. Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

  17. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  18. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  19. Behavioral and Social Science: Fifty Years of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Gerstein, Dean R., Ed.

    This commemorative book contains 10 papers that provide a selective sample of behavioral and social science research accomplishments and trends over a 50-year period, and comparisons are made with research presented in the 1933 report, "Recent Social Trends in the United States" (The Ogburn Report). Four chapters in part 1,…

  20. The Social Context of Undermining Behavior at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michelle K.; Ganster, Daniel C.; Shaw, Jason D.; Johnson, Jonathan L.; Pagon, Milan

    2006-01-01

    We developed a fairness theory perspective to explain the experience of being "singled out" for social undermining from supervisors and coworkers, and tested our predictions across four distinct social contexts. We argued and predicted that attitudinal and behavioral reactions to undermining (from supervisors and coworkers) would be…

  1. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  2. Low home cage social behaviors in BTBR T+tf/J mice during juvenile development.

    PubMed

    Babineau, Brooke A; Yang, Mu; Berman, Robert F; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2013-04-10

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is a genetically homogenous inbred strain of mice that displays abnormal social behaviors, deficits in vocalizations, and high levels of repetitive behaviors, relevant to the three diagnostic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, leading to the use of this strain as a mouse model of autism. Comprehensive observations of BTBR social behaviors within the home cage during early stages of development have not been conducted. Here we evaluate the home cage behaviors of BTBR in two laboratory environments (NIMH, Bethesda, Maryland vs. UC Davis, Davis, California), starting from the day of weaning and continuing into adulthood. Extensive ethogram parameters were scored for BTBR in home cages that contained four BTBR conspecifics, versus home cages that contained four C57BL/6J (B6) conspecifics. BTBR were considerably less interactive than B6 in the home cage at both sites, as measured during the early dark stage of their circadian cycle. A novel home cage behavioral measure, frequency of long interactions, was found to be more frequent and of longer duration in B6 versus BTBR home cages across experimental sites. Significant strain differences in the occurrence of investigative and affiliative behaviors were also seen, however these findings were not fully consistent across the two testing sites. At the end of the 30-day home cage observation period, each seven-week old subject mouse was tested in the three-chambered social approach task. BTBR displayed lack of sociability and B6 displayed significant sociability, consistent with previous reports. Our findings reveal that BTBR engaged in lower levels of some components of spontaneous conspecific social interactions in the home cage environment throughout juvenile development, consistent with their deficits in juvenile and adult sociability as measured in specialized social tasks.

  3. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQ<85, 20% were at-risk for attention variability, and parent ratings indicated 30% and 37% to be at-risk for executive dysfunction and adaptive behavior problems, respectively. Approximately 43% were deemed at-risk on two or more measures. None of the disease-related variables were significantly associated with these outcomes, although the presence of hypertension approached significance for attention variability (p<.09). Abnormal birth history and lower maternal education were significantly related to lower Developmental Level/IQ; seizures were related to lower parental ratings of executive function and adaptive behavior; and abnormal birth history was significantly related to lower ratings of adaptive behavior. When predicting risk status, the logistic regression did evidence both higher GFR and the lack of anemia to be associated with more intact Developmental Level/IQ. Conclusions These findings suggest relatively intact functioning for preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing

  4. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ‘three degrees of influence’ property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  5. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  6. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations.

  7. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  8. Social Phobia: A Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Atenolol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Randomly assigned 72 social phobics to behavioral (flooding) or drug treatment with atenolol or placebo. Found that flooding consistently was superior to placebo, whereas atenolol was not. Flooding also was superior to atenolol on behavioral measures and composite indexes. Subjects who improved during treatment maintained gains at six-month…

  9. Social and Behavioral Correlates of Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between specific subtypes of speech language impairment (SLI) and concomitant social competence and behavioral adjustment was investigated. Teachers and parents completed behavior ratings of SLI preschoolers enrolled in a language-based intervention program and preschoolers without language impairment, including the Parent-Child…

  10. Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior: II. Scales of Social Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior II (BSAB-II) provides a system for program development and evaluation and for social behavior assessment of profoundly and severely mentally retarded individuals as well as of the younger less retarded and emotionally disturbed individuals. The specimen set consists of six parts: a Manual, a Tally Sheet…

  11. Social Control of Healthy Behavior between Intimate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The author examined whether the type of intimacy (ie, emotional, intellectual, sexual, social, recreational) featured in college students' romantic relationships affects the extent to which a partner's health-related behavior may be influenced by a variety of behavior change appeals. Participants: One hundred and thirteen female and 94…

  12. Health Behavioral Differences Between Low and Middle Social Class Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin

    1969-01-01

    Pretest comparisons on Health Behavior Inventory do not support hypothesis that low class students have less desirable health habits than do middle class ones. Differences occur on five specific items pertaining to weight control, social behavior, dental health, infection prevention, and responsibility for community health. (Author/CJ)

  13. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  14. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  15. An Observational Study of Social Behavior in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effects of five variables--student grouping at the computer, keyboarding status, academic discipline, student gender, and gender of partner--on student social behavior, both verbal and affective, in microcomputer classrooms in a public business high school. The effect of these variables on teacher behavior was also…

  16. Escape Behavior in Task Situations: Task versus Social Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jill C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four students (ages 4-6) with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to high intensity and low intensity social interaction in a play situation and a task situation. Interaction intensity made no difference in students' behavior. Two students exhibited task avoidance and two exhibited…

  17. Copulatory and agonistic behavior in Syrian hamsters following social defeat.

    PubMed

    Jeffress, Elizabeth C; Huhman, Kim L

    2013-01-01

    Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive animals that reliably defend their home territory. After social defeat, however, hamsters no longer defend their home cage but instead display submissive and defensive behavior toward an intruder, a response that we have termed conditioned defeat. Plasma testosterone is significantly reduced in Syrian hamsters following repeated defeat suggesting that social defeat might also impair copulatory behavior. The present study aimed to determine whether copulatory behavior in male Syrian hamsters is suppressed following repeated social defeats and additionally whether exposure to a hormone-primed stimulus female after social defeat reduces the behavioral response to defeat. Hamsters were paired with an aggressive opponent for one or nine defeats using a resident-intruder model, while controls were placed into the empty cage of a resident aggressor. On the day after the last treatment, half of the hamsters were paired with a receptive female for 10 min. There were no significant differences in the copulatory behavior of defeated versus non-defeated hamsters, and the opportunity to copulate had no effect on subsequent conditioned defeat testing, as defeated animals displayed significantly more submissive behavior than did non-defeated animals. The current data suggest that conditioned defeat is not necessarily a maladaptive response to social stress, at least in terms of reproductive behavior, but may instead represent a viable behavioral strategy adopted by losing animals following social defeat. Further, these data indicate that conditioned defeat is relatively persistent and stable, as the opportunity to copulate does not reduce the subsequent display of submissive behavior.

  18. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    PubMed

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.

  19. Children's Perceived Reality of Television and the Effects of Pro- and Anti-Social TV Content on Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron

    Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…

  20. The neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, Michelle; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; van der Meulen, Mara; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-02-27

    Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7-10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant's profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N=19, N=28 and N=27) and combined the results meta-analytically. Negative social feedback resulted in the most behavioral aggression, with large combined effect-sizes. Whole brain condition effects for each separate sample failed to show robust effects, possibly due to the small samples. Exploratory analyses over the combined test and replication samples confirmed heightened activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after negative social feedback. Moreover, meta-analyses of activity in predefined regions of interest showed that negative social feedback resulted in more neural activation in the amygdala, anterior insula and the mPFC/anterior cingulate cortex. Together, the results show that social motivation is already highly salient in middle childhood, and indicate that the SNAT is a valid paradigm for assessing the neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in children.

  1. Individual Behavior, Culture, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    2004-01-01

    The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena. Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as metacontingencies. Both of these types of contingency…

  2. Interpersonal distance and social anxiety in autistic spectrum disorders: A behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-08-01

    An inherent feature of social interactions is the use of social space or interpersonal distance-the space between one individual and another. Because social deficits are core symptoms of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), we hypothesized that individuals on this spectrum will exhibit abnormal interpersonal distance preferences. The literature on interpersonal distance in ASD is not conclusive. While some studies show preferences for closer distances among this group, others show preferences for farther distances than controls. A common symptom of ASD that may explain the variance in responses to interpersonal distance in this population is social anxiety (SA), which has been shown to correlate with interpersonal distance preferences. In the current study, we investigated interpersonal distance preferences in a group of individuals with ASD using both behavioral and ERP measures. We found greater variance in interpersonal distance preferences in the ASD group than in the control group. Furthermore, we showed that this variance can be explained by differences in SA level and can be predicted by the N1 amplitude, an early ERP component related to attention and discrimination processes. These results hint at the early sensory and attentional processes that may be affecting higher social behaviors, both in subclinical and in clinical populations.

  3. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain. PMID:27253877

  4. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.

  5. A CONTENT-ANALYTIC METHOD FOR STUDYING INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR AND A STUDY OF VERBAL AND NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH SOCIAL ROLES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , BEHAVIOR), (* CULTURE , SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ), (*VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL COMMUNICATION), GROUP DYNAMICS, LANGUAGE, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTIVATION, WORD ASSOCIATION, SOCIOMETRICS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS

  6. 76 FR 22925 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... card. Fraud detection algorithms (based on user behavior models) and procedures immediately set off... unusual behavior on the part of authorized users. The fraud detection algorithms use the financial... sets of values to be analyzed with well understood algorithms. For example, credit card purchases...

  7. Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asamen, Joy Keiko, Ed.; Berry, Gordon L., Ed.

    Straightforward and engaging in style, this book presents 10 essays that provide concrete, step-by-step examples of how to conduct studies of the impact of television on behavior from quantitative perspectives, qualitative perspectives, and an integrated approach, making the volume useful for both undergraduate and graduate students. Its…

  8. Modeling the searching behavior of social monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, D.; Miramontes, O.; Ramos-Fernández, G.; Mateos, J. L.; Cocho, G.

    2004-10-01

    We discuss various features of the trajectories of spider monkeys looking for food in a tropical forest, as observed recently in an extensive in situ study. Some of the features observed can be interpreted as the result of social interactions. In addition, a simple model of deterministic walk in a random environment reproduces the observed angular correlations between successive steps, and in some cases, the emergence of Lévy distributions for the length of the steps.

  9. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Michelle N; Demers, Catherine H; Auger, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  10. Cognitive conflict links behavioral inhibition and social problem solving during social exclusion in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Walker, Olga L; Lamm, Connie; Degnan, Kathryn A; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by heightened negative affect and social reticence to unfamiliar peers. In a longitudinal study, 291 infants were assessed for BI at 24 and 36 months of age. At age 7, N2 amplitude was measured during a Flanker task. Also at age 7, children experienced social exclusion in the lab during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer and an experimenter. Our findings indicate that children characterized as high in BI, relative to those low in BI, had larger (i.e., more negative) N2 amplitudes. Additionally, among children with a large N2, BI was positively related to withdrawal and negatively related to assertiveness during social exclusion. These findings suggest that variations in conflict detection among behaviorally inhibited children plays a role in their social behavior during stressful social situations.

  11. Gut microbiota regulates key modulators of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-01-01

    Social behavior plays a pivotal role in the mental well-being of an individual. Continuous efforts in the past have led to advancements in the area of how the brain regulates emotion and cognition, while the understanding of human social behavior still remains eluded. A major breakthrough in understanding the etiology of neurological disorders is the recent insight on the role of the gut microbiota (GM). Human GM also referred to as the "forgotten organ" is home to 10(13-14) microorganisms, which is 10 times the number of cells present in the human body. In addition, the gut microbiome (total genome of GM) is 150 times greater as compared to the human genome. An emerging concept gaining worldwide focus and acceptance is that, this much big genome can potentially control human behavior and other biological functions. Herein we hypothesize on the basis of GM's ability to modify brain and behavior and that it can directly or indirectly control social behavior. This review focuses on the association of GM with various domains of social behavior like stress, cognition and anxiety.

  12. Ceteacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    responses to sonar signals and other stimuli (tagging effort, killer whale playbacks) as well as baseline behavior, are studied within the larger... killer whale vocalizations in 3S2 - Response to tagging and vessel noise exposure in Azores-Baseline - Species: Northern bottlenose whale , Risso’s...common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, killer whale  Cross-study implementation of group sampling methodology - Protocols used in four BRS studies

  13. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Dotterer, Hailey L; Murray, Laura; Maxwell, Andrea M; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior (AB), including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  14. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV−/−) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV+/−) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV−/− and PV+/− mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus

  15. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-07-16

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency.

  16. Social Performance Cues Induce Behavioral Flexibility in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Toelch, Ulf; Bruce, Matthew J.; Meeus, Marius T. H.; Reader, Simon M.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance level of others provides one possible cue to assess the potential benefits of changing behavior, since out-performance in similar circumstances indicates that novel behaviors (innovations) are potentially useful. We demonstrate that social performance cues, in the form of previous players’ scores in a problem-solving computer game, influence behavioral flexibility. Participants viewed only performance indicators, not the innovative behavior of others. While performance cues (high, low, or no scores) had little effect on innovation discovery rates, participants that viewed high scores increased their utilization of innovations, allowing them to exploit the virtual environment more effectively than players viewing low or no scores. Perceived conspecific performance can thus shape human decisions to adopt novel traits, even when the traits employed cannot be copied. This simple mechanism, social performance feedback, could be a driver of both the facultative adoption of innovations and cumulative cultural evolution, processes critical to human success. PMID:21811477

  17. Social Robots as Embedded Reinforcers of Social Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Elizabeth S.; Berkovits, Lauren D.; Bernier, Emily P.; Leyzberg, Dan; Shic, Frederick; Paul, Rhea; Scassellati, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined the social behaviors of 4- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 24) during three tradic interactions with an adult confederate and an interaction partner, where the interaction partner varied randomly among (1) another adult human, (2) a touchscreen computer game, and (3) a social dinosaur…

  18. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  19. Television and Social Behavior; Reports and Papers, Volume II: Television and Social Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P., Ed.; And Others

    Concentrating on television and social learning, this second volume in the series of technical reports to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior consists of an overview and the reports of five investigations. The studies included are: Leifer and Roberts, "Children's Responses to Television Violence";…

  20. Social Networking Web Sites: Teaching Appropriate Social Competence to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has opened a variety of different avenues for people to interact with each other. As new digital environments are developed, new sets of social skills are needed to appropriately interact. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often have deficits in social competence and require specialized training in specific social…

  1. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and

  2. 78 FR 25309 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 905,...

  3. Alcohol and social behavior I: The psychology of drunken excess.

    PubMed

    Steele, C M; Southwick, L

    1985-01-01

    Drinking alcohol clearly has important effect on social behaviors, such as increasing aggression, self-disclosure, sexual adventuresomeness, and so on. Research has shown that these effects can stem from beliefs we hold about alcohol effects. Less is known about how alcohol itself affects these behaviors. A cognitive explanation, that alcohol impairs the information processing needed to inhibit response impulses--the abilities to foresee negative consequences of the response, to recall inhibiting standards, and so on--has begun to emerge. We hypothesize that alcohol impairment will make a social response more extreme or excessive when the response is pressured by both inhibiting and instigating cues--in our terms, when it is under inhibitory response conflict. In that case, alcohol's damage to inhibitory processing allows instigating pressures more sway over the response, increasing its extremeness. In the present meta-analysis, each published test of alcohol's effect on a social, or socially significant behavior was rated (validated against independent judges) as to whether it was under high or low inhibitory conflict. Over low-conflict tests, intoxicated subjects behaved only a tenth of a standard deviation more extremely than their sober controls, whereas over high-conflict tests they were a full standard deviation more extreme. The effect of conflict increased with alcohol dosage, was shown not to be mediated by drinking expectancies, and generalized with few exceptions across the 34 studies and 12 social behaviors included in this analysis.

