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Sample records for abnormal stress test

  1. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    PubMed

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  3. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...

  4. Reversion of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and abnormal stress test: by catheter ablation, in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome from Para-Hisian Kent bundle.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chung-Ming; Chu, Kai-Ming; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Mung; Lin, Wei-Shiang

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is typically reserved for patients who experience ventricular pre-excitation and symptoms that are related to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, such as chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness, palpitations, or syncope. Herein, we report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented at our outpatient department because of exercise intolerance. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade 2/6 pansystolic murmur over the left lower sternal border. Twelve-lead electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm at a rate of 76 beats/min, with a significant delta wave. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed abnormal left ventricular systolic function. The results of a thallium stress test were also abnormal. Coronary artery disease was suspected; however, coronary angiography yielded normal results. Electrophysiologic study revealed a para-Hisian Kent bundle and a dual atrioventricular nodal pathway. After radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed, the patient's left ventricular function improved and her symptoms disappeared. In Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony can yield abnormal findings on echocardiography and thallium scanning--even in persons who have no cardiovascular risk factors. Physicians who are armed with this knowledge can avoid performing coronary angiography unnecessarily. Catheter ablation can reverse the dyssynchrony of the ventricle and improve the patient's symptoms.

  5. Abnormal stress echocardiography findings in cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin C; Askew, J Wells; Dispenzieri, Angela; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Klarich, Kyle W; Anavekar, Nandan S; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Grogan, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac involvement in immunoglobulin light chain (amyloid light chain, AL) amyloidosis is characterized by myocardial interstitial deposition but can also cause obstructive deposits in the coronary microvasculature. We retrospectively identified 20 patients who underwent stress echocardiography within 1 year prior to the histologic diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. Only patients with cardiac amyloidosis and no known obstructive coronary disease were included. Stress echocardiograms (13 exercise; 7 dobutamine) were performed for evaluation of dyspnea and/or chest pain. Stress-induced wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) occurred in 11 patients (55%), 4 of whom had normal left ventricular wall thickness. Coronary angiogram was performed in 9 of 11 patients and demonstrated no or mild epicardial coronary artery disease. Seven (54%) patients had an abnormal exercise blood pressure which occurred with similar likelihood between those with and without stress-induced WMAs. Stress-induced WMAs and abnormal exercise blood pressure may occur in patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis despite the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease. This finding should raise the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis even in the absence of significant myocardial thickening.

  6. What Is Stress Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Stress Testing Stress Testing Also known as What Is Stress Testing? ... test and an imaging stress test. Standard Exercise Stress Test A standard exercise stress test uses an ...

  7. Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial perfusion abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Fragasso, G; Sciammarella, M G; Rossetti, E E; Xuereb, R G; Xuereb, M; Bonetti, F; Carandente, O M; Margonato, A; Chierchia, S L

    1992-07-01

    The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, exercise duration, exercise time and rate-pressure product at the beginning of ischaemia were lower in group 1. Furthermore, a greater proportion of asymptomatic patients had only one ischaemic segment on 99mTc-MIBI perfusion scintigraphy. We conclude that: (1) in patients with effort angina and coronary disease, the incidence of electrocardiographic silent ischaemic events induced by exercise is similar to that observed in studies based on continuous ECG monitoring. (2) Exertional angina is more frequently associated with greater ischaemic areas and with more severe degrees of impairment of residual coronary flow reserve. (3) The presence of an old myocardial infarction does not appear to influence the incidence of ischaemic cardiac pain.

  8. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  9. Psychosocial stress predicts abnormal glucose metabolism: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily D; Magliano, Dianna J; Tapp, Robyn J; Oldenburg, Brian F; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2013-08-01

    The evidence supporting a relationship between stress and diabetes has been inconsistent. This study examined the effects of stress on abnormal glucose metabolism, using a population-based sample of 3,759, with normoglycemia at baseline, from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Perceived stress and stressful life events were measured at baseline, with health behavior and anthropometric information also collected. Oral glucose tolerance tests were undertaken at baseline and 5-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), according to WHO 1999 criteria. Perceived stress predicted incident abnormal glucose metabolism in women but not men, after multivariate adjustment. Life events showed an inconsistent relationship with abnormal glucose metabolism. Perceived stress predicted abnormal glucose metabolism in women. Healthcare professionals should consider psychosocial adversity when assessing risk factor profiles for the development of diabetes.

  10. Nuclear Stress Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nuclear Stress Test Menu Topics Topics FAQs Nuclear Stress Test A nuclear stress test lets doctors see pictures of your heart ... after you have exercised. En español A nuclear stress test lets doctors see pictures of your heart ...

  11. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise ECG; ECG - exercise treadmill; EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill; CAD - treadmill; Coronary artery disease - treadmill; Chest pain - treadmill; Angina - treadmill; ...

  13. The association between acute mental stress and abnormal left atrial electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Hammadah, Muhammad; Sandesara, Pratik B; Almuwaqqat, Zakaria; Samman-Tahhan, Ayman; Gafeer, Mohamad M; Abdelhadi, Naser; Wilmot, Kobina; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Bremner, Douglas J; Kutner, Michael; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Shah, Amit J; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Vaccarino, Viola

    2017-10-01

    Acute stress may trigger atrial fibrillation (AF), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We examined if acute mental stress results in abnormal left atrial electrophysiology as detected by more negative deflection of P-wave terminal force in lead V 1 (PTFV 1 ), a well-known marker of AF risk. We examined this hypothesis in 422 patients (mean age = 56 ± 10 years; 61% men; 44% white) with stable coronary heart disease who underwent mental (speech task) stress testing. PTFV 1 was defined as the duration (milliseconds) times the value of the depth (μV) of the downward deflection (terminal portion) of the P-wave in lead V 1 measured on digital electrocardiograms (ECG). Electrocardiographic left atrial abnormality was defined as PTFV 1 ≤ -4000 μV*ms. Mean PTFV 1 values during stress and recovery were compared with rest. The percentage of participants who developed left atrial abnormality during stress and recovery was compared with the percentage at rest. Compared with rest, PTFV 1 became more negative during mental stress (mean change =  -348, 95% CI = [-515, -182]; P < 0.001) and no change was observed at recovery (mean change = 12, 95%CI = [-148, 172]; P = 0.89). A larger percentage of participants showed left atrial abnormality on ECGs obtained at stress (n = 163, 39%) and recovery (n = 142, 34%) compared with rest (n = 127, 30%). Acute mental stress alters left atrial electrophysiology, suggesting that stressful situations promote adverse transient electrical changes to provide the necessary substrate for AF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Exercise stress testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1975-01-01

    Positive maximum stress tests in the management of coronary patients are discussed. It is believed that coronary angiography would be the ultimate test to predict the future of patients with coronary heart disease. Progression of angina, myocardial infarction, and death due to heart disease were analyzed.

  15. Stress Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Advanced testing of structural materials was developed by Lewis Research Center and Langley Research Center working with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Under contract, Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) conducted a study for evaluating stress corrosion cracking, and recommended the "breaking load" method which determines fracture strengths as well as measuring environmental degradation. Alcoa and Langley plan to submit the procedure to ASTM as a new testing method.

  16. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  18. Incidence of abnormal liver biochemical tests in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiffany Y; Shekar, Anshula O; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen the severity of the abnormal serum liver biochemistries. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients of ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban US medical centre between 2002-2016. Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration of <0·3 mIU/l or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) concentration ([total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. In this cohort of 1514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0·02 mIU/l, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Incidence of Abnormal Liver Biochemical Tests in Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiffany Y.; Shekar, Anshula O.; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W.; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen their severity. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Design Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients Patients ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban U.S. medical center between 2002–2016. Measurements Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] concentration < 0.3 mIU/L or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) and/or thyroxine (T4) concentration [total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. Results In this cohort of 1,514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0.02 mIU/L, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. Conclusions This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. PMID:28199740

  20. Echo: skin stress test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-05-14

    Photographed in 1960. -- Skin Stress Test of the 12-foot satellite built as a prototype of the full-scale Echo satellite. The 12-foot diameter of the sphere was chosen because that was the ceiling height in the Langley model shop. The proposal to build the 12-foot satellite was made in November 1957. -- Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 170-171.

  1. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  2. Familial Risk for Insomnia Is Associated With Abnormal Cortisol Response to Stress.

    PubMed

    Drake, Christopher L; Cheng, Philip; Almeida, David M; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Abnormalities in the stress system have been implicated in insomnia. However, studies examining physiological stress regulation in insomnia have not consistently detected differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis response to stress. One explanation may be that deficits in the stress system are associated specifically with a biological vulnerability to insomnia rather than the phenotypic expression of insomnia. To examine stress response as a function of vulnerability to insomnia, this study tested response to the Trier Social Stress Test in a sample of healthy sleepers with varying familial risks for insomnia. Thirty-five healthy individuals with and without familial risk for insomnia were recruited to complete a laboratory stressor. Participants with one or both biological parents with insomnia were categorized as positive for familial risk, whereas those without biological parents with insomnia were categorized as negative for familial risk. Participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test in the laboratory, and psychological and physiological (autonomic and HPA-axis) responses were compared. Despite self-reported increases in anxiety, those positive for familial risk exhibited a blunted cortisol response relative to those without familial risk for insomnia. Individuals with blunted cortisol also reported heightened reactivity to personal life stressors, including increased sleep disturbances, elevated cognitive intrusions, and more behavioral avoidance. Findings from this study provide initial evidence that abnormal stress regulation may be a biological predisposing factor conferred via familial risk for insomnia. This deficit may also predict negative consequences over time, including insomnia and the associated psychiatric comorbidities. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests

    PubMed Central

    Cramb, Rob; Davison, Suzanne M; Dillon, John F; Foulerton, Mark; Godfrey, Edmund M; Hall, Richard; Harrower, Ulrike; Hudson, Mark; Langford, Andrew; Mackie, Anne; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Sennett, Karen; Sheron, Nicholas C; Verne, Julia; Walmsley, Martine; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of abnormal liver blood tests in children and adults in both primary and secondary care under the following subheadings: (1) What constitutes an abnormal liver blood test? (2) What constitutes a standard liver blood test panel? (3) When should liver blood tests be checked? (4) Does the extent and duration of abnormal liver blood tests determine subsequent investigation? (5) Response to abnormal liver blood tests. They are not designed to deal with the management of the underlying liver disease. PMID:29122851

  4. Abnormal tibiofemoral contact stress and its association with altered kinematics following center-center ACL reconstruction: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Imhauser, Carl; Mauro, Craig; Choi, Daniel; Rosenberg, Eric; Mathew, Stephen; Nguyen, Joseph; Ma, Yan; Wickiewicz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal tibiofemoral contact stress and aberrant kinematics may influence the progression of osteoarthritis in the ACL-deficient and the ACL-reconstructed knee. However, relationships between contact stress and kinematics following ACL reconstruction are poorly understood. Therefore, we posed the following research questions: (1) How do ACL deficiency and reconstruction affect kinematics of and contact stress in the tibiofemoral joint? (2) What kinematic differences are associated with abnormal contact stress following ACL reconstruction? Hypothesis/Purpose Center-center ACL reconstruction will not restore knee kinematics and contact stress. Correlations will exist between abnormal contact stress and aberrant kinematics following ACL reconstruction will exist. Study Design Controlled laboratory study Methods Clinical tests of anterior and rotational stability were simulated on eleven cadaveric knees using an industrial robot. Tests were conducted with the ACL intact, sectioned, and after single bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadrupled hamstring autograft with tunnels drilled through the center of the native footprints. Kinematics were recorded during the tests. Contact stress was continuously recorded from a stress transducer fixed to the tibial plateau and mean contact stress was calculated regionally. Results ACL deficiency resulted in increased mean contact stress in the posterior sectors of the medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loads, respectively. Reconstruction reduced stress in these locations; however contact stress abnormalities remained. On average, kinematics were overconstrained following ACL reconstruction (≤1.8mm and ≤2.6° in all directions). However, combinations of overconstrained and underconstrained motions in ab/adduction and medial-lateral translation in response to combined moments, and axial rotation, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral translation in response to an anterior load were

  5. Women's experiences receiving abnormal prenatal chromosomal microarray testing results.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Barbara A; Soucier, Danielle; Hanson, Karen; Savage, Melissa S; Jackson, Laird; Wapner, Ronald J

    2013-02-01

    Genomic microarrays can detect copy-number variants not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. This technology is diffusing rapidly into prenatal settings even though the clinical implications of many copy-number variants are currently unknown. We conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore the experiences of women receiving abnormal results from prenatal microarray testing performed in a research setting. Participants were a subset of women participating in a multicenter prospective study "Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis by Array-based Copy Number Analysis." Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 women receiving abnormal prenatal microarray results. We found that five key elements dominated the experiences of women who had received abnormal prenatal microarray results: an offer too good to pass up, blindsided by the results, uncertainty and unquantifiable risks, need for support, and toxic knowledge. As prenatal microarray testing is increasingly used, uncertain findings will be common, resulting in greater need for careful pre- and posttest counseling, and more education of and resources for providers so they can adequately support the women who are undergoing testing.

  6. The interpretation and management of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Simpson, M A; Freshwater, D A

    2015-01-01

    Liver function tests (LFTs) are frequently requested as part of routine health assessments on serving members of the Royal Navy (RN). In common with many investigations there are a number of abnormal results in healthy individuals (0.5 - 9% depending on test and study population). There are established patterns of LFT derangement such as cholestatic derangement, hepatocellular derangement, and failure of synthetic function. There can be indicators to the cause of the derangement by assessing the ratios of elevated assays in relation to one another. This article aims to address the definition, potential causes and further investigation of common patterns of LFT derangement found in primary care in the RN.

  7. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  8. Approach to the patient with abnormal liver tests.

    PubMed

    Mahl, T C

    1998-01-01

    Patients with abnormal liver blood tests are frequently encountered by primary care practitioners. An understanding of the cellular implications of these abnormalities is helpful in determining the etiology of liver injury. Elevated serum aminotransferases suggest injury of hepatocytes. Elevations in alkaline phosphatase suggest injury to any part of the biliary tree. Neither of these enzymes measures liver function. Serum bilirubin and albumin levels, as well as prothrombin time, do measure function and can be used in conjunction with the physical examination and the specific etiology of the patient's disorder to determine a patient's prognosis. Many diverse disorders result in similar biochemical patterns of liver injury. The history, physical examination, and use of specific disease markers (hepatitis serology, autoimmune markers, and so forth) help to narrow the differential diagnosis. The definitive diagnosis of all liver diseases usually rests on histology: the liver biopsy is the gold standard. With the advent of treatments for liver disease, identifying and accurately diagnosing patients with liver disorders will result in improved quality of life and survival.

  9. 77 FR 61238 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...'') stress tests. One commenter suggested that the OCC introduce stress test requirements on a rolling basis... Stress Test and Use of Stress Test Results One commenter noted that the OCC's proposed rule defined... concerns, the OCC is implementing a one-year delay for application of the annual stress test requirement to...

  10. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  11. Rapid Point-Of-Care Breath Test for Biomarkers of Breast Cancer and Abnormal Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michael; Beatty, J. David; Cataneo, Renee N.; Huston, Jan; Kaplan, Peter D.; Lalisang, Roy I.; Lambin, Philippe; Lobbes, Marc B. I.; Mundada, Mayur; Pappas, Nadine; Patel, Urvish

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. Methods 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal) or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79). A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air). Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO) procedure. Results Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO) [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%); normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO); and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO). Conclusions A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:24599224

  12. 77 FR 3408 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (``OCC... certain companies to conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective... stress test as prescribed by this proposed rule. In addition to the annual stress test requirement, such...

  13. 77 FR 16484 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325 RIN 3064-AD91 Annual Stress Test AGENCY... to conduct annual stress tests. \\1\\ Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Public... billion (``covered banks'') to conduct annual stress tests (``bank-run stress tests''). The proposed rule...

  14. 77 FR 3166 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... the stress test; A general description of the methodologies employed to estimate losses, pre-provision... of stress test results and related information. 325.206 Supervisory review of stress tests and post....206 Supervisory review of stress tests and post-assessment actions. (a) Each covered bank shall take...

  15. Estimation of stress relaxation time for normal and abnormal breast phantoms using optical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K.; Sujatha, N.

    2015-03-01

    Many of the early occurring micro-anomalies in breast may transform into a deadliest cancer tumor in future. Probability of curing early occurring abnormalities in breast is more if rightly identified. Even in mammogram, considered as a golden standard technique for breast imaging, it is hard to pick up early occurring changes in the breast tissue due to the difference in mechanical behavior of the normal and abnormal tissue when subjected to compression prior to x-ray or laser exposure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to estimate the stress relaxation time of normal and abnormal breast mimicking phantom using laser speckle image correlation. Phantoms mimicking normal breast is prepared and subjected to precise mechanical compression. The phantom is illuminated by a Helium Neon laser and by using a CCD camera, a sequence of strained phantom speckle images are captured and correlated by the image mean intensity value at specific time intervals. From the relation between mean intensity versus time, tissue stress relaxation time is quantified. Experiments were repeated for phantoms with increased stiffness mimicking abnormal tissue for similar ranges of applied loading. Results shows that phantom with more stiffness representing abnormal tissue shows uniform relaxation for varying load of the selected range, whereas phantom with less stiffness representing normal tissue shows irregular behavior for varying loadings in the given range.

  16. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  17. Abnormal tibiofemoral contact stress and its association with altered kinematics after center-center anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imhauser, Carl; Mauro, Craig; Choi, Daniel; Rosenberg, Eric; Mathew, Stephen; Nguyen, Joseph; Ma, Yan; Wickiewicz, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Abnormal tibiofemoral contact stress and aberrant kinematics may influence the progression of osteoarthritis in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient and the ACL-reconstructed knee. However, relationships between contact stress and kinematics after ACL reconstruction are poorly understood. Therefore, we posed the following research questions: (1) How do ACL deficiency and reconstruction affect the kinematics of and contact stress in the tibiofemoral joint? (2) What kinematic differences are associated with abnormal contact stress after ACL reconstruction? Center-center ACL reconstruction will not restore knee kinematics and contact stress. Correlations will exist between abnormal contact stress and aberrant kinematics after ACL reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Clinical tests of anterior and rotational stability were simulated on 11 cadaveric knees using an industrial robot. Tests were conducted with the ACL intact, sectioned, and after single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadrupled hamstring autograft with tunnels drilled through the center of the native footprints. Kinematics were recorded during the tests. Contact stress was continuously recorded from a stress transducer fixed to the tibial plateau, and mean contact stress was calculated regionally. ACL deficiency resulted in increased mean contact stress in the posterior sectors of the medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loads, respectively. Reconstruction reduced stress in these locations; however, contact stress abnormalities remained. On average, kinematics were overconstrained after ACL reconstruction (≤1.8 mm and ≤2.6° in all directions). However, combinations of overconstrained and underconstrained motions in abduction/adduction and medial-lateral translation in response to combined moments, and anterior-posterior translation, medial-lateral translation, and axial rotation in response to an anterior load were associated with abnormal mean contact

  18. Karyotype versus microarray testing for genetic abnormalities after stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Uma M; Page, Grier P; Saade, George R; Silver, Robert M; Thorsten, Vanessa R; Parker, Corette B; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Stoll, Barbara J; Heim-Hall, Josefine; Varner, Michael W; Goldenberg, Robert L; Bukowski, Radek; Wapner, Ronald J; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; O'Brien, Barbara M; Dudley, Donald J; Levy, Brynn

    2012-12-06

    Genetic abnormalities have been associated with 6 to 13% of stillbirths, but the true prevalence may be higher. Unlike karyotype analysis, microarray analysis does not require live cells, and it detects small deletions and duplications called copy-number variants. The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network conducted a population-based study of stillbirth in five geographic catchment areas. Standardized postmortem examinations and karyotype analyses were performed. A single-nucleotide polymorphism array was used to detect copy-number variants of at least 500 kb in placental or fetal tissue. Variants that were not identified in any of three databases of apparently unaffected persons were then classified into three groups: probably benign, clinical significance unknown, or pathogenic. We compared the results of karyotype and microarray analyses of samples obtained after delivery. In our analysis of samples from 532 stillbirths, microarray analysis yielded results more often than did karyotype analysis (87.4% vs. 70.5%, P<0.001) and provided better detection of genetic abnormalities (aneuploidy or pathogenic copy-number variants, 8.3% vs. 5.8%; P=0.007). Microarray analysis also identified more genetic abnormalities among 443 antepartum stillbirths (8.8% vs. 6.5%, P=0.02) and 67 stillbirths with congenital anomalies (29.9% vs. 19.4%, P=0.008). As compared with karyotype analysis, microarray analysis provided a relative increase in the diagnosis of genetic abnormalities of 41.9% in all stillbirths, 34.5% in antepartum stillbirths, and 53.8% in stillbirths with anomalies. Microarray analysis is more likely than karyotype analysis to provide a genetic diagnosis, primarily because of its success with nonviable tissue, and is especially valuable in analyses of stillbirths with congenital anomalies or in cases in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.).

  19. Abnormal stress responsivity in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Eric C; Bellaire, Mark; Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-10-01

    Although numerous studies have implicated stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, less is known about how the effects of stress interact with genetic, developmental, and/or environmental determinants to promote disease progression. In particular, it has been proposed that in humans, stress exposure in adolescence could combine with a predisposition towards increased stress sensitivity, leading to prodromal symptoms and eventually psychosis. However, the neurobiological substrates for this interaction are not fully characterized. Previous work in our lab has demonstrated that rats born to dams administered with the DNA-methylating agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 exhibit as adults behavioral and anatomical abnormalities consistent with those observed in patients with schizophrenia. Here, we examined behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress in the MAM model of schizophrenia. MAM-treated male rats were exposed to acute and repeated footshock stress at prepubertal, peripubteral, and adult ages. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), freezing, and corticosterone responses were quantified. We found that juvenile MAM-treated rats emitted significantly more calls, spent more time vocalizing, emitted calls at a higher rate, and showed more freezing in response to acute footshock stress when compared with their saline (SAL) treated counterparts, and that this difference is not present in older animals. In addition, adolescent MAM-treated animals displayed a blunted HPA axis corticosterone response to acute footshock that did not adapt after 10 days of stress exposure. These data demonstrate abnormal stress responsivity in the MAM model of schizophrenia and suggest that these animals are more sensitive to the effects of stress in youth.

  20. Modeling Reliability Growth in Accelerated Stress Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    MODELING RELIABILITY GROWTH IN ACCELERATED STRESS TESTING DISSERTATION Jason K. Freels Major...Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT-ENS-DS-13-D-02 MODELING RELIABILITY GROWTH IN ACCELERATED STRESS TESTING ...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS-DS-13-D-02 MODELING RELIABILITY GROWTH IN ACCELERATED STRESS TESTING Jason K. Freels

  1. 77 FR 16484 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury... billion to conduct an annual stress test and comply with certain reporting and disclosure requirements. To... conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective Federal primary...

  2. 77 FR 62417 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... to perform stress tests. For example, one commenter recommended that covered banks be permitted to... that the annual stress tests required under the final rule will be only one component of the broader... stress test. The FDIC may require a covered bank to include one or more additional scenarios in its...

  3. Stress Testing of Data-Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leucht, Kurt; Bedette, Guy

    2006-01-01

    NetStress is a computer program that stress-tests a data-communication network and components thereof. NetStress comprises two components running, respectively, in a transmitting system and a receiving system connected to a network under test

  4. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome. PMID:26351414

  5. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  6. Response to an Abnormal Ovarian Cancer Screening Test Result: Test of the Social Cognitive Processing and Cognitive Social Health Information Processing Models

    PubMed Central

    Andrykowski, Michael A.; Pavlik, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow-up. Consequently, the cancer screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioral response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the Social Cognitive Processing and Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n=278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit-finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events. PMID:20419561

  7. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  8. The value of Bayes' theorem for interpreting abnormal test scores in cognitively healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-03-01

    The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed.

  9. Idiopathic liver function test abnormality in pregnancy is associated with assisted reproduction techniques.

    PubMed

    Kopylov, Uri; Avidan, Benjamin; Papageorgiou, Neofytos P; Katz, Lior H; Sivan, Eyal; Zimlichman, Eyal; Hussein, Haya; Maor, Yaakov

    2013-02-01

    To examine the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and outcomes of liver abnormality in pregnancy, in a tertiary medical center, and to study the potential impact of artificial reproduction techniques (ART) on the incidence and the outcome of pregnancy-related liver abnormality. A retrospective case-control study using an electronic database and patients' files. Tertiary referral center. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were hospitalized for delivery. None. Development of significant elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT ≥ 100 IU/L). Secondary outcomes included development of maternal and fetal complications. The upper limit of normal of ALT was ≥ 1.5 times and it occurred in 440 (1.6%) pregnancies; of those, 228 (0.8%) had ALT ≥ 100 IU/L. The etiology of significant liver test abnormality was idiopathic in 47% of patients. Compared with spontaneous pregnancies (295/23,793), ART was significantly associated with liver test abnormality (145/4, 520). The presence of ALT ≥ 100 IU/L in the third trimester was associated with higher rates of cesarean sections, prematurity, low birthweight, and fetal complications. A definite etiology was not determined in about half of pregnancy-associated liver test abnormality. The ART was significantly associated with liver test elevation. Significant liver test abnormality in the third trimester may have an impact on maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, J. L.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A program to investigate the reliability characteristics of unencapsulated low-cost terrestrial solar cells using accelerated stress testing is described. Reliability (or parametric degradation) factors appropriate to the cell technologies and use conditions were studied and a series of accelerated stress tests was synthesized. An electrical measurement procedure and a data analysis and management system was derived, and stress test fixturing and material flow procedures were set up after consideration was given to the number of cells to be stress tested and measured and the nature of the information to be obtained from the process. Selected results and conclusions are presented.

  11. Examining the mediating roles of binge eating and emotional eating in the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin; Reuning-Scherer, Jonathan; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    To test whether binge eating and emotional eating mediate the relationships between self-reported stress, morning cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference. We also explored the moderators of gender and age. Data were from 249 adults (mean BMI = 26.9 ± 5.1 kg/m2; mean age = 28.3 ± 8.3 years; 54.2 % male; 69.5 % white) recruited from the community who were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel of psychological and physiological assessments including a morning blood draw for plasma cortisol. We found negative relationships between stress and morning cortisol (r = −0.15 to −0.21; p < 0.05), and cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference (r = −0.16, −0.25, respectively; p < 0.05). There was not statistical support for binge eating or emotional eating as mediators and no support for moderated mediation for either gender or age; however, gender moderated several paths in the model. These include the paths between perceived stress and emotional eating (B = 0.009, p < 0.001), perceived stress and binge eating (B = 0.01, p = 0.003), and binge eating and increased HOMA-IR (B = 0.149, p = 0.018), which were higher among females. Among women, perceived stress may be an important target to decrease binge and emotional eating. It remains to be determined what physiological and psychological mechanisms underlie the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26686376

  12. Differences in ME and CFS Symptomology in Patients with Normal and Abnormal Exercise Test Results.

    PubMed

    McManimen, Stephanie L; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a cardinal symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which often distinguishes patients with this illness from healthy controls or individuals with exclusionary illnesses such as depression. However, occurrence rates for PEM fluctuate from subject to how the symptom is operationalized. One commonly utilized method is exercise testing, maximal or submaximal. Many patients with ME and CFS experience PEM after participating in these tests, and often show abnormal results. However, some patients still exhibit normal results after participating in the exercise testing. This study examined the differences between two patient groups with ME and CFS, those with normal results and those with abnormal results, on several PEM-related symptoms and illness characteristics. The results suggest those that displayed abnormal results following testing have more frequent and severe PEM, worse overall functioning, and are more likely to be bedbound than those that displayed normal results.

  13. Dobutamine "stress" test and latent cardiac susceptibility to inhaled diesel exhaust in normal and hypertensive rats**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background -Exercise "stress" testing is a screening tool used to determine the amount of stress for which the heart can compensate before developing abnormal rhythm or ischemia, particularly in susceptible people. Although this approach has been used to assess risk in humans exp...

  14. Dietary exposure to brominated flame retardants and abnormal Pap test results.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Denise J; Terrell, Metrecia L; Aguocha, Nnenna N; Small, Chanley M; Cameron, Lorraine L; Marcus, Michele

    2011-09-01

    This study examined a possible association of dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a brominated flame retardant, and self-reported abnormal Pap test results and cervical dysplasia as a precursor to cervical cancer. Women in Michigan who ingested contaminated poultry, beef, and dairy products in the early 1970s were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Michigan. Serum PBB and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured. Reproductive history and health information, including Pap test results, were self-reported by participants. Of the women, 23% (223 of 956) reported an abnormal Pap test. In unadjusted analyses, self-reporting an abnormal Pap test was associated with younger age, current smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.17), and longer duration of lifetime use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years; HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06). When adjusting for PCB exposure, age at the interview, and smoking history, there was a slightly elevated risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women compared to women with nondetectable PBB concentrations (PBB≥13 μg/L, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.74-2.06); however, the CI was imprecise. When breastfeeding duration after the initial PBB measurement was taken into account, there was a reduced risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women who breastfed for ≥12 months (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-3.03; referent group: women with nondetectable PBB concentrations who did not breastfeed). It remains important to evaluate the potential reproductive health consequences of this class of chemicals as well as other potential predictors of abnormal Pap tests.

  15. Dietary Exposure to Brominated Flame Retardants and Abnormal Pap Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Denise J.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Aguocha, Nnenna N.; Small, Chanley M.; Cameron, Lorraine L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examined a possible association of dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a brominated flame retardant, and self-reported abnormal Pap test results and cervical dysplasia as a precursor to cervical cancer. Methods Women in Michigan who ingested contaminated poultry, beef, and dairy products in the early 1970s were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Michigan. Serum PBB and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured. Reproductive history and health information, including Pap test results, were self-reported by participants. Results Of the women, 23% (223 of 956) reported an abnormal Pap test. In unadjusted analyses, self-reporting an abnormal Pap test was associated with younger age, current smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.17), and longer duration of lifetime use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years; HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06). When adjusting for PCB exposure, age at the interview, and smoking history, there was a slightly elevated risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women compared to women with nondetectable PBB concentrations (PBB≥13 μg/L, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.74-2.06); however, the CI was imprecise. When breastfeeding duration after the initial PBB measurement was taken into account, there was a reduced risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women who breastfed for ≥12 months (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-3.03; referent group: women with nondetectable PBB concentrations who did not breastfeed). Conclusions It remains important to evaluate the potential reproductive health consequences of this class of chemicals as well as other potential predictors of abnormal Pap tests. PMID:21797757

  16. Polε Instability Drives Replication Stress, Abnormal Development, and Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bellelli, Roberto; Borel, Valerie; Logan, Clare; Svendsen, Jennifer; Cox, Danielle E; Nye, Emma; Metcalfe, Kay; O'Connell, Susan M; Stamp, Gordon; Flynn, Helen R; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Lassailly, François; Jackson, Andrew; Boulton, Simon J

    2018-05-17

    DNA polymerase ε (POLE) is a four-subunit complex and the major leading strand polymerase in eukaryotes. Budding yeast orthologs of POLE3 and POLE4 promote Polε processivity in vitro but are dispensable for viability in vivo. Here, we report that POLE4 deficiency in mice destabilizes the entire Polε complex, leading to embryonic lethality in inbred strains and extensive developmental abnormalities, leukopenia, and tumor predisposition in outbred strains. Comparable phenotypes of growth retardation and immunodeficiency are also observed in human patients harboring destabilizing mutations in POLE1. In both Pole4 -/- mouse and POLE1 mutant human cells, Polε hypomorphy is associated with replication stress and p53 activation, which we attribute to inefficient replication origin firing. Strikingly, removing p53 is sufficient to rescue embryonic lethality and all developmental abnormalities in Pole4 null mice. However, Pole4 -/- p53 +/- mice exhibit accelerated tumorigenesis, revealing an important role for controlled CMG and origin activation in normal development and tumor prevention. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Araújo, Célia; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Taveres; Moraes, Walter André Dos Santos; Montaño, Maria Beatriz Marcondes Macedo; Rocha, Marlos; Quarantini, Lucas C; Schoedl, Aline; Pupo, Mariana; Mello, Marcelo F; Andreoli, Sergio B; Miranda-Scippa, Angela; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mari, Jair J; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2012-01-01

    New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP) and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia) were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  18. Planktonic foraminiferal abnormalities in coastal and open marine eastern Mediterranean environments: A natural stress monitoring approach in recent and early Holocene marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonarakou, A.; Kontakiotis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Koskeridou, E.; Anastasakis, G.

    2018-05-01

    Marine environmental status can be assessed through the study of bio-indicator species. Here, we monitor natural environmental stress by the occurrence of morphologically abnormal planktonic foraminiferal specimens from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) abnormality observations from sapropel S1-derived sediments in the Aegean, Libyan and Levantine basins, since they provide a direct record of a natural stress experiment that took place over past time scales. At initial sapropel deposition levels, we observe increased growth asymmetry in Globigerinoides ruber twinned and twisted individuals, possibly associated with eutrophication and anoxia. In modern material, a range of malformations and aberrant morphologies from slight deformity with smaller or overdeveloped chambers to more severe deformity with abnormally protruding or misplaced chambers, distorted spirals, and double tests is also observed, as a result of the hypersaline, oligotrophic and oxygen-depleted nature of the Mediterranean Sea water column. Overall, we highlight the current use of the relative abundance of abnormal tests as a bio-indicator for monitoring natural stress, especially the occurrence of twin specimens as indicative of high-salinity stress conditions, and further illustrate the necessity to map both their spatial and temporal distribution for accurate paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Such an approach presents the advantage to rapidly provide information over wide spatial and temporal scales, extending our ability to monitor a wide variety of environments (from coastal to the open-sea). However, further investigations should extend this approach to test the robustness of our findings in a number of similar oceanic settings.

  19. [The clinicopathological analysis of 88 patients with abnormal liver function test of unknown etiology].

    PubMed

    Pang, Shu-zhen; Ou, Xiao-juan; Shi, Xiao-yan; Wang, Tai-ling; Duan, Wei-jia; Jia, Ji-dong

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and histological features of patients with abnormal liver tests of unknown etiology, and then to investigate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Patients with abnormal liver function test hospitalized and had liver biopsies during 2008 - 2009 constituted this retrospective study cohort. After excluding those patients diagnosed with hepatotropic viral hepatitis, space occupying lesions of the liver, alcoholic liver disease and obstruction of bile duct caused by stone or malignancy and AMA/AMA-M(2) positive of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the clinical and histological characteristics were evaluated. Out of the 180 patients who underwent liver biopsy, 88 patients were included in the present analysis. The final diagnosis involved 15 categories of diseases, with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) [34.09% (30/88)], autoimmune liver diseases [22.73% (20/88)], and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [12.50% (11/88)] being the most common causes, following by genetic and other rare diseases. DILI, autoimmune liver disease and NAFLD were the most common causes of abnormal liver tests in these non-viral liver diseases. Some rare diseases such as hereditary metabolic liver disease also represent a considerable proportion in patients with abnormal liver function test.

  20. Cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test experiences among women living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wigfall, Lisa T.; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Bond, Sharon M.; Lazenby, Gweneth B.; Richter, Donna L.; Glover, Saundra H.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA’s cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. Methods We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern United States between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n=3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n=14), and observations with missing data (n=22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Results Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3±10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One-third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83%) had a Pap test <1 year ago and 84% knew that WLHA should have a Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p=0.001). Conclusions For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  1. Abnormal behavior with hump characteristics in current stressed a-InGaZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Sic; Cho, Yong-Jung; Lee, Yeol-Hyeong; Park, JeongKi; Kim, GeonTae; Kim, Ohyun

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the degradation mechanism of a-InGaZnO TFTs under simultaneous gate and drain bias stress. Gate and drain bias of 20 V were applied simultaneously to induce current stress, and abnormal turn-around behavior in transfer characteristics with a hump phenomenon were identified. Hump characteristics were interpreted in terms of parasitic current path, and the degradation itself was found to be caused dominantly by the electrical field and to be accelerated with current by Joule heating. The mechanism of asymmetrical degradation after current stress was also investigated. By decomposing the curves into two curves and measuring the relaxation behavior of the stressed TFTs, we also found that abnormal turn-around behavior in the transfer characteristics was related to acceptor-like states.

  2. Default mode network abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder: A novel network-restricted topology approach.

    PubMed

    Akiki, Teddy J; Averill, Christopher L; Wrocklage, Kristen M; Scott, J Cobb; Averill, Lynnette A; Schweinsburg, Brian; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Martini, Brenda; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Abdallah, Chadi G

    2018-08-01

    Disruption in the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, studies have largely been limited to seed-based methods and involved inconsistent definitions of the DMN. Recent advances in neuroimaging and graph theory now permit the systematic exploration of intrinsic brain networks. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI, and graph theoretical analyses to systematically examine the DMN connectivity and its relationship with PTSD symptom severity in a cohort of 65 combat-exposed US Veterans. We employed metrics that index overall connectivity strength, network integration (global efficiency), and network segregation (clustering coefficient). Then, we conducted a modularity and network-based statistical analysis to identify DMN regions of particular importance in PTSD. Finally, structural connectivity analyses were used to probe whether white matter abnormalities are associated with the identified functional DMN changes. We found decreased DMN functional connectivity strength to be associated with increased PTSD symptom severity. Further topological characterization suggests decreased functional integration and increased segregation in subjects with severe PTSD. Modularity analyses suggest a spared connectivity in the posterior DMN community (posterior cingulate, precuneus, angular gyrus) despite overall DMN weakened connections with increasing PTSD severity. Edge-wise network-based statistical analyses revealed a prefrontal dysconnectivity. Analysis of the diffusion networks revealed no alterations in overall strength or prefrontal structural connectivity. DMN abnormalities in patients with severe PTSD symptoms are characterized by decreased overall interconnections. On a finer scale, we found a pattern of prefrontal dysconnectivity, but increased cohesiveness in the posterior DMN community and relative sparing

  3. Streptozotocin induced oxidative stress, innate immune system responses and behavioral abnormalities in male mice.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Momeny, Majid; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Poursaman, Simin; Rastegar, Mojgan; Nikoui, Vahid; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2017-01-06

    Recent evidence indicates the involvement of inflammatory factors and mitochondrial dysfunction in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. To investigate the possible role of mitochondrial-induced sterile inflammation in the co-occurrence of anxiety and depression, in this study, we treated adult male mice with the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of a single low dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 0.2mg/mouse). Using valid and qualified behavioral tests for the assessment of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, we showed that STZ-treated mice exhibited behaviors relevant to anxiety and depression 24h following STZ treatment. We observed that the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in animals were associated with abnormal mitochondrial function, nitric oxide overproduction and, the increased activity of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) in the hippocampus. Further, STZ-treated mice had a significant upregulation of genes associated with the innate immune system such as toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Pathological evaluations showed no sign of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of STZ-treated mice. Results of this study revealed that behavioral abnormalities provoked by STZ, as a cytotoxic agent that targets mitochondria and energy metabolism, are associated with abnormal mitochondrial activity and, consequently the initiation of innate-inflammatory responses in the hippocampus. Our findings highlight the role of mitochondria and innate immunity in the formation of sterile inflammation and behaviors relevant to anxiety and depression. Also, we have shown that STZ injection (i.c.v.) might be an animal model for depression and anxiety disorders based on sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Abnormal Papanicolaou Test Results and Related Factors among Women Living in Zanjan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Azam; Ahmadnia, Elahe; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Molaei, Behnaz; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.

  5. Bilaterally Abnormal Head Impulse Tests Indicate a Large Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Ji Soo; Koo, Ja Won; Kim, Chae Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Tumors involving the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse manifestations. Head impulse tests (HITs) have been used to evaluate vestibular function, but few studies have explored the head impulse gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with a vestibular schwannoma. This study tested whether the head impulse gain of the VOR is an indicator of the size of a unilateral CPA tumor. Twenty-eight patients (21 women; age=64±12 years, mean±SD) with a unilateral CPA tumor underwent a recording of the HITs using a magnetic search coil technique. Patients were classified into non-compressing (T1-T3) and compressing (T4) groups according to the Hannover classification. Most (23/28, 82%) of the patients showed abnormal HITs for the semicircular canals on the lesion side. The bilateral abnormality in HITs was more common in the compressing group than the non-compressing group (80% vs. 8%, Pearson's chi-square test: p<0.001). The tumor size was inversely correlated with the head impulse gain of the VOR in either direction. Bilaterally abnormal HITs indicate that a patient has a large unilateral CPA tumor. The abnormal HITs in the contralesional direction may be explained either by adaptation or by compression and resultant dysfunction of the cerebellar and brainstem structures. The serial evaluation of HITs may provide information on tumor growth, and thereby reduce the number of costly brain scans required when following up patients with CPA tumors.