  4. Cortical Structure Alterations and Social Behavior Impairment in p50-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Sara Anna; Mastinu, Andrea; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Mitola, Stefania; Premoli, Marika; La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Memo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in genes that regulate neurodevelopment can lead to cortical malformations, resulting in malfunction during postnatal life. The NF-κB pathway has a key role during neurodevelopment by regulating the maintenance of the neural progenitor cell pool and inhibiting neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether mice lacking the NF-κB p50 subunit (KO) present alterations in cortical structure and associated behavioral impairment. We found that, compared with wild type (WT), KO mice at postnatal day 2 present an increase in radial glial cells, an increase in Reelin protein expression levels, in addition to an increase of specific layer thickness. Moreover, adult KO mice display abnormal columnar organization in the somatosensory cortex, a specific decrease in somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, altered neurite orientation, and a decrease in Synapsin I protein levels. Concerning behavior, KO mice, in addition to an increase in locomotor and exploratory activity, display impairment in social behaviors, with a reduction in social interaction. Finally, we found that risperidone treatment decreased hyperactivity of KO mice, but had no effect on defective social interaction. Altogether, these data add complexity to a growing body of data, suggesting a link between dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway and neurodevelopmental disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26946128

  5. Cortical Structure Alterations and Social Behavior Impairment in p50-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Sara Anna; Mastinu, Andrea; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Mitola, Stefania; Premoli, Marika; La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Memo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in genes that regulate neurodevelopment can lead to cortical malformations, resulting in malfunction during postnatal life. The NF-κB pathway has a key role during neurodevelopment by regulating the maintenance of the neural progenitor cell pool and inhibiting neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether mice lacking the NF-κB p50 subunit (KO) present alterations in cortical structure and associated behavioral impairment. We found that, compared with wild type (WT), KO mice at postnatal day 2 present an increase in radial glial cells, an increase in Reelin protein expression levels, in addition to an increase of specific layer thickness. Moreover, adult KO mice display abnormal columnar organization in the somatosensory cortex, a specific decrease in somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, altered neurite orientation, and a decrease in Synapsin I protein levels. Concerning behavior, KO mice, in addition to an increase in locomotor and exploratory activity, display impairment in social behaviors, with a reduction in social interaction. Finally, we found that risperidone treatment decreased hyperactivity of KO mice, but had no effect on defective social interaction. Altogether, these data add complexity to a growing body of data, suggesting a link between dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway and neurodevelopmental disorders pathogenesis.

  6. Social Skills Training for Behavior Disordered Students: A Meta-Behavioral Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry; Bechard, Joseph

    The paper proposes a model which combines traditional metacognitive explanations for the acquisition of social skills in behaviorally disordered adolescents with situationally specific environment variables. Research is reported suggesting that newly learned social skills may not generalize to a wider variety of real life situations because social…

  7. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  8. A Contextual Approach to the Assessment of Social Skills: Identifying Meaningful Behaviors for Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnes, Emily D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Geske, Jenenne; Warnes, William A.

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted which assessed behaviors that characterize social competence in the second and fifth grades. A contextual approach was used to gather information from second- and fifth-grade children and their parents and teachers regarding the behaviors they perceived to be important for getting along well with peers. Data were…

  9. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  10. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  11. Effects of Social Context on Social Interaction and Self-Injurious Behavior in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arron, Kate; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Sloneem, Jenny; Forman, Debbie; McClintock, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is reported to be associated with self-injurious behavior (SIB) and social avoidance. We used analog methodology to examine the effect of manipulating adult social contact on social communicative behaviors and SIB in 16 children with this syndrome. For 9 participants engagement behavior was related to levels of adult…

  12. Social Norms and Dietary Behaviors Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Graham, Dan J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between young adults’ dietary behaviors and perceived social norms for healthy eating. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 1000 diverse college students. Associations between perceived behaviors of family, friends, and significant other and participants’ dietary behaviors were examined using t-tests and linear regressions. Results Young adults consumed more fast food if they perceived that their family, friends, or significant other did so (p < .003). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with perceived consumption by family and friends (p < .034). Fruit and vegetable consumption and dinner preparation were associated with perceived behavior of friends only (p < .001). Conclusions Young adults’ dietary behaviors appear to reflect their perceptions of normative behavior, particularly among friends. PMID:24034689

  13. Orbitofrontal cortex lesions result in abnormal social judgements to emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Willis, Megan L; Palermo, Romina; Burke, Darren; McGrillen, Ky; Miller, Laurie

    2010-06-01

    Facial expressions of emotion display a wealth of important social information that we use to guide our social judgements. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether patients with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions exhibit an impaired ability to judge the approachability of emotional faces. Furthermore, we also intended to establish whether impaired approachability judgements provided to emotional faces emerged in the presence of preserved explicit facial expression recognition. Using non-parametric statistics, we found that patients with OFC lesions had a particular difficulty using negative facial expressions to guide approachability judgements, compared to healthy controls and patients with frontal lesions sparing the OFC. Importantly, this deficit arose in the absence of an explicit facial expression recognition deficit. In our sample of healthy controls, we also demonstrated that the capacity to recognise facial expressions was not significantly correlated with approachability judgements given to emotional faces. These results demonstrate that the integrity of the OFC is critical for the appropriate assessment of approachability from negatively valenced faces and this ability is functionally dissociable from the capacity to explicitly recognise facial expressions.

  14. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Piff, Paul K; Stancato, Daniel M; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-03-13

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals' unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed.

  15. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior

    PubMed Central

    Piff, Paul K.; Stancato, Daniel M.; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed. PMID:22371585

  16. Social Vocalizations of Big Brown Bats Vary with Behavioral Context

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Faure, Paul A.; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller. PMID:22970247

  17. Developmental and social influences on young girls' early problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Keenan, K; Shaw, D

    1997-01-01

    A developing body of research suggests that there are few sex differences in the rate and severity of problem behavior in early childhood, but clear sex differences emerge at about 4 years of age. The authors explore 2 hypotheses to further the understanding of emerging sex differences in problem behavior across the first 5 years of life. The first posits that the change in girls' problem behavior from infancy to school entry represents a channeling of early problem behavior into predominantly internalizing problems as a result of socialization. The second hypothesis is that the change in girls' early problem behavior during the preschool period results from the more rapid biological, cognitive, and social-emotional development of girls relative to boys. The authors review research on the influence of parents, teachers, and peers on girls' behavior from infancy to preschool regarding the first hypothesis, whereas they review studies of sex differences in developmental processes to test the second. They find moderate support for both hypotheses and present a comprehensive theory of girls' developmental psychopathology that integrates social and developmental influences.

  18. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems. PMID:24162105

  19. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-10-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems.

  20. Social dominance rank influences wheel running behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pérez, Héctor; Sellings, Laurie; Grieder, Taryn; Díaz, José-Luis

    2009-07-03

    Dominance hierarchies within social groups determine resource distribution. Resources, such as food and access to mating partners, can act as reinforcers. The present study examined the effect of social rank on access to wheel running-a reinforcing behavior performed by laboratory animals. Mice were identified as dominant or subordinate and given access to a running wheel access under solitary or social conditions. In the solitary condition, subordinate and dominant mice spent equal amounts of time on the running wheel. In the social condition, when one wheel was present, subordinate mice spent less time on the wheel than did dominant mice. Conversely, when two wheels were present, subordinates spent more time on the wheel than did dominant mice. When mice were given 24h access to one running wheel in the social condition, dominant mice ran more than subordinates during the dark cycle. Subordinate mice did not compensate for the lack of running wheel access by schedule shifting. These results suggest that social rank influences access to reinforcers by behavioral interference rather than by social inhibition.

  1. Disrupted Glutamatergic Transmission in Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Behavioral Abnormality in an Animal Model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jia; Liu, Aiyi; Shi, Michael Y; Yan, Zhen

    2017-02-08

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits. Administration of methylphenidate (a psychostimulant drug used to treat ADHD), which blocks dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of adolescent SHR and restored AMPAR-mediated synaptic function. Activation of PFC pyramidal neurons with a CaMKII-driven Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) also led to the elevation of AMPAR function and the normalization of ADHD-like behaviors in SHR. These results suggest that the disrupted function of AMPARs in PFC may underlie the behavioral deficits in adolescent SHR and enhancing PFC activity could be a treatment strategy for ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 08 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.30.

  2. Behavioral Intervention Planning: Increasing Appropriate Behavior of a Socially Withdrawn Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Lynnette; Young, K. Richard; Marchant, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an assessment-based intervention plan on the appropriate classroom behavior of a socially withdrawn, Hispanic, learning disabled, third grade student. The study focused on (1) the effects of peer mediation as part of a behavioral intervention package of empirically validated components, (2) the effects of…

  3. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  4. Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3) consolidate context-target associative learning. We suggest the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) as a specific disorder in which the reported deficits in social cognition (e.g., facial recognition, empathy, decision-making, figurative language, theory of mind) can be described as context impairments due to deficits in the SCNM. Disruption of orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit, as well as the frontal, temporal, and insular atrophy in bVFTD, suggests a relationship between context-sensitive social cognition and SCNM. In considering context as an intrinsic part of social cognition, we highlight the need for a situated cognition approach in social cognition research as opposed to an abstract, universal, and decontextualized approach. The assessment of context-dependent social cognition paradigms, the SCNM, and their possible application to neuropsychiatric disorders may provide new insight into bvFTD and other related frontal disorders. PMID:22529204

  5. Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-04-24

    The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3) consolidate context-target associative learning. We suggest the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) as a specific disorder in which the reported deficits in social cognition (e.g., facial recognition, empathy, decision-making, figurative language, theory of mind) can be described as context impairments due to deficits in the SCNM. Disruption of orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit, as well as the frontal, temporal, and insular atrophy in bVFTD, suggests a relationship between context-sensitive social cognition and SCNM. In considering context as an intrinsic part of social cognition, we highlight the need for a situated cognition approach in social cognition research as opposed to an abstract, universal, and decontextualized approach. The assessment of context-dependent social cognition paradigms, the SCNM, and their possible application to neuropsychiatric disorders may provide new insight into bvFTD and other related frontal disorders.

  6. Juvenile social experience regulates central neuropeptides relevant to emotional and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Osako, Y; Yuri, K

    2010-04-14

    Stressful social experiences during early-life can increase the risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders associated with anxiety, mood, and personality. Early neglect also alters peripheral arginine vasopression (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT). We hypothesized that a lack of social stimuli should adversely affect developmental AVP and OXT systems. To test this idea, we examined changes of central AVP- and OXT-immunoreactive (ir) cell number as well as its related behaviors in socially isolated rats. Animals were weaned at 23 days of age, divided into group- or isolation-reared conditions, and maintained for at least 2 weeks. At 38-48 days of age, animals were sacrificed for immunohistochemistry, or used for two behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze test and social recognition test. The results from immunohistochemistry showed that isolation-reared males have decreased AVP-ir cells in the paraventricular nucleus hypothalamus (PVH), medial parvicellular part, ventral zone, and that isolation-reared females have decreased OXT-ir cells in the PVH, medial parvicellular part, dorsal zone, when compared with group-reared counterparts. The results from behavioral assessment showed that isolation-reared animals have difficulty with social recognition, and that isolation-reared males, but not females, have anxiogenic profile. The present study demonstrates that post-weaning social isolation results in decrease of male AVP-ir cells and female OXT-ir cells in the PVH parvocellular divisions, and supports the idea that juvenile social environment may play a critical role in neuronal and behavioral development.

  7. Social representations, risk behaviors and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Bousfield, Andréa Barbará S

    2009-11-01

    This study's interest relies on adolescents' social representations of unprotected sex, more precisely on the relationship between the attitude towards the preservative and the reason attribution for its non use. 1386 secondary school students took part in the study, in the Brazilian cities of Florianópolis, Itajaí and Balneário Camboriú. In order to verify reasons attributed by the students, we focused on the sample that had sexual experiences without using the condom during last year. Data was analyzed with software ALCESTE, which showed three different classes of explanations for the non use of the preservative: the moment of the intercourse (unpredictable and incontrollable), trust in the partner and the option of the contraceptive pill, instead of the preservatives, in avoiding pregnancy. The students' attitudes towards the preservative are less favourable among those who maintain sexual intercourse with known people. The results revealed two representations of AIDS: one of trust in the partner and another of the experience with sex and the preservative--the first one gives sense to the adolescents' experiences with known sexual partners and the second, with less known sexual partners.

  8. Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and β-endorphin (β-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

  9. What the laboratory rat has taught us about social play behavior: role in behavioral development and neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Social play behavior is the most vigorous and characteristic form of social interaction displayed by developing mammals. The laboratory rat is an ideal species to study this behavior, since it shows ample social play that can be easily recognized and quantified. In this chapter, we will first briefly describe the structure of social play behavior in rats. Next, we will discuss studies that used social isolation rearing during the period in life when social play is most abundant to investigate the developmental functions of social play behavior in rats, focusing on the consequences of play deprivation on social, cognitive, emotional, and sensorimotor development. Last, we will discuss the neural substrates of social play behavior in rats, with emphasis on the limbic corticostriatal circuits that underlie emotions and their influence on behavior.

  10. The influence of social networking photos on social norms and sexual health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Jordan, Alexander H

    2013-04-01

    Two studies tested whether online social networking technologies influence health behavioral social norms, and in turn, personal health behavioral intentions. In Study 1, experimental participants browsed peers' Facebook photos on a college network with a low prevalence of sexually suggestive content. Participants estimated the percentage of their peers who have sex without condoms, and rated their own future intentions to use condoms. Experimental participants, compared to controls who did not view photos, estimated that a larger percentage of their peers use condoms, and indicated a greater intention to use condoms themselves in the future. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to view sexually suggestive or nonsexually suggestive Facebook photos, and responded to sexual risk behavioral questions. Compared to participants viewing nonsuggestive photos, those who viewed sexually suggestive Facebook photos estimated that a larger percentage of their peers have unprotected sexual intercourse and sex with strangers and were more likely to report that they themselves would engage in these behaviors. Thus, online social networks can influence perceptions of the peer prevalence of sexual risk behaviors, and can influence users' own intentions with regard to such behaviors. These studies suggest the potential power of social networks to affect health behaviors by altering perceptions of peer norms.

  11. The maternal autoimmune environment affects the social behavior of offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubin; Gao, Donghong; Kluetzman, Kerri; Mendoza, Alvaro; Bolivar, Valerie J; Reilly, Andrew; Jolly, Jane K; Lawrence, David A

    2013-05-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with unknown etiology. BTBR-T(+)tf/J (BTBR) mice, a mouse strain with behaviors that resemble autism and with elevated levels of anti-brain antibodies (Abs), have enhanced activation of peripheral B cells and CD4(+) T cells and an expanded percentage of CD4(+) T cells expressing Vβ6 chains. The CD4(+)CD25(+)Vβ6(+) and Vβ6-splenic cells of BTBR mice have elevated levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17, but there appears to be no preferential CD4(+) T subset skewing/polarization. The high level of IgG production by BTBR B cells was dependent on T cells from BTBR mice. The CD4(+) T cells of BTBR mice, especially those expressing Vβ6 become spontaneously activated and expanded in an autoimmune-like manner, which occurred in both BTBR and B6 hosts that received an equal number of BTBR and B6 bone marrow cells. BTBR mice also have an elevated percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils, which may represent their elevated inflammatory state. B6 offspring derived from B6 dams that were gestationally injected with purified IgG from sera of BTBR mice, but not IgG of B6 mice, developed significantly impaired social behavior. Additionally, B6 offspring that developed in BTBR dams had impaired social behavior, while BTBR offspring that developed in B6 dams had improved social behavior. All of the immunological and behavioral parameters of BTBR mice were compared with those of B6 mice, which have relatively normal behaviors. The results indicate maternal Abs and possibly other maternal influences affect the social behavior of offspring.

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  13. Oxytocin enhances gaze-following responses to videos of natural social behavior in adult male rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, P.T.; Roman, J.M.; Zimmerman, P.E.; Gothard, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following is a basic building block of social behavior that has been observed in multiple species, including primates. The absence of gaze following is associated with abnormal development of social cognition, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some social deficits in ASD, including the failure to look at eyes and the inability to recognize facial expressions, are ameliorated by intranasal administration of oxytocin (IN-OT). Here we tested the hypothesis that IN-OT might enhance social processes that require active engagement with a social partner, such as gaze following. Alternatively, IN-OT may only enhance the perceptual salience of the eyes, and may not modify behavioral responses to social signals. To test this hypothesis, we presented four monkeys with videos of conspecifics displaying natural behaviors. Each video was viewed multiple times before and after the monkeys received intranasally either 50 IU of OT or saline. We found that despite a gradual decrease in attention to the repeated viewing of the same videos (habituation), IN-OT consistently increased the frequency of gaze following saccades. Further analysis confirmed that these behaviors did not occur randomly, but rather predictably in response to the same segments of the videos. These findings suggest that in response to more naturalistic social stimuli IN-OT enhances the propensity to interact with a social partner rather than merely elevating the perceptual salience of the eyes. In light of these findings, gaze following may serve as a metric for pro-social effects of oxytocin that target social action more than social perception. PMID:27343726

  14. Abnormal response to emotional stimulus in male adolescents with violent behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yi; Xie, Bin; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study is to explore the characteristics of emotional stimulus in adolescents with violent behavior and to identify the correlated dysfunctional regions of the brain. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained while the participants passively viewed pictures with neutral or negative affective valence. 15 male adolescents with violent behavior, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years old, and 16 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. While looking at neutral pictures, several brain regions were activated more intensely in the violent group than the control one. After digitally subtracting the control group, these areas included the bilateral amygdala, left orbital gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and left visual cortex. While passively viewing negative pictures, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus were less activated in the violent group than the control group. Male adolescents with violent behaviors have some dysfunctions during the processing and evaluation of information from external emotional stimulus. These individuals are inclined to interpret neutral information as threatening stimulus.

  15. Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe congenital immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Titman, Penny; Pink, Elizabeth; Skucek, Emily; O'Hanlon, Katherine; Cole, Tim J; Gaspar, Jane; Xu-Bayford, Jinhua; Jones, Alison; Thrasher, Adrian J; Davies, E Graham; Veys, Paul A; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2008-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a highly successful treatment for severe congenital immunodeficiencies. However, some studies have suggested that children may experience cognitive difficulties after HSCT. This large-scale study assessed cognitive and behavioral function for the cohort of children treated by HSCT at one center between 1979 and 2003 to determine the frequency and severity of problems and to identify risk factors. A total of 105 patients were assessed on standardized measures of cognitive and emotional and behavioral function together with a control group of unaffected siblings. The average IQ for the cohort was 85 (95% confidence interval, 81-90), significantly lower than both the population average of 100 (P < .001) and unaffected siblings. Multivariate analysis indicated that the underlying genetic defect, diagnosis of adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency, and consanguinity were associated with worse outcome but that age at transplantation and chemotherapy conditioning were not. Children treated by HSCT for severe immunodeficiency have an increased risk of long-term cognitive difficulties and associated emotional and behavioral difficulties. The specific genetic diagnosis, consanguinity, and severe clinical course are associated with poor outcome. Long-term follow-up of these patients should include screening to identify and manage these problems more effectively.

  16. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  17. The Effects of Noise Reduction on Social Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.; Duncan, Phillip K.

    1986-01-01

    The study found no relationship between improved social behavior in a group of juveniles residing at a county shelter care facility and decreased frequency and duration of disruptions above 85 decibels. Subjects did reduce noise levels when stereo listening was made contingent on reduced noise. (Author/DB)

  18. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  19. Aspects of Television Content and Children's Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, W. Andrew; And Others

    Three studies examine the impact of different types of television content on the social behavior of children at various ages. The studies represent research into the interrelated problem of the processes involved in media effects and age-related differences. In the first study an action-adventure program, in which a character's reputation and…

  20. Racial Recipients, Social Distance, and Sharing Behavior in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Otto; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Preschoolers (N=36) and second graders (N=41) were asked to rank preference of a white child, black and an Indian. Subjects were middle-class white southern students who ranked the sharing of small items and their companions in hypothetical social interaction situations. Influence of race of the recipient on sharing behavior is believed to vary…

  1. Verification of a 4-Component Model of Understanding Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Susan E.; And Others

    In order to examine their willingness to disclose, subjects were given a questionnaire to test the relative contributions to such willingness of stimulus person (teacher, friend, parent, stranger), situation (home, college, public place, social situation), individual differences, and response mode (e.g., sexual behavior, voting preference). The…

  2. Social Skills Interventions and Children with Behavior Problems: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Nina; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This review of 27 studies examining social skills interventions (such as modeling, role playing, goal setting, and verbal self-instruction) and their effects on students with behavior problems found a number of interventions to be successful. The interventions yielded changes in self, teacher, and parent perceptions, though peer perceptions were…

  3. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Justice, Laura M.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Grant, Staci L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the social and behavioral characteristics of children with specific language impairment (SLI) as compared with a group of children with typically developing language skills (TL). The participants were 45 children (17 girls and 28 boys) with SLI and 53 children (27 girls and 26 boys) with TL. Maternal ratings of participants'…

  4. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  5. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Behavior Problems, and Social Adjustment in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…

  6. Students' Individual and Social Behaviors with Physical Education Teachers' Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Sourki, Mehdi Sadeghian; Bonjar, Seyedeh Elaham Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective for this survey is to assess the relationship between physical education teachers' personality and students' individual with social behaviors. The statistical population of the study was all the teachers of physical education working at high schools in the academic year 2012-2013. The sample consisted of sixty teachers that were…

  7. A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

    1976-01-01

    A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

  8. Social, Behavioral and Economic Research in the Federal Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    many states. Howev- er, retention practices have not been found to improve student performance. Timely interventions targeted to each child’s...early education for improving later edu- cational outcomes . Researchers working at the inter- section of cognitive science and information science...through social and behavioral avenues, in addition to pharmaceutical interventions . III. Policy Relevance Psychological Stress Increases Susceptibility

  9. MDMA as a Probe and Treatment for Social Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Heifets, Boris D; Malenka, Robert C

    2016-07-14

    MDMA, better known as the recreational drug "ecstasy," is well known for stimulating a feeling of closeness and empathy in its users. We advocate that exploring its mechanism of action could lead to new treatments for psychiatric conditions characterized by impairments in social behavior.

  10. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  11. Moral Behavior from a Cognitive Social Learning Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischel, Walter; Mischel, Harriet N.

    This paper deals with one view of cognitive social learning and its applications to the psychological analysis of moral competence and moral conduct. The concept of cognitive and behavioral construction competencies is explained and cognitive competencies are said to be among the very best predictors of "honesty" in conduct. Moral…

  12. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  13. Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Students with ASD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses techniques and instruments that are used when conducting a behavioral, social, and emotional assessment of students with autistic spectrum disorders. Functional assessment methods are described, including indirect methods, direct observation, and experimental manipulation. Instruments used to assess depression and…

  14. Mental Programs and Social Behavior Patterns in Russian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubsky, Anatoly Vladimirovich; Kolesnykova, Elena Yuryevna; Lubsky, Roman Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the article is to reconstruct the mental programs, their cognitive, axiological and connotative structures, and construction on this basis of various modal patterns of social behavior in Russian society. Methodology of the article is based on an interdisciplinary scientific approach making it possible to conceptually disclose the…

  15. Psychological, Contextual, and Social Determinants of Safe Sex Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Iscoe, Ira; Holahan, Charles J.

    This paper reports on a study that developed a model of sexual risk-taking behavior that included psychological measures, as well as social or demographic factors, and contextual variables. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge based used when designing health promotion or disease prevention programs that promote safer sexual practices…

  16. Fitting Organizational Behavior and Socialization into the Rehabilitation Counseling Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitus, Jamie S.; Hart, Zachary P.

    2008-01-01

    High unemployment persists among individuals with disabilities in part due to problems with job retention (Gibbs, 1990; Kirsch, 2000; Louis Harris and Associates, 2000). A contributor to the problem may be the lack of academic training offered by rehabilitation counseling programs on organizational behavior and socialization concepts relevant to…

  17. Age-related sperm DNA methylation changes are transmitted to offspring and associated with abnormal behavior and dysregulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Milekic, M H; Xin, Y; O'Donnell, A; Kumar, K K; Bradley-Moore, M; Malaspina, D; Moore, H; Brunner, D; Ge, Y; Edwards, J; Paul, S; Haghighi, F G; Gingrich, J A

    2015-08-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) has been shown to be a significant risk factor in the offspring for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. During aging, de novo mutations accumulate in the male germline and are frequently transmitted to the offspring with deleterious effects. In addition, DNA methylation during spermatogenesis is an active process, which is susceptible to errors that can be propagated to subsequent generations. Here we test the hypothesis that the integrity of germline DNA methylation is compromised during the aging process. A genome-wide DNA methylation screen comparing sperm from young and old mice revealed a significant loss of methylation in the older mice in regions associated with transcriptional regulation. The offspring of older fathers had reduced exploratory and startle behaviors and exhibited similar brain DNA methylation abnormalities as observed in the paternal sperm. Offspring from old fathers also had transcriptional dysregulation of developmental genes implicated in autism and schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrate that DNA methylation abnormalities arising in the sperm of old fathers are a plausible mechanism to explain some of the risks that APA poses to resulting offspring.

  18. Affiliative Behavior in Williams Syndrome: Social Perception and Real-Life Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen-Pasley, Anna; Adolphs, Ralph; Yam, Anna; Hill, Kiley J.; Grichanik, Mark; Reilly, Judy; Mills, Debra; Reiss, Allan L.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    A frequently noted but largely anecdotal behavioral observation in Williams syndrome (WS) is an increased tendency to approach strangers, yet the basis for this behavior remains unknown. We examined the relationship between affect identification ability and affiliative behavior in participants with WS relative to a neurotypical comparison group.…

  19. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Arterberry, Brooke J; Smith, Ashley E; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Murphy, James G

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010-3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes.

  20. Bipolar Disorder Affects Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541

  1. Changes in cortical and striatal neurons predict behavioral and electrophysiological abnormalities in a transgenic murine model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Laforet, G A; Sapp, E; Chase, K; McIntyre, C; Boyce, F M; Campbell, M; Cadigan, B A; Warzecki, L; Tagle, D A; Reddy, P H; Cepeda, C; Calvert, C R; Jokel, E S; Klapstein, G J; Ariano, M A; Levine, M S; DiFiglia, M; Aronin, N

    2001-12-01

    Neurons in Huntington's disease exhibit selective morphological and subcellular alterations in the striatum and cortex. The link between these neuronal changes and behavioral abnormalities is unclear. We investigated relationships between essential neuronal changes that predict motor impairment and possible involvement of the corticostriatal pathway in developing behavioral phenotypes. We therefore generated heterozygote mice expressing the N-terminal one-third of huntingtin with normal (CT18) or expanded (HD46, HD100) glutamine repeats. The HD mice exhibited motor deficits between 3 and 10 months. The age of onset depended on an expanded polyglutamine length; phenotype severity correlated with increasing age. Neuronal changes in the striatum (nuclear inclusions) preceded the onset of phenotype, whereas cortical changes, especially the accumulation of huntingtin in the nucleus and cytoplasm and the appearance of dysmorphic dendrites, predicted the onset and severity of behavioral deficits. Striatal neurons in the HD mice displayed altered responses to cortical stimulation and to activation by the excitotoxic agent NMDA. Application of NMDA increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in HD100 neurons compared with wild-type neurons. Results suggest that motor deficits in Huntington's disease arise from cumulative morphological and physiological changes in neurons that impair corticostriatal circuitry.

  2. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration.

  3. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Surrounding Research on Genetic Contributions to Anti-Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Martinez-Martin, Nicole A.; Allyse, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific study of genetic contributions to chronic antisocial behavior has stemmed from many lines of research in recent years. Genetic research involving twin, family, and adoption studies have traditionally been used to compare the health and behavior outcomes of individuals who share the same environment or hereditary lineage; several of these studies have concluded that heredity plays some role in the formation of chronic antisocial behavior, including various forms of aggression and chronic norm-defiance. However, the ethical, social, and legal environment surrounding research on the biological contributions to antisocial behavior in the United States is contentious. Although there has been some discussion in the last few decades regarding the ethical, social, and legal concerns around this type of research within academic and policy circles, analysis and discussion of these concerns rarely appear together. This paper explores the main themes that interact to form the basis of much of the resistance to positing biological contributions to antisocial behavior. PMID:24319343

  4. Social Expectations and Behavioral Indicators in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: A National Study of Behavior Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynass, Lori; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Richman, Taylor D.; Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The three-tiered School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) model is now being implemented in more than 13,000 schools in the United States (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010). One core feature of Tier One of the SWPBIS model is the identification of social expectations and behavior indicators across all school settings.…

  5. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    PubMed Central

    Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as “social sensors.” Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world. PMID:26659028

  6. 6q22.33 microdeletion in a family with intellectual disability, variable major anomalies, and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Beyer, Anke; Schallner, Jens; Novotna, Barbara; Klink, Barbara; Schröck, Evelin; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-11-01

    Interstitial deletions on the long arm of chromosome six have been described for several regions including 6q16, 6q22.1, and 6q21q22.1, and with variable phenotypes such as intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, major and minor facial anomalies. However, an isolated microdeletion of the sub-band 6q22.33 has not been reported so far and thus, no information about the specific phenotype associated with such a copy number variant is available. Here, we define the clinical picture of an isolated 6q22.33 microdeletion based on the phenotype of six members of one family with loss of approximately 1 Mb in this region. Main clinical features include mild intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities as well as microcephaly, heart defect, and cleft lip and palate.

  7. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education.

    PubMed

    Breeman, L D; Wubbels, T; van Lier, P A C; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher-child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher-child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher-child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher-child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence.

  8. Abnormal vocal behavior predicts executive and memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Gill, Jeevit S; Kothare, Hardik; Beagle, Alexander J; Mizuiri, Danielle; Honma, Susanne M; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L; Vossel, Keith A; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Houde, John F

    2017-04-01

    Speakers respond automatically and rapidly to compensate for brief perturbations of pitch in their auditory feedback. The specific adjustments in vocal output require integration of brain regions involved in speech-motor-control in order to detect the sensory-feedback error and implement the motor correction. Cortical regions involved in the pitch reflex phenomenon are highly vulnerable targets of network disruption in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the pitch reflex in AD patients (n = 19) compared to an age-matched control group (n = 16). We measured the degree of behavioral compensation (peak compensation) and the extent of the adaptive response (pitch-response persistence). Healthy-controls reached a peak compensation of 18.7 ± 0.8 cents, and demonstrated a sustained compensation at 8.9 ± 0.69 cents. AD patients, in contrast, demonstrated a significantly elevated peak compensation (22.4 ± 1.2 cents, p < 0.05), and a reduced sustained response (pitch-response persistence, 4.5 ± 0.88 cents, p < 0.001). The degree of increased peak compensation predicted executive dysfunction, while the degree of impaired pitch-response persistence predicted memory dysfunction, in AD patients. The current study demonstrates pitch reflex as a sensitive behavioral index of impaired prefrontal modulation of sensorimotor integration, and compromised plasticity mechanisms of memory, in AD.

  9. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  10. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  11. Action control of exercise behavior: evaluation of social cognition, cross-behavioral regulation, and automaticity.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Fiala, Bonnie; Nasuti, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Intention is considered the proximal determinant of behavior in many popular theories applied to understanding physical activity, yet intention-behavior discordance is high. Thus, an understanding of constructs that facilitate or inhibit the successful translation of intentions into behavior is both timely and important. The action control approach of dividing the intention-behavior relationship into quadrants of successful/unsuccessful intenders has shown utility in the past by demonstrating the magnitude of intention-behavior discordance and allowing for an outcome variable to test predictors. The purpose of this article was to evaluate automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation as predictors of exercise action control, in conjunction with other more standard social cognitive predictors of perceived behavioral control and affective and instrumental attitudes. Participants were a random sample of 263 college students who completed predictor measures at time one, followed by exercise behavior two weeks later. Participants were classified into three intention-behavior profiles: (1) nonintenders (14.1%; n = 31), (2) unsuccessful intenders (35.5%; n = 78), and (3) successful intenders (48.6%; n = 107). Affective attitude, perceived behavioral control, automaticity, and cross-behavioral regulation were predictors of action control. The results demonstrate that automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation, constructs not typically used in intention-based theories, predict intention-behavior discordance.

  12. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  13. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep abnormalities of chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nicole K Y

    2009-12-01

    Chronic pain and insomnia often occur simultaneously, with the vast majority of chronic pain patients complaining of interrupted or poor quality sleep. The need to improve sleep in these patients is clear, given increasing evidence that sleep disturbance is associated with heightened pain sensitivity and elevated disability. This article evaluates the efficacy of pain management programs (PMPs) based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) principles and CBT for primary insomnia (CBT-I) in treating pain-related insomnia. Although PMPs effectively enhance pain management skills in patients, they do not adequately address insomnia. CBT-I has demonstrated strong efficacy in treating pain-related insomnia, but sleep improvement is not followed by pain reduction. As both CBT approaches involve strengths and limitations, a hybrid form of treatment is needed that simultaneously addresses pain and sleep.