  6. Liver function tests abnormality and clinical severity of dengue infection in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of dengue infection in the adult are different from those in children, i.e. having less prevalence to bleeding, and more commonly, abnormal liver function tests. The primary objective is to describe the clinical manifestations of dengue infection in adult patients. The secondary objective is to compare the clinical manifestations of dengue infection between the groups of normal and abnormal liver function tests in adult patients. Retrospective study was done in adults (age 15 years) dengue patients admitted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases from 2000-2002. Dengue infection diagnosed by WHO clinical criteria 1997 with serological tests confirmed by ELISA test or Rapid Immunochromatographic test. Liver function test was recorded by day of fever. There were 127 adult dengue patients with mean age 26.4 ± 11.5 years. Classifications of dengue infection by WHO criteria were DF 4.7%, DHF grade 126.0%, DHF grade 2 63.0% and DHF grade 3 6.3%. Mean duration of fever clearance time was 6.0 ± 1.9 days but the fever lasted longer in cases of high-level transaminases (> 10 folds). The common presenting symptoms and signs were myalgia (95.9%), nausea/vomiting (87.7%), positive tourniquet test (77.2%), abdominal pain (42.7%), hepatomegaly (34.6%), and bleeding (20.5%). The ratio of AST and ALTwas 1.8:1. Abnormal AST and ALT were found in 88.2% and 69.3% of the patients, respectively. Patients with nausea/vomiting, petechiae or duration of fever > 7 days more frequently had abnormal transaminases. Abnormal AST during the febrile stage was associated with bleeding. High-level AST and ALT occurred in 11.0% and 7.0%, respectively. Shock was associated with high-level ALT during the febrile stage. Adult dengue patients commonly showed abnormal liver function tests and accounted for at least two-thirds of them. High-level ALT during the febrile stage showed association with shock.

  7. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  8. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Orederu, Temidayo A.; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS−). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress. PMID:23980142

  9. Caustic stress corrosion tests for the LLTR

    SciTech Connect

    Indig, M.E.

    1976-05-01

    A series of tests have been performed in order to determine the effects of the caustic resulting from the Na/H/sub 2/O reaction on the materials used in the LLTR-MSG series of testing. Stainless steel, 2 /sup 1///sub 4/ Cr--1 Mo and carbon steel have been evaluated. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility and general corrosion are reported. Over the range of temperature, caustic concentration and heating rate tested the stainless steel stressed to 90% of yield or above suffered cracking. Whereas, the 2-/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr--1 Mo and carbon steel were not cracked.

  10. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  11. Seedling quality tests: plant moisture stress

    Treesearch

    Gary Ritchie; Thomas D. Landis

    2005-01-01

    This is the fifth installment in our review of seedling quality tests. Here we focus on what is commonly known as "plant moisture stress" or PMS. Although PMS is not routinely used for seedling quality testing per se, it is nevertheless the most common physiological measurement made on reforestation stock. This is because the measurement itself is simple and...

  12. Prenatal diagnosis: choices women make about pursuing testing and acting on abnormal results.

    PubMed

    Pryde, P G; Drugan, A; Johnson, M P; Isada, N B; Evans, M I

    1993-09-01

    Liberalization of abortion laws in several US states (e.g., New York and California) coincided with the development of prenatal techniques, which diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and biochemical disorders. Increased use of prenatal diagnostic services has not been accompanied by adequate examination of the decision making process women undergo when contemplating prenatal diagnosis, pregnancy termination, or experimental fetal therapy. The limited literature exploring these issues indicates that many women do not know as much as possible about the health of their fetus. Women who are at risk of abnormal pregnancy tend to become distressed and willing to accept invasive testing, even when they know the significant, albeit low, risks of such testing. Women's perceptions of risk, which stem from complex psychologic-phenomena, are likely to be very inconsistent with objective reality. Neither counseling nor education can easily change these misperceptions. Nevertheless, counseling can at least alter misperceptions enough so they move closer to objective reality. On the other hand, counseling can sway perceptions and choices made based on these perceptions. Decision making is even more complex and emotional when women encounter abnormalities. Considerable social, moral, and psychologic factors influence this process, making this a very problematic area to study. Almost all women who carry an abnormal fetus with a very serious prognosis and a high degree of diagnostic certainty chose to terminate the pregnancy. The decision is much more difficult for women carrying a fetus with less diagnostic or prognostic certainty. Insufficient data exists to determine how they handle these management decisions. Women tend to opt for abortion in cases of chromosomal abnormalities, regardless of the severity or certainty of the outcome. Women carrying a fetus with anatomic disorders with prognostic uncertainty or less severity choose to abort at lower rates. More research is needed to

  13. 12 CFR 252.145 - Mid-cycle stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mid-cycle stress test. 252.145 Section 252.145... (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.145 Mid-cycle stress test. (a) Mid-cycle stress test requirement. In addition to the stress...

  14. 12 CFR 252.145 - Mid-cycle stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mid-cycle stress test. 252.145 Section 252.145... (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.145 Mid-cycle stress test. (a) Mid-cycle stress test requirement. In addition to the stress...

  15. Panel manipulation in social stress testing: The Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C).

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation

  16. Study of Abnormal Liver Function Test during Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chhattisgarh.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V N; Thakur, Parineeta

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in pregnancy require proper interpretation in order to avoid pitfalls in the diagnosis. The underlying disorder can have a significant effect on the outcome of both mother and foetus. The present study was done with the objective to study the clinical profile, incidence and possible causes of derangements of liver function tests. Eighty pregnant women with abnormal liver dysfunction were studied prospectively. Women with chronic liver disease and drug-induced abnormal liver function test were excluded. All available LFTs including LDH were studied along with some more definitive tests to aid identification of underlying cause. Foetomaternal outcome was noted in all. The incidence of abnormal LFT was 0.9 %. 13/80 (16.75 %) women had liver disorder not specific to pregnancy, whereas 67/80 (83.25 %) women had pregnancy-specific liver dysfunction. Of these, 65(81.25 %) women with liver dysfunction had pre-eclampsia including 11 (13.75 %) with HELLP and six women with eclampsia. 48/65 (60 %) women had pre-eclampsia in the absence of HELLP syndrome or eclampsia. The mean value for bilirubin (mg %) in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy ranged from 1.64 to 3.8, between 5 and 10 for ICP and AFLP and >10 in infective hepatitis. Transaminases were highest in infective hepatitis, whereas alkaline phosphate was highest in ICP. Total 27 (33.75 %) women suffered from adverse outcome with four (5 %) maternal deaths and 23 (28.75 %) major maternal morbidities. 33/80 (41.25 %) women had intrauterine death. 26.25 % babies were small for date. Pregnancy-specific disorders are the leading cause of abnormal liver function test during pregnant state particularly in the third trimester. Pre-eclampsia-related disorder is the commonest. Gestational age of pregnancy and relative values of various liver function tests in different pregnancy-specific and pregnancy nonspecific disorders appear to be the best guide to clinch the diagnosis.

  17. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  18. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P < 0.005. Correlation between the two trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Depression and anxiety diagnoses are not associated with delayed resolution of abnormal mammograms and pap tests among vulnerable women.

    PubMed

    Kronman, Andrea C; Freund, Karen M; Heeren, Tim; Beaver, Kristine A; Flynn, Mary; Battaglia, Tracy A

    2012-04-01

    Delays in care after abnormal cancer screening contribute to disparities in cancer outcomes. Women with psychiatric disorders are less likely to receive cancer screening and may also have delays in diagnostic resolution after an abnormal screening test. To determine if depression and anxiety are associated with delays in resolution after abnormal mammograms and Pap tests in a vulnerable population of urban women. We conducted retrospective chart reviews of electronic medical records to identify women who had a diagnosis of depression or anxiety in the year prior to the abnormal mammogram or Pap test. We used time-to-event analysis to analyze the outcome of time to resolution after abnormal cancer screening, and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to control for confounding. Women receiving care in six Boston-area community health centers 2004-2005: 523 with abnormal mammograms, 474 with abnormal Pap tests. Of the women with abnormal mammogram and pap tests, 19% and 16%, respectively, had co-morbid depression. There was no difference in time to diagnostic resolution between depressed and not-depressed women for those with abnormal mammograms (aHR = 0.9, 95 CI 0.7,1.1) or Pap tests (aHR = 0.9, 95 CI 0.7,1.3). An active diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety in the year prior to an abnormal mammogram or Pap test was not associated with a prolonged time to diagnostic resolution. Our findings imply that documented mood disorders do not identify an additional barrier to resolution after abnormal cancer screening in a vulnerable population of women.

  20. Frequency and Prognostic Significance of Abnormal Liver Function Tests in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock.

    PubMed

    Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Pulkki, Kari; Sionis, Alessandro; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Køber, Lars; Banaszewski, Marek; Spinar, Jindrich; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Tolonen, Jukka; Carubelli, Valentina; diSomma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Lassus, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), as well as early changes of LFTs and their impact on outcome in CS. We measured LFTs in 178 patients in CS from serial blood samples taken at 0 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The associations of LFT abnormalities and their early changes with all-cause 90-day mortality were estimated using Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was abnormal in 58% of the patients, more frequently in nonsurvivors. Abnormalities in other LFTs analyzed (alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin) were not associated with short-term mortality. An increase in ALT of >20% within 24 hours (ΔALT>+20%) was observed in 24% of patients. ΔALT>+20% was associated with a more than 2-fold increase in mortality compared with those with stable or decreasing ALT (70% and 28%, p <0.001). Multivariable regression analysis showed that ΔALT>+20% was associated with increased 90-day mortality independent of other known risk factors. In conclusion, an increase in ALT in the initial phase was seen in 1/4 of patients in CS and was independently associated with 90-day mortality. This finding suggests that serial ALT measurements should be incorporated in the clinical assessment of patients in CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    PubMed

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. Early Pregnancy Diabetes Screening and Diagnosis: Prevalence, Rates of Abnormal Test Results, and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.

  3. High-Stakes Testing and Teacher Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Joshua Paul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods research study was to examine how stress levels of middle school mathematics teachers who taught Algebra I in school districts in the state of Pennsylvania relate to high-stakes testing and to explore the experiences of middle school mathematics Algebra I teachers. The researcher collected and compared it to…

  4. [Tilt test and orthostatic intolerance: abnormalities in the neural sympathetic response to gravitational stimulus].

    PubMed

    Furlan, R

    2001-05-01

    In the present manuscript the different methodologies aimed at assessing the autonomic profile in humans during a gravitational stimulus have been described. In addition, strengths and drawbacks of the tilt test in relation to occasional orthostatic intolerance were addressed. Finally, different autonomic abnormalities underlying occasional and chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes have been schematically highlighted. The direct recording of the neural sympathetic discharge from the peroneal nerve (MSNA), in spite of its invasive nature, still represents the recognized reference to quantify the changes in the sympathetic activity to the vessels attending postural modifications. The increase of plasma norepinephrine during a tilt test is achieved by both an increase in plasma spillover and a concomitant decrease in systemic clearance. Changes in the indices of cardiac sympathetic and vagal modulation may also be quantified during a tilt test by power spectrum analysis of RR interval variability. The spectral markers of cardiac autonomic control, if evaluated concomitantly with MSNA, may contribute to assess abnormalities in the regional distribution of the sympathetic activity to the heart and the vessels. The capability of the tilt test of reproducing a vasovagal event or of inducing "false positive responses" seems to be markedly affected by the age, thus suggesting that additional or different etiopathogenetic mechanisms might be involved in the loss of consciousness in older as compared to younger subjects. In subjects suffering from occasional or habitual neurally mediated syncope an increase or, respectively, a decrease in cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation has been documented before the loss of consciousness. In patients with pure autonomic failure, a global dysautonomia affecting both the sympathetic and the vagal modulation to the heart, seems to be present. In chronic orthostatic intolerance, the most common form of dysautonomia of young women

  5. Notification of abnormal lab test results in an electronic medical record: do any safety concerns remain?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Sittig, Dean F.; Wilson, Lindsey; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Follow-up of abnormal outpatient laboratory test results is a major patient safety concern. Electronic medical records can potentially address this concern through automated notification. We examined whether automated notifications of abnormal laboratory results (alerts) in an integrated electronic medical record resulted in timely follow-up actions. Methods: We studied four alerts: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥15%, positive hepatitis C antibody (HCV), prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥15 ng/mL, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥ 15 mIU/L. An alert tracking system determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider clicked on and opened the message) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. Within 30 days of result transmission, record review and provider contact determined follow-up actions (e.g. patient contact, treatment etc.). Multivariable logistic regression models analyzed predictors for lack of timely follow-up. Results: Between May 2008 and December 2008, 78,158 tests (HbA1c, HCV, TSH and PSA) were performed, of which 1163 (1.48%) were transmitted as alerts; 10.2% of these (119/1163) were unacknowledged. Timely follow-up was lacking in 79 (6.8%) and was statistically not different for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (6.4% vs. 10.1%; p =.13). Two-hundred two alerts (17.4% of 1163) arose from unnecessarily ordered (redundant) tests. Alerts for a new versus known diagnosis were more likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 7.35; 95% CI: 4.16-12.97) whereas alerts related to redundant tests were less likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.84). Conclusions: Safety concerns related to timely patient follow-up remain despite automated notification of non-life threatening abnormal laboratory results in the outpatient setting. PMID:20193832

  6. Energy drinks give you wings but also an abnormal exercise test.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Tawfiqur R; Abdool, Muhammad A; Galasko, Gavin

    2017-07-27

    This is the case of a 53-year-old man with known coronary artery disease who underwent two exercise treadmill tests (ETT). The first test, which yielded an abnormal result, was undertaken shortly after he had drunk two cans of Red Bull, a popular energy drink (ED). A second ETT was undertaken 1 week later by the same team without EDs on board and the test result was normal. This case suggests that drinking EDs prior to an ETT could lead to a false positive result and should be discouraged prior to exercise testing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. 12 CFR 46.5 - Annual stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual stress test. 46.5 Section 46.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ANNUAL STRESS TEST § 46.5 Annual stress test. Each covered institution must conduct the annual stress test under this part subject to the...

  8. 12 CFR 46.5 - Annual stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual stress test. 46.5 Section 46.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ANNUAL STRESS TEST § 46.5 Annual stress test. Each covered institution must conduct the annual stress test under this part subject to the...

  9. 12 CFR 252.144 - Annual stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual stress test. 252.144 Section 252.144... (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.144 Annual stress test. (a) In general. A covered company must conduct an annual stress test...

  10. 12 CFR 325.204 - Annual stress tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual stress tests required. 325.204 Section... POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.204 Annual stress tests required. (a) General... conduct a stress test on or before March 31 of each calendar year based on financial data as of September...

  11. 12 CFR 325.204 - Annual stress tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual stress tests required. 325.204 Section... POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.204 Annual stress tests required. (a) General... conduct a stress test on or before March 31 of each calendar year based on financial data as of September...

  12. 12 CFR 252.144 - Annual stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual stress test. 252.144 Section 252.144... (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.144 Annual stress test. (a) In general. A covered company must conduct an annual stress test...

  13. 12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section....156 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results—(1) Savings and... report the results of the stress test to the Board by January 5 of each calendar year in the manner and...

  14. 12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results. (1) A covered company must report the results of the stress test required under § 252.144 to the...

  15. 12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results. (1) A covered company must report the results of the stress test required under section 252.144...

  16. 12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for....156 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results—(1) Savings and...

  17. Incidence of Thyroid Function Test Abnormalities in Patients Receiving Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nisha Subhash; Oury, Anais; Daniels, Gregory A; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Patel, Sandip Pravin

    2018-05-16

    With the advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1), immune-related adverse events such as thyroid function test abnormalities (TFTAs) are common, with a reported incidence range of 2%-15% depending upon the ICI used. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of TFTAs retrospectively in patients who received ICI therapy. A total of 285 patients were reviewed (178 male, 107 female; 16-94 years of age), of whom 218 had no baseline TFTAs, 61 had baseline TFTAs, and 6 had a history of thyroidectomy (excluded). At least one dose of ipilimumab and/or nivolumab or pembrolizumab was administered. Post-ICI therapy TFTAs were classified according to standard definitions of thyroid conditions when possible. A total of 35% (76/218) patients had new-onset TFTAs on ICI therapy. Of note, 70.5% (43/61) had baseline TFTAs that were exacerbated by ICI therapy. The median times to new-onset or exacerbated baseline TFTA were 46 and 33 days, respectively. Of note, 64.5% (20/31) of patients on both ipilimumab and nivolumab had new-onset TFTAs, compared with 31.3% (15/48) on ipilimumab, 31.5% (28/89) on nivolumab, and 26% (13/50) on pembrolizumab. The incidence of TFTAs with ICI therapy was higher than previously reported. Patients with baseline TFTAs and/or who were receiving ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy had a higher incidence of TFTAs than patients receiving single-agent ICI therapy. We recommend more frequent evaluation of thyroid function in the first 8 weeks, especially in patients with baseline TFTAs. Increased use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in cancer treatment has highlighted the importance of monitoring for and treating immune-related adverse events. This study was conducted to assess the incidence of thyroid function test abnormalities retrospectively in patients with cancer on immune-checkpoint inhibitors, which is not known exactly. This study is unique in that it included patients with a variety of histologic

  18. Resveratrol Treatment after Status Epilepticus Restrains Neurodegeneration and Abnormal Neurogenesis with Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Geetha A; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Xiaolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-12-07

    Antiepileptic drug therapy, though beneficial for restraining seizures, cannot thwart status epilepticus (SE) induced neurodegeneration or down-stream detrimental changes. We investigated the efficacy of resveratrol (RESV) for preventing SE-induced neurodegeneration, abnormal neurogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation in the hippocampus. We induced SE in young rats and treated with either vehicle or RESV, commencing an hour after SE induction and continuing every hour for three-hours on SE day and twice daily thereafter for 3 days. Seizures were terminated in both groups two-hours after SE with a diazepam injection. In contrast to the vehicle-treated group, the hippocampus of animals receiving RESV during and after SE presented no loss of glutamatergic neurons in hippocampal cell layers, diminished loss of inhibitory interneurons expressing parvalbumin, somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the dentate gyrus, reduced aberrant neurogenesis with preservation of reelin + interneurons, lowered concentration of oxidative stress byproduct malondialdehyde and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, normalized expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and diminished numbers of activated microglia. Thus, 4 days of RESV treatment after SE is efficacious for thwarting glutamatergic neuron degeneration, alleviating interneuron loss and abnormal neurogenesis, and suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. These results have implications for restraining SE-induced chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

  19. [Waiting time for the first colposcopic examination in women with abnormal Papanicolaou test].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Rabelo, Irene Machado Moraes Alvarenga; Cardoso, Fabrício Seabra Polidoro; Musse, Ricardo Neif Vieira

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the waiting times before obtaining the first colposcopic examination for women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Retrospective cohort study conducted on patients who required a colposcopic examination to clarify an abnormal pap test, between 2002 January and 2008 August, in a metropolitan region of Brazil. The waiting times were defined as: Total Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of the first colposcopic examination); Partial A Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of referral); Partial B Waiting Time (interval between the date of referral and the date of the first colposcopic examination). Means, medians, relative and absolute frequencies were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to determine statistical significance. A total of 1,544 women with mean of age of 34 years (SD=12.6 years) were analyzed. Most of them had access to colposcopic examination within 30 days (65.8%) or 60 days (92.8%) from referral. Mean Total Waiting Time, Partial A Waiting Time, and Partial B Waiting Time were 94.5 days (SD=96.8 days), 67.8 days (SD=95.3 days) and 29.2 days (SD=35.1 days), respectively. A large part of the women studied had access to colposcopic examination within 60 days after referral, but Total waiting time was long. Measures to reduce the waiting time for obtaining the first colposcopic examination can help to improve the quality of care in the context of cervical cancer control in the region, and ought to be addressed at the phase between the date of the pap test results and the date of referral to the teaching hospital.

  20. Theory and Test of Stress Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    example, the word death has its effect on the ink colour blue and not green. The main assumption made by this model is that the two effects can be...CODE Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Max:mum 200 words) In this report, we developed a laboratory model to test...this point, been acknowledged. The research also points to two (Continued) 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Stress resistance Attention 48

  1. 12 CFR 615.5141 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 615.5141... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5141 Stress... stress test. You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5141 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5141 Stress... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 615.5141... stress test. You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5141 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5141 Stress... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 615.5141... stress test. You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5141 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5141 Stress... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 615.5141... stress test. You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the...

  5. 12 CFR 1238.3 - Annual stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual stress test. 1238.3 Section 1238.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS TESTING OF REGULATED ENTITIES § 1238.3 Annual stress test. (a) In general. Each regulated entity: (1) Shall complete an annual stress...

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of abnormal function liver tests in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Sánchez-Osorio, Magdalena; Uribe, Misael

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal function liver tests and risk factors associated with their development in Mexican patients with UC. A total of 200 patients with confirmed diagnosis of UC were evaluated prospectively during a one year period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. A total of 94 females and 106 males patients with UC were analyzed. The age at diagnosis was 31.4 ± 13.2 years and the mean of disease duration was 6.7 ± 5.2 years. We found a high prevalence of abnormal function livers tests in 40% of UC patients. The pattern of abnormal function liver test was hepatitis in 70%, cholestatic (20%) and mixed (10%). The most common cause of abnormal function liver test was transient elevation in 50 patients (63%) followed by fatty liver disease (11.2%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (6.3%), drug-toxicity (6%) and others (13.5%) including chronic hepatitis C, total parenteral nutrition, granulomatous and ischemic hepatitis. In the multivariate logistic regression model, active disease, colectomy and abdominal sepsis were factors that persisted associated with the development of abnormal liver tests in UC patients. A high prevalence of abnormal function liver tests (40%) was found in Mexican UC patients is likely to be related to active disease, colectomy and the presence of sepsis.

  7. White matter abnormalities in Gulf War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Linda M; Ivanov, Iliyan; Carpenter, David M; Wong, Edmund W; Golier, Julia A; Tang, Cheuk Y; Yehuda, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Gulf War veterans were exposed to environmental toxins not present in other combat theaters resulting in a unique biological signature that only partially resembles that seen in other combat veterans with PTSD. Thus it is important to determine if brain abnormalities seen in non-Gulf War veterans with PTSD are also present in Gulf War veterans. In this pilot study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to assess the ultra-structural integrity of fronto-limbic white matter connections in Gulf War veterans with and without PTSD. The effects of chronic multisymptom illness on DTI measures was also evaluated. Subjects were 20 previously studied Gulf War veterans on whom MRIs had been obtained. Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were determined for left and right cingulum bundle by DTI tractography and compared in separate analyses for 12 veterans with, and 8 without PTSD. The effect of chronic multisymptom illness and it's interaction with PTSD, were similarly investigated using multivariate ACOVA. Partial correlations were used to test the associations of both DTI indices with PTSD severity and plasma cortisol, controlling for whole brain volume. Significantly lower MD was demonstrated in the right cingulum bundle among Gulf War veterans with PTSD. There were no significant differences in MD or FA in the left cingulum bundle. The presence of chronic multisymptom illness significantly attenuated the PTSD associated decrement in right cingulum MD. Clinician and self-rated PTSD symptom severity scores were significantly associated with reduced MD and increased FA in the right cingulum. Similar associations were observed for 8am plasma cortisol in a subset of participants. The preliminary findings indicate increased structural integrity - supporting enhanced connectivity - between right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex in PTSD. This effect was strongest among Gulf War veterans without chronic multisymptom illness. The association of

  8. The Relation of Arm Exercise Peak Heart Rate to Stress Test Results and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Xian, Hong; Liu, Weijian; Marshall, Cynthia; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Martin, Wade H

    2016-09-01

    Arm exercise is an alternative to pharmacologic stress testing for >50% of patients unable to perform treadmill exercise, but no data exist regarding the effect of attained peak arm exercise heart rate on test sensitivity. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to characterize the relationship of peak arm exercise heart rate responses to abnormal stress test findings, coronary revascularization, and mortality in patients unable to perform leg exercise. From 1997 until 2002, arm cycle ergometer stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans age 64.1 yr (11.0 yr) (mean (SD)), of whom 253 also underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Patients were categorized by frequency distributions of quartiles of percentage age-predicted peak heart rate (APPHR), heart rate reserve (HRR), and peak heart rate-systolic blood pressure product (PRPP). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression, abnormal MPI findings, coronary revascularization, and 12.0-yr (1.3 yr) Kaplan-Meier all-cause and cardiovascular mortality plots were then characterized by quartiles of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP. A reduced frequency of abnormal arm exercise ECG results was associated only with the lowest quartile of APPHR (≤69%) and HRR (≤43%), whereas higher frequency of abnormal MPI findings exhibited an inverse relationship trend with lower APPHR (P = 0.10) and HRR (P = 0.12). There was a strong inverse association of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP with all-cause (all P ≤ 0.01) and cardiovascular (P < 0.05) mortality. The frequency of coronary revascularization was unrelated to APPHR or HRR. Arm exercise ECG stress test sensitivity is only reduced at ≤69% APPHR or ≤43% HRR, whereas arm exercise MPI sensitivity and referral for coronary revascularization after arm exercise stress testing are not adversely affected by even a severely blunted peak heart rate. However, both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality are strongly and inversely related to APPHR and HRR.

  9. Development of a risk index for prediction of abnormal pap test results in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Dejana; Antic, Ljiljana; Vasiljevic, Mladenko; Antic, Dragan; Matejic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Serbia is one of the countries with highest incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer in Central and South Eastern Europe. Introducing a risk index could provide a powerful means for targeting groups at high likelihood of having an abnormal cervical smear and increase efficiency of screening. The aim of the present study was to create and assess validity ofa index for prediction of an abnormal Pap test result. The study population was drawn from patients attending Departments for Women's Health in two primary health care centers in Serbia. Out of 525 respondents 350 were randomly selected and data obtained from them were used as the index creation dataset. Data obtained from the remaining 175 were used as an index validation data set. Age at first intercourse under 18, more than 4 sexual partners, history of STD and multiparity were attributed statistical weights 16, 15, 14 and 13, respectively. The distribution of index scores in index-creation data set showed that most respondents had a score 0 (54.9%). In the index-creation dataset mean index score was 10.3 (SD-13.8), and in the validation dataset the mean was 9.1 (SD=13.2). The advantage of such scoring system is that it is simple, consisting of only four elements, so it could be applied to identify women with high risk for cervical cancer that would be referred for further examination.

  10. Provider management strategies of abnormal test result alerts: a cognitive task analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsay; Sittig, Dean F; Espadas, Donna; Davis, Traber; Singh, Hardeep

    2010-01-01

    Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) facilitate abnormal test result communication through “alert” notifications. The aim was to evaluate how primary care providers (PCPs) manage alerts related to critical diagnostic test results on their EMR screens, and compare alert-management strategies of providers with high versus low rates of timely follow-up of results. Design 28 PCPs from a large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were purposively sampled according to their rates of timely follow-up of alerts, determined in a previous study. Using techniques from cognitive task analysis, participants were interviewed about how and when they manage alerts, focusing on four alert-management features to filter, sort and reduce unnecessary alerts on their EMR screens. Results Provider knowledge of alert-management features ranged between 4% and 75%. Almost half (46%) of providers did not use any of these features, and none used more than two. Providers with higher versus lower rates of timely follow-up used the four features similarly, except one (customizing alert notifications). Providers with low rates of timely follow-up tended to manually scan the alert list and process alerts heuristically using their clinical judgment. Additionally, 46% of providers used at least one workaround strategy to manage alerts. Conclusion Considerable heterogeneity exists in provider use of alert-management strategies; specific strategies may be associated with lower rates of timely follow-up. Standardization of alert-management strategies including improving provider knowledge of appropriate tools in the EMR to manage alerts could reduce the lack of timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results. PMID:20064805

  11. Provider management strategies of abnormal test result alerts: a cognitive task analysis.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsay; Sittig, Dean F; Espadas, Donna; Davis, Traber; Singh, Hardeep

    2010-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) facilitate abnormal test result communication through "alert" notifications. The aim was to evaluate how primary care providers (PCPs) manage alerts related to critical diagnostic test results on their EMR screens, and compare alert-management strategies of providers with high versus low rates of timely follow-up of results. 28 PCPs from a large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were purposively sampled according to their rates of timely follow-up of alerts, determined in a previous study. Using techniques from cognitive task analysis, participants were interviewed about how and when they manage alerts, focusing on four alert-management features to filter, sort and reduce unnecessary alerts on their EMR screens. Provider knowledge of alert-management features ranged between 4% and 75%. Almost half (46%) of providers did not use any of these features, and none used more than two. Providers with higher versus lower rates of timely follow-up used the four features similarly, except one (customizing alert notifications). Providers with low rates of timely follow-up tended to manually scan the alert list and process alerts heuristically using their clinical judgment. Additionally, 46% of providers used at least one workaround strategy to manage alerts. Considerable heterogeneity exists in provider use of alert-management strategies; specific strategies may be associated with lower rates of timely follow-up. Standardization of alert-management strategies including improving provider knowledge of appropriate tools in the EMR to manage alerts could reduce the lack of timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results.

  12. Cancer, reproductive abnormalities, and diabetes in Micronesia: the effect of nuclear testing.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Seiji

    2004-09-01

    Many suggest that cancer and other diseases in Micronesia have been caused by nuclear testing in the Pacific. The 50-year commemoration of the March 1, 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test has rekindled interest in this area. This paper explores the documentation for, and the plausibility of, claims for disease causation by nuclear testing. Given the sheer volume of testing that the US conducted in the Pacific, it appears plausible that excess cancer would have occurred in areas of Micronesia other than the Marshall Islands. An excess of birth abnormalities in the Marshall Islands has been documented. While diabetes is not a radiogenic disease, and other cancers are generally less radiogenic than leukemia or thyroid cancer, the social and cultural effects of nuclear testing specifically, and the strategic uses to which Micronesia has been put generally, have had roles in the social production of disease. Integration into a globalized, cosmopolitan economy-with attendant phenomena such as the importation of tobacco, alcohol, foods of poor nutritional value, and new cultural morés-are also factors.

  13. Mean Abnormal Result Rate: Proof of Concept of a New Metric for Benchmarking Selectivity in Laboratory Test Ordering.

    PubMed

    Naugler, Christopher T; Guo, Maggie

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to develop and validate new metrics to access the appropriateness of laboratory test requests. The mean abnormal result rate (MARR) is a proposed measure of ordering selectivity, the premise being that higher mean abnormal rates represent more selective test ordering. As a validation of this metric, we compared the abnormal rate of lab tests with the number of tests ordered on the same requisition. We hypothesized that requisitions with larger numbers of requested tests represent less selective test ordering and therefore would have a lower overall abnormal rate. We examined 3,864,083 tests ordered on 451,895 requisitions and found that the MARR decreased from about 25% if one test was ordered to about 7% if nine or more tests were ordered, consistent with less selectivity when more tests were ordered. We then examined the MARR for community-based testing for 1,340 family physicians and found both a wide variation in MARR as well as an inverse relationship between the total tests ordered per year per physician and the physician-specific MARR. The proposed metric represents a new utilization metric for benchmarking relative selectivity of test orders among physicians. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Trier Social Stress Test and the Trier Social Stress Test for groups: Qualitative investigations

    PubMed Central

    Marqueste, Tanguy; Mascret, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and its version for groups (TSST-G) are the gold standard for inducing acute psychosocial stress in human experimental settings and have been used in numerous studies since the early 1990s. The TSST and the TSST-G lead to effects on different physiological and psychological markers, such as salivary cortisol, anxiety, and emotional states. These effects were assessed with quantitative methods comparing pre-test and post-test measures with statistical analyses. But to date, no qualitative analyses have been conducted to examine the meaningful experience of participants during the TSST and the TSST-G. This study is the first to conduct qualitative investigations to further clarify the stressful experience of participants confronted with these procedures. Preliminary results showed as expected that the TSST and the TSST-G effectively induced psychosocial stress, with cortisol levels, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and arousal increases, and with pleasure and dominance decreases. At the qualitative level, the results evidenced that the two theoretically stressful components of the TSST and the TSST-G, namely social-evaluative threat and uncontrollability, were experienced as stress-inducing by the participants. Two case studies confirmed these findings. But the results also showed on one hand that psychosocial stress is a dynamic phenomenon, with important fluctuations throughout the tasks (mainly for the TSST-G); and on the other hand that despite the similar physiological and psychological responses between the TSST and the TSST-G evidenced by the literature, the experience of the participants was both similar and specific. Use of a qualitative method allowed us to provide a complementary point of view to understand the meaningful experience of participants during these stressful procedures, apprehending the dynamic of the subjective stress experience without disrupting it. PMID:29641572

  15. The Trier Social Stress Test and the Trier Social Stress Test for groups: Qualitative investigations.

    PubMed

    Vors, Olivier; Marqueste, Tanguy; Mascret, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and its version for groups (TSST-G) are the gold standard for inducing acute psychosocial stress in human experimental settings and have been used in numerous studies since the early 1990s. The TSST and the TSST-G lead to effects on different physiological and psychological markers, such as salivary cortisol, anxiety, and emotional states. These effects were assessed with quantitative methods comparing pre-test and post-test measures with statistical analyses. But to date, no qualitative analyses have been conducted to examine the meaningful experience of participants during the TSST and the TSST-G. This study is the first to conduct qualitative investigations to further clarify the stressful experience of participants confronted with these procedures. Preliminary results showed as expected that the TSST and the TSST-G effectively induced psychosocial stress, with cortisol levels, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and arousal increases, and with pleasure and dominance decreases. At the qualitative level, the results evidenced that the two theoretically stressful components of the TSST and the TSST-G, namely social-evaluative threat and uncontrollability, were experienced as stress-inducing by the participants. Two case studies confirmed these findings. But the results also showed on one hand that psychosocial stress is a dynamic phenomenon, with important fluctuations throughout the tasks (mainly for the TSST-G); and on the other hand that despite the similar physiological and psychological responses between the TSST and the TSST-G evidenced by the literature, the experience of the participants was both similar and specific. Use of a qualitative method allowed us to provide a complementary point of view to understand the meaningful experience of participants during these stressful procedures, apprehending the dynamic of the subjective stress experience without disrupting it.

  16. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  17. Intervention to improve follow-up for abnormal Papanicolaou tests: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Dawson, Lauren; Grady, James J; Breitkopf, Daniel M; Nelson-Becker, Carolyn; Snyder, Russell R

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a theory-based, culturally targeted intervention on adherence to follow-up among low-income and minority women who experience an abnormal Pap test. 5,049 women were enrolled and underwent Pap testing. Of these, 378 had an abnormal result and 341 (90%) were randomized to one of three groups to receive their results: Intervention (I): culturally targeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; Active Control (AC): nontargeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; or Standard Care Only (SCO). The primary outcome was attendance at the initial follow-up appointment. Secondary outcomes included delay in care, completion of care at 18 months, state anxiety (STAI Y-6), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and distress (CDDQ). Anxiety was assessed at enrollment, notification of results, and 7-14 days later with the CDDQ and CES-D. 299 women were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Adherence rates were 60% (I), 54% (AC), and 58% (SCO), p = .73. Completion rates were 39% (I) and 35% in the AC and SCO groups, p = .77. Delay in care (in days) was (M ± SD): 58 ± 75 (I), 69 ± 72 (AC), and 54 ± 75 (SCO), p = .75. Adherence was associated with higher anxiety at notification, p < .01 and delay < 90 days (vs. 90+) was associated with greater perceived personal responsibility, p < .05. Women not completing their care (vs. those who did) had higher CES-D scores at enrollment, p < .05. A theory-based, culturally targeted message was not more effective than a nontargeted message or standard care in improving behavior.

  18. Fluid shear stress as a regulator of gene expression in vascular cells: possible correlations with diabetic abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Eskin, S. G.; Ruef, J.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased frequency, severity and more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic perturbations from hyperglycemia result in disturbed endothelium-dependent relaxation, activation of coagulation pathways, depressed fibrinolysis, and other abnormalities in vascular homeostasis. Atherosclerosis is localized mainly at areas of geometric irregularity at which blood vessels branch, curve and change diameter, and where blood is subjected to sudden changes in velocity and/or direction of flow. Shear stress resulting from blood flow is a well known modulator of vascular cell function. This paper presents what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for signal transduction and gene regulation in vascular cells exposed to shear stress. Considering the importance of the hemodynamic environment of vascular cells might be vital to increasing our understanding of diabetes.

  19. 77 FR 66566 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... 2590-AA47 Stress Testing of Regulated Entities AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice... concerning stress testing of the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), the Federal Home Loan...

  20. Abnormalities in neuroendocrine stress response in psychosis: the role of endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Appiah-Kusi, E; Leyden, E; Parmar, S; Mondelli, V; McGuire, P; Bhattacharyya, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to summarize current evidence regarding alterations in the neuroendocrine stress response system and endocannabinoid system and their relationship in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Exposure to stress is linked to the development of a number of psychiatric disorders including psychosis. However, the precise role of stress in the development of psychosis and the possible mechanisms that might underlie this are not well understood. Recently the cannabinoid hypothesis of schizophrenia has emerged as a potential line of enquiry. Endocannabinoid levels are increased in patients with psychosis compared with healthy volunteers; furthermore, they increase in response to stress, which suggests another potential mechanism for how stress might be a causal factor in the development of psychosis. However, research regarding the links between stress and the endocannabinoid system is in its infancy. Evidence summarized here points to an alteration in the baseline tone and reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as in various components of the endocannabinoid system in patients with psychosis. Moreover, the precise nature of the inter-relationship between these two systems is unclear in man, especially their biological relevance in the context of psychosis. Future studies need to simultaneously investigate HPA axis and endocannabinoid alterations both at baseline and following experimental perturbation in healthy individuals and those with psychosis to understand how they interact with each other in health and disease and obtain mechanistic insight as to their relevance to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  1. Exacerbated immune stress response during experimental magnesium deficiency results from abnormal cell calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Malpuech-Brugère, C; Rock, E; Astier, C; Nowacki, W; Mazur, A; Rayssiguier, Y

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential mechanism underlying the enhanced inflammatory processes during magnesium deficit. In this study, exacerbated response to live bacteria and platelet activating factors was shown in rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet. Peritoneal cells from these animals also showed enhanced superoxide anion production and calcium mobilising potency following in vitro stimulation. The latter effect occurred very early in the course of magnesium deficiency. These studies first showed that an abnormal calcium handling induced by extracellular magnesium depression in vivo may be at the origin of exacerbated inflammatory response.

  2. 78 FR 59219 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1238 RIN 2590-AA47 Stress Testing of Regulated Entities... assets of more than $10 billion to conduct annual stress tests to determine whether the companies have... federal financial regulatory agency, to conduct annual stress tests to determine whether the companies...

  3. 12 CFR 652.40 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 652.40... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.40 Stress tests for mortgage securities. (a) You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the cashflow...

  4. 12 CFR 652.40 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.40 Stress tests for mortgage securities. (a) You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the cashflow... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 652.40...

  5. 12 CFR 652.40 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.40 Stress tests for mortgage securities. (a) You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the cashflow... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 652.40...

  6. 12 CFR 652.40 - Stress tests for mortgage securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.40 Stress tests for mortgage securities. (a) You must perform stress tests to determine how interest rate changes will affect the cashflow... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stress tests for mortgage securities. 652.40...

  7. 12 CFR 252.154 - Annual stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual stress test. 252.154 Section 252.154... (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking... stress test. (a) General requirements—(1) Savings and loan holding companies with average total...

  8. 12 CFR 252.154 - Annual stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual stress test. 252.154 Section 252.154... (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking... stress test. (a) General requirements—(1) Savings and loan holding companies with average total...

  9. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a) Publication date. (1) A $10 billion to $50 billion covered bank must publish a summary of the results of its...

  10. 12 CFR 252.148 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.148... Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.148 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general. (i) A covered company must disclose a summary of the results of the stress test...

  11. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general. (i... loan holding company, or state member bank must disclose a summary of the results of the stress test in...

  12. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general. (i... loan holding company, or state member bank must disclose a summary of the results of the stress test in...

  13. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a) Publication date. (1) A $10 billion to $50 billion covered bank must publish a summary of the results of its...

  14. 77 FR 60948 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... the stress test. F. Post-Assessment Actions by Regulated Entities--Proposed Sec. 1238.6 Section 1238.6... during each quarter of the stress test planning horizon, for each scenario: (1) Potential losses, pre... regulated by a primary federal financial regulatory agency, to conduct annual stress tests to determine...

  15. 12 CFR 252.148 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.148... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.148 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of...

  16. 12 CFR 46.6 - Stress test methodologies and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stress test methodologies and practices. 46.6 Section 46.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ANNUAL STRESS TEST § 46.6 Stress test methodologies and practices. (a) Potential impact on capital. During each quarter of...

  17. 12 CFR 46.6 - Stress test methodologies and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stress test methodologies and practices. 46.6 Section 46.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ANNUAL STRESS TEST § 46.6 Stress test methodologies and practices. (a) Potential impact on capital. During each quarter of...