  14. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: The saga of metabolic abnormalities and self-injurious behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Nitesh; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Sardana, Divesh; Bansal, Kalpana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder of purine metabolism caused by a mutation in Xq26.2-q26.3 (OMIM 308000.0004). The presence of the diagnostic triad, i.e. signs of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and results of pedigree analysis and novel molecular biology & genetic testing, confirms the diagnosis of LNS. With a level of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1) enzyme activity < 2%, patients develop neurological, neurocognitive, and neuromotor symptoms along with SIB. Described here is a case of 4-year-old boy who was diagnosed with LNS. The boy displayed SIB, i.e. biting of the lips and fingers, and he had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis caused by LNS. PMID:28357186

  15. Rats overexpressing the dopamine transporter display behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities with relevance to repetitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Ravit; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Reinel, Claudia; Wieske, Franziska; Voget, Mareike; Popova, Elena; Sohr, Reinhard; Avchalumov, Yosef; Priller, Josef; van Riesen, Christoph; Puls, Imke; Bader, Michael; Winter, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a pivotal role in maintaining optimal dopamine signaling. DAT-overactivity has been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders yet so far the direct pathological consequences of it has not been fully assessed. We here generated a transgenic rat model that via pronuclear microinjection overexpresses the DAT gene. Our results demonstrate that DAT-overexpression induces multiple neurobiological effects that exceeded the expected alterations in the corticostriatal dopamine system. Furthermore, transgenic rats specifically exhibited behavioral and pharmaco-therapeutic profiles phenotypic of repetitive disorders. Together our findings suggest that the DAT rat model will constitute a valuable tool for further investigations into the pathological influence of DAT overexpression on neural systems relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27974817

  16. Extracting Human Behavioral Patterns by Mining Geo-Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani, M.; Karimipour, F.

    2014-10-01

    Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one's travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users' network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  17. Wild chimpanzees can perform social grooming and social play behaviors simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    Reliable evidence was obtained of the simultaneous performance of social grooming and social play behaviors by individuals among wild chimpanzees of the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park. I observed three cases of this performance: in an old female, a young female, and an adult male. While the agent was grooming the back of an adult bimanually, an infant or a juvenile approached the agent. The agent then started playing with the infant/juvenile using only the right hand, while simultaneously grooming the back of the adult with the left hand. In one case, an old female continued the simultaneous performance for about 1 min. Such performances probably occur at low frequency because they are not often required. The similarity in the neurobiological bases and the functions of social grooming and social play behaviors, both of which include repetitive contact with the body of another individual, may facilitate their simultaneous performance.

  18. Disruption of Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb Affects Social Interaction but not Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Feierstein, Claudia E.; Lazarini, Françoise; Wagner, Sebastien; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Boussin, François D.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Gheusi, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb (OB) and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted OB neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of OB neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others. PMID:21160552

  19. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments.

  20. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  1. Advances in behavioral-cognitive therapy of social phobia.

    PubMed

    Marks, I M

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral-cognitive therapy is a cost-effective treatment for social phobia. The doctor's role is to teach the patient how to do successful self-exposure. The clinician acts as a guide and monitor; there is no need to waste time accompanying the patient into the phobic situation. The patient first reads a self-exposure manual to learn how to confront panic-evoking social cues for prolonged period without avoidance until habituation sets in. This might require an hour daily of self-exposure over weeks or months. As patients habituate to social cues to which they have exposed themselves, they arrange exposure to fresh cues until they become used to all. The patient tracks progress by recording completed exposure-homework tasks in a daily diary. In instances where it is technically difficult to do regular exposure, the patient carries out imagined tape-recorded exposure in his/her own voice. The therapist can briefly help the patient role-play such exposure. Rational role-play enhances outcome of body dysmorphic disorder or delusional disorder somatic type with prominent social phobia. Cognitive therapy can be useful. Most social phobics improve with behavioral-cognitive treatment without medication. When patients have low mood, concurrent antidepressants can be synergistic.

  2. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  3. Risk Behaviors Among Suburban Women who Use Methamphetamine: Social Harms and Social Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lamonica, Aukje; Boeri, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    We propose that female methamphetamine users who live in suburbia experience risks for disease transmission stemming from their social environment that remain under the radar of public health surveillance networks. The data analyzed in this paper were collected from 2007 to 2011 and were drawn from two sequential studies on methamphetamine use. The studies were conducted in the suburbs of a southeastern United States metropolis. We analyzed a total of 65 qualitative interviews with former and active methamphetamine-using women. Data from focus groups also were included in the analysis. The participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 51 years. We identified three major themes with regards to risk behaviors and transmission of infectious diseases: (1) setting risk behaviors, such as sharing syringes and homelessness, lack of transportation and unemployment; (2) sexual risk behaviors such as condom use and having multiple partners; and (3) service- related risks, such as risk awareness and prevention behaviors as well as utilization of social services and healthcare. Our findings point to the pervasive nature of social influences on the risk for infectious disease transmission. We suggest that harm reduction programs be implemented in suburban communities to increase access to these services. Secondly, our data support the concept of social recovery for drug users to better their health and social lives holistically. PMID:26279738

  4. Relations among weight control behaviors and eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Kiziltan, Gül

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among dieting, eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption among Turkish adolescents. Abnormal eating behavior (EAT-26 > or =20) was found in 32.8% of the total sample; this included 26.4% of the males and 38.7% of the females. Weight-control and weight-related behaviors are associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Dieting was significantly associated with types of consumption in female adolescents. In addition, EAT-26 scores were significantly positively correlated with high fruit and vegetable consumption, but this association was not observed in SPAS scores among adolescents. Adolescents who engage in dieting behaviors seem to consume more fruit and vegetables than do other adolescents. Female adolescents may be more likely to display abnormal eating attitudes and dieting behaviors than do males. Although some weight-control behaviors may be risky, adolescents who were practicing dieting behaviors engaged in the positive dietary behavior of consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables than did non-dieters.

  5. Methylphenidate ('Ritalin') can ameliorate abnormal risk-taking behavior in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shibley; Robbins, Trevor W; Hodges, John R; Mehta, Mitul A; Nestor, Peter J; Clark, Luke; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2006-03-01

    The frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia is a significant neurological condition worldwide. There exist few treatments available for the cognitive and behavioural sequelae of fvFTD. Previous research has shown that these patients display risky decision-making, and numerous studies have now demonstrated pathology affecting the orbitofrontal cortex. The present study uses a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure to investigate the effects of a single dose of methylphenidate (40 mg) upon a range of different cognitive processes including those assessing prefrontal cortex integrity. Methylphenidate was effective in 'normalizing' the decision-making behavior of patients, such that they became less risk taking on medication, although there were no significant effects on other aspects of cognitive function, including working memory, attentional set shifting, and reversal learning. Moreover, there was an absence of the normal subjective and autonomic responses to methylphenidate seen in elderly subjects. The results are discussed in terms of the 'somatic marker' hypothesis of impaired decision-making following orbitofrontal dysfunction.

  6. Early neuromodulation prevents the development of brain and behavioral abnormalities in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hadar, R; Bikovski, L; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Schimke, J; Maier, P; Ewing, S; Voget, M; Wieske, F; Götz, T; Desco, M; Hamani, C; Pascau, J; Weiner, I; Winter, C

    2017-04-04

    The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood. We found that mPFC-DBS successfully prevented the emergence of deficits in sensorimotor gating, attentional selectivity and executive function in adulthood, as well as the enlargement of lateral ventricle volumes and mal-development of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission. These data suggest that the mPFC may be a valuable target for effective preventive treatments. This may have significant translational value, suggesting that targeting the mPFC before the onset of psychosis via less invasive neuromodulation approaches may be a viable preventive strategy.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.52.

  7. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  8. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  9. Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tal, M.; Imber, D.

    1970-01-01

    The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the control variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared with regard to the endogenous activity and concentration of auxin- and abscisic acid-like substances during ontogeny. The mutant wilts fast under water deficit because of inability to close its stomata. Symptoms characteristic of excessive auxin are evident in the developing mutant. Among these symptoms are branch and leaf epinasty, excessive rooting along the stem, and increased apical dominance. By using a leucine-incorporation assay, spray of whole plants with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and wheat coleoptile bioassay, indications were found of an excess of activity and concentration of auxin-like substances in shoots of young and mature mutant plants. The wheat coleoptile bioassay also revealed a much lower amount of substances with abscisic acid-like activity in the mutant compared with the normal plant. In contrast to the appearance during ontogeny of morphological symptoms characteristic of auxin excess in the mutant, the absolute amount of auxin-like substances and their activity in incorporation of leucine decreased with age. A parallel decrease of the concentration and activity of auxin-like compounds was also found in the normal plant. The concentration of abscisic acid-like substances increased with age in both genotypes. The disagreement between the increasing morphological symptoms and the decrease of auxin-like activity and concentration is discussed, together with the possibility of a causal relationship between auxin-and abscisic acid-like activity and stomatal behavior. PMID:16657470

  10. Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tal, M.; Imber, D.; Itai, C.

    1970-01-01

    The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the normal variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared for kinetin-like activity in ontogeny. The mutant wilts easily because its stomata resist closure. This stomatal resistance decreases with age. The occurrence of a root factor which induces stomatal opening was inferred from grafting experiments. It was hypothesized that the excessive stomatal openings in the mutant may result from excess of kinetin-like activity in the leaf of that plant. In addition, it was suggested that the closure of stomata in the aging mutant is due to a decrease of kinetin-like activity with age. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf was determined by incorporation of labeled leucine. The concentration of cytokinins in root exudate and leaf extract was determined by the soybean callus assay. Evidence was presented of higher kinetin-like activity in the leaves of the mutant and higher cytokinin concentration in its root exudate. Cytokinin concentration in the shoot was found to be only slightly higher in the mutant than in the normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf and cytokinin concentration of root exudate decreased with age in both mutant and normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaves of mutant plants, which phenocopy the normal variety as a result of continuous application of abscisic acid, was lower than in control mutant plants. The significance of these findings per se and in connection with stomatal behavior is discussed. PMID:16657469

  11. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Marchese, Maria; Hamling, Kyla R.; Kumar, Maneesh G.; Krasniak, Christopher S.; Sicca, Federico; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Patel, Manisha; Baraban, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1), are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b) have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing “dark-flash” visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations. PMID:26963117

  12. Social exclusion induces early-stage perceptual and behavioral changes in response to social cues.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion is so aversive that it causes broad cognitive and behavioral changes to regulate the individual's belonging status. The present study examined whether such changes also occur at early neural or automatic behavioral levels in response to social cues. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during a task in which participants viewed smiling, disgusted, and neutral faces after experiencing social exclusion or inclusion. Social exclusion was manipulated using a simple ball-tossing game (Cyberball), and need threat was assessed after the game. We found that zygomaticus major muscle activity, which reflects facial mimicry, was larger in response to smiling faces after exclusion than after inclusion. In addition, P1 amplitude, which reflects visual attention, was larger for disgusted faces than for neutral faces following social exclusion. N170 amplitude, which reflects structural encoding of the face, was correlated with heightened need threat. These findings demonstrate that social exclusion induces immediate and rapid changes in attention, perception, and automatic behavior. These findings reflect the rapid and primary regulation of belonging.

  13. Social relationships and health related behaviors among older US adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health behaviors are a key determinant of health and well-being that are influenced by the nature of the social environment. This study examined associations between social relationships and health-related behaviors among a nationally representative sample of older people. Methods We analyzed data from three waves (1999–2004) of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were 4,014 older Americans aged 60 and over. Log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the associations between social relationships and each of the following health behaviors: alcohol use, smoking, physical activity and dental attendance. Results Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking and less frequent dental visits) were related to marital status, while physical activity, a health-promoting behavior, was associated with the size of friendship networks. Smoking was more common among divorced/separated (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) and widowed (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) respondents than among those married or cohabiting, after adjusting for socio-demographic background. Heavy drinking was 2.6 times more common among divorced/separated and 1.7 times more common among widowed men compared to married/cohabiting men, while there was no such association among women. For women, heavy drinking was associated with being single (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Being widowed was related to a lower prevalence of having visited a dentist compared to being married or living with a partner (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). Those with a larger circle of friends were more likely to be physically active (PR = 1.17; 95% CI:1.06, 1.28 for 5–8 versus less than 5 friends). Conclusions Social relationships of older Americans were independently associated with different health-related behaviors, even after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic determinants. Availability of emotional support did not however

  14. A gain-of-function mutation in the sodium channel gene Scn2a results in seizures and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kearney, J A; Plummer, N W; Smith, M R; Kapur, J; Cummins, T R; Waxman, S G; Goldin, A L; Meisler, M H

    2001-01-01

    The GAL879-881QQQ mutation in the cytoplasmic S4-S5 linker of domain 2 of the rat brain IIA sodium channel (Na(v)1.2) results in slowed inactivation and increased persistent current when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The neuron-specific enolase promoter was used to direct in vivo expression of the mutated channel in transgenic mice. Three transgenic lines exhibited seizures, and line Q54 was characterized in detail. The seizures in these mice began at two months of age and were accompanied by behavioral arrest and stereotyped repetitive behaviors. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring detected focal seizure activity in the hippocampus, which in some instances generalized to involve the cortex. Hippocampal CA1 neurons isolated from presymptomatic Q54 mice exhibited increased persistent sodium current which may underlie hyperexcitability in the hippocampus. During the progression of the disorder there was extensive cell loss and gliosis within the hippocampus in areas CA1, CA2, CA3 and the hilus. The lifespan of Q54 mice was shortened and only 25% of the mice survived beyond six months of age. Four independent transgenic lines expressing the wild-type sodium channel were examined and did not exhibit any abnormalities. The transgenic Q54 mice provide a genetic model that will be useful for testing the effect of pharmacological intervention on progression of seizures caused by sodium channel dysfunction. The human ortholog, SCN2A, is a candidate gene for seizure disorders mapped to chromosome 2q22-24.

  15. Investigation of user behavior on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Hajra; Anjum, Maria; Rehman, Mariam; Khawaja, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are used for social and professional interaction with people. SNS popularity has encouraged researchers to analyze the relationship of activities performed on SNS with user behavior. In doing so, the term "user behavior" is rather used ambiguously with different interpretations, which makes it difficult to identify studies on user behavior in relation to SNS. This phenomenon has encouraged this thorough research on the characteristics of user behavior being discussed in the literature. Therefore, in this study, we aim to identify, analyze, and classify the characteristics associated with user behavior to answer the research questions designed to conduct this research. A mapping study (also called scoping study), which is a type of systematic literature review, is employed to identify potential studies from digital databases through a developed protocol. Thematic analysis is carried out for the classification of user behavior. We identified 116 primary studies for full analysis. This study found seven characteristics associated with behavior that have direct influence on SNS use and nine factors that have an indirect effect. All studies were conducted largely under seven areas that set the context of these studies. Findings show that the research on SNS is still in its early stage. The range of topics covered in the analyzed studies is quite expansive, although the depth in terms of number of studies under each topic is quite limited. This study reports that activities performed on SNS are either associated with user behavior or reflect personality characteristics. The findings of this study could be used by practitioners to evaluate their SNS platforms and develop more user-centered applications. These studies can also help organizations to understand better the needs of their employees.

  16. Emotion Socialization by Mothers and Fathers: Coherence among Behaviors and Associations with Parent Attitudes and Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined inter-relations among different types of parental emotion socialization behaviors in 88 mothers and 76 fathers (co-residing with participating mothers) of eight-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing emotion socialization behaviors, emotion-related attitudes, and their children's social functioning. An…

  17. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert; Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert; Liebisch, Gerhard; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  18. Deletion of glutamate delta-1 receptor in mouse leads to aberrant emotional and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Roopali; Gupta, Subhash C; Hillman, Brandon G; Bhatt, Jay M; Stairs, Dustin J; Dravid, Shashank M

    2012-01-01

    The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate δ1 (GluD1) and glutamate δ2 (GluD2) receptors. While the role of GluD2 in the regulation of cerebellar physiology is well understood, the function of GluD1 in the central nervous system remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that deletion of GluD1 leads to abnormal emotional and social behaviors. We found that GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO) were hyperactive, manifested lower anxiety-like behavior, depression-like behavior in a forced swim test and robust aggression in the resident-intruder test. Chronic lithium rescued the depression-like behavior in GluD1 KO. GluD1 KO mice also manifested deficits in social interaction. In the sociability test, GluD1 KO mice spent more time interacting with an inanimate object compared to a conspecific mouse. D-Cycloserine (DCS) administration was able to rescue social interaction deficits observed in GluD1 KO mice. At a molecular level synaptoneurosome preparations revealed lower GluA1 and GluA2 subunit expression in the prefrontal cortex and higher GluA1, GluK2 and PSD95 expression in the amygdala of GluD1 KO. Moreover, DCS normalized the lower GluA1 expression in prefrontal cortex of GluD1 KO. We propose that deletion of GluD1 leads to aberrant circuitry in prefrontal cortex and amygdala owing to its potential role in presynaptic differentiation and synapse formation. Furthermore, these findings are in agreement with the human genetic studies suggesting a strong association of GRID1 gene with several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder.

  19. On the neural control of social emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Karin; Minelli, Alessandra; Mars, Rogier B; van Peer, Jacobien; Toni, Ivan

    2009-03-01

    It is known that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is crucially involved in emotion regulation. However, the specific role of the OFC in controlling the behavior evoked by these emotions, such as approach-avoidance (AA) responses, remains largely unexplored. We measured behavioral and neural responses (using fMRI) during the performance of a social task, a reaction time (RT) task where subjects approached or avoided visually presented emotional faces by pulling or pushing a joystick, respectively. RTs were longer for affect-incongruent responses (approach angry faces and avoid happy faces) as compared to affect-congruent responses (approach-happy; avoid-angry). Moreover, affect-incongruent responses recruited increased activity in the left lateral OFC. These behavioral and neural effects emerged only when the subjects responded explicitly to the emotional value of the faces (AA-task) and largely disappeared when subjects responded to an affectively irrelevant feature of the faces during a control (gender evaluation: GE) task. Most crucially, the size of the OFC-effect correlated positively with the size of the behavioral costs of approaching angry faces. These findings qualify the role of the lateral OFC in the voluntary control of social-motivational behavior, emphasizing the relevance of this region for selecting rule-driven stimulus-response associations, while overriding automatic (affect-congruent) stimulus-response mappings.

  20. Severe problem behaviors related to social interaction. 1: Attention seeking and social avoidance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Carr, E G

    1992-07-01

    Studies concerning the functional analysis of severe problem behaviors have suggested that it is important to identify the different categories of stimuli that control problem behavior because each has unique treatment implications. The present study explored the differential effects of adult attention on the severe problem behaviors of two groups of children with developmental disabilities. A third group of nonproblem children was examined for comparison purposes. Children participated in three experimental conditions in which the level of adult attention was manipulated: noncontingent high attention, noncontingent low attention, and contingent attention. Results validated the existence of two groups of children who differed as to their social orientation: (a) One group of children commonly initiated social interactions and was most likely to exhibit problem behaviors under conditions of low adult attention, and (b) the other group of children rarely initiated social interactions and exhibited frequent problem behaviors under conditions of high adult attention. Implications of these data for escape and attention theories of child problem behavior are discussed, as are the applied implications for reinforcer assessment and teaching strategies.

  1. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples’ behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of “leaders” on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of “followers”, people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns. PMID:25973446

  2. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  3. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  4. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  5. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  6. Applying Quantitative Genetic Methods to Primate Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable. We outline technical obstacles for applying quantitative genetic techniques that are of particular relevance to studies of behavior in primates, especially those living in noncaptive populations, e.g., the need for pedigree information, non-Gaussian phenotypes, and demonstrate how many of these barriers are now surmountable. We illustrate this by applying recent quantitative genetic methods to spatial proximity data, a simple and widely collected primate social behavior, from adult rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago. Our analysis shows that proximity measures are consistent across repeated measurements on individuals (repeatable) and that kin have similar mean measurements (heritable). Quantitative genetics may hold lessons of considerable importance for studies of primate behavior, even those without a specific genetic focus. PMID:24659839

  7. Behavioral and neural properties of social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Libby, Victoria; Glover, Gary; Voss, Henning U; Ballon, Douglas J; Casey, B J

    2011-09-14

    Social learning is critical for engaging in complex interactions with other individuals. Learning from positive social exchanges, such as acceptance from peers, may be similar to basic reinforcement learning. We formally test this hypothesis by developing a novel paradigm that is based on work in nonhuman primates and human imaging studies of reinforcement learning. The probability of receiving positive social reinforcement from three distinct peers was parametrically manipulated while brain activity was recorded in healthy adults using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Over the course of the experiment, participants responded more quickly to faces of peers who provided more frequent positive social reinforcement, and rated them as more likeable. Modeling trial-by-trial learning showed ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex activity correlated positively with forming expectations about receiving social reinforcement. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity tracked positively with modulations of expected value of the cues (peers). Together, the findings across three levels of analysis--social preferences, response latencies, and modeling neural responses--are consistent with reinforcement learning theory and nonhuman primate electrophysiological studies of reward. This work highlights the fundamental influence of acceptance by one's peers in altering subsequent behavior.

  8. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones.

    PubMed

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-12-12

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects.

  9. Behavior analysis, mentalism, and the path to social justice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional psychology is mentalistic in the sense that it appeals to inner causes in the explanation of behavior. Two examples of mentalism in traditional psychology are (a) dispositional attributions and (b) conventional treatments of intelligence. These examples may be linked to such pernicious social -isms as racism and sexism by noting that some individuals justify engaging in discriminatory conduct toward others by appealing to some deficient inner quality of those being discriminated against. This sort of mentalistic appeal ultimately prevents some members of our society from being integrated into society and from progressing down the path of social justice. Behavior analysis offers a constructional alternative to the mentalistic views of traditional psychology and allows our society as a whole to move down the path. PMID:22478401

  10. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  11. Response to Intervention for Social Behavior: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Vincent, Claudia G.; Schumann, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the three-tiered response-to-intervention (RtI) model is to catch students who are at risk early and to provide an appropriate level of intervention. Although RtI has been recommended for academic and social behavior, to date there has been little discussion about the differences associated with implementing RtI across these domains.…

  12. Depressive behavior induced by social isolation of predisposed female rats.

    PubMed

    Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.

  13. Investigation of user behavior on social networking sites

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are used for social and professional interaction with people. SNS popularity has encouraged researchers to analyze the relationship of activities performed on SNS with user behavior. In doing so, the term “user behavior” is rather used ambiguously with different interpretations, which makes it difficult to identify studies on user behavior in relation to SNS. This phenomenon has encouraged this thorough research on the characteristics of user behavior being discussed in the literature. Therefore, in this study, we aim to identify, analyze, and classify the characteristics associated with user behavior to answer the research questions designed to conduct this research. A mapping study (also called scoping study), which is a type of systematic literature review, is employed to identify potential studies from digital databases through a developed protocol. Thematic analysis is carried out for the classification of user behavior. We identified 116 primary studies for full analysis. This study found seven characteristics associated with behavior that have direct influence on SNS use and nine factors that have an indirect effect. All studies were conducted largely under seven areas that set the context of these studies. Findings show that the research on SNS is still in its early stage. The range of topics covered in the analyzed studies is quite expansive, although the depth in terms of number of studies under each topic is quite limited. This study reports that activities performed on SNS are either associated with user behavior or reflect personality characteristics. The findings of this study could be used by practitioners to evaluate their SNS platforms and develop more user-centered applications. These studies can also help organizations to understand better the needs of their employees. PMID:28151963

  14. Reading Interventions With Behavioral and Social Skill Outcomes: A Synthesis of Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392

  15. Reading interventions with behavioral and social skill outcomes: a synthesis of research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Garrett J; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes.

  16. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists.

  17. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  18. Social isolation increases morphine intake: behavioral and psychopharmacological aspects.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Berger, Barry D

    2010-02-01

    Environmental and situational factors are important determinants of recreational drug use in humans. We aimed to develop a reliable animal model for studying the effects of environmental variables on drug-seeking behavior using the 'social isolation/social restriction' paradigm. Adult Wistar rats housed in short-term isolation (21 days) consumed significantly more morphine solution (0.5 mg/ml) than rats living in pairs, both in one-bottle and in two-bottle tests. No differences were found in their water consumption. This effect was observed in both males and females and the results were also replicated after reversal of housing conditions. We also found that as little as 60-min of daily social-physical interaction with another rat was sufficient to completely abolish the increase in morphine consumption in socially restricted animals. We discuss some possible interpretations for these effects. These results indicate that environmental and situational factors influence drug intake in laboratory rats as they do in humans, and thus may be of interest in studying drug-seeking behavior in humans.

  19. The Roots of Social Dominance: Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jiyoung; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of dominant students in Grades 3-5 in a midwestern school system in the United States. Previous research has indicated 2 ways a student may gain dominance--through bullying and prosocial behaviors. A cluster analysis for dominant children was conducted using social interdependence attitude scores, children's…

  20. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  1. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  2. Autism-related Neuroligin-3 Mutation Alters Social Behavior and Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Thomas C.; Liu, Shunan; Pettersen, Ami; Birnbaum, Shari G; Powell, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    LAY ABSTRACT Mutations in neuroligin genes have been identified in association with autism. This manuscript provides characterization of a specific mutation in the neuroligin-3 gene that has been associated with autism in two brothers. The resulting autism model has alterations in social and cognitive function reminiscent of autism in patients. This model will be useful to understand the role of neuroligin dysfunction as a rare cause of autism. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Multiple candidate genes have been identified for autism spectrum disorders. While some of these genes reach genome-wide significance, others, such as the R451C point mutation in the synaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-3, appear to be rare. Interestingly, two brothers with the same R451C point mutation in neuroligin-3 present clinically on seemingly disparate sides of the autism spectrum. These clinical findings suggest genetic background may play a role in modifying the penetrance of a particular autism-associated mutation. Animal models may contribute additional support for such mutations as functionally relevant and can provide mechanistic insights. Previously, in collaboration with the Südhof laboratory, we reported that mice with an R451C substitution in neuroligin-3 displayed social deficits and enhanced spatial learning. While some of these behavioral abnormalities have since been replicated independently in the Südhof laboratory, observations from the Crawley laboratory failed to replicate these findings in a similar neuroligin-3 mutant mouse model and suggested that genetic background may contribute to variation in observations across laboratories. Therefore we sought to replicate our findings in the neuroligin-3 R451C point mutant knockin mouse model (NL3R451C) in a different genetic background. We backcrossed our NL3R451C mouse line onto a 129S2/SvPasCrl genetic background and repeated a subset of our previous behavioral testing. NL3R451C mice on a 129S2/SvPasCrl displayed social

  3. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  4. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the "ground state." Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  5. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  6. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National...

  7. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  8. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda...

  9. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  10. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network... promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) initiative... Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the...

  11. Repetitive Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Produces Cortical Abnormalities Detectable by Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Imaging (DTI/DKI), Histopathology, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengshan; Shukla, Dinesh K; Armstrong, Regina C; Marion, Christina M; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Selwyn, Reed G; Dardzinski, Bernard J

    2016-12-20

    Noninvasive detection of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is important for evaluating acute through chronic effects of head injuries, particularly after repetitive impacts. To better detect abnormalities from mTBI, we performed longitudinal studies (baseline, 3, 6, and 42 days) using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in adult mice after repetitive mTBI (r-mTBI; daily × 5) or sham procedure. This r-mTBI produced righting reflex delay and was first characterized in the corpus callosum to demonstrate low levels of axon damage, astrogliosis, and microglial activation, without microhemorrhages. High-resolution DTI-DKI was then combined with post-imaging pathological validation along with behavioral assessments targeted for the impact regions. In the corpus callosum, only DTI fractional anisotropy at 42 days showed significant change post-injury. Conversely, cortical regions under the impact site (M1-M2, anterior cingulate) had reduced axial diffusivity (AD) at all time points with a corresponding increase in axial kurtosis (Ka) at 6 days. Post-imaging neuropathology showed microglial activation in both the corpus callosum and cortex at 42 days after r-mTBI. Increased cortical microglial activation correlated with decreased cortical AD after r-mTBI (r = -0.853; n = 5). Using Thy1-YFP-16 mice to fluorescently label neuronal cell bodies and processes revealed low levels of axon damage in the cortex after r-mTBI. Finally, r-mTBI produced social deficits consistent with the function of this anterior cingulate region of cortex. Overall, vulnerability of cortical regions is demonstrated after mild repetitive injury, with underlying differences of DTI and DKI, microglial activation, and behavioral deficits.

  12. Automated Monitoring and Analysis of Social Behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dankert, Heiko; Wang, Liming; Hoopfer, Eric D.; Anderson, David J.; Perona, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a method based on machine vision for automatically measuring aggression and courtship in Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic and neural circuit bases of these innate social behaviors are poorly understood. High-throughput behavioral screening in this genetically tractable model organism is a potentially powerful approach, but it is currently very laborious. Our system monitors interacting pairs of flies, and computes their location, orientation and wing posture. These features are used for detecting behaviors exhibited during aggression and courtship. Among these, wing threat, lunging and tussling are specific to aggression; circling, wing extension (courtship “song”) and copulation are specific to courtship; locomotion and chasing are common to both. Ethograms may be constructed automatically from these measurements, saving considerable time and effort. This technology should enable large-scale screens for genes and neural circuits controlling courtship and aggression. PMID:19270697

  13. Social capital and sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    PubMed Central

    Agardh, Anette; Emmelin, Maria; Muriisa, Robert; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy). The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%). It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8), and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9). Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9). However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified the effect so that

  14. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)Adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by…

  15. Maternal Autonomy- and Connectedness-Oriented Parenting Behaviors as Predictors of Children's Social Behaviors in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mowei; Chen, Xinyin; Zheng, Shujie; Chen, Huichang; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the contributions of maternal encouragement of autonomy and maternal encouragement of connectedness to the prediction of children's social behaviors. A sample of children (N = 94), initially aged two years, and their mothers in China participated in the two-year longitudinal study. Child autonomy and…

  16. The Effect of Naturalistic Behavior Strategies on the Quality of Social Interactions for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    Autism is primarily a social disorder and deficits in social-orienting may be responsible for the failure of children with autism to initiate critical social behaviors. The purpose of this research was to improve the quality of social interactions of children with autism by implementing naturalistic behavior strategies intervention utilizing a…

  17. Trait agreeableness and social status moderate behavioral responsiveness to communal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Moskowitz, Debbie S

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within-person relation between a person's communal (agreeable-quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event-contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high-status role than when in a low-status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions.

  18. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  19. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS.

  20. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  1. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  2. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities.

  3. Conditioned place preference induced by social play behavior: parametrics, extinction, reinstatement and disruption by methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated behavioral factors underlying conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by social interaction in adolescent rats. We found that the magnitude of socially-induced CPP depended on the social motivation of the animals and on the amount of training. After extinction, socially-induced CPP could be reinstated by a single reconditioning session. Treatment with methylphenidate, which disrupts social play behavior in adolescent rats, but not social exploratory behavior, prevented the development of socially-induced CPP. Interestingly, methylphenidate by itself induced CPP. These data demonstrate that: 1. social interaction is rewarding in adolescent rats; 2. appetitive and mnemonic factors influence the development of socially-induced CPP; 3. comparable to drug-induced CPP, socially-induced CPP can be extinguished and reinstated; 4. social play is likely to be the most rewarding aspect of social interaction in adolescent rats; 5. social context influences the subjective effects of methylphenidate.

  4. Cognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Roth, D A; Heimberg, R G

    2001-12-01

    In 1985, Liebowitz et al labeled SAD the "neglected anxiety disorder." Clearly, times have changed. Although it took 10 years after this pronouncement for the first cognitive-behavioral model of SAD to be introduced, a great deal of research has been carried out and a great deal has been learned since then. The core features of these models seem to hold a great deal of validity. Perhaps the greatest "learning curve" has been seen in work done on the processing of the self as social object, a component of both cognitive-behavioral models of SAD. A great deal of empiric evidence now suggests that people with SAD see themselves as they believe they are seen by others. Unfortunately, their perception of how they are seen by others is often grossly distorted, likely contributing to the distress they feel about social situations and their concomitant avoidance of them. Recent work by Hirsch and Mathews has gone so far as to suggest that people with the disorder may not attend at all to social information while social events are ongoing but rather may judge them later based on preexisting notions about themselves as social beings. In Rapee and Heimberg's model, preferential allocation of attentional resources is emphasized, and this has been another great area of progress over the past few years. While people with SAD may be hypervigilant to social threat in their environments, once they find it, they tend to divert their attention away from it--as has been most clearly demonstrated in the studies of processing of facial expressions. The data suggest that both angry and happy faces may be perceived as threatening and attention is diverted as a means of avoiding them--again having important implications for social behavior and for maintenance of the disorder over time. Important strides have also been made in understanding judgment biases in SAD. Studies on this issue have suggested that individuals with the disorder see positive social outcomes as unlikely and see

  5. Developing Behavioral Theory with the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory.…

  6. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully utilized for a range of health behaviors including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrate a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and analytically adjust for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas. PMID:26332926

  7. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl A; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully used for a range of health behaviors, including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests the relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrates a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and to adjust analytically for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas.