  18. Increasing ICA512 autoantibody titers predict development of abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Srinath

    2018-03-01

    Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, M E; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management decisions. To determine women's preferences for the follow-up of low-grade cervical screening abnormalities. Using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, PubMed was searched for articles published up to December 2010. The reference lists of the retrieved studies were consulted. Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form. Studies were sorted by design. Thirteen studies were included in the review. In all five studies that surveyed women with abnormal tests before any management had started, two-thirds preferred active follow-up, predominantly as immediate colposcopy, to observation, predominantly as repeated Pap smears. In all but two studies testing other situations, women more often expressed a preference for active follow-up than for observation; however, women appeared to be somewhat more willing to accept observation if reassured of the low risk of cervical cancer. Even for low-grade abnormal cervical tests, women tend to prefer active management strategies. It may be a challenge to meet their expectations of optimal follow-up when HPV testing is used in primary screening. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  20. Replacing the combined test by cell-free DNA testing in screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13: impact on the diagnosis of other chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Syngelaki, Argyro; Pergament, Eugene; Homfray, Tessa; Akolekar, Ranjit; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the proportion of other chromosomal abnormalities that could be missed if combined testing was replaced by cell-free (cf) DNA testing as the method of screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. The prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 or 13, sex chromosome aneuploidies, triploidy and other chromosomal abnormalities was examined in pregnancies undergoing first-trimester combined screening and chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In 1,831 clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies with combined risk for trisomies 21, 18 and 13≥1:100, the contribution of trisomies 21, 18 or 13, sex chromosome aneuploidies, triploidy and other chromosomal abnormalities at high risk of adverse outcome was 82.9, 8.2, 3.9 and 5.0%, respectively. Combined screening followed by CVS for risk≥1:10 and cfDNA testing for risk 1:11-1:2,500 could detect 97% of trisomy 21 and 98% of trisomies 18 and 13. Additionally, 86% of monosomy X, half of 47,XXY, 47,XYY or 47,XXX, half of other chromosomal abnormalities and one third of triploidies, which are currently detected by combined screening and CVS for risk≥1:100, could be detected. Screening by cfDNA testing, contingent on results of combined testing, improves detection of trisomies, but misses a few of the other chromosomal abnormalities detected by screening with the combined test. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Abnormal pap tests among women living in a Hispanic migrant farmworker community: A narrative of health literacy.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Proctor, Sara; Wells, Kristen J; Daley, Ellen M

    2016-08-01

    This study explored narrative responses following abnormal Pap tests among Hispanic migrant farmworkers ( N = 18; ages 22-50 years) via in-depth interviews in Florida. Qualitative analyses utilized health literacy domains (obtain/process/understand/communicate) as a conceptual framework. Participants described how they (1) obtained information about getting a Pap test, (2) processed positive and negative reactions following results, (3) understood results and recommended health-promoting behaviors, and (4) communicated and received social support. Women had disparate reactions and understanding following an abnormal Pap result. Health literacy was a meaningful conceptual framework to understand assets and gaps among women receiving an abnormal Pap test result. Future interventions should incorporate health literacy domains and facilitate patient-provider communications and social support to assist women in decision-making and health-promoting behaviors, ultimately decreasing cancer disparities.

  2. Developing software to "track and catch" missed follow-up of abnormal test results in a complex sociotechnical environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Murphy, D; Laxmisan, A; Sittig, D; Reis, B; Esquivel, A; Singh, H

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider's prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA's EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility's "test" EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for

  3. Should patients with abnormal liver function tests in primary care be tested for chronic viral hepatitis: cost minimisation analysis based on a comprehensively tested cohort.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David T; Bentham, Louise M; Jacob, Ruth P; Lilford, Richard J; Girling, Alan J

    2011-03-03

    Liver function tests (LFTs) are ordered in large numbers in primary care, and the Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies (BALLETS) study was set up to assess their usefulness in patients with no pre-existing or self-evident liver disease. All patients were tested for chronic viral hepatitis thereby providing an opportunity to compare various strategies for detection of this serious treatable disease. This study uses data from the BALLETS cohort to compare various testing strategies for viral hepatitis in patients who had received an abnormal LFT result. The aim was to inform a strategy for identification of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. We used a cost-minimisation analysis to define a base case and then calculated the incremental cost per case detected to inform a strategy that could guide testing for chronic viral hepatitis. Of the 1,236 study patients with an abnormal LFT, 13 had chronic viral hepatitis (nine hepatitis B and four hepatitis C). The strategy advocated by the current guidelines (repeating the LFT with a view to testing for specific disease if it remained abnormal) was less efficient (more expensive per case detected) than a simple policy of testing all patients for viral hepatitis without repeating LFTs. A more selective strategy of viral testing all patients for viral hepatitis if they were born in countries where viral hepatitis was prevalent provided high efficiency with little loss of sensitivity. A notably high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (greater than twice the upper limit of normal) on the initial ALT test had high predictive value, but was insensitive, missing half the cases of viral infection. Based on this analysis and on widely accepted clinical principles, a "fast and frugal" heuristic was produced to guide general practitioners with respect to diagnosing cases of viral hepatitis in asymptomatic patients with abnormal LFTs. It recommends testing all patients where a clear clinical indication of

  4. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-02-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of a urinary screening test used in an emergency setting to detect abnormal first trimester pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, João L G; Rabaioli, Paola; Savaris, Ricardo F

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a commercial urinary test to screen for abnormal first trimester pregnancies in women presenting to an emergency room. In this prospective observational cohort, women with a confirmed first trimester pregnancy (gestational age <12 weeks) provided a urine sample for diagnosing the viability of their gestation. Pregnancy viability and location testing were confirmed by ultrasound and/or laparoscopy. From 815 eligible patients for the study, 12 were excluded for not having a confirmed pregnancy (n = 6) or were lost to follow-up (n = 6). A total of 803 patients underwent testing and completed follow-up. The pretest probability of an abnormal pregnancy was 44% (9% for ectopic pregnancy and 35% for miscarriage). The test had the following parameters to identify an abnormal first-trimester pregnancy (sensitivity, 13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10-17; specificity, 82%; 95% CI, 78-86; positive predictive value, 36; 95% CI, 28-46; negative predictive value, 54; 95% CI, 50-58; accuracy, 47%; positive likelihood ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.03; negative likelihood ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1-1.12). The reproducibility of the test in our study was high (kappa index between readers, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1). In our emergency setting, we were not able to confirm that the commercial test is adequate to detect or exclude an abnormal first-trimester pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  8. Diode step stress testing program for JANTX1N5550

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect was studied of power/temperature step stress when applied to the switching diode JANTX1N5550 manufactured by Semtech and Micro Semiconductor. The power/temperature stress tests are presented, and failure analyses are included.

  9. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (p<0.0001 for the difference). These data suggest that F+ stress ECG tests are frequent and equally common in women and men. However, most F+ stress ECGs in men can be predicted before the test, while most in women cannot. Being female may be a risk factor in itself. These data reinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for underlying inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Remzi, Feza H; Nutter, Benjamin; Fazio, Victor W; Shen, Bo

    2009-10-01

    Liver involvement is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the frequency and the significance of liver function test (LFT) abnormalities in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for underlying IBD have not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and to identify risk factors for abnormal LFTs in patients with IPAA and underlying IBD. All patients were identified from our prospectively maintained Pouchitis Database between 2002 and 2008. Abnormal LFTs were classified as the following: (i) any abnormal elevation of transaminases, and/or alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and/or bilirubin; (ii) hepatitis, if there was more than twice the elevation of transaminases; and (iii) cholestatic, if there was more than 1.5 times elevation of ALP. Clinical, endoscopic, and histological variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models for evaluating risk for abnormal LFTs. A total of 545 IPAA patients with underlying IBD were identified from the database, of which 373 patients who had LFTs done after their pouch surgery were included. This included 346 patients with ulcerative colitis, 25 with indeterminate colitis, and 2 with Crohn's colitis before surgery. Their mean age was 45.9+/-13.8 years. A total of 65 patients (17.4%) (40 men, 25 women, median age: 47 years) had abnormal LFTs. Of the patients, 52 (13.9%) had abnormal transaminases, whereas 15 (4%) were classified as having hepatitis. Thirty-five (9.4%) patients had an abnormal ALP level, with 18 (4.8%) classified as cholestatic. The most common cause of an abnormal LFT was transient elevation in 32 (49.2%) patients, followed by fatty liver (fatty change on imaging with body mass index (BMI) > or =25 kg/m(2) in the absence of other causes, including alcohol abuse and drug-induced hepatitis) in 10 (15.4%), drug-induced abnormal LFTs in 7 (10.7%), and chronic hepatitis B or C in 6 (9.2%). Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) was responsible for abnormal

  11. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-12-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston.

  12. Pulmonary Function Test Abnormalities in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Is It Common?

    PubMed

    El Amrousy, Doaa Mohamed; Hassan, Samir; El-Ashry, Heba; Yousef, Mohamed; Sharshar, Ragia

    2018-04-03

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and type of pulmonary dysfunction in newly diagnosed children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the correlation between pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and IBD activity. It is an observational case-control study. One hundred newly diagnosed children with IBD were enrolled as the patient group, which was subdivided into 52 with Crohn disease (CD) and 48 with ulcerative colitis (UC). Fifty healthy children matched for age, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI) served as the control group. PFTs in the form of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC), mid-forced expiratory flow of 25% to 75% (FEF 25%-75%) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were evaluated in all studied children. PFTs were measured at diagnosis, every 6 months for a period of 3 years, during remission and at least once during activity in patient group. There was significant progressive deterioration in all PFTs in IBD patients compared with their PFTs at the start of the study (P < 0.05) except for FEV1/FVC, RV, and TLC (P > 0.05). There was significant deterioration during disease activity compared with remission state regarding FEV1, FVC, FEV 25% to 75%, and DLCO (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was found between disease activity in both UC and CD groups and FEV1, FVC, FEV 25% to 75%, and DLCO. Subclinical PFT abnormalities are common in pediatric IBD even during remission period. So, periodic PFT evaluation should be considered in the routine follow-up of IBD children.

  13. 78 FR 65583 - Capital Planning and Stress Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... comment. SUMMARY: NCUA proposes to conduct annual stress tests of federally insured credit unions (FICUs... Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act), requiring their supervised institutions to conduct annual stress tests... the credit union in its capital plans. Credit unions must also test the impact of interest rate shocks...

  14. [Effects of psychological stress on performances in open-field test of rats and tyrosine's modulation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Yong; Li, Shu-Tian; Hong, Yan; Wang, Dong-Lan; Hou, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To explore the effects of different doses of tyrosine modulation on behavioral performances in open field test of psychological stress rats. The animal model of psychological stress was developed by restraint stress for 21 days. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) as follows: control group (CT), stress control group (SCT), low, medium and high-doses of tyrosine modulation stress groups (SLT, SMT and SIT). The changes of behavioral performances were examined by open-field test. Serum levels of cortisol, norepinephrine and dopamine were also detected. The levels of serum cortisol were all increased obviously in the four stress groups, and their bodyweight gainings were diminished. The behavioral performances of SCT rats in open-field test were changed significantly in contrast to that of CT rats. However, The behavioral performances of SMT and SHT rats were not different from that of CT rats. In addition, the serum levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were downregulated obviously in SCT and SLT groups, and no differences were observed in other groups. Psychological stress can impair body behavioral performances, and moderate tyrosine modulation may improve these abnormal changes. The related mechanisms may be involved with the changes of norepinephrine and dopamine.

  15. Congenital hypothyroidism in a kitten resulting in decreased IGF-I concentration and abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Quante, Saskia; Fracassi, Federico; Gorgas, Daniela; Kircher, Patrick R; Boretti, Felicitas S; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Reusch, Claudia E

    2010-06-01

    A 7-month-old male kitten was presented with chronic constipation and retarded growth. Clinical examination revealed disproportional dwarfism with mild skeletal abnormalities and a palpable thyroid gland. The presumptive diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum total thyroxine (tT(4)) concentration prior to and after the administration of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), increased endogenous TSH concentration and abnormal thyroid scintigraphic scan. The kitten had abnormal liver function tests and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration, both of which returned to normal in correspondence with an improvement of the clinical signs after 6 weeks of thyroxine therapy. Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare disease that may present with considerable variation in clinical manifestation. In cases in which clinical signs are ambiguous, disorders such as portosystemic shunt and hyposomatotropism have to be taken into account as differential diagnosis. As hypothyroidism may be associated with abnormal liver function tests and low IGF-1 concentrations, test results have to be interpreted carefully. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of the hexosamine pathway causes oxidative stress and abnormal embryo gene expression: involvement in diabetic teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horal, Melissa; Zhang, Zhiquan; Stanton, Robert; Virkamäki, Antti; Loeken, Mary R

    2004-08-01

    Oxidative stress is critical to the teratogenic effects of diabetic pregnancy, yet the specific biochemical pathways responsible for oxidative stress have not been fully elucidated. The hexosamine pathway is activated in many tissues during diabetes and could contribute to oxidative stress by inhibiting the pentose shunt pathway, thereby diminishing production of the cellular antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). To test the hypothesis that activation of the hexosamine pathway might contribute to the teratogenic effects of diabetic pregnancy, pregnant mice were injected with glucose, to induce hyperglycemia, or glucosamine, to directly activate the hexosamine pathway. Embryo tissue fragments were also cultured in physiological glucose, high glucose, or physiological glucose plus glucosamine, to test effects on oxidative stress and embryo gene expression. Glucosamine increased hexosamine synthesis and inhibited pentose shunt activity. There was a trend for transient hyperglycemia to have the same effects, but they did not reach statistical significance. However, both glucose and glucosamine significantly decreased GSH, and increased oxidative stress, as indicated by 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein fluorescence. Glucose and glucosamine inhibited expression of Pax-3, a gene required for neural tube closure both in vivo and in vitro, and increased neural tube defects (NTDs) in vivo; these effects were prevented by GSH ethyl ester. High glucose and glucosamine inhibited Pax-3 expression by embryo culture, but culture in glutamine-free media to block the hexosamine pathway prevented the inhibition of Pax-3 expression by high glucose. Activation of the hexosamine pathway causes oxidative stress through depletion of GSH and consequent disruption of embryo gene expression. Activation of this pathway may contribute to diabetic teratogenesis.

  17. Nondestructive Testing Residual Stress Using Ultrasonic Critical Refracted Longitudinal Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunguang; Song, Wentao; Pan, Qinxue; Li, Huanxin; Liu, Shuai

    Residual stress has significant impacts on the performance of the mechanical components, especially on its strength, fatigue life and corrosion resistance and dimensional stability. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, the testing principle of ultrasonic LCR wave method is analyzed. The testing system of residual stress is build. The method of calibration of stress coefficient is proposed in order to improve the detection precision. At last, through experiments and applications on residual stress testing of oil pipeline weld joint, vehicle's torsion shaft, glass and ceramics, gear tooth root, and so on, the result show that it deserved to be studied deeply on application and popularization of ultrasonic LCR wave method.

  18. The "moving valgus stress test" for medial collateral ligament tears of the elbow.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Shawn W M; Lawton, Richard L; Smith, Adam M

    2005-02-01

    The diagnosis of a painful partial tear of the medial collateral ligament in overhead-throwing athletes is challenging, even for experienced elbow surgeons and despite the use of sophisticated imaging techniques. The "moving valgus stress test" is an accurate physical examination technique for diagnosis of medial collateral ligament attenuation in the elbow. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-one patients underwent surgical intervention for medial elbow pain due to medial collateral ligament insufficiency or other abnormality of chronic valgus overload, and they were assessed preoperatively with an examination called the moving valgus stress test. To perform the moving valgus stress test, the examiner applies and maintains a constant moderate valgus torque to the fully flexed elbow and then quickly extends the elbow. The test is positive if the medial elbow pain is reproduced at the medial collateral ligament and is at maximum between 120 degrees and 70 degrees. The moving valgus stress test was highly sensitive (100%, 17 of 17 patients) and specific (75%, 3 of 4 patients) when compared to assessment of the medial collateral ligament by surgical exploration or arthroscopic valgus stress testing. The mean shear range (ie, the arc within which pain was produced with the moving valgus stress test) was 120 degrees to 70 degrees. The mean angle at which pain was at a maximum was 90 degrees of elbow flexion. The moving valgus stress test is an accurate physical examination technique that, when performed and interpreted correctly, is highly sensitive for medial elbow pain arising from the medial collateral ligament.

  19. Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    identifying and mapping flaw size distributions on glass surfaces for predicting mechanical response. International Journal of Applied Glass ...ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

  20. Stress distribution in composite flatwise tension test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Curtis A.; Pereira, J. Michael

    1993-01-01

    A finite element analysis was conducted to determine the stress distribution in typical graphite/epoxy composite flat wise tension (FWT) specimens under normal loading conditions. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the relationship between the applied load and the stress in the sample to evaluate the validity of the test as a means of measuring the out-of-plane strength of a composite laminate. Three different test geometries and three different material lay ups were modeled. In all cases, the out-of-plane component of stress in the test section was found to be uniform, with no stress concentrations, and very close to the nominal applied stress. The stress in the sample was found to be three-dimensional, and the magnitude of in-plane normal and shear stresses varied with the anisotropy of the test specimen. However, in the cases considered here, these components of stress were much smaller than the out-of-plane normal stress. The geometry of the test specimen had little influence on the results. It was concluded that the flat wise tension test provides a good measure of the out-of-plane strength for the representative materials that were studied.

  1. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-05

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests. PMID:25780634

  3. Using the word `cancer' in communication about an abnormal pap test: Finding common ground with Patient-Provider Communication

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Melissa A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Randhawa, Veenu; John, Priya; Makoul, Gregory; Spring, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate provider and patient views about communication regarding cervical cancer screening follow-up. Methods Using qualitative analysis, we interviewed 20 providers and 10 patients from two urban clinics that serve low-income African American and Hispanic women. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups assessed familiarity with National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and reactions to a letter asking women with abnormal Pap test to telephone CIS. The letter suggested questions to ask prior to receiving follow-up. Results No patient or provider was familiar with CIS. Providers but not patients expressed discomfort with use of the word `cancer' in the letter and in CIS's name. Providers feared that reference to cancer would provoke fatalism and impede timely follow-up, whereas patients felt information about cancer risk was needed to prompt timely follow-up. Information providers found necessary to convey in order to accurately explain abnormal Pap tests surpassed patients' literacy levels. Conclusion Qualitative data suggest important gaps in perspective between providers and patients. There is a need to bridge the gap and overcome communication challenges to promote timely medical follow-up and have better health outcomes. Practice Implications Implications and strategies for improving patient-provider education and communication about abnormal pap test are discussed. PMID:20060255

  4. Exertional headache and coronary ischemia despite normal electrocardiographic stress testing.

    PubMed

    Cutrer, F Michael; Huerter, Karina

    2006-01-01

    Exertional headaches may under certain conditions reflect coronary ischemia. We report the case of a patient seen in a neurology referral practice whose exertional headaches, even in the face of two normal electrocardiographic stress tests and in the absence of underlying chest pain were the sole symptoms of coronary ischemia as detected by Tc-99m Sestamibi testing SPECT stress testing. Stent placement resulted in complete resolution of headaches. Exertional headache in the absence of chest pain may reflect underlying symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) even when conventional electrocardiographic stress testing does not indicate ischemia.

  5. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  6. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  7. Testing a Military Family Stress Model.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Zamir, Osnat

    2017-03-15

    The current study examines a military family stress model, evaluating associations between deployment-related stressors (i.e., deployment length/number, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms) and parent, child, parenting, and dyadic adjustment among families in which a parent had previously deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan in the recent conflicts. Married families (N = 293) with at least one child between the ages of 4 and 12 were recruited from a Midwestern state. Service members were from the Reserve Component (National Guard or Reserves); fathers (N = 253) and/or mothers had deployed (N = 45) to the recent conflicts in the Middle East. Multiple-method (observations of parenting and couple interactions; questionnaires) and multiple informant measures were gathered online and in the homes of participants, from parents, children, and teachers. Findings demonstrated associations between mothers' and fathers' PTSD symptoms and a latent variable of child adjustment comprising teacher, parent, and child report. Mothers' but not fathers' PTSD symptoms were also associated with dyadic adjustment and parenting practices; parenting practices were in turn associated with child adjustment. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for military family stress research and interventions to support and strengthen parents and families after deployment. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  8. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren

    2009-01-01

    One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

  9. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    PubMed

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Standing Vs Supine; Does it Matter in Cough Stress Testing?

    PubMed

    Patnam, Radhika; Edenfield, Autumn L; Swift, Steven E

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of cough stress test in the standing versus supine position in the evaluation of incontinent females. We performed a prospective observational study of women with the chief complaint of urinary incontinence (UI) undergoing a provocative cough stress test (CST). Subjects underwent both a standing and a supine CST. Testing order was randomized via block randomization. Cough stress test was performed in a standard method via backfill of 200 mL or until the subject described strong urge. The subjects were asked to cough, and the physician documented urine leakage by direct observation. The gold standard for stress UI diagnosis was a positive CST in either position. Sixty subjects were enrolled, 38 (63%) tested positive on any CST, with 38 (63%) positive on standing compared with 29 (28%) positive on supine testing. Nine women (15%) had positive standing and negative supine testing. No subjects had negative standing with positive supine testing. There were no significant differences in positive tests between the 2 randomized groups (standing first and supine second vs. supine first and standing second). When compared with the gold standard of any positive provocative stress test, the supine CST has a sensitivity of 76%, whereas the standing CST has a sensitivity of 100%. The standing CST is more sensitive than the supine CST and should be performed in any patient with a complaint of UI and negative supine CST. The order of testing either supine or standing first does not affect the results.

  11. Stress Tests for Chest Pain: When You Need an Imaging Test -- and When You Don't

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Adult , Geriatric Stress Tests for Chest Pain Stress Tests for Chest Pain When you need an ... pain isn’t from heart disease. A cardiac stress test makes the heart work hard so your ...

  12. Easiness of Use and Validity Testing of VS-SENSE Device for Detection of Abnormal Vaginal Flora and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Marconi, Camila; Bellen, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Accessing vaginal pH is fundamental during gynaecological visit for the detection of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), but use of pH strips may be time-consuming and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VS-SENSE test (Common Sense Ltd, Caesarea, Israel) as a tool for the diagnosis of AVF and its correlation with abnormal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The study population consisted of 45 women with vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and 45 women with normal pH. Vaginal samples were evaluated by VS-SENSE test, microscopy and microbiologic cultures. Comparing with pH strips results, VS-SENSE test specificity was 97.8% and sensitivity of 91%. All severe cases of BV and aerobic vaginitis (AV) were detected by the test. Only one case with normal pH had an unclear result. Concluding, VS-SENSE test is easy to perform, and it correlates with increased pH, AVF, and the severe cases of BV and AV. PMID:20953405

  13. Easiness of use and validity testing of VS-SENSE device for detection of abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Marconi, Camila; Bellen, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Accessing vaginal pH is fundamental during gynaecological visit for the detection of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), but use of pH strips may be time-consuming and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VS-SENSE test (Common Sense Ltd, Caesarea, Israel) as a tool for the diagnosis of AVF and its correlation with abnormal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The study population consisted of 45 women with vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and 45 women with normal pH. Vaginal samples were evaluated by VS-SENSE test, microscopy and microbiologic cultures. Comparing with pH strips results, VS-SENSE test specificity was 97.8% and sensitivity of 91%. All severe cases of BV and aerobic vaginitis (AV) were detected by the test. Only one case with normal pH had an unclear result. Concluding, VS-SENSE test is easy to perform, and it correlates with increased pH, AVF, and the severe cases of BV and AV.

  14. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-03-30

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were evaluated in the patient groups. DID-PTSD and PTSD-only patients, compared with HC, had similarly smaller cortical GM volumes of the whole brain and of frontal, temporal and insular cortices. DID-PTSD patients additionally showed smaller hippocampal and larger pallidum volumes relative to HC, and larger putamen and pallidum volumes relative to PTSD-only. Severity of lifetime traumatizing events and volume of the hippocampus were negatively correlated. Severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms correlated positively with volume of the putamen and pallidum, and negatively with volume of the inferior parietal cortex. Shared abnormal brain structures in DID-PTSD and PTSD-only, small hippocampal volume in DID-PTSD, more severe lifetime traumatizing events in DID-PTSD compared with PTSD-only, and negative correlations between lifetime traumatizing events and hippocampal volume suggest a trauma-related etiology for DID. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the side-by-side nosological classification of PTSD and DID in the DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing microdensitometric ability to determine Monterey pine urban tree stress

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Joe R. McBride

    1993-01-01

    Microdensitometric analysis of aerial photographs has been used to quantify urban tree stress of deciduous species. A test of this procedure applied to Monterey pine indicates that variations in ground cover beneath urban trees among cities and variations in crown morphology among tree species can limit the ability of microdensitometry to quantify urban tree stress....

  16. Shear-Panel Test Fixture Eliminates Corner Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. J.; Farley, G. L.; Baker, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    New design eliminates corner stresses while maintaining uniform stress across panel. Shear panel test fixture includes eight frames and eight corner pins. Fixture assembled in two halves with shear panel sandwiched in between. Results generated from this fixture will result in good data base for design of efficient aircraft structures and other applications.

  17. California's Drought - Stress test for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The current California drought is in its third dry years, with this year being the third driest years in a 106-year record. This drought occurs at a time when urban, agricultural, and environmental water demands have never been greater. This drought has revealed the importance of more quantitative evaluation and methods for water assessment and management. All areas of water and environmental management are likely to become increasingly stressed, and have essentially drought-like conditions, in the future, as California's urban, agricultural, and environmental demands continue to expand and as the climate changes. In the historical past, droughts have pre-viewed stresses developing in the future and helped focus policy-makers, the public, and stakeholders on preparing for these developing future conditions. Multi-decade water management strategies are often galvinized by drought. Irrigation was galvanized by California droughts in the 1800s, reservoir systems by the 1928-32 drought, urban water conservation by the 1976-77 drought, and water markets by the 1988-92 drought. With each drought, demands for tighter accounting, rights, and management have increased. This talk reviews the prospects and challenges for increased development and use of water data and systems analysis in the service of human and environmental water demands in California's highly decentralized water management system, and the prospects if these challenges are not more successfully addressed.

  18. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  19. [Exercise stress test and dobutamine stress echocardiography for the prognostic stratification after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Nicola; Cirillo, Raffaele; Granato, Luigi; Coppola, Vincenzo; di Palma, Francesco

    2007-05-01

    Exercise stress test and dobutamine stress echocardiography are usually performed early after an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction in the prognostic stratification of patients to define the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the association of an imaging test could increase exercise test capability to identify patients with residual ischemia and patients at high risk of events in the follow-up. Four hundred and forty-two consecutive patients underwent exercise stress testing and dobutamine stress echocardiography before discharge and subsequently coronary angiography within 30 days. In case of submaximal negative result at the exercise test, this was repeated 20 days after discharge. The follow-up lasted 26.8 +/- 9 months. The endpoints were death, reinfarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization or revascularization intervention. Both tests and their association showed a higher sensitivity in males; in females dobutamine stress echocardiography had a higher specificity. In females, the addition of dobutamine stress echocardiography increased either the negative or the positive prognostic values of exercise stress test by 31% and 5.6%, respectively. In males, the negative prognostic value increased by 15.5%, whereas the positive prognostic value decreased by 12%. A low exercise capability (<6 METs) showed an event predictive value independent of test results and any other variables. The event-free survival curves correlated with exercise capability differed shortly after the first months both in males and females. These results suggest different stratification procedures with regard to gender: in males, the exercise stress test might be sufficient at discharge, to be repeated 20 days later, if submaximal negative. In females, it seems to be useful to associate an imaging test at discharge. In any case, the exercise stress test remains the main step in the stratification procedure also for its

  20. Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, C; Poirier, G L; Cordero, M I; Larsen, M H; Groner, A; Marquis, J; Magistretti, P J; Trono, D; Sandi, C

    2013-01-01

    Although adverse early life experiences have been found to increase lifetime risk to develop violent behaviors, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain unclear. We present a novel animal model for pathological aggression induced by peripubertal exposure to stress with face, construct and predictive validity. We show that male rats submitted to fear-induction experiences during the peripubertal period exhibit high and sustained rates of increased aggression at adulthood, even against unthreatening individuals, and increased testosterone/corticosterone ratio. They also exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala under both basal conditions (evaluated by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography) and after a resident–intruder (RI) test (evaluated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry), and hypoactivation of the medial orbitofrontal (MO) cortex after the social challenge. Alterations in the connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were linked to the aggressive phenotype. Increased and sustained expression levels of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene were found in the prefrontal cortex but not in the amygdala of peripubertally stressed animals. They were accompanied by increased activatory acetylation of histone H3, but not H4, at the promoter of the MAOA gene. Treatment with an MAOA inhibitor during adulthood reversed the peripuberty stress-induced antisocial behaviors. Beyond the characterization and validation of the model, we present novel data highlighting changes in the serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex—and pointing at epigenetic control of the MAOA gene—in the establishment of the link between peripubertal stress and later pathological aggression. Our data emphasize the impact of biological factors triggered by peripubertal adverse experiences on the emergence of violent behaviors. PMID:23321813

  1. Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression.

    PubMed

    Márquez, C; Poirier, G L; Cordero, M I; Larsen, M H; Groner, A; Marquis, J; Magistretti, P J; Trono, D; Sandi, C

    2013-01-15

    Although adverse early life experiences have been found to increase lifetime risk to develop violent behaviors, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain unclear. We present a novel animal model for pathological aggression induced by peripubertal exposure to stress with face, construct and predictive validity. We show that male rats submitted to fear-induction experiences during the peripubertal period exhibit high and sustained rates of increased aggression at adulthood, even against unthreatening individuals, and increased testosterone/corticosterone ratio. They also exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala under both basal conditions (evaluated by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography) and after a resident-intruder (RI) test (evaluated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry), and hypoactivation of the medial orbitofrontal (MO) cortex after the social challenge. Alterations in the connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were linked to the aggressive phenotype. Increased and sustained expression levels of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene were found in the prefrontal cortex but not in the amygdala of peripubertally stressed animals. They were accompanied by increased activatory acetylation of histone H3, but not H4, at the promoter of the MAOA gene. Treatment with an MAOA inhibitor during adulthood reversed the peripuberty stress-induced antisocial behaviors. Beyond the characterization and validation of the model, we present novel data highlighting changes in the serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex-and pointing at epigenetic control of the MAOA gene-in the establishment of the link between peripubertal stress and later pathological aggression. Our data emphasize the impact of biological factors triggered by peripubertal adverse experiences on the emergence of violent behaviors.

  2. A Methodology to Detect Abnormal Relative Wall Shear Stress on the Full Surface of the Thoracic Aorta Using 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Allen, Bradley D.; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compute cohort-averaged wall shear stress (WSS) maps in the thoracic aorta of patients with aortic dilatation or valvular stenosis and to detect abnormal regional WSS. Methods Systolic WSS vectors, estimated from 4D flow MRI data, were calculated along the thoracic aorta lumen in 10 controls, 10 patients with dilated aortas and 10 patients with aortic valve stenosis. 3D segmentations of each aorta were co-registered by group and used to create a cohort-specific aortic geometry. The WSS vectors of each subject were interpolated onto the corresponding cohort-specific geometry to create cohort-averaged WSS maps. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to generate aortic P-value maps (P<0.05) representing regional relative WSS differences between groups. Results Cohort-averaged systolic WSS maps and P-value maps were successfully created for all cohorts and comparisons. The dilation cohort showed significantly lower WSS on 7% of the ascending aorta surface, whereas the stenosis cohort showed significantly higher WSS aorta on 34% the ascending aorta surface. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrated the feasibility of generating cohort-averaged WSS maps for the visualization and identification of regionally altered WSS in the presence of disease, as compared to healthy controls. PMID:24753241

  3. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta promotes reversal of multiple metabolic abnormalities, reduces oxidative stress, and increases fatty acid oxidation in moderately obese men.

    PubMed

    Risérus, Ulf; Sprecher, Dennis; Johnson, Tony; Olson, Eric; Hirschberg, Sandra; Liu, Aixue; Fang, Zeke; Hegde, Priti; Richards, Duncan; Sarov-Blat, Leli; Strum, Jay C; Basu, Samar; Cheeseman, Jane; Fielding, Barbara A; Humphreys, Sandy M; Danoff, Theodore; Moore, Niall R; Murgatroyd, Peter; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Sutton, Pauline; Willson, Tim; Hassall, David; Frayn, Keith N; Karpe, Fredrik

    2008-02-01

    Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. The PPARdelta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), a comparator PPARalpha agonist (20 mug o.d. GW590735), and placebo were given in a double-blind, randomized, three-parallel group, 2-week study to six healthy moderately overweight subjects in each group. Metabolic evaluation was made before and after treatment including liver fat quantification, fasting blood samples, a 6-h meal tolerance test with stable isotope fatty acids, skeletal muscle biopsy for gene expression, and urinary isoprostanes for global oxidative stress. Treatment with GW501516 showed statistically significant reductions in fasting plasma triglycerides (-30%), apolipoprotein B (-26%), LDL cholesterol (-23%), and insulin (-11%), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. A 20% reduction in liver fat content (P < 0.05) and 30% reduction in urinary isoprostanes (P = 0.01) were also observed. Except for a lowering of triglycerides (-30%, P < 0.05), none of these changes were observed in response to GW590735. The relative proportion of exhaled CO(2) directly originating from the fat content of the meal was increased (P < 0.05) in response to GW501516, and skeletal muscle expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1b (CPT1b) was also significantly increased. The PPARdelta agonist GW501516 reverses multiple abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome without increasing oxidative stress. The effect is probably caused by increased fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.

  4. [Stress-corrosion test of TIG welded CP-Ti].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wang, Y; Zhou, Z; Meng, X; Liang, Q; Zhang, X; Zhao, Y

    2000-12-01

    In this study TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welded CP-Ti were subjected to stress-corrosion test under 261 MPa in artificial saliva of 37 degrees C for 3 months. No significant difference was noted on mechanical test (P > 0.05). No color-changed and no micro-crack on the sample's surface yet. These results indicate that TIG welded CP-Ti offers excellent resistance to stress corrosion.

  5. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Stress Rupture Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael J.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Leifeste, Mark R.; Yoder, Tommy B.; Keddy, Chris P.; Forth, Scott C.; Russell, Rick W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports stress rupture testing of Kevlar(TradeMark) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) at NASA White Sands Test Facility. This 6-year test program was part of the larger effort to predict and extend the lifetime of flight vessels. Tests were performed to characterize control parameters for stress rupture testing, and vessel life was predicted by statistical modeling. One highly instrumented 102-cm (40-in.) diameter Kevlar(TradeMark) COPV was tested to failure (burst) as a single-point model verification. Significant data were generated that will enhance development of improved NDE methods and predictive modeling techniques, and thus better address stress rupture and other composite durability concerns that affect pressure vessel safety, reliability and mission assurance.

  6. Alternative indices of glucose homeostasis as biochemical diagnostic tests for abnormal glucose tolerance in an African setting.

    PubMed

    Kengne, Andre Pascal; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Levitt, Naomi S; Matsha, Tandi E

    2017-04-01

    Accurate diabetes diagnosis is important in Africa, where rates are increasing, and the disease largely undiagnosed. The cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) remains the reference standard, while alternative diagnostic methods are not yet established in Africans. We assessed the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c and fructosamine, to diagnose OGTT-based abnormal glucose tolerance in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Mixed-ancestry adults, residing in Cape Town were examined between February and November 2015. OGTT values were used to classify glucose tolerance status as: screen-detected diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycaemia (combination of diabetes and prediabetes) and normal glucose tolerance. Of the 793 participants included, 65 (8.2%) had screen-detected diabetes, 157 (19.8%) prediabetes and 571 (72.0%) normal glucose tolerance. Correlations of FPG and 2-h glucose with HbA1c (r=0.51 and 0.52) were higher than those with fructosamine (0.34 and 0.30), both p<0.0001. The highest c-statistic for the prediction of abnormal glucose tolerance was recorded with 2-h glucose [c-statistic=0.997 (screen-detected diabetes), 0.979 (prediabetes) and 0.984 (dysglycaemia)] and the lowest with fructosamine (0.865, 0.596 and 0.677). At recommended or data-specific optimal cut-offs, no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine did better than 2-h glucose, while FPG was better than HbA1c and fructosamine on a range of performance measures. Abnormal glucose tolerance in this population is overwhelmingly expressed through 2-h glucose's abnormalities; and no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine was effective at accurately discriminating OGTT-defined abnormal glucose tolerance. Tested non-glucose based strategies are unreliable alternatives to OGTT for dysglycaemia diagnosis in this population. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Glittre-ADL Test Cut-Off Point to Discriminate Abnormal Functional Capacity in Patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Gulart, Aline Almeida; Munari, Anelise Bauer; Klein, Suelen Roberta; Santos da Silveira, Lucas; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig

    2018-02-01

    The study objective was to determine a cut-off point for the Glittre activities of daily living (ADL)test (TGlittre) to discriminate patients with normal and abnormal functional capacity. Fifty-nine patients with moderate to very severe COPD (45 males; 65 ± 8.84 years; BMI: 26 ± 4.78 kg/m 2 ; FEV 1 : 35.3 ± 13.4% pred) were evaluated for spirometry, TGlittre, 6-minute walk test (6 MWT), physical ADL, modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC), BODE index, Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and COPD Assessment Test (CAT). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off point for TGlittre in order to discriminate patients with 6 MWT < 82% pred. The ROC curve indicated a cut-off point of 3.5 minutes for the TGlittre (sensitivity = 92%, specificity = 83%, and area under the ROC curve = 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89-0.99]). Patients with abnormal functional capacity had higher mMRC (median difference 1 point), CAT (mean difference: 4.5 points), SGRQ (mean difference: 12.1 points), and BODE (1.37 points) scores, longer time of physical activity <1.5 metabolic equivalent of task (mean difference: 47.9 minutes) and in sitting position (mean difference: 59.4 minutes) and smaller number of steps (mean difference: 1,549 minutes); p < 0.05 for all. In conclusion, the cut-off point of 3.5 minutes in the TGlittre is sensitive and specific to distinguish COPD patients with abnormal and normal functional capacity.

  8. What is the best strategy for investigating abnormal liver function tests in primary care? Implications from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lilford, Richard J; Bentham, Louise M; Armstrong, Matthew J; Neuberger, James; Girling, Alan J

    2013-06-20

    Evaluation of predictive value of liver function tests (LFTs) for the detection of liver-related disease in primary care. A prospective observational study. 11 UK primary care practices. Patients (n=1290) with an abnormal eight-panel LFT (but no previously diagnosed liver disease). Patients were investigated by recording clinical features, and repeating LFTs, specific tests for individual liver diseases, and abdominal ultrasound scan. Patients were characterised as having: hepatocellular disease; biliary disease; tumours of the hepato-biliary system and none of the above. The relationship between LFT results and disease categories was evaluated by stepwise regression and logistic discrimination, with adjustment for demographic and clinical factors. True and False Positives generated by all possible LFT combinations were compared with a view towards optimising the choice of analytes in the routine LFT panel. Regression methods showed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was associated with hepatocellular disease (32 patients), while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was associated with biliary disease (12 patients) and tumours of the hepatobiliary system (9 patients). A restricted panel of ALT and ALP was an efficient choice of analytes, comparing favourably with the complete panel of eight analytes, provided that 48 False Positives can be tolerated to obtain one additional True Positive. Repeating a complete panel in response to an abnormal reading is not the optimal strategy. The LFT panel can be restricted to ALT and ALP when the purpose of testing is to exclude liver disease in primary care.

  9. Lysyl Oxidase Induces Vascular Oxidative Stress and Contributes to Arterial Stiffness and Abnormal Elastin Structure in Hypertension: Role of p38MAPK.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; García-Redondo, Ana B; Avendaño, María S; Varona, Saray; Palao, Teresa; Orriols, Mar; Roque, Fernanda R; Fortuño, Ana; Touyz, Rhian M; Martínez-González, Jose; Salaices, Mercedes; Rodríguez, Cristina; Briones, Ana M

    2017-09-01

    Vascular stiffness, structural elastin abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress are hallmarks of hypertension. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin crosslinking enzyme that produces H 2 O 2 as a by-product. We addressed the interplay between LOX, oxidative stress, vessel stiffness, and elastin. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused hypertensive mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed increased vascular LOX expression and stiffness and an abnormal elastin structure. Mice over-expressing LOX in vascular smooth muscle cells (TgLOX) exhibited similar mechanical and elastin alterations to those of hypertensive models. LOX inhibition with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) attenuated mechanical and elastin alterations in TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and SHR. Arteries from TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and/or SHR exhibited increased vascular H 2 O 2 and O 2 .- levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. BAPN prevented the higher oxidative stress in hypertensive models. Treatment of TgLOX and Ang II-infused mice and SHR with the mitochondrial-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetic mito-TEMPO, the antioxidant apocynin, or the H 2 O 2 scavenger polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-catalase) reduced oxidative stress, vascular stiffness, and elastin alterations. Vascular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation was increased in Ang II-infused and TgLOX mice and this effect was prevented by BAPN, mito-TEMPO, or PEG-catalase. SB203580, the p38MAPK inhibitor, normalized vessel stiffness and elastin structure in TgLOX mice. We identify LOX as a novel source of vascular reactive oxygen species and a new pathway involved in vascular stiffness and elastin remodeling in hypertension. LOX up-regulation is associated with enhanced oxidative stress that promotes p38MAPK activation, elastin structural alterations, and vascular stiffness. This pathway contributes to vascular abnormalities in hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27

  10. Addition of right-sided and posterior precordial leads during stress testing.

    PubMed

    Shry, Eric A; Eckart, Robert E; Furgerson, James L; Stajduhar, Karl C; Krasuski, Richard A

    2003-12-01

    Exercise treadmill testing has limited sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease, frequently requiring the addition of imaging modalities to enhance the predictive value of the test. Recently, there has been interest in using nonstandard electrocardiographic (ECG) leads during exercise testing. We consecutively enrolled all patients undergoing exercise myocardial imaging with four additional leads recorded (V4R, V7, V8, and V9). The test characteristics of the 12-lead, the 15-lead (12-lead, V7, V8, V9), and the 16-lead (12-lead, V4R, V7, V8, V9) ECGs were compared with stress imaging in all patients. In the subset of patients who underwent angiography within 60 days of stress testing, these lead arrays were compared with the catheterization findings. There were 727 subjects who met entry criteria. The mean age was 58.5 +/- 12.3 years, and 366 (50.3%) were women. Pretest probability for disease was high in 241 (33.1%), intermediate in 347 (47.7%), and low in 139 (19.1%). A total of 166 subjects had an abnormal 12-lead ECG during exercise. The addition of 3 posterior leads to the standard 12-lead ECG resulted in 7 additional subjects having an abnormal electrocardiographic response to exercise. The addition of V4R resulted in only 1 additional patient having an abnormal ECG during exercise. The sensitivity of the ECG for detecting ischemia as determined by stress imaging was 36.6%, 39.2%, and 40.0% (P = NS) for the 12-lead, 15-lead, and 16-lead ECGs, respectively. In those with catheterization data (n = 123), the sensitivity for determining obstructive coronary artery disease was 43.5%, 45.2%, and 45.2% (P = NS) for the 12-lead, 15-lead, and 16-lead ECGs, respectively. The sensitivity of imaging modalities was 77.4% when compared with catheterization. In patients undergoing stress imaging studies, the addition of right-sided and posterior leads did not significantly increase the sensitivity of the ECG for the detection of myocardial ischemia

  11. Pilot Testing of the NURSE Stress Management Intervention.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Colleen; Barrere, Cynthia; Robertson, Sue; Zahourek, Rothlyn; Diaz, Desiree; Lachapelle, Leeanne

    2016-12-01

    Student nurses experience significant stress during their education, which may contribute to illness and alterations in health, poor academic performance, and program attrition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of an innovative stress management program in two baccalaureate nursing programs in Connecticut, named NURSE (Nurture nurse, Use resources, foster Resilience, Stress and Environment management), that assists nursing students to develop stress management plans. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention with 40 junior nursing students. Results from this study provide evidence that the NURSE intervention is highly feasible, and support further testing to examine the effect of the intervention in improving stress management in nursing students. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory test method that is only mildly corrosive to aluminum and discriminating for use in classifying the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys is presented along with the method used in evaluating the media selected for testing. The proposed medium is easier to prepare and less expensive than substitute ocean water.