  8. Mutations in Human Accelerated Regions Disrupt Cognition and Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Doan, Ryan N; Bae, Byoung-Il; Cubelos, Beatriz; Chang, Cindy; Hossain, Amer A; Al-Saad, Samira; Mukaddes, Nahit M; Oner, Ozgur; Al-Saffar, Muna; Balkhy, Soher; Gascon, Generoso G; Nieto, Marta; Walsh, Christopher A

    2016-10-06

    Comparative analyses have identified genomic regions potentially involved in human evolution but do not directly assess function. Human accelerated regions (HARs) represent conserved genomic loci with elevated divergence in humans. If some HARs regulate human-specific social and behavioral traits, then mutations would likely impact cognitive and social disorders. Strikingly, rare biallelic point mutations-identified by whole-genome and targeted "HAR-ome" sequencing-showed a significant excess in individuals with ASD whose parents share common ancestry compared to familial controls, suggesting a contribution in 5% of consanguineous ASD cases. Using chromatin interaction sequencing, massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), and transgenic mice, we identified disease-linked, biallelic HAR mutations in active enhancers for CUX1, PTBP2, GPC4, CDKL5, and other genes implicated in neural function, ASD, or both. Our data provide genetic evidence that specific HARs are essential for normal development, consistent with suggestions that their evolutionary changes may have altered social and/or cognitive behavior. PAPERCLIP.

  9. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2007-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter.

  10. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  11. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  12. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  13. Descriptive and injunctive social norms' interactive role in gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Matthew K; Goodie, Adam S

    2014-06-01

    Social norms have a fundamental impact on behavior, yet little research has examined social norms regarding gambling and no research has examined possible interaction effects. The current study examined the interaction between perceived approval of gambling by others (i.e., injunctive norms) and perceived prevalence of gambling by others (i.e., descriptive norms) on the respondent's gambling frequency and problems, in a sample of relatively frequent gamblers. The current study examined 2 distinct reference groups: 1 close in proximity (i.e., family and friends) and 1 distally located (i.e., other students). The sample consisted of 252 undergraduates who gambled at least twice a month. Two interactions were observed on gambling frequency based on the proximity of the reference groups; however, only descriptive norms significantly predicted gambling problems. When the reference group was closer in proximity, the positive relationship between perceptions of family and friends' gambling frequency and the individual's own gambling was stronger for individuals who believed that their friends and family members highly approved of gambling. When the reference group was distally located, differences in respondents' gambling frequency emerged only in contexts in which they perceived other students to gamble infrequently. Specifically, when respondents perceived that other students gambled infrequently and disapproved of gambling, respondents gambled the most frequently. The results suggest that individuals are influenced by their perceptions of others' attitudes and behaviors, regardless of proximity, and that these perceptions of others' behavior are strongly associated with gambling problems.

  14. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  15. [Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae) in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López, Marie Charlotte; Zaida, Tárano

    2008-09-01

    than other individuals, and females did not affiliate frequently with other females. All of these observations are contrary to which has been observed in nature. As a whole, C. olivaceus tolerates captivity well because its behavioral repertoire is similar to that in natural conditions, and abnormal or undesirable behaviors (e.g., self-mutilation, stereotyped actions), were not observed. Nonetheless, there is an effect of captivity, reflected in a disruption of the social dynamic.

  16. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  17. Rational Behavior Training: A Seven Lesson Sequence for Teaching Rational Behavior Skills to Students with Social and Emotional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia Lucey

    This seven lesson curriculum sequence is designed to help teachers teach principles of Rational Behavior Training (RBT) which targets thinking behaviors, feeling behaviors, and behavioral responses to the environment. The program is appropriate for students with social and emotional disabilities and also develops reading, writing, spelling,…

  18. Host social behavior and parasitic infection: A multifactorial approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    I examined associations between several components of host social organization, including group size and gregariousness, group stability, territoriality and social class, and gastrointestinal parasite load in African bovids. At an intraspecific level, group size was positively correlated with parasite prevalence, but only when the parasite was relatively host specific and only among host species living in stable groups. Social class was also an important predictor of infection rates. Among gazelles, territorial males had higher parasite intensities than did either bachelor males or females and juveniles, suggesting that highly territorial individuals may be either more exposed or more susceptible to parasites. Associations among territoriality, grouping, and parasitism were also found across taxa. Territorial host genera were more likely to be infected with strongyle nematodes than were nonterritorial hosts, and gregarious hosts were more infected than were solitary hosts. Analyses also revealed that gregariousness and territoriality had an interactive effect on individual parasite richness, whereby hosts with both traits harbored significantly more parasite groups than did hosts with only one or neither trait. Overall, study results indicate that multiple features of host social behavior influence infection risk and suggest that synergism between traits also has important effects on host parasite load.

  19. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  20. Estrogen involvement in social behavior in rodents: Rapid and long-term actions.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Kelsy S J; Lymer, Jennifer M; Matta, Richard; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue ("Estradiol and cognition"). Estrogens have repeatedly been shown to influence a wide array of social behaviors, which in rodents are predominantly olfactory-mediated. Estrogens are involved in social behavior at multiple levels of processing, from the detection and integration of socially relevant olfactory information to more complex social behaviors, including social preferences, aggression and dominance, and learning and memory for social stimuli (e.g. social recognition and social learning). Three estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled ER 1 (GPER1), differently affect these behaviors. Social recognition, territorial aggression, and sexual preferences and mate choice, all requiring the integration of socially related olfactory information, seem to primarily involve ERα, with ERβ playing a lesser, modulatory role. In contrast, social learning consistently responds differently to estrogen manipulations than other social behaviors. This suggests differential ER involvement in brain regions important for specific social behaviors, such as the ventromedial and medial preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus in social preferences and aggression, the medial amygdala and hippocampus in social recognition, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in social learning. While the long-term effects of ERα and ERβ on social behavior have been extensively investigated, our knowledge of the rapid, non-genomic, effects of estrogens is more limited and suggests that they may mediate some social behaviors (e.g. social learning) differently from long-term effects. Further research is required to compare ER involvement in regulating social behavior in male and female animals, and to further elucidate the roles of the more recently described G protein-coupled ERs, both the GPER1 and the Gq-mER.

  1. Social representation of therapeutic relationship among cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Ziglio, Roberto; Armenio, Stefania; Fattori, Francesco; Pozzi, Maura

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the content and structure of the social representation (SR) that cognitive-behavioral (CBT) psychotherapists have of the therapeutic relationship (TR), through a discovery-oriented, mixed-methods approach. For this purpose, our reference point was social representation theory, in particular, the theory of the central nucleus (Abric, 2003; Moscovici, 1961). Data came from a sample of 63 CBT therapists. The results enabled us to identify a series of contents marking CBTs SR of the TR that overlap with the current pan-theoretical conceptualization of this construct. The results also allowed us to identify the complex, clear, and stratified organization of these contents, which are characteristics of a majority and of a minority of the sample studied. These results are discussed with regard of their theoretical, methodological, and practical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Social norms shift behavioral and neural responses to foods.

    PubMed

    Nook, Erik C; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-07-01

    Obesity contributes to 2.8 million deaths annually, making interventions to promote healthy eating critical. Although preliminary research suggests that social norms influence eating behavior, the underlying psychological and neural mechanisms of such conformity remain unexplored. We used fMRI to investigate whether group norms shift individuals' preferences for foods at both behavioral and neural levels. Hungry participants rated how much they wanted to eat a series of healthy and unhealthy foods and, after each trial, saw ratings that ostensibly represented their peers' preferences. This feedback was manipulated such that peers appeared to prefer each food more than, less than, or as much as participants themselves. After a delay, participants rerated each food. Participants' second ratings shifted to resemble group norms. Initial consensus, as compared to disagreement, with peers produced activity in the nucleus accumbens, a region associated with reward prediction errors. Furthermore, the strength of this activity predicted the extent to which participants' ratings conformed to peer ratings, suggesting that the value associated with consensus drives social influence. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC), a region associated with value computation, initially responded more strongly to unhealthy, as compared to healthy, foods. However, this effect was "overwritten" by group norms. After individuals learned their peers' preferences, vMPFC responses tracked the popularity, but not the healthfulness, of foods. Furthermore, changes in vMPFC activity tracked social influence over behavioral ratings. These data provide evidence that group norms can shift food preferences, supporting the use of norms-based interventions to promote healthy eating.

  3. An experiment on the social facilitation of gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Dyer, Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Research and theory regarding the social facilitation effect generates the expectation that the presence of other gamblers (or co-actors) in a gaming venue is likely to intensify individual gambling behavior and magnify losses. Fifty male and 66 female participants (116 total) played a computer-simulated electronic gaming machine with a fixed winning sequence, followed by an indefinite losing sequence. Measures of the intensity of gambling behavior included the final payout (a direct measure of losses), average bet-size, number of trials played, and the speed of play. Some participants received false feedback from the computer designed to suggest that other gamers in adjacent rooms were playing and sometimes winning at the same game. Persons who received both sight and sound information, including winning bells and instant messages regarding the wins of other (fake) players, placed more bets and lost more money compared to the other conditions with less information.

  4. User Reaction to Current Contents: Behavioral, Social, and Management Sciences*

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Nina W.

    1971-01-01

    The Missouri Institute of Psychiatry Library Current Contents Service offers free dissemination of ISI's Current Contents: Behavioral, Social and Management Sciences to 144 mental health professionals employed at twelve locations in the Missouri Division of Mental Health system. The service includes free document delivery of up to 100 articles per subscription. Sixty percent of the participants in the project are sharing copies of CCBSMS with their colleagues. Operation of the service is described, and data on degree of use are analyzed by user professional orientation and hospital location. The most frequently cited journal titles are compared to lists of heavily used titles derived from other sources. These lists of titles are offered as empirical guides to frequently consulted behavioral science journals. After six months experience participants appear to be highly satisfied. Ninetytwo percent responding to an evaluative questionnaire want to continue the service another year. PMID:5582098

  5. Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart K; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Vale, Gillian; Harrison, Rachel A; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-02-07

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals ("rank-bias") has been proposed as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no "competing" models. In each of four captive groups, either a single high-rank (HR, n = 2) or a low-rank (LR, n = 2) chimpanzee model was trained on one method of opening a two-action puzzle-box, before demonstrating the trained method in a group context. This was followed by 8 hr of group-wide, open-access to the puzzle-box. Successful manipulations and observers of each manipulation were recorded. Barnard's exact tests showed that individuals in the LR groups used the seeded method as their first-choice option at significantly above chance levels, whereas those in the HR groups did not. Furthermore, individuals in the LR condition used the seeded method on their first attempt significantly more often than those in the HR condition. A network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) revealed that the best supported statistical models were those in which social transmission occurred only in groups with subordinate models. Finally, we report an innovation by a subordinate individual that built cumulatively on existing methods of opening the puzzle-box and was subsequently copied by a dominant observer. These findings illustrate that chimpanzees are motivated to copy rewarding novel behaviors that are demonstrated by subordinate individuals and that, in some cases, social transmission may be constrained by high-rank demonstrators.

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) knockout mice: decreased social contact duration in two social interaction tests.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Naoki; Tanda, Koichi; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Toyama, Keiko; Takao, Keizo; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration is crucial for various neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and plasticity, and gene expression. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels that mediate calcium-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Among the three RyR isoforms, RyR3 is preferentially expressed in the brain especially in the hippocampus and striatum. To investigate the behavioral effects of RyR3 deficiency, we subjected RyR3 knockout (RyR3-/-) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. RyR3-/- mice exhibited significantly decreased social contact duration in two different social interaction tests, where two mice can freely move and make contacts with each other. They also exhibited hyperactivity and mildly impaired prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition while they did not show significant abnormalities in motor function and working and reference memory tests. These results indicate that RyR3 has an important role in locomotor activity and social behavior.

  8. Identification of Social Behaviors Important for Adolescent Peer Acceptance: Implications for Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, Heidi; And Others

    Although much attention has been devoted to the study of social competence in the past decade, few researchers have examined the adolescent age group. These two studies examined what behaviors are important for positive peer relations in adolescence. In the first study 1,142 ninth-graders (577 males, M age=14.78; 565 females, M age=14.61) from 7…

  9. Paternal deprivation affects social behaviors and neurochemical systems in the offspring of socially monogamous prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Tabbaa, Manal; Lei, Kelly; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2017-02-20

    Early life experiences, particularly the experience with parents, are crucial to phenotypic outcomes in both humans and animals. Although the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring well-being have been studied, paternal deprivation (PD) has received little attention despite documented associations between father absence and children health problems in humans. In the present study, we utilized the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which displays male-female pair bonding and bi-parental care, to examine the effects of PD on adult behaviors and neurochemical expression in the hippocampus. Male and female subjects were randomly assigned into one of two experimental groups that grew up with both the mother and father (MF) or with the mother-only (MO, to generate PD experience). Our data show that MO subjects received less parental licking/grooming and carrying and were left alone in the nest more frequently than MF subjects. At adulthood (∼75days of age), MO subjects displayed increased social affiliation (SOA) toward a conspecific compared to MF subjects, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition (SOR) and anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, MO subjects showed consistent increases in both gene and protein expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) as well as the levels of total histone 3 and histone 3 acetylation in the hippocampus compared to MF subjects. Further, PD experience increased glucocorticoid receptor beta (GRβ) protein expression in the hippocampus of females as well as increased corticotrophin receptor 2 (CRHR2) protein expression in the hippocampus of males, but decreased CRHR2 mRNA in both sexes. Together, our data suggest that PD has a long-lasting, behavior-specific effect on SOA and alters hippocampal neurochemical systems in the vole brain. The functional role of such altered neurochemical systems in social behaviors and the potential involvement

  10. Natural variation in maternal care shapes adult social behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Starr-Phillips, Emily J; Beery, Annaliese K

    2014-07-01

    Features of the early postnatal environment profoundly shape later physical and behavioral phenotypes. The amount of licking/grooming that rat dams direct towards their offspring has durable consequences, including behavioral and physiological dimensions of stress reactivity, cognition, and reproductive behavior. We examined how natural variation in maternal care alters social behavior in adult offspring and how this relates to anxiety behavior and oxytocin receptor density. Male and female offspring of mothers who received high levels of licking spent significantly more time in social contact with unfamiliar individuals than did offspring whose dams provided less grooming. Reduced anxiety behavior was associated with greater social interaction. No differences in oxytocin receptor binding assessed by (125) I-OVTA autoradiography were detected between groups. The present investigation characterizes a novel impact of maternal care on adult social interaction behavior, replicates anxiety behavior differences, and illustrates connections between social behavior and anxiety in adulthood across maternal treatment groups.

  11. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A

    2011-06-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders.

  12. [Successful Aging and social relations: selection and compensation in social contact behavior].

    PubMed

    Lang, F R; Tesch-Römer, C

    1993-01-01

    The model of selective optimization with compensation (Baltes & Baltes 1989; 1990) offers a theoretical concept of successful aging, that aims at the adaptivity of older persons in the aging process. The present study proposes an empirical operationalization of the model within the domain of social contact behavior, and relates this to self-referent knowledge on daily activities. Older persons with multiple chronic diseases and those in generally good health are compared according to their self-referent knowledge on daily activities and social contact behavior. All participants in the study were socially integrated and well functioning. A total of 35 subjects (mean age = 74.4 years) kept a prestructured dairy about their social contacts for a period of six days. Knowledge on daily activities was assessed in a semi-structured interview. The interviews and diaries were content analyzed (inter-rater reliability estimated via Cohen's Kappa for the interview: M = 0.84; for the diaries: M = 0.93). Results show that the highly social integrated subjects with multiple chronic disease performed significantly better in selective and compensatory strategies than the subjects in good health. Selection was indicated by (a) less family contact and a smaller number of group encounters, (b) more emotional support exchange, and (c) more knowledge on maintenance of daily activities. Compensation was indicated by (d) more frequent use of the telephone and (e) greater knowledge of prosthetic resources. It is concluded that social integration and participation can be optimized through selective and compensatory strategies in the face of chronic diseases in old age.