  13. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  14. Safety of a rapid diagnostic protocol with accelerated stress testing.

    PubMed

    Soremekun, Olan A; Hamedani, Azita; Shofer, Frances S; O'Conor, Katie J; Svenson, James; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-02-01

    Most patients at low to intermediate risk for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receive a 12- to 24-hour "rule out." Recently, trials have found that a coronary computed tomographic angiography-based strategy is more efficient. If stress testing were performed within the same time frame as coronary computed tomographic angiography, the 2 strategies would be more similar. We tested the hypothesis that stress testing can safely be performed within several hours of presentation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients presenting to a university hospital from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, with potential ACS. Patients placed in a clinical pathway that performed stress testing after 2 negative troponin values 2 hours apart were included. We excluded patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or with an elevated initial troponin. The main outcome was safety of immediate stress testing defined as the absence of death or acute myocardial infarction (defined as elevated troponin within 24 hours after the test). A total of 856 patients who presented with potential ACS were enrolled in the clinical pathway and included in this study. Patients had a median age of 55.0 (interquartile range, 48-62) years. Chest pain was the chief concern in 86%, and pain was present on arrival in 73% of the patients. There were no complications observed during the stress test. There were 0 deaths (95% confidence interval, 0%-0.46%) and 4 acute myocardial infarctions within 24 hours (0.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0.14%-1.27%). The peak troponins were small (0.06, 0.07, 0.07, and 0.19 ng/mL). Patients who present to the ED with potential ACS can safely undergo a rapid diagnostic protocol with stress testing. © 2013.

  15. Which is Superior, Doppler Velocimetry or Non-stress Test or Both in Predicting the Perinatal Outcome of High-Risk Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Vijaya; Venkat, Janani; Dhanapal, Mohana

    2016-10-01

    To analyze which is superior, Doppler velocimetry or non-stress test or both by means of categorization into four groups and comparing the prediction of perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancies. This was a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISO KGH, Madras Medical College, Chennai, in the year 2014. Two hundred high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were included in the study. They were examined systematically, and Doppler velocimetry and non-stress test were done. The main vessels studied by Doppler were umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery, and the indices were calculated. The results of the non-stress test were interpreted as reactive and non-reactive. Based on the results of Doppler and non-stress test, the 200 cases were categorized into four groups and the results were analyzed. Among the 200 cases of high-risk pregnancies, those with a normal Doppler study and a reactive non-stress test had good perinatal outcome. When both were abnormal, there was a higher percentage of adverse outcome as compared to that of either Doppler alone being abnormal or non-stress test alone being non-reactive. It was also found that abnormal Doppler but with a reactive non-stress test had the advantage of prolonging the pregnancy and bringing a better outcome indicating that non-stress test is surely a good test of well-being. When Doppler was normal, but non-stress test was non-reactive, there was an increase in the rate of cesarean section. Each method of fetal surveillance reflects different aspect of maternal and fetal pathophysiology. Hence, combining these will help to bring out better perinatal outcome.

  16. Increased sensitivity of prolonged P-wave during exercise stress test in detection of angiographically documented coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Wsol, Agnieszka; Wydra, Wioletta; Chmielewski, Marek; Swiatowiec, Andrzej; Kuch, Marek

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective study was designed to investigate P-wave duration changes in exercise stress test (EST) for the prediction of angiographically documented substantial coronary artery disease (CAD). We analyzed 265 cases of patients, who underwent EST and subsequently coronary angiography. Analysis of P-wave duration was performed in leads II, V5 at rest, and in the recovery period. The sensitivity and specificity for the isolated ST-segment depression were only 31% and 76%, respectively. The combination of ST-depression with other exercise-induced clinical and electrocardio-graphic abnormalities (chest pain, ventricular arrhythmia, hypotension, left bundle branch block) was characterized by 41% sensitivity and 69% specificity. The combination of abnormal recovery P-wave duration (≥ 120 ms) with ST-depression and other exercise-induced abnormalities had 83% sensitivity but only 20% specificity. Combined analysis of increased delta P-wave duration, ST-depression and other exercise-induced abnormalities had 69% sensitivity and 42% specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of the increase in delta P-wave duration for left CAD was 69% and 47%, respectively, and for 3-vessel CAD 70% and 50%, respectively. The presence of arterial hypertension negatively influenced the prog-nostic value of P-wave changes in the stress test. The results of the study show that an addition of P-wave duration changes assessment to ST-depression analysis and other exercise-induced abnormalities increase sensitivity of EST, especially for left CAD and 3-vessel coronary disease. We have also provided evidence for the negative influence of the presence of arterial hypertension on the predictive value of P-wave changes in the stress test. (Cardiol J 2017; 24, 2: 159-166).

  17. Ventilatory abnormalities in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing the submaximal treadmill exercise test.

    PubMed

    Parazzi, Paloma Lopes Francisco; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; de Almeida, Celize Cruz Bresciani; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Schivinski, Camila Isabel Santos; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu

    2015-05-19

    Exercise has been studied as a prognostic marker for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as a tool for improving their quality of life and analyzing lung disease. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare variables of lung functioning. Our data included: (i) volumetric capnography (VCAP) parameters: expiratory minute volume (VE), volume of exhaled carbon dioxide (VCO2), VE/VCO2, ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2); (ii) spirometry parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), percent forced expiratory volume in the first second of the FVC (FEV1%), and FEV1/FVC%; and (iii) cardiorespiratory parameters: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and Borg scale rating at rest and during exercise. The subjects comprised children, adolescents, and young adults aged 6-25 years with CF (CF group [CFG]) and without CF (control group [CG]). This was a clinical, prospective, controlled study involving 128 male and female patients (64 with CF) of a university hospital. All patients underwent treadmill exercise tests and provided informed consent after study approval by the institutional ethics committee. Linear regression, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney test were performed to compare the CFG and CG. The α value was set at 0.05. Patients in the CFG showed significantly different VCAP values and spirometry variables throughout the exercise test. Before, during, and after exercise, several variables were different between the two groups; statistically significant differences were seen in the spirometry parameters, SpO2, HR, VCO2, VE/VCO2, PetCO2, and Borg scale rating. VCAP variables changed at each time point analyzed during the exercise test in both groups. VCAP can be used to analyze ventilatory parameters during exercise. All cardiorespiratory, spirometry, and VCAP variables differed between patients in the CFG and CG before, during, and after exercise.

  18. Parental decisions to abort or continue a pregnancy with an abnormal finding after an invasive prenatal test.

    PubMed

    Zlotogora, Joël

    2002-12-01

    To determine the importance of various factors on the decisions whether to terminate or continue a pregnancy after an abnormal result. The decisions of 1467 women who had an abnormal result after an invasive prenatal test were examined according to their religion, the time of diagnosis and the severity of the disorder. When the examinations were performed by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) among both Jews and non-Jews most of the women opted to terminate the affected pregnancy. After amniocentesis the rate of termination of pregnancy was still very high among cases in which Down syndrome or other significant chromosomal aberrations were diagnosed among Jews. For all the other diagnostic groups either among Jews or non-Jews there was a significant proportion of the cases in which the women decided to continue the pregnancy. A significant exception about the decisions of the couples was in the case of hemoglobinopathy-affected pregnancies among Arabs since both after CVS and amniocentesis many women often decided to continue the pregnancy. The main factor in the decision to terminate or continue the pregnancy is the severity of the disorder diagnosed. However, among Arabs other factors are important, in particular the time at which the diagnosis is made. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cannabinoids & Stress: impact of HU-210 on behavioral tests of anxiety in acutely stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Kinden, Renee; Zhang, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent classes of mental disorders affecting the general population, but current treatment strategies are restricted by their limited efficacy and side effect profiles. Although the cannabinoid system is speculated to be a key player in the modulation of stress responses and emotionality, the vast majority of current research initiatives had not incorporated stress exposure into their experimental designs. This study was the first to investigate the impact of exogenous cannabinoid administration in an acutely stressed mouse model, where CD1 mice were pre-treated with HU-210, a potent CB1R agonist, prior to acute stress exposure and subsequent behavioral testing. Exogenous cannabinoid administration induced distinct behavioral phenotypes in stressed and unstressed mice. While low doses of HU-210 were anxiolytic in unstressed subjects, this effect was abolished when mice were exposed to an acute stressor. The administration of higher HU-210 doses in combination with acute stress exposure led to severe locomotor deficits that were not previously observed at the same dose in unstressed subjects. These findings suggest that exogenous cannabinoids and acute stress act synergistically in an anxiogenic manner. This study underlies the importance of including stress exposure into future anxiety-cannabinoid research due to the differential impact of cannabinoid administration on stressed and unstressed subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Elimination of Potential Electrical Stress During EMC (CS01) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Kenneth P.; Whittlesey, Albert C.; Vorperian, Vatche

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews possible ways to eliminate electrical stress during Electromagneticic Compatibility (EMC) testing. The presentation reviews tests that have had problems due to electrical stress. On December 5, 1995 Cassini Radar instrument failed a functional test in preparation for EMC conducted susceptibility (CSO 1 ) testing. The instrument power supply did not turn on as required, and failure occurred prior to injection of CS test stimulus. A investigation of the failure was conducted. A PSPICE simulation of Cassini Radar 30V line using the EMC test setup was performed; the result of the simulation was an oscillation on the 30V input of the power supply. In another case: on December 28, 1999 an oscillation occurred on the input power line of the SlRTF Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) while preparing to perform CSOI testing, Resulted in damage to flight hardware. Subsequent to failure, JPL provided GSFC history and corrective action from Cassini Radar CSOI test failure GSFC implemented the same corrective action as JPL, except that the value of the resistor connected across the isolation transformer primary winding is 2.5 ohms instead of 50 ohms. Three recommendations are made: (1) Make EMC test community aware of the problem and potential solutions by presenting papers at major environmental test conferences (2) Include warnings and safeguards in EMC test requirements and procedures (3) Try to convince EMC test equipment suppliers to design a CSOl test fixture similar to fixture shown in the diagram

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Daft, Barbara M; Barr, Bradd C; Gardner, Ian A; Read, Deryck; Bell, William; Peyser, Karen G; Ardans, Alex; Kinde, Hailu; Morrow, Jennifer K

    2002-10-01

    To determine sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing (WBT) of CSF and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. Prospective investigation. 65 horses with and 169 horses without neurologic abnormalities. CSF and serum from horses submitted for necropsy were tested for Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibody with a WBT. Results of postmortem examination were used as the gold standard against which results of the WBT were compared. Sensitivity of WBT of CSF was 87% for horses with and 88% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Specificity of WBT of CSF was 44% for horses with and 60% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Regardless of whether horses did or did not have neurologic abnormalities, sensitivity and specificity of WBT of serum were not significantly different from values for WBT of CSF. Ninety-four horses without EPM had histologic evidence of slight CNS inflammation. The low specificity of WBT of CSF indicated that it is inappropriate to diagnose EPM on the basis of a positive test result alone because of the possibility of false-positive test results. The high sensitivity, however, means that a negative result is useful in ruling out EPM. There was no advantage in testing CSF versus serum in horses without neurologic abnormalities. Slight CNS inflammation was common in horses with and without S neurona-specific antibodies in the CSF and should not be considered an indication of CNS infection with S neurona.

  2. Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725

  3. Transthoracic Coronary Flow Data at Rest Predict High-Risk Stress Tests.

    PubMed

    Zagatina, Angela; Zhuravskaya, Nadezhda; Vareldzhyan, Yuliya; Kamenskikh, Maxim; Shmatov, Dmitry; Benacka, Jozef; Kucera, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Background Several recent studies have reported the opportunity to diagnose significant narrowing of the coronary arteries without stress testing using local flow acceleration. Purpose To define how often patients with increased coronary flow velocities at rest (≥ 0.70 m/s) have a positive exercise echocardiography test. Material and Methods A total of 150 patients scheduled for exercise echocardiography were studied using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in order to assess coronary artery flow velocity before exercise. Pulsed wave Doppler registered blood flow velocity placed on the color signal. The maximal diastolic velocity of coronary flow was measured. Results Of participants, 16% had a velocity of more than 0.70 m/s in the left main/proximal left anterior/proximal left circumflex arteries (LM/pLAD). A significant correlation was observed between the value of the maximal velocity in LM/pLAD and the ejection fraction at the peak of exercise ( r ≈ -0.39, P < 0.0001); between the value of the maximal velocity in LM/pLAD and index of wall motion abnormalities (IWMA) at the peak of exercise ( r ≈ 0.44, P < 0.0001); and between the value of the maximal velocity in LM/pLAD and dIWMA ( r ≈ 0.41, P < 0.0001). Afterwards, severe ischemia in stress echocardiography tests was observed in this group. The average IWMA of these tests was found to be 2.3. Sixty-two angiograms were available for comparison with Doppler data. Conclusion There is a significant correlation between the value of the maximal velocity in LM/pLAD/pLCx at rest and the severity of wall motion abnormalities during exercise tests.

  4. Nuclear abnormalities in aspirated thyroid cells and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of residents near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Masaharu; Iida, Shozo; Tanaka, Kimio; Harada, Yuka; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Noso, Yoshihiro; Inaba, Toshiya; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru

    2006-02-01

    Chromosomal studies in peripheral lymphocytes from 63 residents near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, at ages of 52-63 years old, were performed in 2001-2002. A higher rate of chromosome aberrations was observed in the two contaminated villages, Dolon and Sarjal, compared with the control village, Kokpekti. Moreover, a relationship of frequency of cells with radiation induced chromosome aberrations and the previously estimated exposure dose was observed. Furthermore, apparent nuclear abnormalities (ANA) of thyroid follicular cells were studied in 30 out of 63 residents, who were examined for chromosome aberrations. A higher rate of ANA was also found in the residents in the exposed villages compared with those in the control village. These results suggest radiation effects both on the chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes and on the follicular cells in the thyroid.

  5. Contact integrity testing of stress-tested silicon terrestrial solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, J. L.; Lathrop, J. W.; Witter, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A test procedure was developed and applied to terrestrial silicon solar cells in order to determine the effect of accelerated environmental and time-temperature aging on metal contact integrity. Quantities of cells of four different manufacturers were given the contact integrity test after being subjected to accelerated stress tests that included forward bias-temperature, thermal cycle and thermal shock, power cycle, and bias-temperature humidity tests at two temperature-humidity levels. Significant effects due to certain stress tests were found for some cell types. It is concluded that cells fabricated using plated nickel/solder metallization showed significantly more serious contact integrity degradation than silver-metallized cells.

  6. Transistor step stress testing program for JANTX2N2484

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the transistor JANTX2N2484, manufactured by Raytheon and Teledyne was evaluated. Forty-eight samples from each manufacturer were divided equally (16 per group) into three groups and submitted to the processes outlined. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing.

  7. Oxidative stress, d-ROMs test, and ceruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Francesco; Carratelli, Mauro; Alberti, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Human serum samples were evaluated for oxidative stress with the d-ROMs test. The ceruloplasmin (CP) and copper contents of the samples was independently measured and compared to those calculated on the basis of the d-ROMs test results for pure CP solutions. The d-ROMs readings did not show any significant correlation with either the CP or copper contents of the samples. Critical interference of CP on the d-ROMs test was therefore excluded and the usefulness of the test in the evaluation of global oxidative status of a biological sample could be reassessed.

  8. Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

    2009-02-01

    In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our

  9. In vivo immunoprotective role of Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis aqueous extracts against chronic noise stress induced immune abnormalities in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Madakkannu, Boothapandi; Ravichandran, Ramanibai

    2017-01-01

    Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis are being widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Environmental noise pollution is thought to be an important factor for many health problems and it causes immune abnormalities. In the present study immune-regulating potential of I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts on innate and adaptive immune system of wistar albino rats was evaluated during normal and chronic noise induced stress conditions. The results demonstrated that both I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts (200 mg/kg b.w) showed immunostimulant effect on both innate and adaptive immune response of wistar albino rat compared to control group under normal condition. The noise stress (100 dB for 1 h, 20 days) induced animals showed suppressive effects on immune response by decreasing macrophage phagocytosis, antibody secretion by spleen cells, humoral immune response, proliferation of lymphocytes, cytotoxicity, TNF α expression, granzyme B and perforin expression in splenic NK cells. Similarly, noise stress also caused DNA damage in tissues. However, the suppressed effects induced by noise stress on rat immune system were significantly prevented by oral administration of both I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts. Considering all these results it is suggested that the selected medicinal plant's aqueous extracts have the potential to prevent the effects of noise stress induced rat immune system and explore a strong immunostimulant potential applicable to clinical practices.

  10. Testing the Predictive Power of Coulomb Stress on Aftershock Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Lombardi, A.; Werner, M. J.; Marzocchi, W.

    2009-12-01

    Empirical and statistical models of clustered seismicity are usually strongly stochastic and perceived to be uninformative in their forecasts, since only marginal distributions are used, such as the Omori-Utsu and Gutenberg-Richter laws. In contrast, so-called physics-based aftershock models, based on seismic rate changes calculated from Coulomb stress changes and rate-and-state friction, make more specific predictions: anisotropic stress shadows and multiplicative rate changes. We test the predictive power of models based on Coulomb stress changes against statistical models, including the popular Short Term Earthquake Probabilities and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequences models: We score and compare retrospective forecasts on the aftershock sequences of the 1992 Landers, USA, the 1997 Colfiorito, Italy, and the 2008 Selfoss, Iceland, earthquakes. To quantify predictability, we use likelihood-based metrics that test the consistency of the forecasts with the data, including modified and existing tests used in prospective forecast experiments within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Our results indicate that a statistical model performs best. Moreover, two Coulomb model classes seem unable to compete: Models based on deterministic Coulomb stress changes calculated from a given fault-slip model, and those based on fixed receiver faults. One model of Coulomb stress changes does perform well and sometimes outperforms the statistical models, but its predictive information is diluted, because of uncertainties included in the fault-slip model. Our results suggest that models based on Coulomb stress changes need to incorporate stochastic features that represent model and data uncertainty.

  11. Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress Rupture Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS Main Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress rupture, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress rupture life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress rupture model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress rupture life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information

  12. Lysyl Oxidase Induces Vascular Oxidative Stress and Contributes to Arterial Stiffness and Abnormal Elastin Structure in Hypertension: Role of p38MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; García-Redondo, Ana B.; Avendaño, María S.; Varona, Saray; Palao, Teresa; Orriols, Mar; Roque, Fernanda R.; Fortuño, Ana; Touyz, Rhian M.; Martínez-González, Jose; Salaices, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Vascular stiffness, structural elastin abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress are hallmarks of hypertension. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin crosslinking enzyme that produces H2O2 as a by-product. We addressed the interplay between LOX, oxidative stress, vessel stiffness, and elastin. Results: Angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused hypertensive mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed increased vascular LOX expression and stiffness and an abnormal elastin structure. Mice over-expressing LOX in vascular smooth muscle cells (TgLOX) exhibited similar mechanical and elastin alterations to those of hypertensive models. LOX inhibition with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) attenuated mechanical and elastin alterations in TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and SHR. Arteries from TgLOX mice, Ang II-infused mice, and/or SHR exhibited increased vascular H2O2 and O2.− levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. BAPN prevented the higher oxidative stress in hypertensive models. Treatment of TgLOX and Ang II-infused mice and SHR with the mitochondrial-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetic mito-TEMPO, the antioxidant apocynin, or the H2O2 scavenger polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-catalase) reduced oxidative stress, vascular stiffness, and elastin alterations. Vascular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation was increased in Ang II-infused and TgLOX mice and this effect was prevented by BAPN, mito-TEMPO, or PEG-catalase. SB203580, the p38MAPK inhibitor, normalized vessel stiffness and elastin structure in TgLOX mice. Innovation: We identify LOX as a novel source of vascular reactive oxygen species and a new pathway involved in vascular stiffness and elastin remodeling in hypertension. Conclusion: LOX up-regulation is associated with enhanced oxidative stress that promotes p38MAPK activation, elastin structural alterations, and vascular stiffness. This pathway contributes to vascular abnormalities in

  13. The Ohio Patient Navigation Research Program: does the American Cancer Society patient navigation model improve time to resolution in patients with abnormal screening tests?

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra D; Katz, Mira L; Post, Douglas M; Pennell, Michael L; Young, Gregory S; Seiber, Eric E; Harrop, J Phil; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Tatum, Cathy M; Dean, Julie A; Murray, David M

    2012-10-01

    Patient navigation (PN) has been suggested as a way to reduce cancer health disparities; however, many models of PN exist and most have not been carefully evaluated. The goal of this study was to test the Ohio American Cancer Society model of PN as it relates to reducing time to diagnostic resolution among persons with abnormal breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening tests or symptoms. A total of 862 patients from 18 clinics participated in this group-randomized trial. Chart review documented the date of the abnormality and the date of resolution. The primary analysis used shared frailty models to test for the effect of PN on time to resolution. Crude HR were reported as there was no evidence of confounding. HRs became significant at 6 months; conditional on the random clinic effect, the resolution rate at 15 months was 65% higher in the PN arm (P = 0.012 for difference in resolution rate across arms; P = 0.009 for an increase in the HR over time). Participants with abnormal cancer screening tests or symptoms resolved faster if assigned to PN compared with those not assigned to PN. The effect of PN became apparent beginning six months after detection of the abnormality. PN may help address health disparities by reducing time to resolution after an abnormal cancer screening test. 2012 AACR

  14. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs-10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  15. Stress Testing of Organic Light- Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Lynn; Rountree, Kelley; Mills, Karmann

    This report builds on previous DOE efforts with OLED technology by updating information on a previously benchmarked OLED product (the Chalina luminaire from Acuity Brands) and provides new benchmarks on the performance of Brite 2 and Brite Amber OLED panels from OLEDWorks. During the tests described here, samples of these devices were subjected to continuous operation in stress tests at elevated ambient temperature environments of 35°C or 45°C. In addition, samples were also operated continuously at room temperature in a room temperature operational life test (RTOL). One goal of this study was to investigate whether these test conditions can acceleratemore » failure of OLED panels, either through panel shorting or an open circuit in the panel. These stress tests are shown to provide meaningful acceleration of OLED failure modes, and an acceleration factor of 2.6 was calculated at 45°C for some test conditions. In addition, changes in the photometric properties of the emitted light (e.g., luminous flux and chromaticity maintenance) was also evaluated for insights into the long-term stability of these products compared to earlier generations. Because OLEDs are a lighting system, electrical testing was also performed on the panel-driver pairs to provide insights into the impact of the driver on long-term panel performance.« less

  16. Prophylactic plasma transfusion for surgical patients with abnormal preoperative coagulation tests: a single-institution propensity-adjusted cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qing; Brown, Michael J; Clifford, Leanne; Wilson, Gregory A; Truty, Mark J; Stubbs, James R; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Gajic, Ognjen; Kor, Daryl J

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative haemorrhage negatively affects patient outcomes and results in substantial consumption of health-care resources. Plasma transfusions are often administered to address abnormal preoperative coagulation tests, with the hope to mitigate bleeding complications. We aimed to assess the associations between preoperative plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in patients with elevated international normalised ratio (INR) undergoing non-cardiac surgery. We did an observational study in a consecutive sample of adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery with preoperative INR greater than or equal to 1·5. The exposure of interest was transfusion of preoperative plasma for elevated INR. The primary outcome was WHO grade 3 bleeding in the early perioperative period (from entry into the operating room until 24 h following exit from operating room). Hypotheses were tested with univariate and propensity-matched analyses. We did multiple sensitivity analyses to further evaluate the robustness of study findings. Between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2011, we identified 1234 (8·4%) of 14 743 patients who had an INR of 1·5 or above and were included in this investigation. Of 1234 study participants, 139 (11%) received a preoperative plasma transfusion. WHO grade 3 bleeding occurred in 73 (53%) of 139 patients who received preoperative plasma compared with 350 (32%) of 1095 patients who did not (odds ratio [OR] 2·35, 95% CI 1·65-3·36; p<0·0001). Among the propensity-matched cohort, 65 (52%) of 125 plasma recipients had WHO grade 3 bleeding compared with 97 (40%) of 242 of those who did not receive preoperative plasma (OR 1·75, 95% CI 1·09-2·81; p=0·021). Results from multiple sensitivity analyses were qualitatively similar. Preoperative plasma transfusion for elevated international normalised ratios was associated with an increased frequency of perioperative bleeding complications. Findings were robust in the sensitivity analyses, suggestive that more

  17. A review of research trends in physiological abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: immune dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, D A; Frye, R E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated physiological and metabolic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other psychiatric disorders, particularly immune dysregulation or inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures (‘four major areas'). The aim of this study was to determine trends in the literature on these topics with respect to ASD. A comprehensive literature search from 1971 to 2010 was performed in these four major areas in ASD with three objectives. First, publications were divided by several criteria, including whether or not they implicated an association between the physiological abnormality and ASD. A large percentage of publications implicated an association between ASD and immune dysregulation/inflammation (416 out of 437 publications, 95%), oxidative stress (all 115), mitochondrial dysfunction (145 of 153, 95%) and toxicant exposures (170 of 190, 89%). Second, the strength of evidence for publications in each area was computed using a validated scale. The strongest evidence was for immune dysregulation/inflammation and oxidative stress, followed by toxicant exposures and mitochondrial dysfunction. In all areas, at least 45% of the publications were rated as providing strong evidence for an association between the physiological abnormalities and ASD. Third, the time trends in the four major areas were compared with trends in neuroimaging, neuropathology, theory of mind and genetics (‘four comparison areas'). The number of publications per 5-year block in all eight areas was calculated in order to identify significant changes in trends. Prior to 1986, only 12 publications were identified in the four major areas and 51 in the four comparison areas (42 for genetics). For each 5-year period, the total number of publications in the eight combined areas increased progressively. Most publications (552 of 895, 62%) in the four major areas were published in the last 5 years (2006–2010). Evaluation

  18. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Residual Stress Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah; Tate, LaNetra C.; Danley, Susan; Sampson, Jeff; Taylor, Brian; Miller, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7 /Bismalieimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the residual stress of the materials.

  20. Abnormal adaptations to stress and impaired cardiovascular function in mice lacking corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Coste, S C; Kesterson, R A; Heldwein, K A; Stevens, S L; Heard, A D; Hollis, J H; Murray, S E; Hill, J K; Pantely, G A; Hohimer, A R; Hatton, D C; Phillips, T J; Finn, D A; Low, M J; Rittenberg, M B; Stenzel, P; Stenzel-Poore, M P

    2000-04-01

    The actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), a mediator of endocrine and behavioural responses to stress, and the related hormone urocortin (Ucn) are coordinated by two receptors, Crhr1 (encoded by Crhr) and Crhr2. These receptors may exhibit distinct functions due to unique tissue distribution and pharmacology. Crhr-null mice have defined central functions for Crhr1 in anxiety and neuroendocrine stress responses. Here we generate Crhr2-/- mice and show that Crhr2 supplies regulatory features to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) stress response. Although initiation of the stress response appears to be normal, Crhr2-/- mice show early termination of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth) release, suggesting that Crhr2 is involved in maintaining HPA drive. Crhr2 also appears to modify the recovery phase of the HPA response, as corticosterone levels remain elevated 90 minutes after stress in Crhr2-/- mice. In addition, stress-coping behaviours associated with dearousal are reduced in Crhr2-/- mice. We also demonstrate that Crhr2 is essential for sustained feeding suppression (hypophagia) induced by Ucn. Feeding is initially suppressed in Crhr2-/- mice following Ucn, but Crhr2-/- mice recover more rapidly and completely than do wild-type mice. In addition to central nervous system effects, we found that, in contrast to wild-type mice, Crhr2-/- mice fail to show the enhanced cardiac performance or reduced blood pressure associated with systemic Ucn, suggesting that Crhr2 mediates these peripheral haemodynamic effects. Moreover, Crhr2-/- mice have elevated basal blood pressure, demonstrating that Crhr2 participates in cardiovascular homeostasis. Our results identify specific responses in the brain and periphery that involve Crhr2.

  1. Noninvasive stress testing - Methodology for elimination of the phonocardiogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spodick, D. H.; Lance, V. Q.

    1976-01-01

    Measurement by systolic time intervals (STI) of cardiac responses requires extremely careful recording during actual stress test performance. Previous work indicated no significant changes in the pulse transmission time (PTT) during exercise and other challenges. Since external STI depend on the carotid pulse offset by the PTT as an aortic curve equivalent, stable PTT implies that timing of the carotid upstroke and the carotid incisura would respectively track the pre-ejection period and the aortic incisura. In ten subjects, STIs were recorded at supine rest, sitting, standing, during prompt and sustained squatting and during isometric and dynamic exercise. The results demonstrated the tracking of both points. Coefficients of correlation and of determination were uniformly high for all challenges except isometric handgrip (IHG). Since left ventricular ejection time is obtained directly from the pulse curve, with the exception of IHG, STI responses during stress testing can be measured without a phonocardiogram.

  2. 78 FR 9633 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... design for stress testing that would be used in connection with the supervisory and company-run stress...) requesting public comment on a policy statement on the approach to scenario design for stress testing that...

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Characterizing artifacts in RR stress test time series.

    PubMed

    Astudillo-Salinas, Fabian; Palacio-Baus, Kenneth; Solano-Quinde, Lizandro; Medina, Ruben; Wong, Sara

    2016-08-01

    Electrocardiographic stress test records have a lot of artifacts. In this paper we explore a simple method to characterize the amount of artifacts present in unprocessed RR stress test time series. Four time series classes were defined: Very good lead, Good lead, Low quality lead and Useless lead. 65 ECG, 8 lead, records of stress test series were analyzed. Firstly, RR-time series were annotated by two experts. The automatic methodology is based on dividing the RR-time series in non-overlapping windows. Each window is marked as noisy whenever it exceeds an established standard deviation threshold (SDT). Series are classified according to the percentage of windows that exceeds a given value, based upon the first manual annotation. Different SDT were explored. Results show that SDT close to 20% (as a percentage of the mean) provides the best results. The coincidence between annotators classification is 70.77% whereas, the coincidence between the second annotator and the automatic method providing the best matches is larger than 63%. Leads classified as Very good leads and Good leads could be combined to improve automatic heartbeat labeling.

  5. Relations among Detection of Syllable Stress, Speech Abnormalities, and Communicative Ability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargas, Niko; López, Beatriz; Morris, Paul; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To date, the literature on perception of affective, pragmatic, and grammatical prosody abilities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been sparse and contradictory. It is interesting to note that the primary perception of syllable stress within the word structure, which is crucial for all prosody functions, remains relatively unexplored…

  6. Associations of an abnormal Pap test result with attitudes and beliefs relevant to cervical cancer: a study of rural Appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Vanderpool, Robin; Jones, Cissi

    2016-07-01

    To compare women who recall being informed of an abnormal Pap to those not having this experience relative to attitudes and beliefs pertaining to screening for cervical cancer. Four hundred women were recruited from eight rural Appalachian counties, in 2013 and 2014. Women completed a paper-and-pencil survey after providing written informed consent. Bivariate associations and age-adjusted associations were calculated between the self-reported experience of being told of an abnormal Pap test result and eight attitudes/beliefs relative to the prevention of cervical cancer. Data analyses were performed in 2014. The mean age was 40.2 years (range 30-64 years). Eighteen women chose not to answer the question asking about ever having an abnormal Pap test result, leaving n = 382. Of the 382 women who did answer, 122 (30.6 %) indicated having an abnormal Pap test result and the remaining 260 (65.2 %) indicated never having this experience. With the exception of one item assessing knowledge that HPV is the cause of cervical cancer, between-group differences in attitudes, beliefs, and intent to have a Pap test the next time one is due were not observed. Although we hypothesized that women ever having an abnormal Pap test may have actively sought to learn more about cervical cancer and its prevention, findings suggest that this is not the case. Informing women of an abnormal result could be coupled with a high-intensity counseling designed to improve attitudes and beliefs relative to women's role in protecting themselves from cervical cancer.

  7. Terahertz NDE of Stressed Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels - Initial Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Anatasi, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz radiation nondestructive evaluation was applied to a set of Kevlar composite overwrapped pressure vessel bottles that had undergone a series of thermal and pressure tests to simulate stress rupture effects. The bottles in these nondestructive evaluation tests were bottles that had not ruptured but had survived various times at the elevated load and temperature levels. Some of the bottles showed evidence of minor composite failures. The terahertz radiation did detect visible surface flaws, but did not detect any internal chemical or material degradation of the thin overwraps.

  8. Accelerated stress testing of amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoddard, W. G.; Davis, C. W.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for performing accelerated stress tests of large-area thin a-Si solar cells is presented. A computer-controlled short-interval test system employing low-cost ac-powered ELH illumination and a simulated a-Si reference cell (seven individually bandpass-filtered zero-biased crystalline PIN photodiodes) calibrated to the response of an a-Si control cell is described and illustrated with flow diagrams, drawings, and graphs. Preliminary results indicate that while most tests of a program developed for c-Si cells are applicable to a-Si cells, spurious degradation may appear in a-Si cells tested at temperatures above 130 C.

  9. Stress Analysis and Permeability Testing of Cryogenic Composite Feed Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1999-01-01

    For the next generation Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the use of advanced composite materials is highly desirable and critical to the success of the mission. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with the aerospace industry for many years to develop and demonstrate the cryogenic composite propellant tanks and feed lines technologies. A 50.8-mm diameter composite feed line for the Clipper Graham (DCY.A) was developed and tested. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the LH2 permeability, composite to composite and metal joints, as well as composite flange interface of the composite feed line. Stress analysis and permeability testing have been performed on this article. Recently, a larger composite feed line design is being investigated and developed at MSFC for potential use in future RLV. The diameter of the feed line is 203 mm and the overall length is approximately 2.2 meters. This one piece unlined feed line consists of three straight tubular sections joined by two 90 degree elbows. The material chosen is IM7/977-3 prepreg fabric. The lay-up pattern is [0/90, plus or minus 45]s and is built up to 18 plies to the flanges at both ends. A preliminary stress analysis has been conducted to identify potential critical stresses and to develop the finite element analysis (FEA) capability of composite feed lines. As expected, the critical stresses occurred at the rims of some flange holes and the onset of the tapered tubular sections. Further analysis is required to determine the loads, flange deflection, vibration, and combined maximum loads. Two permeability-testing apparatuses were also designed for both flat panel specimens and curved feed line sections after impact damage. A larger permeant gas exposed area is required to accurately determine the effect of impact damage on the permeability of the feed line materials. The flat panel tester was fabricated and assembled. Three test coupons were made of graphite

  10. Real-time myocardial perfusion imaging for pharmacologic stress testing: added value to single photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Dubart, Alain-Eric; DaSilva, K Gaspar C; Labadze, Nino; Hardt, Stefan; Hansen, Alexander; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Zugck, Christian; Zehelein, Joerg; Katus, Hugo A; Kuecherer, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the incremental value of real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) as an adjunct to pharmacologic stress testing. This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of MCE to detect abnormal myocardial perfusion by technetium Tc 99m sestamibi-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and anatomically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) by angiography. Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed at rest and during vasodilator stress in consecutive patients (N = 120) undergoing SPECT imaging for known or suspected CAD. Myocardial opacification, wall motion, and tracer uptake were visually analyzed in 12 myocardial segments by 2 pairs of blinded observers. Concordance between the 2 methods was assessed using the kappa statistic. Of 1356 segments, 1025 (76%) were interpretable by MCE, wall motion, and SPECT. Sensitivity of wall motion was 75%, specificity 83%, and accuracy 81% for detecting abnormal myocardial perfusion by SPECT (kappa = 0.53). Myocardial contrast echocardiography and wall motion together yielded significantly higher sensitivity (85% vs 74%, P < .05), specificity of 83%, and accuracy of 85% (kappa = 0.64) for the detection of abnormal myocardial perfusion. In 89 patients who underwent coronary angiography, MCE and wall motion together yielded higher sensitivity (83% vs 64%, P < .05) and accuracy (77% vs 68%, P < .05) but similar specificity (72%) compared with SPECT for the detection of high-grade, stenotic (> or = 75%) coronary lesions. Assessment of myocardial perfusion adds value to conventional stress echocardiography by increasing its sensitivity for the detection of functionally abnormal myocardial perfusion. Myocardial contrast echocardiography and wall motion together provide higher sensitivity and accuracy for detection of CAD compared with SPECT.

  11. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  12. A Randomized Comparative Study Evaluating Various Cough Stress Tests and 24-Hour Pad Test with Urodynamics in the Diagnosis of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Joseph W; Kane, Sarah M; Mangel, Jeffrey M; Kikano, Elias G; Garibay, Jorge A; Pollard, Robert R; Mahajan, Sangeeta T; Debanne, Sara M; Hijaz, Adonis K

    2018-06-01

    The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  14. 78 FR 59165 - Orders: Information Reporting With Respect to Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Respect to Stress Testing of Regulated Entities AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Orders... stress tests to determine whether the companies have the capital necessary to absorb losses as a result... stress testing. FHFA anticipates supplementing the rule annually with Orders that provide test scenarios...

  15. Testing stress shadowing effects at the South American subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, F.; Dahm, T.; Hainzl, S.

    2017-11-01

    The seismic gap hypothesis assumes that a characteristic earthquake is followed by a long period with a reduced occurrence probability for the next large event on the same fault segment, as a consequence of the induced stress shadow. The gap model is commonly accepted by geologists and is often used for time-dependent seismic hazard estimations. However, systematic and rigorous tests to verify the seismic gap model have often failed so far, which might be partially related to limited data and too tight model assumptions. In this study, we relax the assumption of a characteristic size and location of repeating earthquakes and analyse one of the best available data sets, namely the historical record of major earthquakes along a 3000 km long linear segment of the South American subduction zone. To test whether a stress shadow effect is observable, we compiled a comprehensive catalogue of mega-thrust earthquakes along this plate boundary from 1520 to 2015 containing 174 earthquakes with Mw > 6.5. In our new testing approach, we analyse the time span between an earthquake and the last event that ruptured the epicentre location, where we consider the impact of the uncertainties of epicentres and rupture extensions. Assuming uniform boundary conditions along the trench, we compare the distribution of these recurrence times with simple recurrence models. We find that the distribution is in all cases almost exponentially distributed corresponding to a random (Poissonian) process; despite some tendencies for clustering of the Mw ≥ 7 events and a weak quasi-periodicity of the Mw ≥ 8 earthquakes, respectively. To verify whether the absence of a clear stress shadow signal is related to physical assumptions or data uncertainties, we perform simulations of a physics-based stochastic earthquake model considering rate and state-dependent earthquake nucleation, which are adapted to the observations with regard to the number of events, spatial extend, size distribution and

  16. Abnormalities of laboratory coagulation tests versus clinically evident coagulopathic bleeding: results from the prehospital resuscitation on helicopters study (PROHS).

    PubMed

    Chang, Ronald; Fox, Erin E; Greene, Thomas J; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Melton, Sherry M; Goodman, Michael D; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri; Yi, Misung; Johansson, Pär I; Henriksen, Hanne H; Stensballe, Jakob; Steinmetz, Jacob; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2018-04-01

    Laboratory-based evidence of coagulopathy (LC) is observed in 25-35% of trauma patients, but clinically-evident coagulopathy (CC) is not well described. Prospective observational study of adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers in 2015. Patients meeting predefined highest-risk criteria were divided into CC+ (predefined as surgeon-confirmed bleeding from uninjured sites or injured sites not controllable by sutures) or CC-. We used a mixed-effects, Poisson regression with robust error variance to test the hypothesis that abnormalities on rapid thrombelastography (r-TEG) and international normalized ratio (INR) were independently associated with CC+. Of 1,019 highest-risk patients, CC+ (n=41, 4%) were more severely injured (median ISS 32 vs 17), had evidence of LC on r-TEG and INR, received more transfused blood products at 4 hours (37 vs 0 units), and had greater 30-day mortality (59% vs 12%) than CC- (n=978, 96%). The overall incidence of LC was 39%. 30-day mortality was 22% vs 9% in those with and without LC. In two separate models, r-TEG K-time >2.5 min (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), r-TEG mA <55 mm (RR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0-3.2), platelet count <150 x 10 9 /L (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3), and INR >1.5 (RR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.3) were independently associated with CC+. A combined regression model was not generated because too few patients underwent both r-TEG and INR. CC was rare compared to LC. CC was associated with poor outcomes and impairment of both clotting factor and platelet-mediated coagulation components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging CO2 stress testing in adolescent postconcussion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mutch, W Alan C; Ellis, Michael J; Ryner, Lawrence N; Ruth Graham, M; Dufault, Brenden; Gregson, Brian; Hall, Thomas; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James; Mikulis, David J

    2016-09-01

    OBJECT A neuroimaging assessment tool to visualize global and regional impairments in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular responsiveness in individual patients with concussion remains elusive. Here the authors summarize the safety, feasibility, and results of brain CO2 stress testing in adolescents with postconcussion syndrome (PCS) and healthy controls. METHODS This study was approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Board at the University of Manitoba. Fifteen adolescents with PCS and 17 healthy control subjects underwent anatomical MRI, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI, and brain stress testing using controlled CO2 challenge and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI. Post hoc processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping to determine voxel-by-voxel regional resting CBF and cerebrovascular responsiveness of the brain to the CO2 stimulus (increase in BOLD signal) or the inverse (decrease in BOLD signal). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to compare voxel counts categorized by control (0) or PCS (1). RESULTS Studies were well tolerated without any serious adverse events. Anatomical MRI was normal in all study participants. No differences in CO2 stimuli were seen between the 2 participant groups. No group differences in global mean CBF were detected between PCS patients and healthy controls. Patient-specific differences in mean regional CBF and CO2 BOLD responsiveness were observed in all PCS patients. The ROC curve analysis for brain regions manifesting a voxel response greater than and less than the control atlas (that is, abnormal voxel counts) produced an area under the curve of 0.87 (p < 0.0001) and 0.80 (p = 0.0003), respectively, consistent with a clinically useful predictive model. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent PCS is associated with patient-specific abnormalities in regional mean CBF and BOLD cerebrovascular responsiveness that occur in the setting of normal global resting CBF. Future prospective

  18. Thyroid function testing in primary care: overused and under-evidenced? A study examining which clinical features correspond to an abnormal thyroid function result.

    PubMed

    Werhun, Alexander; Hamilton, William

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic testing is increasing in primary care, including for thyroid disease. This study examined which clinical features were associated with an abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) result. This was a cross-sectional study in one general practice of 16,487 patients in Exeter, Devon, UK. We examined the primary care records relating to every TSH test taken in the year from August 2012, and extracted symptoms and/or the indication for testing. Associations with an abnormal result were tested using multivariable logistic regression. A cohort study was then performed of 100 patients newly recorded with each of the six features associated with an abnormal test result in the cross-sectional study, and the proportions tested for TSH and the results of that testing identified. Two thousand thirty-five patients (12% of the practice population) had TSH testing in the year. Of these 35 (1.7%) had a TSH >4.5 mIU/l, suggesting hypothyroidism, and 7 (0.3%) had TSH <0.01 mIu/l suggesting hyperthyroidism. Features associated with an abnormal TSH were: pregnancy, odds ratio 41 (95% confidence interval 9.3-180), constipation 9.7 (2.1-45), palpitations 23 (3.4-150), hair loss, 21 (2.0-230), weight gain, 18 (1.6-190) and diarrhoea, 13 (1.2-130); in separate analyses only pregnancy and constipation were associated with a raised TSH, and the remaining four features with a low TSH. The diagnostic yield of thyroid disease in this study was 2.1% suggests testing could be better targeted without missing diagnoses. The symptoms associated with thyroid disease differ from those generally reported. This may represent fewer patients presenting with advanced disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Myocardial imaging with 99mTc-Tetrofosmin: Influence of post-stress acquisition time, regional radiotracer uptake, and wall motion abnormalities on the clinical result.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette; Casagranda, Mirta; Tagliavia, Irene D'Aragona; Marzullo, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that early (15', T1) post-stress myocardial imaging with Tetrofosmin could be more accurate than standard acquisitions (45', T2) in identifying coronary artery disease. To clarify this phenomenon, 120 subjects (age 61 +/- 10 years) with both T1 and T2 scans were divided into Group 1 (53/120 pts) with more ischemia at T1 vs T2 imaging (T1-T2SDS > or = 3); Group 2 (67/120 pts) with similar results (T1-T2SDS < or = 2). Myocardial areas were categorized as control nonischemic, ischemic, and scarred on the basis of perfusion/contraction properties and coronary anatomy. In each area, regional myocardial count statistic and semiquantitative wall motion/thickening values were obtained. Analysis of T1 and T2 post-stress myocardial counts demonstrated a significant Tetrofosmin wash-out rate that was higher in Group 1 control nonischemic regions (15 +/- 8% vs 13.6 +/- 9.6%, P < .02), significantly lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (7 +/- 10% vs 12.2 +/- 9.5%, P < .0001), and comparable between scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). Delta post-stress wall thickening (T1-T2) was lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (-4.5 +/- 9.15% vs -1.90 +/- 7.0%, P < .001) and comparable in both control nonischemic and scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). The clinical result of Tetrofosmin gated-SPECT can be influenced by the post-stress acquisition time because of ischemic-induced regional wall thickening abnormalities and the existence of a differential radiotracer myocardial wash-out.

  20. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate ('dynamic fatigue') testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rate in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  1. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  2. Abnormal plasma DNA profiles in early ovarian cancer using a non-invasive prenatal testing platform: implications for cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul A; Flowers, Nicola; Tong, Stephen; Hannan, Natalie; Pertile, Mark D; Hui, Lisa

    2016-08-24

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) identifies fetal aneuploidy by sequencing cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. Pre-symptomatic maternal malignancies have been incidentally detected during NIPT based on abnormal genomic profiles. This low coverage sequencing approach could have potential for ovarian cancer screening in the non-pregnant population. Our objective was to investigate whether plasma DNA sequencing with a clinical whole genome NIPT platform can detect early- and late-stage high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC). This is a case control study of prospectively-collected biobank samples comprising preoperative plasma from 32 women with HGSOC (16 'early cancer' (FIGO I-II) and 16 'advanced cancer' (FIGO III-IV)) and 32 benign controls. Plasma DNA from cases and controls were sequenced using a commercial NIPT platform and chromosome dosage measured. Sequencing data were blindly analyzed with two methods: (1) Subchromosomal changes were called using an open source algorithm WISECONDOR (WIthin-SamplE COpy Number aberration DetectOR). Genomic gains or losses ≥ 15 Mb were prespecified as "screen positive" calls, and mapped to recurrent copy number variations reported in an ovarian cancer genome atlas. (2) Selected whole chromosome gains or losses were reported using the routine NIPT pipeline for fetal aneuploidy. We detected 13/32 cancer cases using the subchromosomal analysis (sensitivity 40.6 %, 95 % CI, 23.7-59.4 %), including 6/16 early and 7/16 advanced HGSOC cases. Two of 32 benign controls had subchromosomal gains ≥ 15 Mb (specificity 93.8 %, 95 % CI, 79.2-99.2 %). Twelve of the 13 true positive cancer cases exhibited specific recurrent changes reported in HGSOC tumors. The NIPT pipeline resulted in one "monosomy 18" call from the cancer group, and two "monosomy X" calls in the controls. Low coverage plasma DNA sequencing used for prenatal testing detected 40.6 % of all HGSOC, including 38 % of early stage cases. Our

  3. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ster, Daniel C.; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Úbeda García, Mario; Paladin, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  4. Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts.

    PubMed

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie; Brewster, Melanie E

    2013-10-01

    The links of minority stressors (workplace discrimination, expectations of stigma, internalized heterosexism, and identity management strategies) with psychological distress and job satisfaction were examined in a sample of 326 sexual minority employees. Drawing from minority stress theory and the literature on the vocational experiences of sexual minority people, patterns of mediation and moderation were tested. Minority stressors were associated with greater distress and lower job satisfaction. A mediation model was supported in which the links of discrimination and internalized heterosexism with psychological distress were mediated by a concealment-focused identity management strategy (i.e., avoiding), and the links of discrimination, expectations of stigma, and internalized heterosexism with job satisfaction were mediated by a disclosure-focused identity management strategy (i.e., integrating). Tests of moderation indicated that for sexual minority women (but not men), the positive association of discrimination with distress was stronger at higher levels of internalized heterosexism than at lower levels. In addition, lower levels of internalized heterosexism and concealment strategies (i.e., counterfeiting and avoiding) and higher levels of a disclosure strategy (i.e., integrating) were associated with higher job satisfaction in the context of low discrimination, but this buffering effect disappeared as level of discrimination increased. The implications of these findings for minority stress research are discussed, and clinical recommendations are made.

  5. 77 FR 70124 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... Board is requesting public comment on a policy statement on the approach to scenario design for stress testing that would be used in connection with the supervisory and company-run stress tests conducted under...

  6. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of the...

  7. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and as...

  8. 78 FR 67218 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Company-Run Annual Stress Test Reporting Template and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Activities: Company-Run Annual Stress Test Reporting Template and Documentation for Covered Institutions With... titled, ``Company-Run Annual Stress Test Reporting Template and Documentation for Covered Institutions... under News and Issuances ( http://www.occ.treas.gov/tools-forms/forms/bank-operations/stress-test...

  9. Are Stress and Coping Associated with Aptitude and Achievement Testing Performance among Children? A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined association of stress and coping variables with aptitude and achievement testing among children (n=100) aged 6 to 16 referred for multidisciplinary diagnostic testing. Stress and coping were significantly associated with performance on aptitude and achievement tests. Specific stress of physical and/or sexual abuse as well as parental…

  10. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... in the stress test, for each quarter of the planning horizon, aggregate losses, pre-provision net... Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated Assets Over $10... regulatory agency to conduct stress tests on an annual basis. The Board is adopting this final rule to...

  11. 77 FR 62378 - Supervisory and Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... to Both Supervisory and Company-Run Stress Tests The Board designed the final rule in a manner to... to conduct supervisory stress test; and project a company's losses, pre-provision net revenue...-Run Stress Test Requirements; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 198 / Friday, October...

  12. 78 FR 71435 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Statement III. Summary of Comments A. Design of Stress Test Scenarios B. Additional Variables C. Severely... policy statement and its overall organization. A. Design of Stress Test Scenarios Commenters suggested a variety of ways for the Board to alter or improve the design of stress test scenarios, including by making...

  13. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and as...

  14. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of the...

  15. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of the...

  16. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of the...

  17. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of the...

  18. Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene

    PubMed Central

    Barbeito, Ana G.; Garringer, Holly J.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Gao, Xiaoying; Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Marco T.; Smith, Mark A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain. PMID:19519778

  19. Improvement of abnormal vaginal flora in Ugandan women by self-testing and short use of intravaginal antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Donders, G; Bellen, G; Donders, F; Pinget, J; Vandevelde, I; Michiels, T; Byamughisa, J

    2017-04-01

    The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 300 women presenting for outpatient routine, follow-up, or medical care at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled to receive 6 days of treatment with vaginal rifaximin (RFX), dequalinium chloride (DQC), or placebo if they had an increased vaginal pH of >4.5 as determined by self-testing. At initial visit and at control visit after 4 weeks, a smear was taken for blinded wet mount microscopy to determine AVF, BV, AV, and Candida severity scores. As compared to placebo, both RFX or DQC treatments dramatically diminished BV prevalence and severity from the initial to follow-up visit: the BV score declined from 2.5 to 1.6 (p < 0.0001) and from 2.5 to 1.9 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Similarly, strong improvements in the AV score were seen in both treatment regimens: moderate and severe AV declined from AV scores of 6.3 to 3.6 (p = 0.003) and from 6.6 to 4.1 (p < 0.004), respectively. Also, women with AVF (deceased or absent lactobacilli) showed similar improvements when compared with placebo. Women with normal flora and Candida at the initial visit showed less Candida after 4 weeks in the group treated with DQC (p = 0.014). Even after a short duration of intravaginal treatment with local non-absorbable antiseptics or antibiotics produced significant

  20. Optimization of test parameters for quantitative stress measurements using the miniaturized disk-bend test

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.E.; Chen, F.C.; Zhang, J.

    A recently-developed miniaturized disk-bend test (MDBT) has been successfully used to evaluate the mechanical properties of a variety of materials, using specimens 3 mm in diameter. The load is applied either by a solid ball (the ball-on ring (BOR) mode), or by a hollow cylinder (the ring-on-ring (ROR) mode). They authors have reproduced the yield stresses of ordered intermetallic compounds and the fracture toughness of several ceramics using analytical solutions to the equations of elasticity theory. Despite this success there are several curious features involved in the analysis of data; for example, in previous tests conducted in the BOR modemore » correct values of the yield stress were obtained using the equations appropriate to clamped specimens, whether or not hey were actually clamped in the test fixture. They show that this is ubiquitous to tests in the BOR mode, and does not arise because of frictional constraints at the supporting ring. They have also completed a thorough evaluation of testing in the ROR mode, in which the yield stresses of cold-rolled or annealed AISI type 302 stainless steel were measured using various combinations of specimen thickness and radii of the loading and supporting rings, and compared to those of tensile specimens machined from the same material. The most accurate and reproducible measurements of the yield strength were obtained for specific combinations of specimen thickness and geometry of the apparatus.« less

  1. Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical simulation on residual stress in Y-slit type cracking test of Q690E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjian; Lin, Guozhen; Chen, Zhanglan; Chen, Wu

    2018-03-01

    Numerical simulation on residual stress in Y-slit type cracking test of Q690E is carried out by using ANSYS. First, the dynamic distribution of welding temperature field is calculated; second, the results of the temperature field are converted into corresponding stress by the method of indirect coupling. The testing results show that the longitudinal residual stress of the weld is greater than the transverse residual stress and the peak of transverse residual stress is on the weld groove.

  3. 78 FR 59791 - Annual Company-Run Stress Tests at Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated Assets of More...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Stress Tests at Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated Assets of More Than $10 Billion But Less... Stress Test Cycle AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Interim final... framework) in their stress tests for the stress test cycle that begins October 1, 2013. For this stress test...

  4. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI. Copyright © 2012

  5. Developing Software to “Track and Catch” Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed

  6. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  7. Safety of regadenoson stress testing in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moles, Victor M; Cascino, Thomas; Saleh, Ashraf; Mikhova, Krasimira; Lazarus, John J; Ghannam, Michael; Yun, Hong J; Konerman, Matthew; Weinberg, Richard L; Ficaro, Edward P; Corbett, James R; McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Murthy, Venkatesh L

    2018-06-01

    We sought to determine the safety of regadenoson stress testing in patients with PH. PH is increasingly recognized at more advanced ages. As many as one-third of patients with PH have coronary artery disease. Because of their physical limitations, patients with PH are unable to adequately exercise. Regadenoson can potentially have an adverse impact due to their tenuous hemodynamics. Current guidelines suggest performing a coronary angiography in patients with PH who have angina or multiple coronary risk factors. We identified 67 consecutive patients with confirmed PH by catheterization (mean PA > 25 mmHg not due to left heart disease) who underwent MPI with regadenoson stress. Medical records were reviewed to determine hemodynamic and ECG response to regadenoson. No serious events occurred. Common side effects related to regadenoson were observed, dyspnea being the most common (70.6%). No syncope occurred. Heart rate increased from 74.6 ± 14 to 96.3 ± 18.3 bpm, systolic blood pressure increased from 129.8 ± 20.9 to 131.8 ± 31 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 77.1 ± 11.4 to 72.9 ± 15.3 mmHg. There was no ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or second- or third-degree atrioventricular block. Regadenoson stress MPI appears to be well tolerated and safe in patients with PH.

  8. A clinical score to obviate the need for cardiac stress testing in patients with acute chest pain and negative troponins.

    PubMed

    Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús; Broullón, Francisco J; Álvarez-García, Nemesio; Maneiro-Melón, Nicolás; Pardo-Martinez, Patricia; Sagastagoitia-Fornie, Marta; Martínez, Dolores; Yáñez, Juan C; Vázquez-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Although cardiac stress testing may help establish the safety of early discharge in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes and negative troponins, more cost-effective strategies are necessary. We aimed to develop a clinical prediction rule to safely obviate the need for cardiac stress testing in this setting. A decision rule was derived in a prospective cohort of 3001 patients with acute chest pain and negative troponins, and validated in a set of 1473 subjects. The primary end point was a composite of positive cardiac stress testing (in the absence of a subsequent negative coronary angiogram), positive coronary angiography, or any major coronary events within 3 months. A score chart was built based on 7 variables: male sex (+2), age (+1 per decade from the fifth decade), diabetes mellitus (+2), hypercholesterolemia (+1), prior coronary revascularization (+2), type of chest pain (typical angina, +5; non-specific chest pain, -3), and non-diagnostic repolarization abnormalities (+2). In the validation set, the model showed good discrimination (c statistic = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.87) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, P= .34). If stress tests were avoided in patients in the validation sample with a sum score of 0 or lower, the number of referrals would be reduced by 23.4%, yielding a negative predictive value of 98.8% (95% confidence interval, 97.0%-99.7%). This novel prediction rule based on a combination of readily available clinical characteristics may be a valuable tool to decide whether stress testing can be reliably avoided in patients with acute chest pain and negative troponins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Use of fish oil lipid emulsions in hospitalized patients under 18 years old with abnormal results in liver tests associated with total parental nutrition].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Villa, Adriana; Henao Roldan, Catherine; García Loboguerrero, Fanny; Martínez Volkmar, María Isabel; Contreras Ramírez, Mónica María; Ruiz Navas, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Prolonged Total Parental Nutrition (TPN) is associated with life-threatening complications in the pediatric population, being cholestasis one of the most important ones. The source of fatty acids, the amount of phytosterols and the dose of lipids in the nutritional support, have been linked to the development of this complication. To describe the behavior of liver function tests in pediatric patients with TPN where lipid based omega 3 fatty acids (OmegavenR) were used. A retrospective research was made in a population of children under 18 years old where omega 3 fatty acids were used for a minimum of 8 days. Patients were initially classified into two groups: cholestasis and abnormal liver tests. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) before and after treatment with OmegavenR was evaluated. 33 patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment with OmegavenR, 82.4% of patients who initially presented cholestasis showed resolution or improvement. The group of patients with abnormal liver tests 18.8% progressed to cholestasis. Our study suggests that the use of OmegavenR in pediatric patients with TPN and DB ≥ 2 mg/dL, seem to reverse or improve cholestasis while in patients with abnormal liver tests we still don't have clear effect. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Owen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable method to efficiently search for the most likely state trajectory leading to an event given only a simulator of a system. Our approach uses a reinforcement learning formulation and solves it using Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). The approach places very few requirements on the underlying system, requiring only that the simulator provide some basic controls, the ability to evaluate certain conditions, and a mechanism to control the stochasticity in the system. Access to the system state is not required, allowing the method to support systems with hidden state. The method is applied to stress test a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system to identify trajectories that are likely to lead to near mid-air collisions. We present results for both single and multi-threat encounters and discuss their relevance. Compared with direct Monte Carlo search, this MCTS method performs significantly better both in finding events and in maximizing their likelihood.

  11. Laser-accelerated particle beams for stress testing of materials.

    PubMed

    Barberio, M; Scisciò, M; Vallières, S; Cardelli, F; Chen, S N; Famulari, G; Gangolf, T; Revet, G; Schiavi, A; Senzacqua, M; Antici, P

    2018-01-25

    Laser-driven particle acceleration, obtained by irradiation of a solid target using an ultra-intense (I > 10 18  W/cm 2 ) short-pulse (duration <1 ps) laser, is a growing field of interest, in particular for its manifold potential applications in different domains. Here, we provide experimental evidence that laser-generated particles, in particular protons, can be used for stress testing materials and are particularly suited for identifying materials to be used in harsh conditions. We show that these laser-generated protons can produce, in a very short time scale, a strong mechanical and thermal damage, that, given the short irradiation time, does not allow for recovery of the material. We confirm this by analyzing changes in the mechanical, optical, electrical, and morphological properties of five materials of interest to be used in harsh conditions.

  12. A climate stress-test of the financial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Mandel, Antoine; Monasterolo, Irene; Schütze, Franziska; Visentin, Gabriele

    2017-03-01

    The urgency of estimating the impact of climate risks on the financial system is increasingly recognized among scholars and practitioners. By adopting a network approach to financial dependencies, we look at how climate policy risk might propagate through the financial system. We develop a network-based climate stress-test methodology and apply it to large Euro Area banks in a `green' and a `brown' scenario. We find that direct and indirect exposures to climate-policy-relevant sectors represent a large portion of investors' equity portfolios, especially for investment and pension funds. Additionally, the portion of banks' loan portfolios exposed to these sectors is comparable to banks' capital. Our results suggest that climate policy timing matters. An early and stable policy framework would allow for smooth asset value adjustments and lead to potential net winners and losers. In contrast, a late and abrupt policy framework could have adverse systemic consequences.

  13. 78 FR 64153 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    .... OCC-2012-0016] Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress... in developing and distributing the stress test scenarios for the annual stress test required by the... by the Annual Stress Test final rule (Stress Test Rule) published on October 9, 2012. Under the...

  14. 77 FR 69553 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation... distributing the stress test scenarios for the annual stress tests required by the Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 as implemented by the Annual Stress Test final rule (``Stress...

  15. Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE).

    PubMed

    Donnan, Peter T; McLernon, David; Steinke, Douglas; Ryder, Stephen; Roderick, Paul; Sullivan, Frank M; Rosenberg, William; Dillon, John F

    2007-04-16

    Liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF) test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT) in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people). The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000) between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT) database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1), dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150) with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision support tool. The results of this study will be

  16. A rapid stress-corrosion test for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Stressed alloy specimens are immersed in a salt-dichromate solution at 60 degrees C. Because of the minimal general corrosion of these alloys in this solution, stress corrosion failures are detected by low-power microscopic examination.

  17. Repeatability of a cold stress test to assess cold sensitization.

    PubMed

    House, C M; Taylor, R J; Oakley, E H N

    2015-10-01

    Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is a syndrome in which damage to peripheral tissues occurs without the tissues freezing following exposure to low ambient temperatures. To assess the test-retest reliability of a cold stress test (CST) used to assess cold sensitization. Volunteers with no self-reported history of NFCI undertook the CST on three occasions. Thermal images were taken of the foot and hand before, immediately after and 5min after immersion of the limb in cold water for 2min. Cold sensitization was graded by the two clinicians and the lead author. Spot temperatures from the toe and finger pads were recorded. There were 30 white and 19 black male participants. The ratings indicated substantial agreement [a Cohen's kappa (κ) value of 0.61-0.8] to within ± one grading category for the hands and feet of the white volunteers and the hands of the black volunteers. Limits of agreement (LoA) analysis for toe and finger pad temperatures indicated high agreement (absolute 95% LoA < 5.5°C). Test-retest reliability for the feet of the black volunteers was not supported by the gradings (κ = 0.38) and toe pad temperatures (absolute 95% LoA = 9.5°C and coefficient of variation = 11%). The test-retest reliability of the CST is considered adequate for the assessment of the cold sensitization of the hands and feet of white and the hands of black healthy non-patients. The study should be repeated with patients who have suffered a NFCI. © Crown copyright 2015.

  18. Expanding Stress Generation Theory: Test of a Transdiagnostic Model

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher C.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Originally formulated to understand the recurrence of depressive disorders, the stress generation hypothesis has recently been applied in research on anxiety and externalizing disorders. Results from these investigations, in combination with findings of extensive comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders, suggest the need for an expansion of stress generation models to include the stress generating effects of transdiagnostic pathology as well as those of specific syndromes. Employing latent variable modeling techniques to parse the general and specific elements of commonly co-occurring Axis I syndromes, the current study examined the associations of transdiagnostic internalizing and externalizing dimensions with stressful life events over time. Analyses revealed that, after adjusting for the covariation between the dimensions, internalizing was a significant predictor of interpersonal dependent stress, whereas externalizing was a significant predictor of noninterpersonal dependent stress. Neither latent dimension was associated with the occurrence of independent, or fateful, stressful life events. At the syndrome level, once variance due to the internalizing factor was partialled out, unipolar depression contributed incrementally to the generation of interpersonal dependent stress. In contrast, the presence of panic disorder produced a “stress inhibition” effect, predicting reduced exposure to interpersonal dependent stress. Additionally, dysthymia was associated with an excess of noninterpersonal dependent stress. The latent variable modeling framework used here is discussed in terms of its potential as an integrative model for stress generation research. PMID:22428789

  19. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Abnormal Electron Transport and Excessive Oxidative Stress Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Placental Tissues of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongwei; Jin, Xiaohan; Cai, Wei; Zhou, Maobin; Shao, Ping; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Rong; Cao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Yu, Fang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Shuang; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ning; Chen, Xu; Li, Yuming

    2018-04-20

    Early-onset preeclampsia (EOS-PE) refers to preeclampsia that occurred before 34 gestation weeks. This study is conducted to explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of EOS-PE using proteomic strategy. To identify altering expressed mitochondrial proteins between severe EOS-PE and healthy pregnancies, enrichment of mitochondria coupled with iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic method is performed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot are performed to detect the alteration of changing expression proteins, and confirmed the accuracy of proteomic results. A total of 1372 proteins were quantified and 132 altering expressed proteins were screened, including 86 downregulated expression proteins and 46 upregulated expression proteins (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins participated in numerous biological processes, including oxidation-reduction process, respiratory electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. Especially, mitochondria-related molecules, PRDX2, PARK7, BNIP3, BCL2, PDHA1, SUCLG1, ACADM, and NDUFV1, are involved in energy-production process in the matrix and membrane of mitochondria. Results of the experiment show that abnormal electron transport, excessive oxidative stress, and mitochondrion disassembly might be the main cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, and is related to the pathogenesis of EOS-PE. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J

    2018-03-01

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.

  1. Direct test of static stress versus dynamic stress triggering of aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Aftershocks observed over time scales of minutes to months following a main shock are plausibly triggered by the static stress change imparted by the main shock, dynamic shaking effects associated with passage of seismic waves from the main shock, or a combination of the two. We design a direct test of static versus dynamic triggering of aftershocks by comparing the near-field temporal aftershock patterns generated by aseismic and impulsive events occurring in the same source area. The San Juan Bautista, California, area is ideally suited for this purpose because several events of both types of M???5 have occurred since 1974. We find that aftershock rates observed after impulsive events are much higher than those observed after aseismic events, and this pattern persists for several weeks after the event. This suggests that, at least in the near field, dynamic triggering is the dominant cause of aftershocks, and that it generates both immediate and delayed aftershock activity.

  2. Validation of the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Dieck, Arne; Helbig, Susanne; Drake, Christopher L; Backhaus, Jutta

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test with groups with and without sleep problems. Three studies were analysed. Data set 1 was based on an initial screening for a sleep training program (n = 393), data set 2 was based on a study to test the test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (n = 284) and data set 3 was based on a study to examine the influence of competitive sport on sleep (n = 37). Data sets 1 and 2 were used to test internal consistency, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test. Content validity was tested using data set 3. Cronbach's alpha of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test was good (α = 0.80) and test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = 0.72). Overall, the one-factor model showed the best fit. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test and impaired sleep quality, depression and stress reactivity were in line with the expectations regarding the convergent validity. Subjects with sleep problems had significantly higher scores in the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test than subjects without sleep problems (P < 0.01). Competitive athletes with higher scores in the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test had significantly lower sleep quality (P = 0.01), demonstrating that vulnerability for stress-induced sleep disturbances accompanies poorer sleep quality in stressful episodes. The findings show that the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess the vulnerability to stress-induced sleep disturbances. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Disparity between online and offline tests in accelerated aging tests of LED lamps under electric stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Jing, Lei; Ke, Hong-Liang; Hao, Jian; Gao, Qun; Wang, Xiao-Xun; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-09-20

    The accelerated aging tests under electric stress for one type of LED lamp are conducted, and the differences between online and offline tests of the degradation of luminous flux are studied in this paper. The transformation of the two test modes is achieved with an adjustable AC voltage stabilized power source. Experimental results show that the exponential fitting of the luminous flux degradation in online tests possesses a higher fitting degree for most lamps, and the degradation rate of the luminous flux by online tests is always lower than that by offline tests. Bayes estimation and Weibull distribution are used to calculate the failure probabilities under the accelerated voltages, and then the reliability of the lamps under rated voltage of 220 V is estimated by use of the inverse power law model. Results show that the relative error of the lifetime estimation by offline tests increases as the failure probability decreases, and it cannot be neglected when the failure probability is less than 1%. The relative errors of lifetime estimation are 7.9%, 5.8%, 4.2%, and 3.5%, at the failure probabilities of 0.1%, 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively.

  4. Type A behavior and the thallium stress test

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.P.; Kornfeld, D.S.; Blood, D.K.

    1982-11-01

    Several recent studies have examined the association between Type A personality and coronary artery disease (CAD) by coronary angiography. Most of these studies have reported a significant association. The present study is an attempt at further confirmation, using a new non-invasive technique for measuring CAD. Subjects were 53 patients undergoing routine exercise stress tests with concomitant thallium-201 myocardial perfusion studies. Five aspects of Type A behavior were assessed by the use of the Rosenman-Friedman Semistructured Interview, and each was rated on a three-point scale. Severity of CAD was independently estimated on a four-point scale. Pearson correlation coefficients were separately computedmore » for patients with and without reported history of myocardial infarction (MI). For 37 patients without reported MI, CAD severity was significantly correlated with Overall Type A (r . -0.53), Vocal Characteristics (r . -0.53), Job Involvement (r . -0.36) and Aggressiveness (r . -0.48), but not Time Urgency (r . -0.25). For 16 patients with reported MI, CAD severity was significantly correlated with Job Involvement only (r . +0.49). The data are consistent with the association of Type A personality and coronary atherogenesis, but may also reflect Type A psychological and physiological characteristics. Future studies may be able to examine these and other aspects of Type A behavior using this noninvasive technique in more diverse patient populations.« less

  5. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humiditymore » cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.« less

  6. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  7. An introduction to the 'Psycho-Physiological-Stress-Test' (PPST)-A standardized instrument for evaluating stress reactions.

    PubMed

    Neureiter, Elisabeth; Hajfani, Loreen; Ahnis, Anne; Mierke, Annett; Rose, Matthias; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F

    2017-01-01

    Using a standardized instrument to evaluate patients' stress reactions has become more important in daily clinical routines. Different signs or symptoms of stress are often unilaterally explored: the physiological, psychological or social aspects of stress disorders are each viewed on a single dimension. However, all dimensions afflict patients who have persistent health problems due to chronic stress. Therefore, it is important to use a multidimensional approach to acquire data. The 'Psycho-Physiological-Stress-Test' (PPST) was established to achieve a comprehensive understanding of stress and was further developed at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin in collaboration with the Psychological Department of Freie Universität Berlin. The PPST includes a series of varying stress phases, embedded in two periods of rest. Physiological and psychological parameters are simultaneously measured throughout the test session. Specifically, the PPST activates the sympathetic stress axis, which is measured by heart rate, blood pressure, respiration depth and rate, electro dermal activation and muscle tension (frontalis, masseter, trapezius). Psychological data are simultaneously collected, and include performance, motivation, emotion and behavior. After conducting this diagnostic test, it is possible to identify individual stress patterns that can be discussed with the individual patient to develop and recommend (outpatient) treatment strategies. This paper introduces the PPST as a standardized way to evaluate stress reactions by presenting the results from a sample of psychosomatic inpatients (n = 139) who were treated in Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. We observed that the varying testing conditions provoked adjusted changes in the different physiological parameters and psychological levels.

  8. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  9. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: a single exercise stress test might be misleading.

    PubMed

    Salavitabar, Arash; Silver, Eric S; Liberman, Leonardo

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome for sudden death is a complex process, particularly in understanding the utility of the repeat exercise stress test. We report a case of an 18-year-old patient who was found to have a high-risk pathway by both invasive and exercise stress testing after an initial exercise stress test showing beat-to-beat loss of pre-excitation.

  10. Determination of in situ state of stress at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax site, Climax Stock, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, W.L.; Magner, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the in situ state of stress at the site of the Spent Fuel Test--Climax, using the U.S. Bureau of Mines overcore method, indicates principal stress magnitudes of 11.6 MPa, 7.1 MPa, and 2.8 MPa. The bearing and plunge of the maximum and minimum principal stress components are, respectively: N. 56? E., 29? NE; and N. 42? W., 14? NW. The vertical stress magnitude of 7.9 MPa calculated from the overcore data is significantly less than expected from overburden pressure, suggesting the stress field is influenced by local or areal geologic factors. Results from this investigation indicate (1) the stress state at the Spent Fuel Test--Climax site deviates significantly from a gravitational stress field, both in relative stress magnitudes and in orientation; (2) numerical modeling will not realistically simulate the near-field response of the Spent Fuel Test--Climax site if gravitational and (or) horizontal and vertical applied stress boundary conditions are assumed; and (3) substantial stress variations may occur spatially within the stock.

  11. High-Temperature Slow Crack Growth of Silicon Carbide Determined by Constant-Stress-Rate and Constant-Stress Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung H.; Salem, J. A.; Nemeth, N. N.

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature slow-crack-growth behaviour of hot-pressed silicon carbide was determined using both constant-stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and constant-stress ("static fatigue") testing in flexure at 1300 C in air. Slow crack growth was found to be a governing mechanism associated with failure of the material. Four estimation methods such as the individual data, the Weibull median, the arithmetic mean and the median deviation methods were used to determine the slow crack growth parameters. The four estimation methods were in good agreement for the constant-stress-rate testing with a small variation in the slow-crack-growth parameter, n, ranging from 28 to 36. By contrast, the variation in n between the four estimation methods was significant in the constant-stress testing with a somewhat wide range of n= 16 to 32.

  12. Airplane Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F; Crook, L H

    1918-01-01

    Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.

  13. Test anxiety and intelligence testing: a closer examination of the stage-fright hypothesis and the influence of stressful instruction.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron

    2007-03-01

    The influence of test anxiety and the content of instruction (stressful versus reassuring) on measurements of intelligence were investigated. It was expected that components of test anxiety would show differential effects on test performance. A Latin Square design was used to unravel the effects of test type and test order. Furthermore, effects of type of instruction, stressful versus reassuring, were studied by means of a within-subjects design. Test anxiety was measured with the Revised Worry-Emotionality Questionnaire. Measurements for verbal ability, reasoning, and memory were administered. Performance on memory tests showed less vulnerability to test anxiety compared with the other tests, with a picture recall test being insensitive. The negative effect of test anxiety was mostly confined to the beginning of a test session, independent of the type of test. Partial support for the so-called stage-fright hypothesis was found. The effect of instructional content was equivocal.

  14. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  15. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Coastal Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sheneatha Lashelle Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between high-stakes tests and stress with secondary teachers. Furthermore, this study investigated whether veteran teachers experience more stress than novice teachers and whether or not self-efficacy, gender, accountability status, and years of experience influence teacher stress as it…

  16. 78 FR 72534 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation... (``covered banks'') to conduct annual stress tests, report the results of such stress tests to the... summary of the results of the stress tests. On October 15, 2012, the FDIC published in the Federal...

  17. When we test, do we stress? Impact of the testing environment on cortisol secretion and memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2013-08-01

    The majority of studies find that older adults have worse memory performance than young adults. However, contextual features in the testing environment may be perceived as stressful by older adults, increasing their stress hormone levels. Given the evidence that older adults are highly sensitive to the effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on memory performance, it is postulated that a stressful testing environment in older adults can lead to an acute stress response and to memory impairments. The current study compared salivary cortisol levels and memory performance in young and older adults tested in environments manipulated to be stressful (unfavourable condition) or not stressful (favourable condition) for each age group. 28 young adults and 32 older adults were tested in two testing conditions: (1) a condition favouring young adults (constructed to be less stressful for young adults), and (2) a condition favouring older adults (constructed to be less stressful for older adults). The main outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Additionally, immediate and delayed memory performances were assessed during each condition. In older adults only, we found significantly high cortisol levels and low memory performance in the condition favouring young adults. In contrast, cortisol levels were lower and memory performance was better when older adults were tested in conditions favouring them. There was no effect of testing condition in young adults. The results demonstrate that older adults' memory performance is highly sensitive to the testing environment. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings in which older adults are tested for memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Significance of an Increase in Diastolic Blood Pressure during a Stress Test in Terms of Comorbidities and Long-term Total and CV Mortality.

    PubMed

    Sydó, Nóra; Sydó, Tibor; Gonzalez Carta, Karina A; Hussain, Nasir; Merkely, Béla; Murphy, Joseph G; Squires, Ray W; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Allison, Thomas G

    2018-05-15

    A decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with exercise is considered normal, but the significance of an increase in DBP has not been validated. Our aim was to determine the relationship of DBP increasing on a stress test regarding comorbidities and mortality. Our database was reviewed from 1993-2010 using the first stress test of a patient. Non-Minnesota residence, baseline CV disease, rest DBP <60 or >100 mmHg, and age <30 or ≥80 were exclusion criteria. DBP response was classified Normal if peak DBP-rest DBP <0, Borderline 0-9, Abnormal ≥10mmHg. Mortality was determined from Mayo Clinic records and Minnesota Death Index. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of DBP response to presence of comorbidities. Cox regression was used to determine total and CV mortality risk by DBP response. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex and resting DBP. 20760 patients were included (51±11 years, female n=7314). Rest/peak averaged DBP 82±8/69 ±15 mmHg in normal vs 79±9/82±9 mmHg in borderline vs 76±9/92±11 mmHg in abnormal DBP response. There were 1582 deaths (8%) with 557 (3%) CV deaths over 12±5 years of follow-up. In patients with borderline and abnormal DBP response, odds ratios for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and current smoking were significant, while hazard ratios for total and CV death were not significant compared to patients with normal DBP response. DBP response to exercise is significantly associated with important comorbidities at the time of the stress test but does not add to the prognostic yield of stress test.

  19. Estimation of the Blood Pressure Response With Exercise Stress Testing.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Ballard, Emma L; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-04-20

    The blood pressure response to exercise has been described as a significant increase in systolic BP (sBP) with a smaller change in diastolic BP (dBP). This has been documented in small numbers, in healthy young men or in ethnic populations. This study examines these changes in low to intermediate risk of myocardial ischaemia in men and women over a wide age range. Consecutive patients having stress echocardiography were analysed. Ischaemic tests were excluded. Manual BP was estimated before and during standard Bruce protocol treadmill testing. Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and resting and peak exercise BP were recorded. 3200 patients (mean age 58±12years) were included with 1123 (35%) females, and 2077 males, age range 18 to 93 years. Systolic BP increased from 125±17mmHg to 176±23mmHg. The change in sBP (ΔsBP) was 51mmHg (95% CI 51,52). The ΔdBP was 1mmHg (95% CI 1, 1), from 77 to 78mmHg, p<0.001). The upper limit of normal peak exercise sBP (determined by the 90th percentile) was 210mmHg in males and 200mmHg in females. The upper limit of normal ΔsBP was 80mmHg in males and 70mmHg in females. The lower limit of normal ΔsBP was 30mmHg in males and 20mmHg in females. In this large cohort, sBP increased significantly with exercise. Males had on average higher values than females. Similar changes were seen with the ΔsBP. The upper limit of normal for peak exercise sBP and ΔsBP are reported by age and gender. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  20. Nondestructive testing and characterization of residual stress field using an ultrasonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wentao; Xu, Chunguang; Pan, Qinxue; Song, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    To address the difficulty in testing and calibrating the stress gradient in the depth direction of mechanical components, a new technology of nondestructive testing and characterization of the residual stress gradient field by ultrasonic method is proposed based on acoustoelasticity theory. By carrying out theoretical analysis, the sensitivity coefficients of different types of ultrasonic are obtained by taking the low carbon steel(12%C) as a research object. By fixing the interval distance between sending and receiving transducers, the mathematical expressions of the change of stress and the variation of time are established. To design one sending-one receiving and oblique incidence ultrasonic detection probes, according to Snell law, the critically refracted longitudinal wave (LCR wave) is excited at a certain depth of the fixed distance of the tested components. Then, the relationship between the depth of LCR wave detection and the center frequency of the probe in Q235 steel is obtained through experimental study. To detect the stress gradient in the depth direction, a stress gradient LCR wave detection model is established, through which the stress gradient formula is derived by the relationship between center frequency and detecting depth. A C-shaped stress specimen of Q235 steel is designed to conduct stress loading tests, and the stress is measured with the five group probes at different center frequencies. The accuracy of ultrasonic testing is verified by X-ray stress analyzer. The stress value of each specific depth is calculated using the stress gradient formula. Accordingly, the ultrasonic characterization of residual stress field is realized. Characterization results show that the stress gradient distribution is consistent with the simulation in ANSYS. The new technology can be widely applied in the detection of the residual stress gradient field caused by mechanical processing, such as welding and shot peening.