  13. Behavior-Specific Social Support for Healthy Behaviors among African American Church Members: Applying Optimal Matching Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Oates, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    This study used data from 850 African Americans to test optimal matching theory (OMT). OMT predicts that (1) the most important dimensions of social support depend on the controllability of the behavior and (2) different network members often provide support across health behaviors. Data were gathered on social support source for physical…

  14. Predicting Academics via Behavior within an Elementary Sample: An Evaluation of the Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Bowman, Nicollette A.; Christ, Theodore J.; Taylor, Crystal N.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the "Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener" (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional…

  15. Advances in the Assessment of Social Competence: Findings from a Preliminary Investigation of a General Outcome Measure for Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Kaminski, Ruth A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the initial validation of an innovative social-behavioral observational assessment tool that is designed to be used on a repeated basis to assess growth and development of social competence over time to: (a) identify the social functioning of all students, (b) assist in planning support for students at risk, and (c) evaluate…

  16. Mothers' Socialization Goals, Mothers' Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Socioemotional Functioning in Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…

  17. Social, Behavioral, and Biological Factors, and Sex Differences in Mortality

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS, RICHARD G.; EVERETT, BETHANY G.; SAINT ONGE, JARRON M.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether sex differences in mortality are associated with different distributions of risk factors or result from the unique relationships between risk factors and mortality for men and women. We extend previous research by systematically testing a variety of factors, including health behaviors, social ties, socioeconomic status, and biological indicators of health. We employ the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III Linked Mortality File and use Cox proportional hazards models to examine sex differences in adult mortality in the United States. Our findings document that social and behavioral characteristics are key factors related to the sex gap in mortality. Once we control for women’s lower levels of marriage, poverty, and exercise, the sex gap in mortality widens; and once we control for women’s greater propensity to visit with friends and relatives, attend religious services, and abstain from smoking, the sex gap in mortality narrows. Biological factors— including indicators of inflammation and cardiovascular risk—also inform sex differences in mortality. Nevertheless, persistent sex differences in mortality remain: compared with women, men have 30% to 83% higher risks of death over the follow-up period, depending on the covariates included in the model. Although the prevalence of risk factors differs by sex, the impact of those risk factors on mortality is similar for men and women. PMID:20879677

  18. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  19. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  20. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  1. Extending the Use of Social Stories to Young Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delano, Monica E.; Stone, Liz

    2008-01-01

    Many students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders have social skill deficits, often displayed as less mature or inappropriate social behavior. Students may have difficulty engaging in appropriate play or social interactions and may at times become aggressive. The inability to interact with others has a negative impact on academic…

  2. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  3. From cleaning up to helping out: parental socialization and children's early prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Pettygrove, Dana M; Hammond, Stuart I; Karahuta, Erin L; Waugh, Whitney E; Brownell, Celia A

    2013-12-01

    Relations between parental socialization and infants' prosocial behavior were investigated in sixty three 18- and 30-month old children. Parents' socialization techniques (e.g., directives, negotiation, reasoning) differed for the two age groups, as did relations between socialization and different forms of emerging prosocial behavior (helping; sharing).

  4. Does a Positive Bias Relate to Social Behavior in Children with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnea, Kate; Hoza, Betsy; Tomb, Meghan; Kaiser, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether positively biased self-perceptions relate to social behaviors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared to control children. The social behaviors of children with ADHD (n = 87) were examined relative to control children (CTL; n = 38) during a laboratory-based dyadic social interaction…

  5. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  6. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  7. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  8. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  9. Genetic variation in social environment construction influences the development of aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Saltz, J B

    2017-04-01

    Individuals are not merely subject to their social environments; they choose and create them, through a process called social environment (or social niche) construction. When genotypes differ in social environment-constructing behaviors, different genotypes are expected to experience different social environments. As social experience often affects behavioral development, quantitative genetics and psychology theories predict that genetic variation in social environment construction should have an important role in determining phenotypic variation; however, this hypothesis has not been tested directly. I identify multiple mechanisms of social environment construction that differ among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster and investigate their consequences for the development of aggressive behavior. Male genotypes differed in the group sizes that they preferred and in their aggressive behavior; both of these behaviors influenced social experience, demonstrating that these behaviors function as social environment-constructing traits. Further, the effects of social experience-as determined in part by social environment construction-carried over to affect focal male aggression at a later time and with a new opponent. These results provide manipulative experimental support for longstanding hypotheses in psychology, that genetic variation in social environment construction has a causal role in behavioral development. More broadly, these results imply that studies of the genetic basis of complex traits should be expanded to include mechanisms by which genetic variation shapes the environments that individuals experience.

  10. Social behavior in a genetic model of dopamine dysfunction at different neurodevelopmental time points.

    PubMed

    Kabitzke, P A; Simpson, E H; Kandel, E R; Balsam, P D

    2015-09-01

    Impairments in social behavior characterize many neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In fact, the temporal emergence and trajectory of these deficits can define the disorder, specify their treatment and signal their prognosis. The sophistication of mouse models with neurobiological endophenotypes of many aspects of psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years, with the necessity to evaluate social behavior in these models. We adapted an assay for the multimodal characterization of social behavior at different development time points (juvenile, adolescent and adult) in control mice in different social contexts (specifically, different sex pairings). Although social context did not affect social behavior in juvenile mice, it did have an effect on the quantity and type of social interaction as well as ultrasonic vocalizations in both adolescence and adulthood. We compared social development in control mice to a transgenic mouse model of the increase in postsynaptic striatal D2R activity observed in patients with schizophrenia (D2R-OE mice). Genotypic differences in social interactions emerged in adolescence and appeared to become more pronounced in adulthood. That vocalizations emitted from dyads with a D2R-OE subject were negatively correlated with active social behavior while vocalizations from control dyads were positively correlated with both active and passive social behavior also suggest social deficits. These data show that striatal dopamine dysfunction plays an important role in the development of social behavior and mouse models such as the one studied here provide an opportunity for screening potential therapeutics at different developmental time points.

  11. Social behavior in a genetic model of dopamine dysfunction at different neurodevelopmental time points

    PubMed Central

    Kabitzke, P. A.; Simpson, E. H.; Kandel, E. R.; Balsam, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior characterize many neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In fact, the temporal emergence and trajectory of these deficits can define the disorder, specify their treatment and signal their prognosis. The sophistication of mouse models with neurobiological endophenotypes of many aspects of psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years, with the necessity to evaluate social behavior in these models. We adapted an assay for the multimodal characterization of social behavior at different development time points (juvenile, adolescent and adult) in control mice in different social contexts (specifically, different sex pairings). Although social context did not affect social behavior in juvenile mice, it did have an effect on the quantity and type of social interaction as well as ultrasonic vocalizations in both adolescence and adulthood. We compared social development in control mice to a transgenic mouse model of the increase in postsynaptic striatal D2R activity observed in patients with schizophrenia (D2R-OE mice). Genotypic differences in social interactions emerged in adolescence and appeared to become more pronounced in adulthood. That vocalizations emitted from dyads with a D2R-OE subject were negatively correlated with active social behavior while vocalizations from control dyads were positively correlated with both active and passive social behavior also suggest social deficits. These data show that striatal dopamine dysfunction plays an important role in the development of social behavior and mouse models such as the one studied here provide an opportunity for screening potential therapeutics at different developmental time points. PMID:26176662

  12. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  13. To be spurned no more: The affective and behavioral consequences of social and nonsocial rejection.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Rachel L; Barclay, Pat; Fenske, Mark J

    2017-04-01

    Social pain is often associated with social rejection and shares neural correlates with the bothersome aspect of physical pain, which may also indicate an overlap in function. Pain has been described as a motivational signal to respond to the source of the pain in an adaptive way, such as by altering behavior. We tested whether social pain causes similarly adaptive alterations in behavior. Participants played computerized ball-tossing tasks with putative players-one who passed to and one who excluded the participant from play-in both a social and nonsocial version. We assessed the behavioral consequences of social pain by comparing the number of throws to each stimulus (social rejector vs. nonsocial rejector) over the course of the task. Posttask questionnaires assessed subjective feelings of social pain. A decrease in throws to the rejecting stimulus was only observed in the social version, indicating that rejection that is social in nature leads to change in behavior. Moreover, participants reported more negative feelings toward the rejecting stimulus in the social than in the nonsocial version. These subjective feelings of social pain mediated the effect of version of the game (social vs. nonsocial) on changes in behavior, indicating that social pain from social rejection causes changes in behavior.

  14. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  15. Teaching Online Social Skills to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often lack appropriate social skills. This deficit can lead to negative outcomes including peer and teacher rejection, increased behavioral problems at school, and decreased academic achievement. In order to improve the social outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders, teachers…

  16. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  17. Socialization and Risk Behavior in Two Countries: Denmark and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; Jensen, Lene Arnett

    1994-01-01

    One hundred Danish adolescents and 133 American adolescents were compared on various aspects of socialization and risk behavior. Overall, socialization was narrower among Danish adolescents, and rates of risk behavior were higher for American adolescents in the areas of driving and minor criminal behavior. Rates of sex without contraception were…

  18. Altruistic Behavior among College Students: An Investigation of the Social and Psychological Characteristics of Blood Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Wilbert Marcellus, II

    The document describes a field study to investigate the relationship between altruism and blood donating behavior among members of a large midwestern college community. Altruistic behavior is interpreted as combining three motivations: (1) reward-cost, also referred to in terms of behavior as social exchange; (2) social responsibility and…

  19. Factors Related to Social-Emotional Problem Behavior in Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Esther O.; And Others

    Data on demographics, physical capability and social-emotional behavioral variables for 134 residents between the ages of 50 and 96 were collected in four nursing homes to examine the dimensions related to problem behaviors. Social-emotional behaviors related on six scales of reliabilities ranging from .90 to .74. The scales included depression,…

  20. Social Influences, Social Norms, Social Support, and Smoking Behavior among Adolescent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla; Stoddard, Anne M.; Frazier, Lindsay; Sorensen, Glorian

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between worksite influences and smoking and quitting behavior among adolescent grocery employees. Surveys on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational factors indicated that regular smokers were 30 percent more likely to receive co-worker encouragement to quit than occasional and experimental smokers. Compared to…

  1. Canid mating systems, social behavior, parental care and ontogeny: are they flexible?

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Devra G

    2011-11-01

    Benson Ginsburg's early studies of canid socialization and wolf social and reproductive behavior were focused, in part, on the degree to which there was flexibility in social development and specifically whether there was a critical period during development after which wolf pups could not be socialized to humans. My focus was the degree to which differences in canid ecology and social structure were correlated with differences in the plasticity of social and reproductive behavior, including development. Canid species are unusual among the Mammalia in being primarily monogamous. Males may play an indirect or direct role in parental care, depending on a species degree of sociality. Canid species also differ in developmental parameters, and reproductive suppression is common in the group-living pack hunters. I review comparative studies of the social and reproductive behavior of three South American canids which vary in their degree of sociality and explore the degree to which the species are ecologically and socially flexible.

  2. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p < .0001) as compared with children in the control group with adequate nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood.

  3. Social behavior in the “Age of Empathy”?—A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences

    PubMed Central

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the “social brain” that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what “social” means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what “social” means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the “social.” The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond. PMID:23755003

  4. Investigating Teachers' Approval and Disapproval Behaviors Towards Academic and Social Behaviors of Students with and without Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sazak-Pinar, Elif; Guner-Yildiz, Nevin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to (a) investigate teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors towards academic and social behaviors of students in mainstreaming classrooms and (b) determine whether or not having special needs be a predictor of teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors. The study group consisted of 43 teachers who were working…

  5. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life.

  6. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life. PMID:27071011

  7. Social approach and autistic behavior in children with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jane E; Weisenfeld, Leigh Anne H; Hatton, Deborah D; Heath, Morgan; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-10-01

    Social avoidance is a core phenotypic characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS) that has critical cognitive and social consequences. However, no study has examined modulation of multiple social avoidant behaviors in children with FXS. In the current study, we introduce the Social Approach Scale (SAS), an observation scale that includes physical movement, facial expression, and eye contact approach behaviors collected across multiple time points. Our findings suggested that social approach behaviors in children with FXS were affected by age, gender, setting, and time spent with an examiner. Selected social approach behaviors were related to autistic behavior. Increased eye contact over the course of a research assessment, in particular, was found to be a strong predictor of lower autistic behavior.

  8. Do Pharmacological and Behavioral Interventions Differentially Affect Treatment Outcome for Children with Social Phobia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Rendon Finnell, Laura; Distler, Aaron; Carter, Nathan T.

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized trial for children with social phobia (SP), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C; a treatment consisting of exposure and social skills training) and fluoxetine were more effective than pill placebo in reducing social distress and behavioral avoidance, but only SET-C demonstrated significantly improved overall social…

  9. Social Approach and Autistic Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane E.; Weisenfeld, Leigh Anne H.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Heath, Morgan; Kaufmann, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Social avoidance is a core phenotypic characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS) that has critical cognitive and social consequences. However, no study has examined modulation of multiple social avoidant behaviors in children with FXS. In the current study, we introduce the "Social Approach Scale" (SAS), an observation scale that includes physical…

  10. The Relationship between Neighborhood Characteristics and Effective Parenting Behaviors: The Role of Social Support.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A

    2012-12-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly through social support. The sample included 614 mothers of 11-12 year old youths enrolled in a health care system in the San Francisco area. Structural equations modeling shows that neighborhood perceptions were related to parenting behaviors, indirectly through social support, while archival census neighborhood indicators were unrelated to social support and parenting. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and control were related to greater social support, which was related to more effective parenting style, parent-child communication, and monitoring. Perceived neighborhood disorganization was unrelated to social support. Prevention strategies should focus on helping parents build a social support network that can act as a resource in times of need.

  11. Lack of elevations in glucocorticoids correlates with dysphoria-like behavior after repeated social defeat.

    PubMed

    Bowens, Nicole; Heydendael, Willem; Bhatnagar, Seema; Jacobson, Lauren

    2012-02-28

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is often abnormal in depression and could hold clues for better treatment of this debilitating disease. However, it has been difficult to use HPA activity as a depression biomarker because both HPA hyperactivity and HPA hypoactivity have been reported in depression. Melancholic depression has typically been associated with HPA hyperactivity, while atypical depression has been linked with HPA hypoactivity. Many animal models of chronic stress recapitulate behavioral aberrations and elevated HPA activity that could represent a model for melancholic depression. However, there are no animal models that could be used to elucidate the etiology or treatment of atypical depression. We have used repeated social defeat in mice to test the hypothesis that this chronic stress would induce dysphoria-like behavior associated with HPA hypoactivity in a subset of subjects. Intruder mice were placed in the home cage of an aggressive resident mouse for 5 min/d for 30 days. The majority of intruder mice had elevated basal plasma corticosterone (High Morning Corticosterone, or HMC) and adrenal 11β hydroxylase mRNA levels relative to control mice that were handled daily. However, a subset of intruder mice (Low Morning Corticosterone; LMC) exhibited basal plasma corticosterone and 11β hydroxylase mRNA levels that were indistinguishable from control levels. Significant changes in emotional behavior only occurred in LMC mice, which exhibited anxiety-like increases in activity and defecation during tail suspension and anhedonia-like decreases in sucrose preference. Relative to HMC mice, LMC mice also showed increases in gene expression of mineralocorticoid receptor in CA2 hippocampus, consistent with the possibility that HPA activity in this group is constrained by increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid negative feedback. LMC mice also exhibited increased c-fos gene expression compared to HMC mice in the paraventricular

  12. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  13. Long-Lasting Consequences of Neonatal Maternal Separation on Social Behaviors in Ovariectomized Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2012-01-01

    Maternal separation (MS) stress is known to induce long-lasting alterations in emotional and anxiety-related behaviors, but effects on social behaviors are not well defined. The present study examined MS effects on female social behaviors in the social investigation (SIT) and social preference (SPT) tests, in addition to non-social behaviors in the open-field (OFT) and light-dark transition (LDT) tests in C57BL/6J mice. All females were tested as ovariectomized to eliminate confounding effects of endogenous estrogen during behavioral testing. Daily MS (3 hr) from postnatal day 1 to 14 did not affect anxiety levels in LDT, but were elevated in OFT with modified behavioral responses to the novel environment. Furthermore, MS altered social investigative behaviors and preference patterns toward unfamiliar stimulus mice in SIT and short- and long-term SPT paradigms. In SIT, MS reduced social investigation duration and increased number of stretched approaches towards both female and male unfamiliar stimulus mice, suggesting increased social anxiety levels in MS females. Similarly, MS heightened levels of social anxiety during short-term SPT but no MS effect on social preference was found. On the other hand, MS females displayed a distinctive preference for female stimuli, unlike control females, when tested for long-term SPT over a prolonged period of 5 days. Evaluation of FosB expression in the paraventricular nucleus, medial and central amygdala following stimulus exposure demonstrated greater number of FosB immunopositive cells in all three brain regions in MS females compared to control females. These results suggest that MS females might differ in neuroendocrine responses toward unfamiliar female and male opponents, which may be associated with modifications in social behaviors found in the present study. Taken together, this study provides new evidence that early life stress modifies female social behaviors by highlighting alterations in behavioral responses to

  14. Crh and Oprm1 mediate anxiety-related behavior and social approach in a mouse model of MECP2 duplication syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Samaco, Rodney C; Mandel-Brehm, Caleigh; McGraw, Christopher M; Shaw, Chad A; McGill, Bryan E; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic duplications spanning Xq28 are associated with a spectrum of phenotypes including anxiety and autism. The minimal region shared among affected individuals includes MECP2 and IRAK1, however, it is unclear which gene, when overexpressed, causes anxiety and social behavior deficits. We report that doubling MeCP2 levels causes heightened anxiety and autism-like features in mice, and alters the expression of genes that influence anxiety and social behavior, such as Crh and Oprm1. To test the hypothesis that alterations in these two genes contribute to the heightened anxiety and social behavior deficits, we analyzed MECP2 duplication mice (MECP2-TG1) with reduced Crh and Oprm1 levels. In MECP2-TG1 animals, reducing Crh, or its receptor, Crhr1, suppresses anxiety-like behavior; in contrast, reducing Oprm1 improves abnormal social behavior. These data demonstrate that increased MeCP2 levels impact molecular pathways underlying anxiety and social behavior, and provide novel insight into potential therapies for MECP2-related disorders. PMID:22231481

  15. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.