  1. SUGAR: spotting undiagnosed glucose abnormal results--a new protocol to increase postpartum testing among women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Carson, Michael P; Morgan, Benjamin; Gussman, Debra; Brown, Monica; Rothenberg, Karen; Wisner, Theresa A

    2015-02-01

    Over 70% of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) will develop diabetes mellitus (DM), but only 30% follow through with the recommended postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). HbA1c is approved to diagnose DM, and combined with a fasting plasma glucose it can identify 93% of patients with dysglycemia. We tested the hypothesis that a single blood draw to assess for dysglycemia at the postpartum visit could improve testing rates compared with those required to obtain an OGTT at an outside laboratory. Prospective cohort study of all women with GDM who delivered between July 2010 and December 2011. When insurance status required testing at an outside laboratory an OGTT was ordered, when insurance allowed testing at our center a random sugar and HbA1c were drawn at the postpartum visit (SUGAR Protocol). Of the 40 women, 36 attended a postpartum visit. In the SUGAR arm, 19 of 19 (100%) were tested versus 9 of 17 (53%) in the OGTT arm; relative risk of testing was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0). 36% were glucose intolerant. This pilot study found that an in-office testing model doubled the rate of postpartum testing in this clinic population, and was reasonably sensitive at detecting dysglycemia. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Undergoes Stress Loads Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove rests after load-tests at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research

  3. The Influence of Test-Based Accountability Policies on Early Elementary Teachers: School Climate, Environmental Stress, and Teacher Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeki, Elina; Segool, Natasha; Pendergast, Laura; von der Embse, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the potential influence of test-based accountability policies on school environment and teacher stress among early elementary teachers. Structural equation modeling of data from 541 kindergarten through second grade teachers across three states found that use of student performance on high-stakes tests to evaluate teachers…

  4. Shortness of breath in clinical practice: A case for left atrial function and exercise stress testing for a comprehensive diastolic heart failure workup

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Anavekar, Nagesh S; Neil, Christopher; Thomas, Liza; Hare, David L

    2017-01-01

    The symptom cluster of shortness of breath (SOB) contributes significantly to the outpatient workload of cardiology services. The workup of these patients includes blood chemistry and biomarkers, imaging and functional testing of the heart and lungs. A diagnosis of diastolic heart failure is inferred through the exclusion of systolic abnormalities, a normal pulmonary function test and normal hemoglobin, coupled with diastolic abnormalities on echocardiography. Differentiating confounders such as obesity or deconditioning in a patient with diastolic abnormalities is difficult. While the most recent guidelines provide more avenues for diagnosis, such as incorporating the left atrial size, little emphasis is given to understanding left atrial function, which contributes to at least 25% of diastolic left ventricular filling; additionally, exercise stress testing to elicit symptoms and test the dynamics of diastolic parameters, especially when access to the “gold standard” invasive tests is lacking, presents clinical translational gaps. It is thus important in diastolic heart failure work up to understand left atrial mechanics and the role of exercise testing to build a comprehensive argument for the diagnosis of diastolic heart failure in a patient presenting with SOB. PMID:29354484

  5. Quadriceps femoris spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: measurement with the pendulum test and relationship with gait abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Kidoń, Zenon; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2014-12-16

    Development of a reliable and objective test of spasticity is important for assessment and treatment of children with cerebral palsy. The pendulum test has been reported to yield reliable measurements of spasticity and to be sensitive to variations in spasticity in these children. However, the relationship between the pendulum test scores and other objective measures of spasticity has not been studied. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an accelerometer-based pendulum test as a measurement of spasticity in CP, and to explore the correlation between the measurements of this test and the global index of deviation from normal gait in in children with cerebral palsy. We studied thirty-six children with cerebral palsy, including 18 with spastic hemiplegia and 18 with spastic diplegia, and a group of 18 typically-developing children. Knee extensor spasticity was assessed bilaterally using the accelerometer-based pendulum test and three-dimensional gait analysis. The Gillette Gait Index was calculated from the results of the gait analysis. The data from the accelerometer-based pendulum test could be used to distinguish between able-bodied children and children with cerebral palsy. Additionally, two of the measurements, first swing excursion and relaxation index, could be used to differentiate the degree of knee extensor spasticity in the children with cerebral palsy. Only a few moderate correlations were found between the Gillette Gait Index and the pendulum test data. This study demonstrates that the pendulum test can be used to discriminate between typically developing children and children with CP, as well as between various degrees of spasticity, such as spastic hemiplegia and spastic diplegia, in the knee extensor muscle of children with CP. Deviations from normal gait in children with CP were not correlated with the results of the pendulum test.

  6. Stress corrosion evaluation of powder metallurgy aluminum alloy 7091 with the breaking load test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of the P/M aluminum alloy 7091 is evaluated in two overaged heat treatment conditions, T7E69 and T7E70, using an accelerated test technique known as the breaking load test method. The breaking load data obtained in this study indicate that P/M 7091 alloy is highly resistant to stress corrosion in both longitudinal and transverse orientations at stress levels up to 90 percent of the material yield strength. The reduction in mean breaking stress as a result of corrosive attack is smallest for the more overaged T7E70 condition. Details of the test procedure are included.

  7. Two simple clinical tests for predicting onset of medial tibial stress syndrome: shin palpation test and shin oedema test.

    PubMed

    Newman, Phil; Adams, Roger; Waddington, Gordon

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between two clinical test results and future diagnosis of (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome) MTSS in personnel at a military trainee establishment. Data from a preparticipation musculoskeletal screening test performed on 384 Australian Defence Force Academy Officer Cadets were compared against 693 injuries reported by 326 of the Officer Cadets in the following 16 months. Data were held in an Injury Surveillance database and analysed using χ² and Fisher's Exact tests, and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve analysis. Diagnosis of MTSS, confirmed by an independent blinded health practitioner. Both the palpation and oedema clinical tests were each found to be significant predictors for later onset of MTSS. Specifically: Shin palpation test OR 4.63, 95% CI 2.5 to 8.5, Positive Likelihood Ratio 3.38, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.732, Pearson χ² p<0.001; Shin oedema test OR 76.1 95% CI 9.6 to 602.7, Positive Likelihood Ratio 7.26, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.095, Fisher's Exact p<0.001; Combined Shin Palpation Test and Shin Oedema Test Positive Likelihood Ratio 7.94, Negative Likelihood Ratio <0.001, Fisher's Exact p<0.001. Female gender was found to be an independent risk factor (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.66 to 5.31, Positive Likelihood Ratio 2.09, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.703, Pearson χ² p<0.001) for developing MTSS. The tests for MTSS employed here are components of a normal clinical examination used to diagnose MTSS. This paper confirms that these tests and female gender can also be confidently applied in predicting those in an asymptomatic population who are at greater risk of developing MTSS symptoms with activity at some point in the future.

  8. Studies on laws of stress-magnetization based on magnetic memory testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shangkun; Ren, Xianzhi

    2018-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique is a novel testing method which can early test stress concentration status of ferromagnetic components. Under the different maximum tensile stress, the relationship between the leakage magnetic field of at certain point of cold rolled steel specimen and the tensile stress was measured during the process of loading and unloading by repeated. It shows that when the maximum tensile stress is less than 610 MPa, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the stress is linear; When the maximum tensile stress increase from 610 MPa to 653 MPa of yield point, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the tensile becomes bending line. The location of the extreme point of the bending line will move rapidly from the position of smaller stress to the larger stress position, and the variation of magnetic induction intensity increases rapidly. When the maximum tensile stress is greater than the 653 MPa of yield point, the variation of the magnetic induction intensity remains large, and the position of the extreme point moves very little. In theoretical aspects, tensile stress is to be divided into ordered stress and disordered stress. In the stage of elastic stress, a microscopic model of the order stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data. In the plastic deformation stage, a microscopic model of disordered stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data, too. The research results can provide reference for the accurate quantitative detection and evaluation of metal magnetic memory testing technology.

  9. [Diagnostic contribution of abnormal delayed-type hypersensitivity to Candida albicans. Characterization test by activation of cells sensitized to successive dilutions of Candida].

    PubMed

    Brunet, J L; Cozon, G; Sainte-Laudy, J; Boissel, J P; Delair, S; Peyramond, D

    1997-10-01

    By measuring the activation of different cell models (lymphocytes and lymphocytic subsets) in the presence of Candida albicans with flow cytometry reading, it is possible to show that successive dilutions of Candida albicans can lead to lymphocyte activation in abnormally-sensitized subjects. In a first trial, 10 subjects were tested in duplicate. The decrease of activity of the dilutions does not appear to be regular in relation to the progression of the dilutions. The activity of the dilutions wanes relatively rapidly with the first dilutions, then recurs later very distinctly, at the 6th dilution, then ebbs, then reappears in similar manner at the 9th, the 14th, and finally, the 19th dilution. Cell reactivity appears to differ depending on the subject. It can be represented through the calculated slope of the regression line, for each series of data. It therefore appears feasible to determine a threshold of reactivity and a scale of sensitivity, to make it possible to specify the degree of abnormal reactivity existing at a given time for a given subject. The constancy of the activity of the different dilutions tested, on 10 cultures of a single cell suspension, is especially well demonstrated in the second trial, showing unusually small standard deviations. Thus, the question arises as to the exact nature of the observed phenomenon and of its analysis from a physical-chemical point of view, with regard to the pharmacological effect of successive dilutions of Candida albicans.

  10. Bending fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes under alternating stress at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a testing method for fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes containing a small amount of SiC filaments under alternating stress is reported. The fatigue strength curves resulting for this composite are discussed. They permit an estimate of its behavior under continuous stress and in combination with various other matrices, especially metal matrices.

  11. A comparison of face to face and group education on informed choice and decisional conflict of pregnant women about screening tests of fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Riyazi, Sahar; Lotfalizade, Marziyeh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Suny, Hoseyn Jafari

    2018-01-01

    Screening of fetal anomalies is assumed as a necessary measurement in antenatal cares. The screening plans aim at empowerment of individuals to make the informed choice. This study was conducted in order to compare the effect of group and face-to-face education and decisional conflicts among the pregnant females regarding screening of fetal abnormalities. This study of the clinical trial was carried out on 240 pregnant women at <10-week pregnancy age in health care medical centers in Mashhad city in 2014. The form of individual-midwifery information and informed choice questionnaire and decisional conflict scale were used as tools for data collection. The face-to-face and group education course were held in two weekly sessions for intervention groups during two consecutive weeks, and the usual care was conducted for the control group. The rate of informed choice and decisional conflict was measured in pregnant women before education and also at weeks 20-22 of pregnancy in three groups. The data analysis was executed using SPSS statistical software (version 16), and statistical tests were implemented including Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and Tukey's range test. The P < 0.05 was considered as a significant. The results showed that there was statically significant difference between three groups in terms of frequency of informed choice in screening of fetal abnormalities ( P = 0.001) in such a way that at next step of intervention, 62 participants (77.5%) in face-to-face education group, 64 members (80%) in group education class, and 20 persons (25%) in control group had the informed choice regarding screening tests, but there was no statistically significant difference between two individual and group education classes. Similarly, during the postintervention phase, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of decisional conflict scale among pregnant women regarding

  12. A comparison of face to face and group education on informed choice and decisional conflict of pregnant women about screening tests of fetal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Riyazi, Sahar; Lotfalizade, Marziyeh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Suny, Hoseyn Jafari

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND GOAL: Screening of fetal anomalies is assumed as a necessary measurement in antenatal cares. The screening plans aim at empowerment of individuals to make the informed choice. This study was conducted in order to compare the effect of group and face-to-face education and decisional conflicts among the pregnant females regarding screening of fetal abnormalities. METHODS: This study of the clinical trial was carried out on 240 pregnant women at <10-week pregnancy age in health care medical centers in Mashhad city in 2014. The form of individual-midwifery information and informed choice questionnaire and decisional conflict scale were used as tools for data collection. The face-to-face and group education course were held in two weekly sessions for intervention groups during two consecutive weeks, and the usual care was conducted for the control group. The rate of informed choice and decisional conflict was measured in pregnant women before education and also at weeks 20–22 of pregnancy in three groups. The data analysis was executed using SPSS statistical software (version 16), and statistical tests were implemented including Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Mann–Whitney U-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and Tukey's range test. The P < 0.05 was considered as a significant. RESULTS: The results showed that there was statically significant difference between three groups in terms of frequency of informed choice in screening of fetal abnormalities (P = 0.001) in such a way that at next step of intervention, 62 participants (77.5%) in face-to-face education group, 64 members (80%) in group education class, and 20 persons (25%) in control group had the informed choice regarding screening tests, but there was no statistically significant difference between two individual and group education classes. Similarly, during the postintervention phase, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of decisional

  13. Early sign of microangiopathy in systemic sclerosis: The significance of cold stress test in dynamic laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sebastian; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chin, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Yang-Chun; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2018-06-05

    Skin physiology measurement is receiving more attention for detecting vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a widely used physiological measurement to assess cutaneous microcirculation. However, findings of LDF may be normal during early stage of microangiopathy in SSc. We hypothesized that cold stress test combined with LDF could detect early-stage microangiopathy in patients with SSc. A 67-year-old male came with multiple ulcerations on his fingers for one year. After excluding diseases such as diabetes mellitus-related peripheral arterial occlusive disease and smoking-related Buerger's disease, the diagnosis of SSc was made according to the 2013 ACR/EULAR criteria. We performed LDF and angiography for a patient with SSc and compared the results. Although occlusions of right ulnar and digital arteries were obvious in angiography, the baseline skin temperature and perfusion unit on right fingers remained within normal limits. While the microcirculatory abnormalities measured by LDF alone are subtle, LDF combined with cold stress test detected a significant slow recovery of skin blood flow 40 minutes after cold immersion. In conclusion, there may be discordance between macrovasculopathy and baseline microcirculatory blood flow in SSc. In such a case, cold immersion test is essential to measure the dynamic change and slow recovery of blood flow.

  14. Progress and Challenges of Ultrasonic Testing for Stress in Remanufacturing Laser Cladding Coating

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiao-Ling; Dong, Shi-Yun; Xu, Bin-Shi; Cao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Stress in laser cladding coating is an important factor affecting the safe operation of remanufacturing components. Ultrasonic testing has become a popular approach in the nondestructive evaluation of stress, because it has the advantages of safety, nondestructiveness, and online detection. This paper provides a review of ultrasonic testing for stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating. It summarizes the recent research outcomes on ultrasonic testing for stress, and analyzes the mechanism of ultrasonic testing for stress. Remanufacturing laser cladding coating shows typical anisotropic behaviors. The ultrasonic testing signal in laser cladding coating is influenced by many complex factors, such as microstructure, defect, temperature, and surface roughness, among others. At present, ultrasonic testing for stress in laser cladding coating can only be done roughly. This paper discusses the active mechanism of micro/macro factors in the reliability of stress measurement, as well as the impact of stress measurement on the quality and safety of remanufacturing components. Based on the discussion, this paper proposes strategies to nondestructively, rapidly, and accurately measure stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating. PMID:29438309

  15. Progress and Challenges of Ultrasonic Testing for Stress in Remanufacturing Laser Cladding Coating.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Ling; Dong, Shi-Yun; Xu, Bin-Shi; Cao, Yong

    2018-02-13

    Stress in laser cladding coating is an important factor affecting the safe operation of remanufacturing components. Ultrasonic testing has become a popular approach in the nondestructive evaluation of stress, because it has the advantages of safety, nondestructiveness, and online detection. This paper provides a review of ultrasonic testing for stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating. It summarizes the recent research outcomes on ultrasonic testing for stress, and analyzes the mechanism of ultrasonic testing for stress. Remanufacturing laser cladding coating shows typical anisotropic behaviors. The ultrasonic testing signal in laser cladding coating is influenced by many complex factors, such as microstructure, defect, temperature, and surface roughness, among others. At present, ultrasonic testing for stress in laser cladding coating can only be done roughly. This paper discusses the active mechanism of micro/macro factors in the reliability of stress measurement, as well as the impact of stress measurement on the quality and safety of remanufacturing components. Based on the discussion, this paper proposes strategies to nondestructively, rapidly, and accurately measure stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating.

  16. A combination SMS and transportation reimbursement intervention to improve HIV care following abnormal CD4 test results in rural Uganda: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Siedner, Mark J; Santorino, Data; Lankowski, Alexander J; Kanyesigye, Michael; Bwana, Mwebesa B; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R

    2015-07-06

    Up to 50 % of HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa are lost from care between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Structural barriers, including cost of transportation to clinic and poor communication systems, are major contributors. We conducted a prospective, pragmatic, before-and-after clinical trial to evaluate a combination mobile health and transportation reimbursement intervention to improve care at a publicly operated HIV clinic in Uganda. Patients undergoing CD4 count testing were enrolled, and clinicians selected a result threshold that would prompt early return for ART initiation or further care. Participants enrolled in the pre-intervention period (January - August 2012) served as a control group. Participants in the intervention period (September 2012 - November 2013) were randomized to receive daily short message service (SMS) messages for up to seven days in one of three formats: 1) messages reporting an abnormal result directly, 2) personal identification number-protected messages reporting an abnormal result, or 3) messages reading "ABCDEFG" to confidentially convey an abnormal result. Participants returning within seven days of their first message received transportation reimbursements (about $6USD). Our primary outcomes of interest were time to return to clinic and time to ART initiation. There were 45 participants in the pre-intervention period and 138 participants in the intervention period (46, 49, and 43 in the direct, PIN, and coded groups, respectively) with low CD4 count results. Median time to clinic return was 33 days (IQR 11-49) in the pre-intervention period and 6 days (IQR 3-16) in the intervention period (P < 0.001); and median time to ART initiation was 47 days (IQR 11-75) versus 12 days (IQR 5-19), (P < 0.001). In multivariable models, participants in the intervention period had earlier return to clinic (AHR 2.32, 95 %CI 1.53 to 3.51) and earlier time to ART initiation (AHR 2.27, 95 %CI 1.38 to 3

  17. [Unpredictable chronic mild stress effects on antidepressants activities in forced swim test].

    PubMed

    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Voronina, T A

    2015-02-01

    The experiments has been designed to study unpredictable chronic mild stress effect on anti-depressive activities of amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) in forced swim test in male outbred mice. It is shown that acute treatment with fluoxetine does not produce any antidepressant effects in mice following stress of 14 days while the sub-chronic injections of fluoxetine result in more deep depressive-like behavior. In 28 daily stressed mice, antidepressant effect of fluoxetine is observed independently of the injection rates. Amitriptyline demonstrates the antidepressant activity regardless of the duration of stress or administration scheduling, but at the same time the severity of anti-immobilization effect of amitriptyline in stressed mice is weaker in compare to non-stressed trails. Thus, the injection rates and duration of unpredictable mild chronic stress are the parameters that determine the efficiency of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

  18. Abnormal amyloid β42 expression and increased oxidative stress in plasma of CKD patients with cognitive dysfunction: A small scale case control study comparison with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, G; Kedharnath, C; Krishnakumar, S; Sreedhar, S; Preethikrishnan, K; Dinesh, S; Sundaram, A; Balakrishnan, D; Shivashekar, G; Sureshkumar; Venkataraman, P

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction has been increasingly recognized in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Senile plaques are important pathophysiological characteristic of cognitive dysfunction. The major component of plaques is the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide released from proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Plasma Aβ has been a focus of the growing literature on blood based biomarkers for cognitive dysfunction. Oxidative stress is prevalent in CKD and it plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction. Increased oxidative stress leads to cause cleavage of APP and Aβ production. The aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant status and Aβ 42 levels in plasma of CKD patients with cognitive dysfunction compared to CKD without cognitive dysfunction. A total of 60 subjects divided into 30 CKD without cognitive dysfunction and 30 CKD with cognitive dysfunction based on neuropsychological assessment tests. To compare antioxidant status and Aβ 42 levels in plasma, the following groups such as healthy subjects (n = 30), normocytic normochromic anemia (n = 30) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 10) patients were also maintained. Plasma Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined by spectrophotometrically. Aβ level was determined by immunoblotting method. The parameters were statistically compared with healthy, normocytic normochromic anemia and AD subjects. Like AD subjects, significantly increased Aβ and LPO level while decreased SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH levels were observed in plasma of CKD patients with cognitive dysfunction when compared to healthy, CKD without cognitive dysfunction and normocytic normochromic anemic subjects. Results suggest that elevated plasma oxidative stress and Aβ were seen in CKD patients with cognitive dysfunction may be attributed to pathological changes within the brain.

  19. 12 CFR 1238.5 - Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress... AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS TESTING OF REGULATED ENTITIES § 1238.5 Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information. (a) Report required for stress tests. On or before...

  20. Automation of the linear array HPV genotyping test and its application for routine typing of human papillomaviruses in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Dobec, Marinko; Bannwart, Fridolin; Kaeppeli, Franz; Cassinotti, Pascal

    2009-05-01

    There is a need for reliable, automated high throughput HPV detection and genotyping methods for pre- and post-prophylactic vaccine intervention analyses. To optimize the linear array (LA) HPV genotyping test (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz) in regard to possible automation steps for the routine laboratory diagnosis of HPV infections and to analyze the HPV genotype distribution in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland. 680 cervical cell specimens with normal cytology, obtained from women undergoing routine cervical screening by liquid-based Pap smear, were analyzed by the LA HPV genotyping test for HPV-DNA. The automation of the LA HPV genotyping test resulted in a total hands-on time reduction of 255 min (from 480 to 225 min; 53%). Any of 37 HPV genotypes were detected in 117 (17.2%) and high-risk (HR) HPV in 55 (8.1%) of 680 women with normal cytology. The highest prevalence of any HPV (28.1%) and HR-HPV (15.1%) was observed in age-group 21-30 and showed a continuous decrease in older age-groups. The most common HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (12%), HPV-31 (9.4%), HPV-52 (6%), HPV-51 (5.1%), HPV-45 (4.3%), HPV-58 (4.3%) and HPV-59 (4.3%). The optimization and automation of the LA HPV genotyping test makes it suited for high throughput HPV detection and typing. The epidemiological data provides information about distribution of HPV genotypes in women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland and may be important for determining the future impact of vaccines and potential changes in the country's epidemiological HPV profile.

  1. The Influence of Cardiac Risk Factor Burden on Cardiac Stress Test Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schrock, Jon W; Li, Morgan; Orazulike, Chidubem; Emerman, Charles L

    2011-06-01

    Chest pain is the most common admission diagnosis for observation unit patients. These patients often undergo cardiac stress testing to further risk stratify for coronary artery disease (CAD). The decision of whom to stress is currently based on clinical judgment. We sought to determine the influence of cardiac risk factor burden on cardiac stress test outcome for patients tested from an observation unit, inpatient or outpatient setting. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study for all patients undergoing stress testing in our institution from June 2006 through July 2007. Cardiac risk factors were collected at the time of stress testing. Risk factors were evaluated in a summative fashion using multivariate regression adjusting for age and known coronary artery disease. The model was tested for goodness of fit and collinearity and the c statistic was calculated using the receiver operating curve. A total of 4026 subjects were included for analysis of which 22% had known CAD. The rates of positive outcome were 89 (12.0%), 95 (12.6%), and 343 (16.9%) for the OU, outpatients, and hospitalized patients respectively. While the odds of a positive test outcome increased for additional cardiac risk factors, ROC curve analysis indicates that simply adding the number of risk factors does not add significant diagnostic value. Hospitalized patients were more likely to have a positive stress test, OR 1.41 (1.10 - 1.81). Our study does not support basing the decision to perform a stress test on the number of cardiac risk factors.

  2. [Predictors of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with arterial hypertension during exercise stress testing].

    PubMed

    Kolesnik, M Iu; Sokolova, M V

    2014-02-01

    Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. 203 male patients were examined in order to identify predictors of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with arterial hypertension during exercise stress testing. All participants were studied by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, an ultrasound scan of the carotid arteries and treadmill test. 47,3% of patients presented cardiac arrhythmias during exercise stress testing. The left ventricular mass, diastolic function and carotid intima-media thickness were found to be independent predictors of exercise-induced arrhythmias. The use of the exercise stress testing may be reasonable for additional risk stratification in hypertensive patients.

  3. Facility-level association of preoperative stress testing and postoperative adverse cardiac events.

    PubMed

    Valle, Javier A; Graham, Laura; Thiruvoipati, Thejasvi; Grunwald, Gary; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Hawn, Mary T; Bradley, Steven M

    2018-06-22

    Despite limited indications, preoperative stress testing is often used prior to non-cardiac surgery. Patient-level analyses of stress testing and outcomes are limited by case mix and selection bias. Therefore, we sought to describe facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing for non-cardiac surgery, and to determine the association between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We identified patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery within 2 years of percutaneous coronary intervention in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, from 2004 to 2011, facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE (death, myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularisation within 30 days). We determined risk-standardised facility-level rates of stress testing and postoperative MACE, and the relationship between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE. Among 29 937 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery at 131 VA facilities, the median facility rate of preoperative stress testing was 13.2% (IQR 9.7%-15.9%; range 6.0%-21.5%), and 30-day postoperative MACE was 4.0% (IQR 2.4%-5.4%). After risk standardisation, the median facility-level rate of stress testing was 12.7% (IQR 8.4%-17.4%) and postoperative MACE was 3.8% (IQR 2.3%-5.6%). There was no correlation between risk-standardised stress testing and composite MACE at the facility level (r=0.022, p=0.81), or with individual outcomes of death, MI or revascularisation. In a national cohort of veterans undergoing non-cardiac surgery, we observed substantial variation in facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing. Facilities with higher rates of preoperative stress testing were not associated with better postoperative outcomes. These findings suggest an opportunity to reduce variation in preoperative stress testing without sacrificing patient outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  4. Influence of History of Brain Disease or Brain Trauma on Psychopathological Abnormality in Young Male in Korea : Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Ho Kyu; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Kang; Kim, Chul-Eung; Yoon, Seung Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to confirm whether brain disease or brain trauma actually affect psychopathology in young male group in Korea. Methods The authors manually reviewed the result of Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) in the examination of conscription in Korea from January 2008 to May 2010. There were total 237 young males in this review. Normal volunteers group (n=150) was composed of those who do not have history of brain disease or brain trauma. Brain disease group (n=33) was consisted of those with history of brain disease. Brain trauma group (n=54) was consisted of those with history of brain trauma. The results of KMPI in each group were compared. Results Abnormal results of KMPI were found in both brain disease and trauma groups. In the brain disease group, higher tendencies of faking bad response, anxiety, depression, somatization, personality disorder, schizophrenic and paranoid psychopathy was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. In the brain trauma group, higher tendencies of faking-good, depression, somatization and personality disorder was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. Conclusion Young male with history of brain disease or brain trauma may have higher tendencies to have abnormal results of multiphasic personal inventory test compared to young male without history of brain disease or brain trauma, suggesting that damaged brain may cause psychopathology in young male group in Korea. PMID:22053230

  5. The prevalence of affective disorder and in particular of a rapid cycling of bipolar disorder in patients with abnormal thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Oomen, H A; Schipperijn, A J; Drexhage, H A

    1996-08-01

    Cognitive and affective functioning is sensitive to changes in thyroid hormones. We have sought to determine: (1) the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities in a psychiatric population on admission (as compared to the prevalence in a normal population), and (2) whether such thyroid function abnormalities are associated with the occurrence or development of cognitive and affective disorders. Serum was collected 2-3 weeks after hospitalization in 3 major clinics from 3756 psychiatric patients in 1987-1990, stored, and assayed in 1993 for the presence of antibodies against the TSH-receptor and thyroperoxidase (TPO-Ab) and for TSH levels. The psychiatric cohort was matched with a control population of healthy individuals living in the same area (n = 1877). The prevalence study was followed by a case-control study involving patients from one clinic that had routinely assigned a DSM-IIIR classification to its patients. Cases were those admissions with thyroid abnormalities and three subgroups of cases were randomly formed demonstrating either TSH less than 0.4 mU/l (n = 44) or over 4.0 mU/l (n = 44), or TPO-Ab positivity (n = 50). Cases were compared to random controls from the same psychiatric population, viz patients without thyroid abnormalities (n = 83). Comparison was with respect to their psychiatric follow-up diagnosis (the investigator was blinded to the thyroid test results). Prevalence study. The percentage of patients positive for TSH-receptor-Ab was 0.26 (9/3504), for TPO-Ab was 10.0 (331/3316) and outside the TSH range of 0.4-4.0 mU/l was 10.0 ((332/3316): 5.9% (198/3316) > 4.0 mU/l and 4.1% (134/3316) < 0.4 mU/l). Abnormal total thyroxine levels were found in only 9.8% of subjects with abnormal TSH, indicating the predominantly subclinical character of the thyroid alteration. In comparison, the healthy area controls over 55 years of age showed the same prevalence of positive TPO-antibodies and TSH under 0.4 mU/l, but a higher prevalence of TSH over 4

  6. Friability Testing as a New Stress-Stability Assay for Biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Tetsuo; Maruno, Takahiro; Yoneda, Saki; Hamaji, Yoshinori; Honda, Shinya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Uchiyama, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    A cycle of dropping and shaking a vial containing antibody solution was reported to induce aggregation. In this study, antibody solutions in glass prefillable syringes with or without silicone oil lubrication were subjected to the combined stresses of dropping and shaking, using a friability testing apparatus. Larger numbers of subvisible particles were generated, regardless of silicone oil lubrication, upon combination stress exposure than that with shaking stress alone. Nucleation of antibody molecules upon perturbation by an impact of dropping and adsorption of antibody molecules to the syringe surface followed by film formation and antibody film desorption were considered key steps in the particle formation promoted by combination stress. A larger number of silicone oil droplets was released when silicone oil-lubricated glass syringes containing phosphate buffer saline were exposed to combination stress than that observed with shaking stress alone. Polysorbate 20, a non-ionic surfactant, effectively reduced the number of protein particles, but failed to prevent silicone oil release upon combination stress exposure. This study indicates that stress-stability assays using the friability testing apparatus are effective for assessing the stability of biopharmaceuticals under the combined stresses of dropping and shaking, which have not been tested in conventional stress-stability assays. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress transfer in microdroplet tensile test: PVC-coated and uncoated Kevlar-29 single fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenkun, Lei; Quan, Wang; Yilan, Kang; Wei, Qiu; Xuemin, Pan

    2010-11-01

    The single fiber/microdroplet tensile test is applied for evaluating the interfacial mechanics between a fiber and a resin substrate. It is used to investigate the influence of a polymer coating on a Kevlar-29 fiber surface, specifically the stress transfer between the fiber and epoxy resin in a microdroplet. Unlike usual tests, this new test ensures a symmetrical axial stress on the embedded fiber and reduces the stress singularity that appears at the embedded fiber entry. Using a homemade loading device, symmetrical tensile tests are performed on a Kevlar-29 fiber with or without polyvinylchloride (PVC) coating, the surface of which is in contact with two epoxy resin microdroplets during curing. Raman spectra on the embedded fiber are recorded by micro-Raman Spectroscopy under different strain levels. Then they are transformed to the distributions of fiber axis stress based on the relationship between stress and Raman shift. The Raman results reveal that the fiber axial stresses increase with the applied loads, and the antisymmetric interfacial shear stresses, obtained by a straightforward balance of shear-to-axial forces argument, lead to the appearance of shear stress concentrations at a distance to the embedded fiber entry. The load is transferred from the outer fiber to the embedded fiber in the epoxy microdroplet. As is observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the existence of a flexible polymer coating on the fiber surface reduces the stress transfer efficiency.

  8. A Tissue Systems Pathology Test Detects Abnormalities Associated with Prevalent High-Grade Dysplasia and Esophageal Cancer in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Critchley-Thorne, Rebecca J; Davison, Jon M; Prichard, Jeffrey W; Reese, Lia M; Zhang, Yi; Repa, Kathleen; Li, Jinhong; Diehl, David L; Jhala, Nirag C; Ginsberg, Gregory G; DeMarshall, Maureen; Foxwell, Tyler; Jobe, Blair A; Zaidi, Ali H; Duits, Lucas C; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Rustgi, Anil; Falk, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for improved tools to detect high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus. In previous work, we demonstrated that a 3-tier classifier predicted risk of incident progression in Barrett's esophagus. Our aim was to determine whether this risk classifier could detect a field effect in nondysplastic (ND), indefinite for dysplasia (IND), or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients with prevalent HGD/EAC. We performed a multi-institutional case-control study to evaluate a previously developed risk classifier that is based upon quantitative image features derived from 9 biomarkers and morphology, and predicts risk for HGD/EAC in Barrett's esophagus patients. The risk classifier was evaluated in ND, IND, and LGD biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients diagnosed with HGD/EAC on repeat endoscopy (prevalent cases, n = 30, median time to HGD/EAC diagnosis 140.5 days) and nonprogressors (controls, n = 145, median HGD/EAC-free surveillance time 2,015 days). The risk classifier stratified prevalent cases and non-progressor patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk classes [OR, 46.0; 95% confidence interval, 14.86-169 (high-risk vs. low-risk); P < 0.0001]. The classifier also provided independent prognostic information that outperformed the subspecialist and generalist diagnosis. A tissue systems pathology test better predicts prevalent HGD/EAC in Barrett's esophagus patients than pathologic variables. The results indicate that molecular and cellular changes associated with malignant transformation in Barrett's esophagus may be detectable as a field effect using the test. A tissue systems pathology test may provide an objective method to facilitate earlier identification of Barrett's esophagus patients requiring therapeutic intervention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 240-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Transistor step stress testing program for JANTX2N2905A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the transistor JANTX2N2905A manufactured by Texas Instruments and Motorola is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process outlined. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. All test samples were subjected to the electrical tests outlined in Table 2 after completing the prior power/temperature step stress point.

  10. The association of clinical indication for exercise stress testing with all-cause mortality: the FIT Project

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonseok; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Juraschek, Stephen P.; Brawner, Clinton; Keteyian, Steve J.; Nasir, Khurram; Dardari, Zeina A.; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that the indication for stress testing provided by the referring physician would be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Material and methods We studied 48,914 patients from The Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project (The FIT Project) without known congestive heart failure who were referred for a clinical treadmill stress test and followed for 11 ±4.7 years. The reason for stress test referral was abstracted from the clinical test order, and should be considered the primary concerning symptom or indication as stated by the ordering clinician. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, after controlling for potential confounders including demographics, risk factors, and medication use as well as additional adjustment for exercise capacity in the final model. Results A total of 67% of the patients were referred for chest pain, 12% for shortness of breath (SOB), 4% for palpitations, 3% for pre-operative evaluation, 6% for abnormal prior testing, and 7% for risk factors only. There were 6,211 total deaths during follow-up. Compared to chest pain, those referred for palpitations (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.86) and risk factors only (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas those referred for SOB (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.23) and pre-operative evaluation (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.94–2.30) had an increased risk. In subgroup analysis, referral for palpitations was protective only in those without coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62–0.90), while SOB increased mortality risk only in those with established CAD (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10–1.44). Conclusions The indication for stress testing is an independent predictor of mortality, showing an interaction with CAD status. Importantly, SOB may be associated with higher mortality risk than chest pain, particularly in patients with CAD. PMID:27186173

  11. Stress testing before discharge is not required for patients with low and intermediate risk of acute coronary syndrome after emergency department short stay assessment.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Fatima; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Coleridge, John

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the usefulness of stress testing before discharge in patients assessed low to intermediate risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A prospective observational study was undertaken of patients presenting to the ED with suspected myocardial ischaemia. After negative initial electrocardiogram (ECG) and serum troponin testing, patients were admitted to the emergency short stay unit (ESSU) for further evaluation using a chest pain protocol that included stress testing as the final risk stratification tool. The primary outcome measure was evidence of myocardial ischaemia at stress testing. Of the 300 patients enrolled and followed up, there were no deaths at 30 days and no myocardial infarcts in patients discharged from the short stay. Two patients (0.67%) had positive serum troponin levels at 6 h after the onset of chest pain and were diagnosed with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarctions. Three patients (1%) had abnormal stress testing and were admitted to hospital from ESSU. On review, all three patients were high risk, according to The National Heart Foundation of Australia/Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand guidelines. The present study showed that an ED short stay unit can effectively evaluate and manage patients with low and intermediate risk of ACS. The study suggests that patients with low and intermediate risk for ACS might safely be discharged after normal serial ECG and cardiac biomarkers, with a view to early outpatient stress testing. With strict adherence to admission criteria, there does not appear to be any benefit of stress testing before discharge. © 2010 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Cardiac stress testing for the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease: a reference for the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Gajulapalli, Rama Dilip; Aneja, Ashish; Rovner, Aleksandr

    2012-02-01

    Choosing the appropriate stress test is important in the workup of patients with possible myocardial ischemia. This choice often is challenging and sometimes confusing because of the plethora of tests and guidelines available. We present a broad overview of commonly available stress tests and indications to help physicians select the most appropriate stress test for their patients.

  13. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population.

  14. Social Support for Divorced Fathers' Parenting: Testing a Stress-Buffering Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGarmo, David S.; Patras, Joshua; Eap, Sopagna

    2008-01-01

    A stress-buffering hypothesis for parenting was tested in a county-representative sample of 218 divorced fathers. Social support for parenting (emergency and nonemergency child care, practical support, financial support) was hypothesized to moderate effects of stress (role overload, coparental conflict, and daily hassles) on fathers' quality…

  15. Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

  16. [Stress-ECG is adequate to detect myocardial ischemia: when are additional diagnostic tests needed?].

    PubMed

    Baer, F M

    2007-09-01

    The stress-ECG is the most often adopted and most cost effective initial diagnostic test for the assessment of myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Prerequisites for the diagnostic usefullness of stress-ECG are a clearly interpretable ST-segment, ability to reach the predicted work load, an intermediate pretest probability for CAD ranging between 10% and 90% and the absence of any contraindications for dynamic exercise. Because of the limited diagnostic sensitivity of about 70%, and a high percentage of patients, who are unable to exercise, a negative stress ECG can definitely not exclude hemodynamically significant CAD. Therefore, stress imaging techniques like myocardial scintigraphy, stress-echocardiography and stress magnetic resonance imaging play a major role in the stepwise diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CAD. These stress imaging techniques are basically interchangeable since no method is definitely superior to one of the others. However, each method has its specific pros and cons and inherent contraindications. Therefore the choice of the stress imaging method and the form of stress applied should be based on the individual patients characteristics to gain optimal image quality and diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, the decision for one method should take the local availability and institutional expertise of diagnostic centers into account. Although partly substituted by stress imaging techniques the stress-ECG still remains the workhorse for a stepwise diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CAD.

  17. Mental stress test: a rapid, simple, and efficient test to unmask long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Pauline; Huchet, François; Gaborit, Nathalie; Barc, Julien; Thollet, Aurélie; Kyndt, Florence; Guyomarch, Béatrice; Le Marec, Hervé; Charpentier, Flavien; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Redon, Richard; Probst, Vincent; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-04-20

    QT prolongation during mental stress test (MST) has been associated with familial idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. In long QT syndrome (LQTS), up to 30% of mutation carriers have normal QT duration. Our aim was to assess the QT response during MST, and its accuracy in the diagnosis of concealed LQTS. All patients who are carrier of a KCNQ1 or KCNH2 mutations without QT prolongation were enrolled. A control group was constituted of patients with negative exercise and epinephrine tests. Electrocardiogram were recorded at rest and at the maximum heart rate during MST and reviewed by two physicians. Among the 70 patients enrolled (median age 41±2.1 years, 46% male), 36 were mutation carrier for LQTS (20 KCNQ1 and 16 KCNH2), and 34 were controls. KCNQ1 and KCNH2 mutation carriers presented a longer QT interval at baseline [405(389; 416) and 421 (394; 434) ms, respectively] compared with the controls [361(338; 375)ms; P < 0.0001]. QT duration during MST varied by 9 (4; 18) ms in KCNQ1, 3 (-6; 16) ms in KCNH2, and by -22 (-29; -17) ms in controls (P < 0.0001). These QT variations were independent of heart rate (P < 0.3751). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a cut-off value of QT variation superior to -11 ms as best predictor of LQTS. It provided 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity of QT prolongation in the diagnosis of LQTS. We identified a paradoxical response of the QT interval during MST in LQTS. Easy to assess, MST may be efficient to unmask concealed LQTS in patients at risk of this pathology.

  18. Spine abnormalities depicted by magnetic resonance imaging in adolescent rowers.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Marvin; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2011-02-01

    Most lesions of the spine of athletes, which often are detected incidentally, do not cause important symptoms or make the athletes discontinue their physical activities. To better understand the significance of these lesions, new imaging studies have been conducted with asymptomatic athletes in several sports, aiming to detect potentially deleterious and disabling abnormalities. To compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lumbar spine findings in a group of asymptomatic adolescent rowers and in a control group of adolescents matched according to age and sex who do not practice any regular physical activity. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. Our study evaluated 44 asymptomatic adolescent boys distributed in 2 groups of 22 rowers and 22 control subjects. All the examinations were performed using a 0.35-T open-field MRI unit and evaluated by 2 experienced radiologists blinded to the study groups. Each MRI scan was analyzed for the presence of disc degeneration/desiccation, herniated or bulging disc, pars interarticularis stress reaction, and spondylolysis. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were used for statistical analyses. Nine rowers (40.9%) had at least 1 abnormality detected by MRI in the lumbar spine, whereas only 2 participants (9.1%) in the control group had at least 1 MRI abnormality (P = .03). Seven disc changes (31.8%) and 6 pars abnormalities (27.3%) were found in the group of elite rowers. In the control group, 3 disc changes (13.6%) and no pars abnormalities were found in the MR scans. The comparison between groups showed statistically significant differences in stress reaction of the pars articularis. Disc disease and pars interarticularis stress reaction are prevalent abnormalities of the lumbar spine of high-performance rowers.

  19. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Present-day stress magnitude at depth from leak-off tests in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariucci, M. T.; Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present new results from the analysis of leak-off tests, performed in deep oil wells in Italy, to characterize the present-day stress magnitude and regime in the crust. In the last years we have collected a large number of data (more than 500) from different stress indicators, mainly borehole breakouts, earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data, which provided information on the present-day stress orientations. In some areas the tectonic regime has been inferred either from fault plane solutions of M≥4 earthquakes or from stress inversions of smaller earthquakes. Where seismicity lacks, the regime is not well constrained and little or no information on the magnitude of the crustal stresses is available. In order to improve our knowledge in stress regime and its magnitude in Italy, in this work we use the leak-off test technique. Each test is performed at the bottom of an open hole by sealing off a section and then slowly pressurizing with a fluid until hydraulic tensile fractures develop. The minimum horizontal stress is inferred by leak-off pressure record, the vertical stress is computed by rock density data and the maximum horizontal stress is estimated applying a specific formula from the literature. Thanks to ENI S.p.A. (Italian oil company), that kindly provided new well data, we have been able to perform a critical review of our preliminary calculations and to enhance our previous results concerning stress magnitudes. Totally, we have analyzed 192 leak-off tests at depth between 200 and 5400m (average 1800m). In particular, wells are located along the Italian peninsula and in Sicily: most of them are in the Po Plain and along the Apenninic foredeep; few are in southern Apenninic belt and a few tens are in Sicily. After an accurate selection of the most robust results, we better characterize the Italian stress regime at depth.

  1. Cardiac Stress Test Trends Among US Patients Younger Than 65 Years, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Kini, Vinay; McCarthy, Fenton H; Dayoub, Elias; Bradley, Steven M; Masoudi, Frederick A; Ho, P Michael; Groeneveld, Peter W

    2016-12-01

    After a period of rapid growth, use of cardiac stress testing has recently decreased among Medicare beneficiaries and in a large integrated health system. However, it is not known whether declines in cardiac stress testing are universal or are confined to certain populations. To determine trends in rates of cardiac stress testing among a large and diverse cohort of commercially insured patients. A serial cross-sectional study with time trends was conducted using administrative claims from all members aged 25 to 64 years belonging to a large, national managed care company from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. Linear trends in rates were determined using negative binomial regression models with procedure count as the dependent variable, calendar quarter as the key independent variable, and the size of the population as a logged offset term. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. Age- and sex-adjusted rates of cardiac stress tests per calendar quarter (reported as number of tests per 100 000 person-years). A total of 2 085 591 cardiac stress tests were performed among 32 921 838 persons (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [10.9] years; 16 625 528 women [50.5%] and 16 296 310 [49.5%] men; 7 604 945 nonwhite [23.1%]). There was a 3.0% increase in rates of cardiac stress testing from 2005 (3486 tests; 95% CI, 3458-3514) to 2012 (3589 tests; 95% CI, 3559-3619; P = .01 for linear trend). Use of nuclear single-photon emission computed tomography decreased by 14.9% from 2005 (1907 tests; 95% CI, 1888-1926) to 2012 (1623 tests; 95% CI, 1603-1643; P = .03). Use of stress echocardiography increased by 27.8% from 2005 (709 tests; 95% CI, 697-721) to 2012 (906 tests; 95% CI, 894 to 920; P < .001). Use of exercise electrocardiography increased by 12.5% from 2005 (861 tests; 95% CI, 847-873) to 2012 (969 tests; 95% CI, 953-985; P < .001). Use of other stress testing modalities increased 65.5% from 2006 (55 tests; 95% CI

  2. A robust and reliable non-invasive test for stress responsivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zimprich, Annemarie; Garrett, Lillian; Deussing, Jan M.; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress and an altered stress response have been associated with many multifactorial diseases, such as psychiatric disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. As currently mouse mutants for each single gene are generated and phenotyped in a large-scale manner, it seems advisable also to test these mutants for alterations in their stress responses. Here we present the determinants of a robust and reliable non-invasive test for stress-responsivity in mice. Stress is applied through restraining the mice in tubes and recording behavior in the Open Field 20 min after cessation of the stress. Two hours, but not 15 or 50 min of restraint lead to a robust and reproducible increase in distance traveled and number of rearings during the first 5 min in the Open Field in C57BL/6 mice. This behavioral response is blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, but not by RU486 treatment, indicating that it depends on corticosteroid secretion, but is not mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor type II. We assumed that with a stress duration of 15 min one could detect hyper-responsivity, and with a stress duration of 2 h hypo-responsivity in mutant mouse lines. This was validated with two mutant lines known to show opposing effects on corticosterone secretion after stress exposure, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) over-expressing mice and CRH receptor 1 knockout (KO) mice. Both lines showed the expected phenotype, i.e., increased stress responsivity in the CRH over-expressing mouse line (after 15 min restraint stress) and decreased stress responsivity in the CRHR1-KO mouse line (after 2 h of restraint stress). It is possible to repeat the acute stress test several times without the stressed animal adapting to it, and the behavioral response can be robustly evoked at different ages, in both sexes and in different mouse strains. Thus, locomotor and rearing behavior in the Open Field after an acute stress challenge can be used as reliable, non-invasive indicators of

  3. A robust and reliable non-invasive test for stress responsivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zimprich, Annemarie; Garrett, Lillian; Deussing, Jan M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M

    2014-01-01

    Stress and an altered stress response have been associated with many multifactorial diseases, such as psychiatric disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. As currently mouse mutants for each single gene are generated and phenotyped in a large-scale manner, it seems advisable also to test these mutants for alterations in their stress responses. Here we present the determinants of a robust and reliable non-invasive test for stress-responsivity in mice. Stress is applied through restraining the mice in tubes and recording behavior in the Open Field 20 min after cessation of the stress. Two hours, but not 15 or 50 min of restraint lead to a robust and reproducible increase in distance traveled and number of rearings during the first 5 min in the Open Field in C57BL/6 mice. This behavioral response is blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, but not by RU486 treatment, indicating that it depends on corticosteroid secretion, but is not mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor type II. We assumed that with a stress duration of 15 min one could detect hyper-responsivity, and with a stress duration of 2 h hypo-responsivity in mutant mouse lines. This was validated with two mutant lines known to show opposing effects on corticosterone secretion after stress exposure, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) over-expressing mice and CRH receptor 1 knockout (KO) mice. Both lines showed the expected phenotype, i.e., increased stress responsivity in the CRH over-expressing mouse line (after 15 min restraint stress) and decreased stress responsivity in the CRHR1-KO mouse line (after 2 h of restraint stress). It is possible to repeat the acute stress test several times without the stressed animal adapting to it, and the behavioral response can be robustly evoked at different ages, in both sexes and in different mouse strains. Thus, locomotor and rearing behavior in the Open Field after an acute stress challenge can be used as reliable, non-invasive indicators of

  4. Interfacial stress state present in a 'thin-slice' fibre push-out test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallas, M. N.; Koss, D. A.; Hahn, H. T.; Hellmann, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the stress distributions along the fiber-matrix interface in a 'thin-slice' fiber push-out test is presented for selected test geometries. For the small specimen thicknesses often required to displace large-diameter fibers with high interfacial shear strengths, finite element analysis indicates that large bending stresses may be present. The magnitude of these stresses and their spatial distribution can be very sensitive to the test configuration. For certain test geometries, the specimen configuration itself may alter the interfacial failure process from one which initiates due to a maximum in shear stress near the top surface adjacent to the indentor, to one which involves mixed mode crack growth up from the bottom surface and/or yielding within the matrix near the interface.

  5. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery test for LADOTD asphalt binder specification.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize the elastic response of various binders used by LADOTD to determine the feasibility of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test to be included in the LADOTD asphalt binder specification and to...

  6. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  9. Enhancing nurses' roles to improve quality and efficiency of non-medical cardiac stress tests.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Lizelle; Ross, Lisa; Greaves, Claire

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a test that aids the diagnosis of coronary heart disease, of which pharmacological stress is a key component. An increase in demand had resulted in a 42 week waiting time for MPI in Leicester. This article looks at how implementing non-medically led stress tests reduced this waiting list. It discusses the obstacles involved and the measures needed to make the service a success.

  10. An Automatic System of Testing the Best Stress of Installation for Semiconductor Refrigeration Piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyan; Song, Ping

    Concerning the problems of the impact on the factors of installation about semiconductor refrigeration piece are rarely studied in China and abroad, a reasonable structure of test device is designed, using stepper motor to test the temperature of the cold surface under different stress of installation to get the best stress of installation for the semiconductor refrigeration piece. Experiments shows that the system is of good noise immunity, high controlling and measuring precision.

  11. Stress transfer of a Kevlar 49 fiber pullout test studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhenkun; Wang, Quan; Qiu, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The interfacial stress transfer behavior of a Kevlar 49 aramid fiber-epoxy matrix was studied with fiber pullout tests, the fibers of which were stretched by a homemade microloading device. Raman spectra on the embedded fiber were recorded by micro-Raman spectroscopy, under different strain levels. Then, the fiber axial stress was obtained by the relationship between the stress and Raman shift of the aramid fiber. Experimental results revealed that the fiber axial stress increased significantly with the load. The shear stress concentration occurred at the fiber entry to the epoxy resin. Thus, interfacial friction stages exist in the debonded fiber segment, and the interfacial friction shear stress is constant within one stage. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical model predictions.

  12. Spatial and temporal task characteristics as stress: a test of the dynamic adaptability theory of stress, workload, and performance.

    PubMed

    Szalma, James L; Teo, Grace W L

    2012-03-01

    The goal for this study was to test assertions of the dynamic adaptability theory of stress, which proposes two fundamental task dimensions, information rate (temporal properties of a task) and information structure (spatial properties of a task). The theory predicts adaptive stability across stress magnitudes, with progressive and precipitous changes in adaptive response manifesting first as increases in perceived workload and stress and then as performance failure. Information structure was manipulated by varying the number of displays to be monitored (1, 2, 4 or 8 displays). Information rate was manipulated by varying stimulus presentation rate (8, 12, 16, or 20 events/min). A signal detection task was used in which critical signals were pairs of digits that differed by 0 or 1. Performance accuracy declined and workload and stress increased as a function of increased task demand, with a precipitous decline in accuracy at the highest demand levels. However, the form of performance change as well as the pattern of relationships between speed and accuracy and between performance and workload/stress indicates that some aspects of the theory need revision. Implications of the results for the theory and for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Social Dimension of Stress: Experimental Manipulations of Social Support and Social Identity in the Trier Social Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In many situations humans are influenced by the behavior of other people and their relationships with them. For example, in stressful situations supportive behavior of other people as well as positive social relationships can act as powerful resources to cope with stress. In order to study the interplay between these variables, this protocol describes two effective experimental manipulations of social relationships and supportive behavior in the laboratory. In the present article, these two manipulations are implemented in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)—a standard stress induction paradigm in which participants are subjected to a simulated job interview. More precisely, we propose (a) a manipulation of the relationship between different protagonists in the TSST by making a shared social identity salient and (b) a manipulation of the behavior of the TSST-selection committee, which acts either supportively or unsupportively. These two experimental manipulations are designed in a modular fashion and can be applied independently of each other but can also be combined. Moreover, these two manipulations can also be integrated into other stress protocols and into other standardized social interactions such as trust games, negotiation tasks, or other group tasks. PMID:26649856

  14. A continuous damage model based on stepwise-stress creep rupture tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    A creep damage accumulation model is presented that makes use of the Kachanov damage rate concept with a provision accounting for damage that results from a variable stress history. This is accomplished through the introduction of an additional term in the Kachanov rate equation that is linear in the stress rate. Specification of the material functions and parameters in the model requires two types of constituting a data base: (1) standard constant-stress creep rupture tests, and (2) a sequence of two-step creep rupture tests.

  15. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Shobitha; Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-04-01

    Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy.

  16. Testing and Implementation of Advanced Reynolds Stress Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.

    1997-01-01

    A research program was proposed for the testing and implementation of advanced turbulence models for non-equilibrium turbulent flows of aerodynamic importance that are of interest to NASA. Turbulence models that are being developed in connection with the Office of Naval Research ARI in Non-equilibrium are provided for implementation and testing in aerodynamic flows at NASA Langley Research Center. Close interactions were established with researchers at Nasa Langley RC and refinements to the models were made based on the results of these tests. The models that have been considered include two-equation models with an anisotropic eddy viscosity as well as full second-order closures. Three types of non-equilibrium corrections to the models have been considered in connection with the ARI on Nonequilibrium Turbulence: conducted for ONR.

  17. Timely Follow-Up of Abnormal Diagnostic Imaging Test Results in an Outpatient Setting: Are Electronic Medical Records Achieving Their Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Mani, Shrinidi; Sittig, Dean; Arora, Harvinder; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the fragmentation of outpatient care, timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results remains a challenge. We hypothesized that an EMR that facilitates the transmission and availability of critical imaging results through either automated notification (alerting) or direct access to the primary report would eliminate this problem. Methods We studied critical imaging alert notifications in the outpatient setting of a tertiary care VA facility from November 2007 to June 2008. Tracking software determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider opened the message for viewing) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. We reviewed medical records and contacted providers to determine timely follow-up actions (e.g. ordering a follow-up test or consultation) within 4 weeks of transmission. Multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering effect by providers analyzed predictors for two outcomes; lack of acknowledgment and lack of timely follow-up. Results Of 123,638 studies (including X-rays, CT scans, ultrasounds, MRI and mammography), 1196 (0.97%) images generated alerts; 217 (18.1%) of these were unacknowledged. Alerts had a higher risk of being unacknowledged when ordering providers were trainees (OR, 5.58;95%CI, 2.86-10.89) and when dual (more than one provider alerted) as opposed to single communication was used (OR, 2.02;95%CI, 1.22-3.36). Timely follow-up was lacking in 92 (7.7% of all alerts) and was similar for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (7.3% vs. 9.7%;p=0.2). Risk for lack of timely follow-up was higher with dual communication (OR,1.99;95%CI, 1.06-3.48) but lower when additional verbal communication was used by the radiologist (OR, 0.12;95%CI: 0.04-0.38). Nearly all abnormal results lacking timely follow-up at 4 weeks were eventually found to have measurable clinical impact in terms of further diagnostic testing or treatment. Conclusions Critical imaging results may not

  18. 78 FR 78165 - Orders: Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of September 30, 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Entities of Stress Testing Results as of September 30, 2013; Revision and Amendments to Summary... to be used for stress testing. The Summary Instructions and Guidance accompanying each Order provides... stress testing. II. Order, Summary Instructions and Guidance For the convenience of the affected parties...

  19. Step test performance and risk of stress fractures among female army trainees.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David N; Bedno, Sheryl A; Urban, Nadia; Lee, Dara S; Niebuhr, David W

    2012-06-01

    Stress fractures and other musculoskeletal injuries are major sources of morbidity among female military trainees. Several risk factors have been postulated, particularly pre-existing fitness, usually assessed with post-entry run time for ≥ 1.0 mile. Physical fitness is not formally evaluated prior to Army entry. If a valid and simple test that identified women at increased risk of stress fracture were available and could be applied prior to entry, it would facilitate cost-benefit studies of deferral or interventions. These analyses were undertaken to determine if a 5-minute step test conducted before entry identified women at increased risk. A prospective study was conducted of weight-qualified women entering the Army in 2005-2006, with analyses completed in 2011. At the pre-entry examination, information was collected on age, BMI, smoking, race, and activity level. Everyone took the step test. All outpatient medical encounters were captured, and stress fractures and other musculoskeletal injuries identified. Women with stress fractures and those with other musculoskeletal injuries were evaluated separately. 1568 women were included in the study; 109 developed stress fractures and 803 other musculoskeletal injury. Women who failed the step test had a 76% higher stress fracture incidence and a 35% higher incidence of other musculoskeletal injuries. There was effect modification between age and test failure for stress fracture. A step test that can be administered before military entry identifies women with increased incidence of stress fracture and other musculoskeletal injury. This test could be used pre-entry to defer or target high-risk recruits for tailored fitness training before or after military entrance. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Dobutamine cardiac "stress" test reveals increased arrhythmia risk in conscious rats after a single exposure to acrolein

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mild-to-moderate exercise is often used to stress the cardiovascular (CV) system of patients while monitoring them for electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities that may indicate underlying CV disease. We previously demonstrated that dobutamine, which increases heart rate (HR) and co...

  1. Up Front: Students Are Chafing under "Test Stress."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Although President Bush favors continuous testing, headlines reflect an intense, growing antitesting sentiment. One standard does not fit all, current systems are malfunctioning, and kids are short-changed. A recent report says abstinence-only sex education is ineffective; high teen birth rates underline the need for comprehensive approaches. (MLH)

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Standardized Test-Taking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Proctor, Susan P.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Given the widespread use and high-stakes nature of educational standardized assessments, understanding factors that affect test-taking ability in young adults is vital. Although scholarly attention has often focused on demographic factors (e.g., gender and race), sufficiently prevalent acquired characteristics may also help explain widespread…

  3. Occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients in whom the etiology of persistently abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknown.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Pardo, Margarita; Bartolomé, Javier; Ortiz-Movilla, Nuria; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; de Lucas, Susana; Salas, Clara; Jiménez-Heffernan, Jose A; Pérez-Mota, Arturo; Graus, Javier; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Carreño, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    There are patients in whom the etiology of long-standing abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknown (ALF-EU) after exclusion of all known causes of liver diseases. We analyzed the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in liver-biopsy specimens from 100 patients who were negative for anti-HCV antibodies and for serum HCV RNA and who had ALF-EU. HCV RNA status was tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization, in liver and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HCV RNA was detected in liver-biopsy specimens from 57 of 100 patients negative for anti-HCV antibodies and for serum HCV RNA (i.e., who had occult HCV infection). HCV RNA of negative polarity was found in the liver of 48 (84.2%) of these 57 patients with occult HCV infection. Nucleotide-sequence analysis confirmed the specificity of detection of HCV RNA and that patients were infected with the HCV 1b genotype. Of these 57 patients with intrahepatic HCV RNA, 40 (70%) had viral RNA in their PBMCs. With regard to liver histology, patients with occult HCV infection were more likely to have necroinflammatory activity (P=.017) and fibrosis (P=.022) than were patients without intrahepatic HCV RNA. Patients with ALF-EU may have intrahepatic HCV RNA in the absence of anti-HCV antibodies and of serum HCV RNA.

  4. Use of a decision aid for prenatal testing of fetal abnormalities to improve women's informed decision making: a cluster randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN22532458].

    PubMed

    Nagle, C; Gunn, J; Bell, R; Lewis, S; Meiser, B; Metcalfe, S; Ukoumunne, O C; Halliday, J

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a decision aid for prenatal testing of fetal abnormalities compared with a pamphlet in supporting women's decision making. A cluster randomised controlled trial. Primary health care. Women in early pregnancy consulting a GP. GPs were randomised to provide women with either a decision aid or a pamphlet. The decision aid was a 24-page booklet designed using the Ottowa Decision Framework. The pamphlet was an existing resource available in the trial setting. Validated scales were used to measure the primary outcomes, informed choice and decisional conflict, and the secondary outcomes, anxiety, depression, attitudes to the pregnancy/fetus and acceptability of the resource. Outcomes were measured at 14 weeks of gestation from questionnaires that women completed and returned by post. Women in the intervention group were more likely to make an informed decision 76% (126/165) than those in the control group 65% (107/165) (adjusted OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.14-3.81). A greater proportion of women in the intervention group 88% (147/167) had a 'good' level of knowledge than those in the control group 72% (123/171) (adjusted OR 3.43; 95% CI 1.79-6.58). Mean (SD) decisional conflict scores were low in both groups, decision aid 1.71 (0.49), pamphlet 1.65 (0.55) (adjusted mean difference 0.10; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.22). There was no strong evidence of differences between the trial arms in the measures of psychological or acceptability outcomes. A tailored prenatal testing decision aid plays an important role in improving women's knowledge of first and second trimester screening tests and assisting them to make decisions about screening and diagnostic tests that are consistent with their values.

  5. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Stress-Dilatancy of Cambria Sand for Triaxial Tests at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szypcio, Zenon

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the stress-dilatancy relationship of Cambria sand for drained triaxial compression and extension tests at high stress level is investigated. The stress dilatancy relationship is obtained by use of frictional state theory and experimental tests data published in literature. It is shown that stress-dilatancy relationship is bilinear, described by three parameters of frictional state theory: critical frictional angle and two other parameters. It is accepted that critical friction angle is independent of confining pressure. The two additional parameters are strongly dependent on confining pressure and different for initial and advanced stages. The point at which the values of these parameters change is termed as Transformation Shear Point. This point is not simply visible either in stress ratio-strain or the volume strain-shear strain relationship which are traditionally shown in soil mechanics papers. Transformation Shear Point is very characteristic in stress ratio-plastic dilatancy plane. Thus, stress ratio- plastic dilatancy is very important for describing stress-strain behaviour of soils. The relationship shown in the paper can be used in soil modelling in the future.

  8. MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-07-01

    ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task. We hypothesized that the drug would reduce responses to the stressful task. Volunteers (N = 39) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 13), 0.5 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13), or 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13) during a stress and a no-stress session. Dependent measures included subjective reports of drug effects and emotional responses to the task, as well as salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure. The stress task produced its expected increase in physiological responses (cortisol, heart rate) and subjective ratings of stress in all three groups, and MDMA produced its expected subjective and physiological effects. MDMA alone increased ratings of subjective stress, heart rate, and saliva cortisol concentrations, but contrary to our hypothesis, it did not moderate responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Despite its efficacy in PTSD and anxiety, MDMA did not reduce either the subjective or objective responses to stress in this controlled study. The conditions under which MDMA relieves responses to negative events or memories remain to be determined.

  9. MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bershad, Anya K.; Miller, Melissa A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2018-01-01

    Rationale ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. Objectives In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task. We hypothesized that the drug would reduce responses to the stressful task. Methods Volunteers (N = 39) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 13), 0.5 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13), or 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13) during a stress and a no-stress session. Dependent measures included subjective reports of drug effects and emotional responses to the task, as well as salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure. Results The stress task produced its expected increase in physiological responses (cortisol, heart rate) and subjective ratings of stress in all three groups, and MDMA produced its expected subjective and physiological effects. MDMA alone increased ratings of subjective stress, heart rate, and saliva cortisol concentrations, but contrary to our hypothesis, it did not moderate responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Conclusions Despite its efficacy in PTSD and anxiety, MDMA did not reduce either the subjective or objective responses to stress in this controlled study. The conditions under which MDMA relieves responses to negative events or memories remain to be determined. PMID:28432376

  10. Failure Modes in Capacitors When Tested Under a Time-Varying Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David (Donhang)

    2011-01-01

    Steady step surge testing (SSST) is widely applied to screen out potential power-on failures in solid tantalum capacitors. The test simulates the power supply's on and off characteristics. Power-on failure has been the prevalent failure mechanism for solid tantalum capacitors for decoupling applications. On the other hand, the SSST can also be reviewed as an electrically destructive test under a time-varying stress. It consists of rapidly charging the capacitor with incremental voltage increases, through a low resistance in series, until the capacitor under test is electrically shorted. Highly accelerated life testing (HALT) is usually a time-efficient method for determining the failure mechanism in capacitors; however, a destructive test under a time-varying stress like SSST is even more effective. It normally takes days to complete a HALT test, but it only takes minutes for a time-varying stress test to produce failures. The advantage of incorporating specific time-varying stress into a statistical model is significant in providing an alternative life test method for quickly revealing the failure modes in capacitors. In this paper, a time-varying stress has been incorporated into the Weibull model to characterize the failure modes. The SSST circuit and transient conditions to correctly test the capacitors is discussed. Finally, the SSST was applied for testing polymer aluminum capacitors (PA capacitors), Ta capacitors, and multi-layer ceramic capacitors with both precious metal electrode (PME) and base-metal-electrodes (BME). It appears that testing results are directly associated to the dielectric layer breakdown in PA and Ta capacitors and are independent on the capacitor values, the way the capacitors being built, and the manufactures. The testing results also reveal that ceramic capacitors exhibit breakdown voltages more than 20 times the rated voltage, and the breakdown voltages are inverse proportional to the dielectric layer thickness. The possibility of

  11. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test: Part 2. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezirian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Leifeste, Mark; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren

    2010-01-01

    One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPY has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. A more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F, was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval ofthe model. In phase 3, the vessel pressure was increased to above maximum operating pressure while maintaining the phase 2 temperature. After reaching enough effectives hours to reach the 99.99% confidence level of the model phase 4 testing began when the temperature was increased to greater than 170 F. The vessel was maintained at phase 4 conditions until it failed after over 3 million effect hours. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

  12. Real time myocardial contrast echocardiography during supine bicycle stress and continuous infusion of contrast agent. Cutoff values for myocardial contrast replenishment discriminating abnormal myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz; Kuntz-Hehner, Stefanie; Schmidt, Harald; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Tiemann, Klaus; Ghanem, Alexander; Troatz, Clemens; Lüderitz, Berndt; Omran, Heyder

    2007-07-01

    Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) is a new imaging modality for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of our study was to evaluate feasibility of qualitative myocardial contrast replenishment (RP) assessment during supine bicycle stress MCE and find out cutoff values for such analysis, which could allow accurate detection of CAD. Forty-four consecutive patients, scheduled for coronary angiography (CA) underwent supine bicycle stress two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). During the same session, MCE was performed at peak stress and post stress. Ultrasound contrast agent (SonoVue) was administered in continuous mode using an infusion pump (BR-INF 100, Bracco Research). Seventeen-segment model of left ventricle was used in analysis. MCE was assessed off-line in terms of myocardial contrast opacification and RP. RP was evaluated on the basis of the number of cardiac cycles required to refill the segment with contrast after its prior destruction with high-power frames. Determination of cutoff values for RP assessment was performed by means of reference intervals and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Quantitative CA was carried out using CAAS system. MCE could be assessed in 42 patients. CA revealed CAD in 25 patients. Calculated cutoff values for RP-analysis (peak-stress RP >3 cardiac cycles and difference between peak stress and post stress RP >0 cardiac cycles) provided sensitive (88%) and accurate (88%) detection of CAD. Sensitivity and accuracy of 2DE were 76% and 79%, respectively. Qualitative RP-analysis based on the number of cardiac cycles required to refill myocardium with contrast is feasible during supine bicycle stress MCE and enables accurate detection of CAD.

  13. Trier Social Stress Test in vivo and in virtual reality: Dissociation of response domains.

    PubMed

    Shiban, Youssef; Diemer, Julia; Brandl, Simone; Zack, Rebecca; Mühlberger, Andreas; Wüst, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is considered a reliable paradigm for inducing psychosocial stress. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been applied to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and standardization in the TSST. Studies using the TSST in VR (VR-TSST) have reported significant stress reactions, with subjective and peripheral physiological reactions comparable to those in response to the in vivo TSST and with lower cortisol reactions. The current study examined whether an additional virtual competitive factor triggers larger stress responses than a standard VR-TSST. Forty-five male participants were randomly assigned to either in vivo TSST, VR-TSST (VR) or VR-TSST with a virtual competitor (VR+). A significant increase of self-reported stress, electrodermal activity, and heart rate indicated a pronounced stress reaction with no differences between groups. For salivary cortisol, however, responder rates differed significantly between groups, with in vivo participants showing overall higher response rates (86%) than participants of both VR groups (VR: 33%, VR+: 47%). In contrast, participants of both VR groups judged the task significantly more challenging than did in vivo TSST participants. In sum, our results indicate successful stress induction in all experimental conditions, and a marked dissociation of salivary cortisol levels on the one hand, and the physiological and psychological stress reactions on the other hand. The competitive scenario did not significantly enhance stress reactions. VR technology may serve as a standardized tool for inducing social stress in experimental settings, but further research is needed to clarify why the stress reaction as assessed by cortisol differs from peripheral and subjective stress reactions in VR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  15. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks. Part 1: Tension tests and stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Hooper, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Quasi-static tension tests were conducted on AS4/3501-6 graphite epoxy laminates. Dye penetrant enhanced x-radiography was used to document the onset of matrix cracking and the onset of local delaminations at the intersection of the matrix cracks and the free edge. Edge micrographs taken after the onset of damage were used to verify the location of the matrix cracks and local delamination through the laminate thickness. A quasi-3D finite element analysis was conducted to calculate the stresses responsible for matrix cracking in the off-axis plies. Laminated plate theory indicated that the transverse normal stresses were compressive. However, the finite element analysis yielded tensile transverse normal stresses near the free edge. Matrix cracks formed in the off-axis plies near the free edge where in-plane transverse stresses were tensile and had their greatest magnitude. The influence of the matrix crack on interlaminar stresses is also discussed.

  16. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey: A Field Test Among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A; Stewart, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language, immigrant status, work issues, yearning for family and home country, and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (a scale of 1-5, higher is more stress). Cronbach α values were more than 0.80 for all subscales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women.

  17. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS): a Field Test among Mexican Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field-testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language; immigrant status; work issues; yearning for family and home country; and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (1-5 scale, higher is more stress). Cronbach's alphas >.80 for all sub-scales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women. PMID:26605954

  18. Model test study on propagation law of plane stress wave in jointed rock mass under different in-situ stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qian

    2017-12-01

    The study of propagation law of plane stress wave in jointed rock mass under in-situ stress has important significance for safety excavation of underground rock mass engineering. A model test of the blasting stress waves propagating in the intact rock and jointed rock mass under different in-situ stresses was carried out, and the influencing factors on the propagation law, such as the scale of static loads and the number of joints were studied respectively. The results show that the transmission coefficient of intact rock is larger than that of jointed rock mass under the same loading condition. With the increase of confining pressure, the transmission coefficients of intact rock and jointed rock mass both show an trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and the variation of transmission coefficients in intact rock is smaller than that of jointed rock mass. Transmission coefficient of jointed rock mass decreases with the increase of the number of joints under the same loading condition, when the confining pressure is relatively small, the reduction of transmission coefficients decreases with the increasing of the number of joints, and the variation law of the reduction of transmission coefficients is contrary when the confining pressure is large.

  19. Step Stress Testing of Receiver/Transmitter Units. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    voltage reading taken must be multiplied by 10 (as instructed on the test box) to convert to the proper milliampere (mA) reading. D- 16 018 CAUTIONII...INTERVALs4 and 5 above using VARIABLEs below. INTERVAL 6&7 8&9 10&11 12&13 14&15 16 &17 18&19 20&21 FINALVAL (oC) 85 94 102 111 119 127 135 143 INTERVAL...22.Z deg. ch~ 6 22. d. ~ch- 69 2.3ds ch- 09 11.5dgC ch- 16 22.2 d.~ _h 9 2. oSc 0 2. eg;S ch 1 2. oCch- 1a 22.3 d92_C Ch, 11 2. de;C ch- 12 22.2 dog-C

  20. Assessing corrosion problems in photovoltaic cells via electrochemical stress testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalaby, H.

    1985-01-01

    A series of accelerated electrochemical experiments to study the degradation properties of polyvinylbutyral-encapsulated silicon solar cells has been carried out. The cells' electrical performance with silk screen-silver and nickel-solder contacts was evaluated. The degradation mechanism was shown to be electrochemical corrosion of the cell contacts; metallization elements migrate into the encapsulating material, which acts as an ionic conducting medium. The corrosion products form a conductive path which results in a gradual loss of the insulation characteristics of the encapsulant. The precipitation of corrosion products in the encapsulant also contributes to its discoloration which in turn leads to a reduction in its transparency and the consequent optical loss. Delamination of the encapsulating layers could be attributed to electrochemical gas evolution reactions. The usefulness of the testing technique in qualitatively establishing a reliability difference between metallizations and antireflection coating types is demonstrated.

  1. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris

    2015-09-02

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we propose a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. We designed the test with the aid of a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress that result from partial shade. The model predicts the module-scale interactions among the illumination pattern, the electrical properties of the photovoltaic material and the thermal properties of the module package. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts formore » reversible light-induced performance changes and for additional stress that may be introduced by light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We present simulated and experimental results from the application of the proposed test.« less

  2. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  3. Initial Development and Factor Structure of the Educator Test Stress Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Solomon, Hadley J.; Bowler, Mark; Curtiss, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    With the proliferation of test-based accountability policies, educators and students alike are under pressure to improve test performance. However, little is known regarding the stress experienced by educators in response to these policies. The purpose of this article is to describe the initial development and validation of a new measure of stress…

  4. Stress Testing Recovery EMG for Evaluation of Biofeedback and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Wesley E.; DeGood, Douglas E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess biofeedback (BF) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and placebo-control training by means of a post-training transfer test. The subjects for the research were 30 women. Initial tests consisted of measuring the electromyographic response of the frontalis muscle of the forehead to stress. After…

  5. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities by fluorescent in-situ hybridization in immotile viable spermatozoa determined by hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test.

    PubMed

    Zeyneloglu, H B; Baltaci, V; Ege, S; Haberal, A; Batioglu, S

    2000-04-01

    If randomly selected immotile spermatozoa are used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), pregnancy rates are significantly decreased. The hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) is the only method available to detect the viable, but immotile spermatozoa for ICSI. However, evidence is still lacking for the chromosomal abnormalities for the normal-looking, but immotile spermatozoa positive for HOST. Sperm samples from 20 infertile men with normal chromosomal constitution were obtained. After Percoll separation, morphologically normal but immotile spermatozoa were transported individually into HOST solution for 1 min using micropipettes. Cells that showed tail curling with swelling in HOST were then transferred back into human tubal fluid solution to allow reversal of swelling. These sperm cells were fixed and processed for the multi-colour fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes X, Y and 18. The same FISH procedure was applied for the motile spermatozoa from the same cohort, which formed the control group. The average aneuploidy rates were 1.70 and 1.54% in 1000 HOST positive immotile and motile spermatozoa respectively detected by FISH for each patient. Our results indicate that morphologically normal, immotile but viable spermatozoa have an aneuploidy rate similar to that of normal motile spermatozoa.

  6. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thinmore » walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.« less

  7. Stress testing response in women heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Damaskos, Dimitris S; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Salpea, Klelia D; Dritsas, Athanasios; Giannakopoulou, Vasiliki; Vasiliadis, Ioannis K; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2007-10-31

    We evaluated 62 exercise treadmill tests (ETTs) in equal numbers of heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia (hFH) and healthy (HLY) women, matched for age, baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and baseline heart rate (HR), using the Bruce protocol. Both groups had similar rate pressure product (RPP) and workload in metabolic equivalents (METs) (27,563+/-3124 vs. 29,090+/-4077, p=0.103 and 11.2+/-1.7 vs. 11.5+/-1.8, p=0.473, respectively). Women with hFH had lower delta (difference of peak to baseline) and peak exercise systolic and diastolic BP (systolic: 48+/-12 vs. 58+/-17 mmHg, p=0.010 and 167+/-19 vs. 177+/-17 mmHg, p=0.042, respectively; diastolic: 11+/-7 vs. 15+/-7 mmHg, p=0.028 and 85+/-7 vs. 91+/-7 mmHg, p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, women with hFH had higher delta percentage (%) of HR, compared to HLY; (106+/-25 vs. 95+/-20, p=0.047). In conclusion, hFH women possibly have an inadequate rise in systolic BP during ETT. Diastolic BP increased more in the HLY than in the hFH group, but still remained within normal limits. These findings may reflect preclinical changes of atherosclerosis in hFH women, however further research should be undertaken.

  8. Derivation and test of elevated temperature thermal-stress-free fastener concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.; Blosser, M. L.; Mcwithey, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Future aerospace vehicles must withstand high temperatures and be able to function over a wide temperature range. New composite materials are being developed for use in designing high-temperature lightweight structures. Due to the difference between coefficients of thermal expansion for the new composite materials and conventional high-temperature metallic fasteners, innovative joining techniques are needed to produce tight joints at all temperatures without excessive thermal stresses. A thermal-stress-free fastening technique is presented that can be used to provide structurally tight joints at all temperatures even when the fastener and joined materials have different coefficients of thermal expansion. The derivation of thermal-stress-free fasteners and joint shapes is presented for a wide variety of fastener materials and materials being joined together. Approximations to the thermal-stress-free shapes that result in joints with low-thermal-stresses and that simplify the fastener/joint shape are discussed. The low-thermal-stress fastener concept is verified by thermal and shear tests in joints using oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy fasteners in carbon-carbon material. The test results show no evidence of thermal stress damage for temperatures up to 2000 F and the resulting joints carried shear loads at room temperature typical of those for conventional joints.

  9. A Modified Constant-Stress Coupon for Enhanced Natural Crack Start during Fatigue Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    improved numerically controlled manufacture. DSTO Research Report DSTO-RR-0340, July 2009. Wescott R, M Jones, M Heller. Stress analysis for design of...has been confirmed by Yu et al. (2014) through experimental strain measurement as well as fatigue tests under spectrum loading. However, as designed ...the results of analyses of a variety of typical non -optimal non -constant stress dog-bone coupon designs . One of those designs has in fact previously

  10. A single exposure to diesel exhaust increases the risk of triggered cardiac arrhythmias in conscious rats during dobutamine cardiac "stress" test.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mild-to-moderate exercise is often used to stress the cardiovascular (CV) system of patients while monitoring them for electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities that may indicate underlying CV disease. We previously used dobutamine, which increases heart rate (HR) and contractility, ...

  11. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    PubMed

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  12. 77 FR 68047 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    .... OCC-2012-0016] Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress... and factors to be used by the OCC in development and distributing the stress test scenarios for the annual stress test required by the Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 as...

  13. 78 FR 78694 - Orders: Supplemental Orders on Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of September 30, 2013 AGENCY: Federal Housing... provide to the regulated entities two additional appendices of scenario assumptions to be used for stress... STRESS TESTING RESULTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2013 Whereas, section 165(i)(2) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

  14. Rapid diagnosis of retina and optic nerve abnormalities in canine patients with and without cataracts using chromatic pupil light reflex testing.

    PubMed

    Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana

    2013-09-01

    To develop fast and reliable testing routines for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine cataract patients based on chromatic properties of the pupillary light reflex response. Seventy-seven canine patients with a history of cataract and decreased vision (43 patients with cataracts and no evidence of retina or optic nerve disease, 21 patients with cataracts and retinal degeneration [RD], 13 patients with cataracts and retinal detachment [RDT]), 11 canine patients with optic neuritis (ON) and 23 healthy dogs were examined using chromatic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) analysis with red and blue light and electroretinography. Electroretinography analysis showed statistically significant deficits in a- and b-wave amplitudes in dogs with cataracts and RD, or cataracts and RDT, when compared to dogs with cataracts without evidence of retinal abnormalities. Evaluation of b-wave amplitudes showed that presence of 78.5-μV (or lower) amplitudes had high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100%) and high specificity of 96.7% (95% CI: 88.4-100%) in RD and RDT. Evaluation of cPLR responses using red light showed that presence of the pupil end constriction diameter of 5.5 mm (or higher) had moderately high sensitivity of 76.5% (95% CI: 50.1-93.2%) and high specificity of 100% (95% CI: 91.2-100%) in detecting RD and RDT. Optic neuritis patients had absent cPLR responses, regardless of the visual status. Chromatic evaluation of the pupillary light reflex is a rapid and accurate test for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine patients. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. The patient's motivation during bicycle stress ECG test is dependent on the investigator's sex in male patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian; Ferrari, Markus; Goebel, Bjoern; Figulla, Hans R

    2009-08-21

    The exercise electrocardiogram is a commonly used non-invasive method for detection of electrocardiogram (ECG) changes secondary to myocardial ischemia. Studies showed the importance of the patient's motivation to reach the estimated submaximal heart rate. The purpose of this study was to test whether the patient's motivation is dependent on the investigator's sex. We included 1170 patients (in-hospital patients and out-clinic patients; 63.5% male, 36.5% female) in this study. Stress test data (stationary bicycle with gradually increasing intensity) were collected retrospectively: patient's age, sex, maximal power stage, ECG-abnormalities, angina pectoris, and attending physician's sex. Male patients achieved a higher power stage than their female counterparts (126.5+/-47.7 W vs. 89.7+/-30.4 W). When male patients were supervised by a female doctor they reached higher maximum power stages (136.6+/-53.5 W vs. 121.6+/-43.3 W; p=0,001), more often the submaximal heart rate (47.9% vs. 38.3%; p=0.02) but complained less frequent about angina pectoris (5.6% vs. 17.3%). In contrast, none of these parameters was dependent on the attending physician's sex in female patients. The attending physician's sex influences the maximum exercise ability and the incidence of complaints during bicycle stress in male patients but not in females. We would speculate that men try to impress women with physical strength and try to dissimulate physical discomfort or pain. This could possibly influence the validity of such non-invasive methods with exercise dependent detection of myocardial ischemia.

  16. Failure Modes in Capacitors When Tested Under a Time-Varying Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David (Donhang)

    2011-01-01

    Power-on failure has been the prevalent failure mechanism for solid tantalum capacitors in decoupling applications. A surge step stress test (SSST) has been previously applied to identify the critical stress level of a capacitor batch to give some predictability to the power-on failure mechanism [1]. But SSST can also be viewed as an electrically destructive test under a time-varying stress (voltage). It consists of rapidly charging the capacitor with incremental voltage increases, through a low resistance in series, until the capacitor under test is electrically shorted. When the reliability of capacitors is evaluated, a highly accelerated life test (HALT) is usually adopted since it is a time-efficient method of determining the failure mechanism; however, a destructive test under a time-varying stress such as SSST is even more time efficient. It usually takes days or weeks to complete a HALT test, but it only takes minutes for a time-varying stress test to produce failures. The advantage of incorporating a specific time-varying stress profile into a statistical model is significant in providing an alternative life test method for quickly revealing the failure mechanism in capacitors. In this paper, a time-varying stress that mimics a typical SSST has been incorporated into the Weibull model to characterize the failure mechanism in different types of capacitors. The SSST circuit and transient conditions for correctly surge testing capacitors are discussed. Finally, the SSST was applied for testing Ta capacitors, polymer aluminum capacitors (PA capacitors), and multi-layer ceramic (MLC) capacitors with both precious metal electrodes (PME) and base metal electrodes (BME). The test results are found to be directly associated with the dielectric layer breakdown in Ta and PA capacitors and are independent of the capacitor values, the way the capacitors were built, and the capacitors manufacturers. The test results also show that MLC capacitors exhibit surge breakdown

  17. A test for interfacial effects and stress transfer in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A test specimen was devised for measuring stress transfer between a high modulus fiber and a ceramic matrix. Single filaments of SiC were embedded in chemically vapor deposited SiC on a thin plate of molybdenum. The CVD overcoating which encapsulated the fiber was continuous with a coating of SiC on the molybdenum. When placed in a microtensile test device and loaded in the fiber direction, the fiber fracture characteristics provide information on the fiber/matrix adhesion and stress transfer. Problems were encountered due to the formation of a weak boundary between the SiC and the molybdenum which obviated any meaningful tensile tests. Also, the high CVD temperature used in fabricating these specimens restrict the fiber, matrix (and substrate) to materials having similar thermal coefficients of expansion in order to minimize thermal stresses.