    PubMed

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

    2013-06-01

    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  16. Characterizing Autism-Relevant Social Behavior in Poodles via Owner Report.

    PubMed

    Zamzow, Rachel M; Lit, Lisa; Hamilton, Shelley; Beversdorf, David Q

    2017-03-13

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can be difficult to model the complex behavioral features of this disorder with rodent models, which have limited similarity to human behaviors. The domestic dog may be a promising model of complex human behavior, including core features of ASD. The present study examines ASD-relevant social behavior in Miniature and Standard Poodles using an owner-report questionnaire with questions adapted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2000). A previous study identified 3 behavioral constructs examined by this questionnaire: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors, response to social interaction, and communication. In the present study, confirmatory and experimental factor analyses used to assess how collected data fit with the previous model revealed moderate model fit and a similar factorial structure. Between-breed comparisons across these factors and at the individual question level revealed differences between Miniature and Standard Poodles in showing behaviors. Cluster analyses used to group dogs within each breed according to social behavior identified smaller subgroups of dogs with less social behavior across all 3 factors compared with the average within each breed. Within- and between-breed differences in social behavior warrant investigation of genetic variation underlying this complex trait as it relates to ASD-relevant behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Pro-social behavior in rats is modulated by social experience

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Rodgers, David A; Bernardez Sarria, Maria Sol; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, helping is preferentially provided to members of one’s own group. Yet, it remains unclear how social experience shapes pro-social motivation. We found that rats helped trapped strangers by releasing them from a restrainer, just as they did cagemates. However, rats did not help strangers of a different strain, unless previously housed with the trapped rat. Moreover, pair-housing with one rat of a different strain prompted rats to help strangers of that strain, evidence that rats expand pro-social motivation from one individual to phenotypically similar others. To test if genetic relatedness alone can motivate helping, rats were fostered from birth with another strain and were not exposed to their own strain. As adults, fostered rats helped strangers of the fostering strain but not rats of their own strain. Thus, strain familiarity, even to one’s own strain, is required for the expression of pro-social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01385.001 PMID:24424411

  18. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  19. Prospective associations between prosocial behavior and social dominance in early childhood: are sharers the best leaders?

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M; Guzzo, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study during early childhood (N = 96; M = 42.80; SD = 7.57) investigated the concurrent and prospective association between prosocial behavior and social dominance. Time-intensive school-based focal child sampling with continuous recording observations of prosocial behavior to peers were conducted and teacher-reports of social dominance were collected. The study documents significant prospective links between prosocial behavior to peers and increases in social dominance over time. Social dominance was not associated with changes in prosocial behavior. The findings extend past empirical work in early childhood and future directions are discussed.

  20. Behavioral effects of social challenges and genomic mechanisms of social priming: What’s testosterone got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Peterson, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Social challenges from rival conspecifics are common in the lives of animals, and changes in an animal’s social environment can influence physiology and behavior in ways that appear to be adaptive in the face of continued social instability (i.e. social priming). Recently, it has become clear that testosterone, long thought to be the primary mediator of these effects, may not always change in response to social challenges, an observation that highlights gaps in our understanding of the proximate mechanisms by which animals respond to their social environment. Here, our goal is to address the degree to which testosterone mediates organismal responses to social cues. To this end, we review the behavioral and physiological consequences of social challenges, as well as their underlying hormonal and gene regulatory mechanisms. We also present a new case study from a wild songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), in which we find largely divergent genome-wide transcriptional changes induced by social challenges and testosterone, respectively, in muscle and liver tissue. Our review underscores the diversity of mechanisms that link the dynamic social environment with an organisms’ genomic, hormonal, and behavioral state. This diversity among species, and even among tissues within an organism, reveals new insights into the pattern and process by which evolution may alter proximate mechanisms of social priming. PMID:27721823

  1. The Effects of a Token Economy on First Grade Students Inappropriate Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Suzan C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effectiveness of a token economy on specific inappropriate social behaviors of three first grade students. Suggests that token economy systems can be very effective in decreasing disruptive behaviors of primary aged students. (MG)

  2. Directions in implementation research methods for behavioral and social science.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.

  3. Alcohol perceptions and behavior in a residential peer social network.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Ott, Miles; Meisel, Matthew K; Barnett, Nancy P

    2017-01-01

    Personalized normative feedback is a recommended component of alcohol interventions targeting college students. However, normative data are commonly collected through campus-based surveys, not through actual participant-referent relationships. In the present investigation, we examined how misperceptions of residence hall peers, both overall using a global question and those designated as important peers using person-specific questions, were related to students' personal drinking behaviors. Participants were 108 students (88% freshman, 54% White, 51% female) residing in a single campus residence hall. Participants completed an online baseline survey in which they reported their own alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use using both an individual peer network measure and a global peer perception measure of their residential peers. We employed network autocorrelation models, which account for the inherent correlation between observations, to test hypotheses. Overall, participants accurately perceived the drinking of nominated friends but overestimated the drinking of residential peers. Consistent with hypotheses, overestimating nominated friend and global residential peer drinking predicted higher personal drinking, although perception of nominated peers was a stronger predictor. Interaction analyses showed that the relationship between global misperception and participant self-reported drinking was significant for heavy drinkers, but not non-heavy drinkers. The current findings explicate how student perceptions of peer drinking within an established social network influence drinking behaviors, which may be used to enhance the effectiveness of normative feedback interventions.

  4. Relations Between Nonverbal and Verbal Social Cognitive Skills and Complex Social Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Lewine, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on domains of social skill deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), little research has examined the relation between specific social cognitive skills and complex social behaviors in daily functioning. This was the aim of the present study. Participants were 37 (26 male and 11 female) children and adolescents aged 6-18 years diagnosed with ASD. To determine the amount of variance in parent-rated complex social behavior accounted for by the linear combination of five directly-assessed social cognitive variables (i.e., adult and child facial and vocal affect recognition and social judgment) after controlling for general intellectual ability, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. The linear combination of variables accounted for 35.4 % of the variance in parent-rated complex social behavior. Vocal affect recognition in adult voices showed the strongest association with complex social behavior in ASD. Results suggest that assessment and training in vocal affective comprehension should be an important component of social skills interventions for individuals with ASD.

  5. Social isolation affects partner-directed social behavior and cortisol during pair formation in marmosets, Callithrix geoffroyi

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Birnie, Andrew K.; French, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Pair-bonded relationships form during periods of close spatial proximity and high sociosexual contact. Like other monogamous species, marmosets form new social pairs after emigration or ejection from their natal group resulting in periods of social isolation. Thus, pair formation often occurs following a period of social instability and a concomitant elevation in stress physiology. Research is needed to assess the effects that prolonged social isolation has on the behavioral and cortisol response to the formation of a new social pair. We examined the sociosexual behavior and cortisol during the first 90-days of cohabitation in male and female Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) paired either directly from their natal group (Natal-P) or after a prolonged period of social isolation (ISO-P). Social isolation prior to pairing seemed to influence cortisol levels, social contact, and grooming behavior; however, sexual behavior was not affected. Cortisol levels were transiently elevated in all paired marmosets compared to natal-housed marmosets. However, ISO-P marmosets had higher cortisol levels throughout the observed pairing period compared to Natal-P marmoset. This suggests that the social instability of pair formation may lead to a transient increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity while isolation results in a prolonged HPA axis dysregulation. In addition, female social contact behavior was associated with higher cortisol levels at the onset of pairing; however, this was not observed in males. Thus, isolation-induced social contact with a new social partner may be enhanced by HPA axis activation, or a moderating factor. PMID:21712050

  6. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): Strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning☆

    PubMed Central

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L.H.; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. PMID:24077068

  7. Modeling the Impact of Motivation, Personality, and Emotion on Social Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Zachary, Wayne; Rosoff, Andrew

    Models seeking to predict human social behavior must contend with multiple sources of individual and group variability that underlie social behavior. One set of interrelated factors that strongly contribute to that variability - motivations, personality, and emotions - has been only minimally incorporated in previous computational models of social behavior. The Personality, Affect, Culture (PAC) framework is a theory-based computational model that addresses this gap. PAC is used to simulate social agents whose social behavior varies according to their personalities and emotions, which, in turn, vary according to their motivations and underlying motive control parameters. Examples involving disease spread and counter-insurgency operations show how PAC can be used to study behavioral variability in different social contexts.

  8. Social Capital and Bystander Behavior in Bullying: Internalizing Problems as a Barrier to Prosocial Intervention.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N; Fredrick, Stephanie Secord

    2017-04-01

    Theory and research suggests that individuals with greater social capital (i.e., resources and benefits gained from relationships, experiences, and social interactions) may be more likely to be active, prosocial bystanders in bullying situations. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine the association of social capital (social support and social skills) with prosocial bystander behavior, and the role of internalizing problems as a potential barrier to this relation among 299 students (45.8% girls, 95% White) in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Results indicate a positive relation between social capital and prosocial bystander behavior. In addition, internalizing problems were a significant risk factor that may hinder youth-particularly girls-from engaging in defending behavior. Prosocial bystanders are an essential component to prevent and reduce bullying and further research is needed to better understand how to foster prosocial behavior in bullying situations, perhaps by utilizing social capital, related to school bullying.

  9. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-12-14

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring.

  10. Disruption of social bonds induces behavioral and physiological dysregulation in male and female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Neal; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Wardwell, Joshua; Chandler, Danielle L; Bates, Suzanne L; Larocca, Meagan; Trahanas, Diane M; Grippo, Angela J

    2014-02-01

    The social disruption of losing a partner may have particularly strong adverse effects on psychological and physiological functioning. More specifically, social stressors may play a mediating role in the association between mood disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated the hypothesis that the disruption of established social bonds between male and female prairie voles would produce depressive behaviors and cardiac dysregulation, coupled with endocrine and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In Experiment 1, behaviors related to depression, cardiac function, and autonomic nervous system regulation were monitored in male prairie voles during social bonding with a female partner, social isolation from the bonded partner, and a behavioral stressor. Social isolation produced depressive behaviors, increased heart rate, heart rhythm dysregulation, and autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic drive to the heart. In Experiment 2, behaviors related to depression and endocrine function were measured following social bonding and social isolation in both male and female prairie voles. Social isolation produced similar levels of depressive behaviors in both sexes, as well as significant elevations of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. These alterations in behavioral and physiological functioning provide insight into the mechanisms by which social stressors negatively influence emotional and cardiovascular health in humans.

  11. Social capital and risk and protective behaviors: a global health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaljee, Linda M; Chen, Xinguang

    2011-01-01

    Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals’ risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents’ and young adults’ engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes. PMID:23243387

  12. Disruption of social bonds induces behavioral and physiological dysregulation in male and female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    McNeal, Neal; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L.; Wardwell, Joshua; Chandler, Danielle L.; Bates, Suzanne L.; LaRocca, Meagan; Trahanas, Diane M.; Grippo, Angela J.

    2013-01-01

    The social disruption of losing a partner may have particularly strong adverse effects on psychological and physiological functioning. More specifically, social stressors may play a mediating role in the association between mood disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated the hypothesis that the disruption of established social bonds between male and female prairie voles would produce depressive behaviors and cardiac dysregulation, coupled with endocrine and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In Experiment 1, behaviors related to depression, cardiac function, and autonomic nervous system regulation were monitored in male prairie voles during social bonding with a female partner, social isolation from the bonded partner, and a behavioral stressor. Social isolation produced depressive behaviors, increased heart rate, heart rhythm dysregulation, and autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic drive to the heart. In Experiment 2, behaviors related to depression and endocrine function were measured following social bonding and social isolation in both male and female prairie voles. Social isolation produced similar levels of depressive behaviors in both sexes, as well as significant elevations of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. These alterations in behavioral and physiological functioning provide insight into the mechanisms by which social stressors negatively influence emotional and cardiovascular health in humans. PMID:24161576

  13. Negative Bystander Behavior in Bullying Dynamics: Assessing the Impact of Social Capital Deprivation and Anti-social Capital.

    PubMed

    Evans, Caroline B R; Smokowski, Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Bystanders witness bullying, but are not directly involved as a bully or victim; however, they often engage in negative bystander behavior. This study examines how social capital deprivation and anti-social capital are associated with the likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior in a sample (N = 5752) of racially/ethnically diverse rural youth. Data were collected using an online, youth self-report; the current study uses cross sectional data. Following multiple imputation, a binary logistic regression with robust standard errors was run. Results partially supported the hypothesis and indicated that social capital deprivation in the form of peer pressure and verbal victimization and anti-social capital in the form of delinquent friends, bullying perpetration, verbal perpetration, and physical perpetration were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior. Findings highlight the importance of establishing sources of positive social support for disenfranchised youth.

  14. Influence of Biological, Social and Psychological Factors on Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Female University Students in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6–12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7–25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681

  15. Classroom peer relationships and behavioral engagement in elementary school: the role of social network equity.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W; Jackson, Daisy R

    2013-12-01

    Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties-social network equity-had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools.

  16. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.

  17. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation. PMID:27362655

  18. The salience of social referents: a field experiment on collective norms and harassment behavior in a school social network.

    PubMed

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Shepherd, Hana

    2012-12-01

    Persistent, widespread harassment in schools can be understood as a product of collective school norms that deem harassment, and behavior allowing harassment to escalate, as typical and even desirable. Thus, one approach to reducing harassment is to change students' perceptions of these collective norms. Theory suggests that the public behavior of highly connected and chronically salient actors in a group, called social referents, may provide influential cues for individuals' perception of collective norms. Using repeated, complete social network surveys of a public high school, we demonstrate that changing the public behavior of a randomly assigned subset of student social referents changes their peers' perceptions of school collective norms and their harassment behavior. Social referents exert their influence over peers' perceptions of collective norms through the mechanism of everyday social interaction, particularly interaction that is frequent and personally motivated, in contrast to interaction shaped by institutional channels like shared classes. These findings clarify the development of collective social norms: They depend on certain patterns of and motivations for social interactions within groups across time, and are not static but constantly reshaped and reproduced through these interactions. Understanding this process creates opportunities for changing collective norms and behavior.

  19. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  20. Direct and transgenerational effects of low doses of perinatal di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on social behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Rodney W.; Sumner, Susan S.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2017-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical commonly used as a plasticizer in medical equipment, food packaging, flooring, and children’s toys. DEHP exposure during early development has been associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in children. In animal models, early exposure to DEHP results in abnormal development of the reproductive system as well as altered behavior and neurodevelopment. Based on these data, we hypothesized that developmental exposure to DEHP would decrease social interactions and increase anxiety-like behaviors in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that the effects would persist over generations. C57BL/6J mice consumed one of three DEHP doses (0, 5, 40, and 400 μg/kg body weight) throughout pregnancy and during the first ten days of lactation. The two higher doses yielded detectable levels of DEHP metabolites in serum. Pairs of mice from control, low, and high DEHP doses were bred to create three dose lineages in the third generation (F3). Average anogenital index (AGI: anogenital distance/body weight) was decreased in F1 males exposed to the low dose of DEHP and in F1 females exposed to the highest dose. In F1 mice, juvenile pairs from the two highest DEHP dose groups displayed fewer socially investigative behaviors and more exploratory behaviors as compared with control mice. The effect of DEHP on these behaviors was reversed in F3 mice as compared with F1 mice. F1 mice exposed to low and medium DEHP doses spent more time in the closed arms of the elevated plus maze than controls, indicating increased anxiety-like behavior. The generation-dependent effects on behavior and AGI suggest complex mechanisms by which DEHP directly impacts reproductive and neurobehavioral development and influences germline-inherited traits. PMID:28199414