  18. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  19. Ankle stress test for predicting the need for surgical fixation of isolated fibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Egol, Kenneth A; Amirtharajah, Mohana; Amirtharage, Mohana; Tejwani, Nirmal C; Capla, Edward L; Koval, Kenneth J

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the prevalence of medial ankle widening among patients with an isolated fibular fracture and to determine the functional outcome of nonoperative treatment despite a diagnosis of a supination-external rotation stage-IV injury based on stress radiography. One hundred and one patients with evidence of an isolated fibular fracture and an intact mortise seen on a standard ankle trauma radiograph series were evaluated with stress radiographs. Clinical signs were recorded at the time of presentation. A positive stress test was defined as > or =4 mm of widening of the medial clear space. Patients with a negative stress test were treated nonoperatively, those with a positive stress test and clinical signs of medial injury were treated surgically, and those with a positive stress test and no signs of medial injury were treated according to the preference of the surgeon and patient. The patients were followed prospectively with radiographs and ankle outcome scores. Sixty-six (65%) of the 101 patients had a positive stress radiograph. Thirty-six of them had signs of medial injury, and thirty had no medial injury. With regard to predicting a positive stress radiograph, medial tenderness had a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 80%, swelling had a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 71%, and ecchymosis had a sensitivity of 26% and a specificity of 91%. Of the subset of patients without signs of medial injury, twenty were treated nonoperatively (group I) and ten were treated operatively (group II). Two of the twenty patients in group I had evidence of persistent widening of the medial clear space at the time of the latest follow-up (mean, 7.4 months); only one of those patients was symptomatic. The average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 94 points in group I and 93 points in group II. We found a high rate of positive stress radiographs for patients who presented with an isolated fibular fracture and

  20. Characterization Of Flow Stress Of Different AA6082 Alloys By Means Of Hot Torsion Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Lorenzo; El Mehtedi, Mohamad

    2011-05-01

    FEM simulations are become the most powerful tools in order to optimize the different aspects of the extrusion process and an accurate flow stress definition of the alloy is a prerequisite for a reliable effectiveness of the simulation. In the paper the determination of flow stress by means of hot torsion test is initially presented and discussed: the several approximations that are usually introduced in flow stress computation are described and computed for an AA6082 alloy in order to evidence the final effect on curves shapes. The procedure for regressing the parameters of the sinhyperbolic flow stress definition is described in detailed and applied to the described results. Then four different alloys, extracted by different casting batches but all namely belonging to the 6082 class, were hot torsion tested in comparable levels of temperature and strain rate up to specimen failure. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to understand if a mean flow stress behavior can be identified for the whole material class at the different tested conditions or if specific testing conditions (chemical composition of the alloy, specimen shape, etc) influence the materials properties to a higher degree.

  1. [Stress test at 44 °C and 80 % of humidity and usefulness of ice suit].

    PubMed

    González-Hidalgo, Germán; Sánchez-Flores, Hafid; López-Castellanos, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    to compare the fatigue in a stress test at high temperature and humidity in eight healthy volunteers. the time of pedaling on the ergometer cycle was measured to know the exercise's efficiency at 30 km/h until the volunteers presented exhaustion or their heart frequency increased to > 160 beats/min. A basal test in the tunnel's ventilation of the Naica mine at 37.5°C and 40 % humidity was done. We repeated the stress test at the entrance of the cave, where temperature was 44°C and 80 % humidity. We compared using the protector equipment with ice and cold air breathing suit. the stress test al 44°C and 80 % humidity with the protector suit was interrupted in 75 % of participants because of an increase in the heart frequency (> 160 per minute) The exercise time was duplicated in 62 % and was increased in 100% of the participants with an average increase of 2.25 times and a rank of (1.12-3.3). Using the statistical Wilcoxon test the differences between the times of stress test with and without equipment at 44°C and 80 % humidity had a Z of 2.52 and a p of .012 was done.

  2. Direct Shear Tests of Sandstone Under Constant Normal Tensile Stress Condition Using a Simple Auxiliary Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Duofeng; Huang, Da

    2017-06-01

    Tension-shear failure is a typical failure mode in the rock masses in unloading zones induced by excavation or river incision, etc., such as in excavation-disturbed zone of deep underground caverns and superficial rocks of high steep slopes. However, almost all the current shear failure criteria for rock are usually derived on the basis of compression-shear failure. This paper proposes a simple device for use with a servo-controlled compression-shear testing machine to conduct the tension-shear tests of cuboid rock specimens, to test the direct shear behavior of sandstone under different constant normal tensile stress conditions ( σ = -1, -1.5, -2, -2.5 and -3 MPa) as well as the uniaxial tension behavior. Generally, the fracture surface roughness decreases and the proportion of comminution areas in fracture surface increases as the change of stress state from tension to tension-shear and to compression-shear. Stepped fracture is a primary fracture pattern in the tension-shear tests. The shear stiffness, shear deformation and normal deformation (except the normal deformation for σ = -1 MPa) decrease during shearing, while the total normal deformation containing the pre-shearing portion increases as the normal tensile stress level (| σ|) goes up. Shear strength is more sensitive to the normal tensile stress than to the normal compressive stress, and the power function failure criterion (or Mohr envelope form of Hoek-Brown criterion) is examined to be the optimal criterion for the tested sandstone in the full region of tested normal stress in this study.

  3. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  4. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stressmore » cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production

  5. The early identification of psychosis: Can lessons be learnt from Cardiac Stress Testing?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swapnil; Ranganathan, Mohini; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are amongst the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. There is an urgent need to develop methods to identify individuals at risk with greater precision and as early as possible. At present, a prerequisite for a diagnosis of schizophrenia is the occurrence of a psychotic episode. Therefore, attempting to detect schizophrenia on the basis of psychosis is analogous to diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction (MI). The introduction of cardiac stress testing (CST) has revolutionized the detection of CAD and the prevention and management of angina and MI. In this paper we attempt to apply lessons learnt from cardiac stress testing to the early detection of psychosis by proposing the development of an analogous psychosis stress test. We discuss in detail the various parameters of a proposed psychosis stress test including the choice of a suitable psychological or psychopharmacological “stressor”, target population, outcome measures, safety of the approach and the necessary evolution of test to become clinically informative. The history of evolution of CST may guide the development of a similar approach for the detection and management of psychotic disorders. The initial development of a test to unmask latent risk for schizophrenia will require the selection of a suitable and safe stimulus and the development of outcome measures as a prelude to testing in populations with a range of risk to determine predictive value. The use of cardiac stress testing in coronary artery disease offers the intriguing possibility that a similar approach may be applied to the detection and management of schizophrenia. PMID:26566609

  6. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, sweat rate, and forearm skin blood flow. Subjects were exposed to a cold pressor test (CPT) by immersing a hand in an ice water slurry for 3 min while otherwise normothermic and while heat stressed (i.e., increase core temperature ~0.7°C via water-perfused suit). Mean responses from the final minute of the CPT were evaluated. In both thermal conditions CPT induced significant increases in MSNA and MAP without altering heart rate. Although the increase in MSNA to the CPT was similar between thermal conditions (normothermia: Δ14.0 ± 2.6; heat stress: Δ19.1 ± 2.6 bursts/min; P = 0.09), the accompanying increase in MAP was attenuated when subjects were heat stressed (normothermia: Δ25.6 ± 2.3, heat stress: Δ13.4 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that heat stress can attenuate the pressor response to a sympathoexcitatory stimulus.

  7. Randomized test of an implementation intention-based tool to reduce stress-induced eating.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Armitage, Christopher J; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer) by producing deleterious changes to diet. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instruction (control). On-line daily reports of stressors and snacking were completed for 7 days. Daily stressors were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in the control condition but not in the experimental condition. Participants highly motivated towards healthy eating consumed a greater number of healthy snacks in the experimental condition on stressful days compared to participants in the experimental condition with low and mean levels of motivation. This tool is an effective, theory driven, intervention that helps to protect against stress-induced high-calorie snack consumption.

  8. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P < 0.01). Patients with sensory stroke but without CPSP (non-pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P < 0.05). In patients with CPSP, changes in CDT, PHS, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  9. A test procedure for determining the influence of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. H.; Wei, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A test procedure is outlined by which the rate of fatigue crack growth over a range of stress ratios and stress intensities can be determined expeditiously using a small number of specimens. This procedure was developed to avoid or circumvent the effects of load interactions on fatigue crack growth, and was used to develop data on a mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate. Experimental data suggest that the rates of fatigue crack growth among the various stress ratios may be correlated in terms of an effective stress intensity range at given values of K max. This procedure is not to be used, however, for determining the corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of alloys when nonsteady-state effects are significant.

  10. A pretest prognostic score to assess patients undergoing exercise or pharmacological stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Morise, Anthony; Evans, Matthew; Jalisi, Farrukh; Shetty, Rajendra; Stauffer, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Objective A previously developed pretest score was validated to stratify patients presenting for exercise testing with suspected coronary disease according to the presence of angiographic coronary disease. Our goal was to determine how well this pretest score risk stratified patients undergoing pharmacological and exercise stress tests concerning prognostic endpoints. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting University hospital stress laboratory. Patients 7452 unselected ambulatory patients with symptoms of suspected coronary disease undergoing stress testing between 1995 and 2004. Main outcomes measures All‐cause death, cardiac death and non‐fatal myocardial infarction. Results The rate of all‐cause death was 5.5% (CI 5.0 to 6.1) with 4.3 (SD 2.4) years of follow‐up (Exercise 2.8% (CI 2.3 to 3.2) v Pharmacological group 11.9% (CI 10.5 to 13.3); p<0.001). The rate of cardiac death/myocardial infarction was 2.6% (CI 2.2 to 3.0) (Exercise 1.4% (CI 1.1 to 1.8) v Pharmacological group 5.3% (CI 4.3 to 6.2); p<0.001). In both groups, stratification by pretest score was significant for all‐cause death and the combined endpoint. However, stratification was more effective in the pharmacological group using the combined endpoint rather than all‐cause death. Pharmacological stress patients in intermediate and high risk groups were at higher risk than their respective exercise test cohorts. Referral for pharmacological stress testing was found to be an independent predictor of time to death (2.7 (CI 2.0 to 3.6); p<0.001). Conclusion A pretest score previously validated to stratify according to angiographic outcomes, effectively risk stratified pharmacological and exercise stress patients according to the combined endpoint of cardiac death/myocardial infarction. PMID:17228070

  11. A pretest prognostic score to assess patients undergoing exercise or pharmacological stress testing.

    PubMed

    Morise, Anthony; Evans, Matthew; Jalisi, Farrukh; Shetty, Rajendra; Stauffer, Marc

    2007-02-01

    A previously developed pretest score was validated to stratify patients presenting for exercise testing with suspected coronary disease according to the presence of angiographic coronary disease. Our goal was to determine how well this pretest score risk stratified patients undergoing pharmacological and exercise stress tests concerning prognostic endpoints. Retrospective cohort analysis. University hospital stress laboratory. 7452 unselected ambulatory patients with symptoms of suspected coronary disease undergoing stress testing between 1995 and 2004. All-cause death, cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. The rate of all-cause death was 5.5% (CI 5.0 to 6.1) with 4.3 (SD 2.4) years of follow-up (Exercise 2.8% (CI 2.3 to 3.2) v Pharmacological group 11.9% (CI 10.5 to 13.3); p<0.001). The rate of cardiac death/myocardial infarction was 2.6% (CI 2.2 to 3.0) (Exercise 1.4% (CI 1.1 to 1.8) v Pharmacological group 5.3% (CI 4.3 to 6.2); p<0.001). In both groups, stratification by pretest score was significant for all-cause death and the combined endpoint. However, stratification was more effective in the pharmacological group using the combined endpoint rather than all-cause death. Pharmacological stress patients in intermediate and high risk groups were at higher risk than their respective exercise test cohorts. Referral for pharmacological stress testing was found to be an independent predictor of time to death (2.7 (CI 2.0 to 3.6); p<0.001). A pretest score previously validated to stratify according to angiographic outcomes, effectively risk stratified pharmacological and exercise stress patients according to the combined endpoint of cardiac death/myocardial infarction.

  12. Abnormal positive bias stress instability of In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors with low-temperature Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yu-Hong; Yu, Ming-Jiue; Lin, Ruei-Ping

    2016-01-18

    Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to deposit Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors fabricated at temperatures below 120 °C. The devices exhibited a negligible threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub T}) during negative bias stress, but a more pronounced ΔV{sub T} under positive bias stress with a characteristic turnaround behavior from a positive ΔV{sub T} to a negative ΔV{sub T}. This abnormal positive bias instability is explained using a two-process model, including both electron trapping and hydrogen release and migration. Electron trapping induces the initial positive ΔV{sub T}, which can be fitted using the stretchedmore » exponential function. The breakage of residual AlO-H bonds in low-temperature ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is triggered by the energetic channel electrons. The hydrogen atoms then diffuse toward the In–Ga–Zn–O channel and induce the negative ΔV{sub T} through electron doping with power-law time dependence. A rapid partial recovery of the negative ΔV{sub T} after stress is also observed during relaxation.« less

  13. Neurocognitive deficits or stress overload: Why do individuals with schizophrenia show poor performance in neurocognitive tests?

    PubMed

    Krkovic, Katarina; Moritz, Steffen; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-05-01

    Poor performance in neurocognitive tasks is consistently found across studies in all stages of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and is interpreted as an underlying, brain function-related, neurocognitive deficit. However, neurocognitive test performance in schizophrenia might be compromised by patients' increased stress level. We investigated group-differences in neurocognitive performance while accounting for psychophysiological (salivary cortisol, heart rate, skin conductance level) and self-reported stress. We included 35 patients with schizophrenia, 29 participants with attenuated psychotic symptoms, 26 first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls. Participants completed a neurocognitive test battery that assessed processing speed, task switching, attention, working memory, verbal episodic memory, and verbal comprehension. Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) were calculated to test for main effects of group on neurocognitive performance thereby not accounting versus accounting for confounding effects of stress. As expected, patients with schizophrenia scored lower than the other groups in all neurocognitive domains. Participants with attenuated psychotic symptoms, first-degree relatives and healthy individuals did not differ from each other in their performance. After accounting for heart rate and self-reported stress, the multivariate effect of group on neurocognition remained significant, but was rendered non-significant for specific domains - working memory capacity, episodic memory, and long-term memory. The findings imply that stress is relevant to neurocognitive performance and this should be taken into account when interpreting the origin of performance deficits in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study and Test of a New Bundle-Structure Riser Stress Monitoring Sensor Based on FBG.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Yang, Dexing; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yajun; Sheng, Leixiang; Jia, Xiangyun; Bai, Yang; Shen, Xiaohong; Wang, Haiyan; Deng, Xin; Xu, Liangbin; Jiang, Shiquan

    2015-11-24

    To meet the requirements of riser safety monitoring in offshore oil fields, a new Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based bundle-structure riser stress monitoring sensor has been developed. In cooperation with many departments, a 49-day marine test in water depths of 1365 m and 1252 m was completed on the "HYSY-981" ocean oil drilling platform. No welding and pasting were used when the sensor was installed on risers. Therefore, the installation is convenient, reliable and harmless to risers. The continuous, reasonable, time-consistent data obtained indicates that the sensor worked normally under water. In all detailed working conditions, the test results show that the sensor can do well in reflecting stresses and bending moments both in and in magnitude. The measured maximum stress is 132.7 MPa, which is below the allowable stress. In drilling and testing conditions, the average riser stress was 86.6 MPa, which is within the range of the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) mechanical simulation results.

  15. Study and Test of a New Bundle-Structure Riser Stress Monitoring Sensor Based on FBG

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Yang, Dexing; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yajun; Sheng, Leixiang; Jia, Xiangyun; Bai, Yang; Shen, Xiaohong; Wang, Haiyan; Deng, Xin; Xu, Liangbin; Jiang, Shiquan

    2015-01-01

    To meet the requirements of riser safety monitoring in offshore oil fields, a new Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based bundle-structure riser stress monitoring sensor has been developed. In cooperation with many departments, a 49-day marine test in water depths of 1365 m and 1252 m was completed on the “HYSY-981” ocean oil drilling platform. No welding and pasting were used when the sensor was installed on risers. Therefore, the installation is convenient, reliable and harmless to risers. The continuous, reasonable, time-consistent data obtained indicates that the sensor worked normally under water. In all detailed working conditions, the test results show that the sensor can do well in reflecting stresses and bending moments both in and in magnitude. The measured maximum stress is 132.7 MPa, which is below the allowable stress. In drilling and testing conditions, the average riser stress was 86.6 MPa, which is within the range of the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) mechanical simulation results. PMID:26610517

  16. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  17. Estimation of Stresses in a Dry Sand Layer Tested on Shaking Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Kulczykowski, Marek; Jankowski, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical analysis of shaking table experiments, simulating earthquake response of a dry sand layer, is presented. The aim of such experiments is to study seismic-induced compaction of soil and resulting settlements. In order to determine the soil compaction, the cyclic stresses and strains should be calculated first. These stresses are caused by the cyclic horizontal acceleration at the base of soil layer, so it is important to determine the stress field as function of the base acceleration. It is particularly important for a proper interpretation of shaking table tests, where the base acceleration is controlled but the stresses are hard to measure, and they can only be deduced. Preliminary experiments have shown that small accelerations do not lead to essential settlements, whilst large accelerations cause some phenomena typical for limit states, including a visible appearance of slip lines. All these problems should be well understood for rational planning of experiments. The analysis of these problems is presented in this paper. First, some heuristic considerations about the dynamics of experimental system are presented. Then, the analysis of boundary conditions, expressed as resultants of respective stresses is shown. A particular form of boundary conditions has been chosen, which satisfies the macroscopic boundary conditions and the equilibrium equations. Then, some considerations are presented in order to obtain statically admissible stress field, which does not exceed the Coulomb-Mohr yield conditions. Such an approach leads to determination of the limit base accelerations, which do not cause the plastic state in soil. It was shown that larger accelerations lead to increase of the lateral stresses, and the respective method, which may replace complex plasticity analyses, is proposed. It is shown that it is the lateral stress coefficient K0 that controls the statically admissible stress field during the shaking table experiments.

  18. Testing the accelerating moment release (AMR) hypothesis in areas of high stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilhem, Aurélie; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Ali, Syed Tabrez

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective analyses have proposed that significant increases in moment release occurred prior to many large earthquakes of recent times. However, the finding of accelerating moment release (AMR) strongly depends on the choice of three parameters: (1) magnitude range, (2) area being considered surrounding the events and (3) the time period prior to the large earthquakes. Consequently, the AMR analysis has been criticized as being a posteriori data-fitting exercise with no new predictive power. As AMR has been hypothesized to relate to changes in the state of stress around the eventual epicentre, we compare here AMR results to models of stress accumulation in California. Instead of assuming a complete stress drop on all surrounding fault segments implied by a back-slip stress lobe method, we consider that stress evolves dynamically, punctuated by the occurrence of earthquakes, and governed by the elastic and viscous properties of the lithosphere. We study the seismicity of southern California and extract events for AMR calculations following the systematic approach employed in previous studies. We present several sensitivity tests of the method, as well as grid-search analyses over the region between 1955 and 2005 using fixed magnitude range, radius of the search area and period of time. The results are compared to the occurrence of large events and to maps of Coulomb stress changes. The Coulomb stress maps are compiled using the coseismic stress from all M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1812, their subsequent post-seismic relaxation, and the interseismic strain accumulation. We find no convincing correlation of seismicity rate changes in recent decades with areas of high stress that would support the AMR hypothesis. Furthermore, this indicates limited utility for practical earthquake hazard analysis in southern California, and possibly other regions.

  19. Developing the multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnasri, Mahmoud; Airey, Gordon; Thom, Nick

    2018-04-01

    While most published work from Europe has been concerned with evaluating binders' resistance to rutting based on their stiffness (deformation resistance), work originating in the US has mainly been concerned with ranking binders based on their recoverability in a multiple stress form. This paper details the design of a new modified multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test. The test is designed to evaluate binders' rutting resistance based on two rutting resistance mechanisms: stiffness and recoverability. A preliminary investigation is presented in this paper followed by details of the design of the new modified test. A 40/60 penetration grade bitumen and bitumen-filler mastics prepared with three filler concentrations (35%, 50%, and 65% filler content by mass of mastic) were tested. In addition, two polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) using the same base bitumen type were examined for validation. Two parameters are introduced to characterise the short and long recovery in the new test. In terms of stiffness, the test allows the behaviour of binders at different stress levels and loading cycles to be studied and produces a new parameter that can quantify the degree of modification. Finally, a relationship between nonlinearity and normal force in the test was investigated.

  20. Abnormally fertilized oocytes can result in healthy live births: improved genetic technologies for preimplantation genetic testing can be used to rescue viable embryos in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Antonio; Treff, Nathan; Cimadomo, Danilo; Tao, Xin; Ferrero, Susanna; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Colamaria, Silvia; Maggiulli, Roberta; Orlando, Giovanna; Scarica, Catello; Scott, Richard; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura

    2017-12-01

    To test whether abnormally fertilized oocyte (AFO)-derived blastocysts are diploid and can be rescued for clinical use. Longitudinal-cohort study from January 2015 to September 2016 involving IVF cycles with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). Ploidy assessment was incorporated whenever a blastocyst from a monopronuclear (1PN) or tripronuclear zygote (2PN + 1 smaller PN; 2.1 PN) was obtained. Private IVF clinics and genetics laboratories. A total of 556 women undergoing 719 PGT-A cycles. Conventional chromosome analysis was performed on trophectoderm biopsies by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For AFO-derived blastocysts, ploidy assessment was performed on the same biopsy with the use of allele ratios for hetorozygous SNPs analyzed by means of next-generation sequencing (1:1 = diploid; 2:1 = triploid; loss of heterozygosity = haploid). Balanced-diploid 1PN- and 2.1PN-derived blastocysts were transferred in the absence of normally fertilized transferable embryos. Ploidy constitution and clinical value of AFO-derived blastocysts in IVF PGT-A cycles. Of the 5,026 metaphase II oocytes injected, 5.2% and 0.7% showed 1PN and 2.1PN, respectively. AFOs showed compromised embryo development (P<.01). Twenty-seven AFO-derived blastocysts were analyzed for ploidy constitution. The 1PN-derived blastocysts were mostly diploid (n = 9/13; 69.2%), a few were haploid (n = 3/13; 23.1%), and one was triploid (n = 1/13; 7.7%). The 2.1PN-derived blastocysts were also mostly diploid (n = 12/14; 85.7%), and the remainder were triploid. Twenty-six PGT-A cycles resulted in one or more AFO-derived blastocysts (n = 26/719; 3.6%). Overall, eight additional balanced-diploid transferable embryos were obtained from AFOs. In three cycles, the only balanced-diploid blastocyst produced was from an AFO (n = 3/719; 0.4%). Three AFO-derived live births were achieved: one from a 1PN zygote and two from 2.1PN zygotes. Enhanced PGT-A technologies incorporating reliable ploidy

  1. Stress and anxiety effects on positive skin test responses in young adults with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Kathi L; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B; Marshall, Gailen D

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety and psychological stress affect allergy-related immune function. How these relations influence the evaluations of patients with allergic rhinitis is unknown. To examine whether anxiety and stress exposure affect skin prick test (SPT) responses to common allergens for which patients with atopy showed no prior positive SPT response. Patients with allergic rhinitis, evidenced by clinical history and SPT results, were admitted twice to a hospital research unit for 4 hours. In a crossover design, SPT wheals were assessed before and after the Trier Social Stress Test and then the following morning; for comparison, SPT wheals were assessed before and after a laboratory session without a stressor. Analyses focused on wheal responses for common allergens that tested negative (wheal size <3 mm larger than saline) from SPTs performed at multiple baseline assessments. After the Trier Social Stress Test, more anxious patients with atopy had a higher incidence of positive SPT reactions to antigens that previously tested negative. Anxiety was unrelated to positive SPT incidence under nonstressful conditions. Based on clinical symptom reports, newly positive SPT reactions after the stressor were apparently corrections of previously false-negative SPT reactions. The SPT wheal responses for allergens previously testing negative were enhanced after a stressor. Histamine (positive control) or saline (negative control) SPT responses were not affected. A laboratory stressor affected allergen SPT responses in more anxious patients with allergic rhinitis. In addition to clinical history, assessment of anxiety and current stress at the time of the SPT may provide valuable information about a patient's allergic status and aid in clinical decision making. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities by low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA: review of 1982 consecutive cases in a single center.

    PubMed

    Lau, T K; Cheung, S W; Lo, P S S; Pursley, A N; Chan, M K; Jiang, F; Zhang, H; Wang, W; Jong, L F J; Yuen, O K C; Chan, H Y C; Chan, W S K; Choy, K W

    2014-03-01

    To review the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA at a single center. The NIPT result and pregnancy outcome of 1982 consecutive cases were reviewed. NIPT was based on low coverage (0.1×) whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. All subjects were contacted for pregnancy and fetal outcome. Of the 1982 NIPT tests, a repeat blood sample was required in 23 (1.16%). In one case, a conclusive report could not be issued, probably because of an abnormal vanished twin fetus. NIPT was positive for common trisomies in 29 cases (23 were trisomy 21, four were trisomy 18 and two were trisomy 13); all were confirmed by prenatal karyotyping (specificity=100%). In addition, 11 cases were positive for sex-chromosomal abnormalities (SCA), and nine cases were positive for other aneuploidies or deletion/duplication. Fourteen of these 20 subjects agreed to undergo further investigations, and the abnormality was found to be of fetal origin in seven, confined placental mosaicism (CPM) in four, of maternal origin in two and not confirmed in one. Overall, 85.7% of the NIPT-suspected SCA were of fetal origin, and 66.7% of the other abnormalities were caused by CPM. Two of the six cases suspected or confirmed to have CPM were complicated by early-onset growth restriction requiring delivery before 34 weeks. Fetal outcome of the NIPT-negative cases was ascertained in 1645 (85.15%). Three chromosomal abnormalities were not detected by NIPT, including one case each of a balanced translocation, unbalanced translocation and triploidy. There were no known false negatives involving the common trisomies (sensitivity=100%). Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA was highly accurate in detecting common trisomies. It also enabled the detection of other aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities with high positive predictive value. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  3. Cycle Checkpoint Abnormalities during Dementia: A Plausible Association with the Loss of Protection against Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Katsel, Pavel; Tan, Weilun; Fam, Peter; Purohit, Dushyant P.; Haroutunian, Vahram

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests an association between neuronal cell cycle (CCL) events and the processes that underlie neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Elevated levels of oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial dysfunction are also among early events in AD. Recent studies have reported the role of CCL checkpoint proteins and tumor suppressors, such as ATM and p53 in the control of glycolysis and oxidative metabolism in cancer, but their involvement in AD remains uncertain. Methods and Findings In this postmortem study, we measured gene expression levels of eight CCL checkpoint proteins in the superior temporal cortex (STC) of persons with varying severities of AD dementia and compare them to those of cognitively normal controls. To assess whether the CCL changes associated with cognitive impairment in AD are specific to dementia, gene expression of the same proteins was also measured in STC of persons with schizophrenia (SZ), which is also characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. The expression of CCL-checkpoint and DNA damage response genes: MDM4, ATM and ATR was strongly upregulated and associated with progression of dementia (cognitive dementia rating, CDR), appearing as early as questionable or mild dementia (CDRs 0.5–1). In addition to gene expression changes, the downstream target of ATM-p53 signaling - TIGAR, a p53-inducible protein, the activation of which can regulate energy metabolism and protect against oxidative stress was progressively decreased as severity of dementia evolved, but it was unaffected in subjects with SZ. In contrast to AD, different CCL checkpoint proteins, which include p53, CHEK1 and BRCA1 were significantly downregulated in SZ. Conclusions These results support the activation of an ATM signaling and DNA damage response network during the progression of AD dementia, while the progressive decrease in the levels of TIGAR suggests loss of protection initiated by ATM-p53 signaling against intensifying

  4. Emotional-volitional components of operator reliability. [sensorimotor function testing under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sensorimotor function testing in a tracking task under stressfull working conditions established a psychological characterization for a successful aviation pilot: Motivation significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of their work. Their acitivities were aimed at suppressing weariness and the feeling of fear caused by the stress factors; they showed patience, endurance, persistence, and a capacity for lengthy volitional efforts.

  5. Simulated Service and Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing for Friction Stir Welded Spun Formed Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Torres, Pablo D.; Caratus, Andrei A.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Simulated service testing (SST) development was required to help qualify a new 2195 aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloy spin forming dome fabrication process for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Development Technology Program. The application for the technology is to produce high strength low weight tank components for NASA s next generation launch vehicles. Since plate material is not currently manufactured large enough to fabricate these domes, two plates are joined by means of friction stir welding. The plates are then pre-contour machined to near final thicknesses allowing for a thicker weld land and anticipating the level of stretch induced by the spin forming process. The welded plates are then placed in a spin forming tool and hot stretched using a trace method producing incremental contours. Finally the dome receives a room temperature contour stretch to final dimensions, heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging to emulate a T-8 condition of temper. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were also performed by alternate immersion in a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using the typical double beam assembly and with 4-point loaded specimens and use of bent-beam stress-corrosion test specimens under alternate immersion conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted to determine the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC (K(sub ISCC)) which to our knowledge has not been determined previously for Al-Li 2195 alloy. The successful simulated service and stress corrosion testing helped to provide confidence to continue to Ares 1 scale dome fabrication

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Stress Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan Number Ending Scheduled Balance Group Pre/Post Act Property State Product Type Origination Date... program assets post-1996 Act Swap balances; (iii) Farmer Mac I program assets pre-1996 Act; (iv) Farmer... stress test applies quarterly updates of the weighted average guarantee rates for post-1996 Farmer Mac I...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Stress Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Loan Number Ending Scheduled Balance Group Pre/Post Act Property State Product Type Origination Date... program assets post-1996 Act Swap balances; (iii) Farmer Mac I program assets pre-1996 Act; (iv) Farmer... stress test applies quarterly updates of the weighted average guarantee rates for post-1996 Farmer Mac I...

  8. Testing a Theoretical Model of the Stress Process in Alzheimer's Caregivers with Race as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgeman, Michelle M.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Sun, Fei; DeCoster, Jamie; Allen, Rebecca S.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Burgio, Louis D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to test the stress process model (SPM; Pearlin, Mullan, Semple, & Skaff, 1990) in a racially diverse sample of Alzheimer's caregivers (CGs) using structural equation modeling (SEM) and regression techniques. A secondary aim was to examine race or ethnicity as a moderator of the relation between latent…

  9. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defaulted loans in the data set (20.9 percent). (3) You will calculate losses by multiplying the loss rate...) Data requirements. You will use the following data to implement the risk-based capital stress test. (1) You will use Corporation loan-level data to implement the credit risk component of the risk-based...

  10. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defaulted loans in the data set (20.9 percent). (3) You will calculate losses by multiplying the loss rate...) Data requirements. You will use the following data to implement the risk-based capital stress test. (1) You will use Corporation loan-level data to implement the credit risk component of the risk-based...

  11. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... defaulted loans in the data set (20.9 percent). (3) You will calculate losses by multiplying the loss rate...) Data requirements. You will use the following data to implement the risk-based capital stress test. (1) You will use Corporation loan-level data to implement the credit risk component of the risk-based...

  12. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  13. Relationship between Academic Stress and Suicidal Ideation: Testing for Depression as a Mediator Using Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2006-01-01

    Relations among academic stress, depression, and suicidal ideation were examined in 1,108 Asian adolescents 12-18 years old from a secondary school in Singapore. Using Baron and Kenny's [J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173-1192, 1986] framework, this study tested the prediction that adolescent depression mediated the relationship between academic stress…

  14. 76 FR 35072 - Proposed Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in Total...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... ensure that each is conceptually sound. Stress tests usually vary in design and complexity, including the... quantitative tests supported by high-quality data, employ a certain amount of expert or business judgment that... generally, enterprise-wide stress testing involves robust scenario design and effective translation of...

  15. Prediction of heart transplant rejection with a breath test for markers of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michael; Boehmer, John P; Cataneo, Renee N; Cheema, Taseer; Eisen, Howard J; Fallon, John T; Fisher, Peter E; Gass, Alan; Greenberg, Joel; Kobashigawa, Jon; Mancini, Donna; Rayburn, Barry; Zucker, Mark J

    2004-12-15

    The Heart Allograft Rejection: Detection with Breath Alkanes in Low Levels study evaluated a breath test for oxidative stress in heart transplant recipients, and we report here a mathematical model predicting the probability of grade 3 rejection. The breath test divided the heart transplant recipients into 3 groups: positive for grade 3 rejection, negative for grade 3 rejection, and intermediate. The test was 100% sensitive for grade 3 heart transplant rejection when the p value was >/=0.98, and 100% specific when the p value was test determined the probability of grade 3 rejection and the predictive value of the result.

  16. Development of a standardized battery of performance tests for the assessment of noise stress effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theologus, G. C.; Wheaton, G. R.; Mirabella, A.; Brahlek, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A set of 36 relatively independent categories of human performance were identified. These categories encompass human performance in the cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor areas, and include diagnostic measures and sensitive performance metrics. Then a prototype standardized test battery was constructed, and research was conducted to obtain information on the sensitivity of the tests to stress, the sensitivity of selected categories of performance degradation, the time course of stress effects on each of the selected tests, and the learning curves associated with each test. A research project utilizing a three factor partially repeated analysis of covariance design was conducted in which 60 male subjects were exposed to variations in noise level and quality during performance testing. Effects of randomly intermittent noise on performance of the reaction time tests were observed, but most of the other performance tests showed consistent stability. The results of 14 analyses of covariance of the data taken from the performance of the 60 subjects on the prototype standardized test battery provided information which will enable the final development and test of a standardized test battery and the associated development of differential sensitivity metrics and diagnostic classificatory system.

  17. Comparison of online and offline tests in LED accelerated reliability tests under temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hong-Liang; Jing, Lei; Gao, Qun; Wang, Yao; Hao, Jian; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-20

    Accelerated aging tests are the main method used in the evaluation of LED reliability, and can be performed in either online or offline modes. The goal of this study is to provide the difference between the two test modes. In the experiments, the sample is attached to different heat sinks to acquire the optical parameters under different junction temperatures of LEDs. By measuring the junction temperature in the aging process (Tj1), and the junction temperature in the testing process (Tj2), we achieve consistency with an online test of Tj1 and Tj2 and a difference with an offline test of Tj1 and Tj2. Experimental results show that the degradation rate of the luminous flux rises as Tj2 increases, which yields a difference of projected life L(70%) of 8% to 13%. For color shifts over 5000 h of aging, the online test shows a larger variation of the distance from the Planckian locus, about 40% to 50% more than the normal test at an ambient temperature of 25°C.

  18. Mediators of compassionate goal intervention effects on human neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.

  19. Test of the stress sensitization model in adolescents following the pipeline explosion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Di; Gao, Qing-Ling; Li, Jie; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Guo, Wei; Long, Zhou-Ting; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2015-10-01

    The stress sensitization model states that early traumatic experiences increase vulnerability to the adverse effects of subsequent stressful life events. This study examined the effect of stress sensitization on development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Chinese adolescents who experienced the pipeline explosion. A total of 670 participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic characteristics and degree of explosion exposure, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Associations among the variables were explored using MANOVA, and main effects and interactions were analyzed. Overall MANOVA tests with the PCL-C indicated significant differences for gender (F=6.86, p=.000), emotional abuse (F=6.79, p=.000), and explosion exposure (F=22.40, p=.000). There were significant interactions between emotional abuse and explosion exposure (F=3.98, p=.008) and gender and explosion exposure (F=2.93, p=.033). Being female, childhood emotional abuse, and a high explosion exposure were associated with high PTSD symptom levels. Childhood emotional abuse moderated the effect of explosion exposure on PTSD symptoms. Thus, stress sensitization influenced the development of PTSD symptoms in Chinese adolescents who experienced the pipeline explosion as predicted by the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phospholipase D-mediated hypersensitivity at central synapses is associated with abnormal behaviours and pain sensitivity in rats exposed to prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liting; Gooding, Hayley L; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Mitchell, Rory; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Adverse events at critical stages of development can lead to lasting dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). To seek potential underlying changes in synaptic function, we used a newly developed protocol to measure alterations in receptor-mediated Ca(2+) fluorescence responses of synaptoneurosomes, freshly isolated from selected regions of the CNS concerned with emotionality and pain processing. We compared adult male controls and offspring of rats exposed to social stress in late pregnancy (prenatal stress, PS), which showed programmed behavioural changes indicating anxiety, anhedonia and pain hypersensitivity. We found corresponding increases, in PS rats compared with normal controls, in responsiveness of synaptoneurosomes from frontal cortex to a glutamate receptor (GluR) agonist, and from spinal cord to activators of nociceptive afferents. Through a combined pharmacological and biochemical strategy, we found evidence for a role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1)-mediated signalling, that may involve 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) activation, at both levels of the nervous system. These changes might participate in underpinning the enduring alterations in behaviour induced by PS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal threshold voltage shift under hot carrier stress in Ti1-xNx/HfO2 p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lo, Wen-Hung; Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Chen, Hua-Mao; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Tai, Ya-Hsiang; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung

    2013-09-01

    This work investigates the channel hot carrier (CHC) effect in HfO2/Ti1-xNx p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). Generally, the subthreshold swing (S.S.) should increase during CHC stress (CHCS), since interface states will be generated near the drain side under high electric field due to drain voltage (Vd). However, our experimental data indicate that S.S. has no evident change under CHCS, but threshold voltage (Vth) shifts positively. This result can be attributed to hot carrier injected into high-k dielectric near the drain side. Meanwhile, it is surprising that such Vth degradation is not observed in the saturation region during stress. Therefore, drain-induced-barrier-lowering (DIBL) as a result of CHC-induced electron trapping is proposed to explain the different Vth behaviors in the linear and saturation regions. Additionally, the influence of different nitrogen concentrations in HfO2/Ti1-xNx p-MOSFETs on CHCS is also investigated in this work. Since nitrogen diffuses to SiO2/Si interface induced pre-Nit occurring to degrades channel mobility during the annealing process, a device with more nitrogen shows slightly less impact ionization, leading to insignificant charge trapping-induced DIBL behavior.

  2. Estimation of In Situ Stresses with Hydro-Fracturing Tests and a Statistical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hikweon; Ong, See Hong

    2018-03-01

    At great depths, where borehole-based field stress measurements such as hydraulic fracturing are challenging due to difficult downhole conditions or prohibitive costs, in situ stresses can be indirectly estimated using wellbore failures such as borehole breakouts and/or drilling-induced tensile failures detected by an image log. As part of such efforts, a statistical method has been developed in which borehole breakouts detected on an image log are used for this purpose (Song et al. in Proceedings on the 7th international symposium on in situ rock stress, 2016; Song and Chang in J Geophys Res Solid Earth 122:4033-4052, 2017). The method employs a grid-searching algorithm in which the least and maximum horizontal principal stresses ( S h and S H) are varied, and the corresponding simulated depth-related breakout width distribution as a function of the breakout angle ( θ B = 90° - half of breakout width) is compared to that observed along the borehole to determine a set of S h and S H having the lowest misfit between them. An important advantage of the method is that S h and S H can be estimated simultaneously in vertical wells. To validate the statistical approach, the method is applied to a vertical hole where a set of field hydraulic fracturing tests have been carried out. The stress estimations using the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with the results interpreted from the hydraulic fracturing test measurements.

  3. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Tate, LeNetra C.; Danley, Susan E.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.; Sutter, James K.; Miller, Sandi G.

    2013-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation of large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7/Bismaleimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the stress free temperature of the materials

  4. The emerging role of exercise testing and stress echocardiography in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Picano, Eugenio; Pibarot, Philippe; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Monin, Jean Luc; Bonow, Robert O

    2009-12-08

    Exercise testing has an established role in the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease and can aid clinical decision making. Because symptoms may develop slowly and indolently in chronic valve diseases and are often not recognized by patients and their physicians, the symptomatic, blood pressure, and electrocardiographic responses to exercise can help identify patients who would benefit from early valve repair or replacement. In addition, stress echocardiography has emerged as an important component of stress testing in patients with valvular heart disease, with relevant established and potential applications. Stress echocardiography has the advantages of its wide availability, low cost, and versatility for the assessment of disease severity. The versatile applications of stress echocardiography can be tailored to the individual patient with aortic or mitral valve disease, both before and after valve replacement or repair. Hence, exercise-induced changes in valve hemodynamics, ventricular function, and pulmonary artery pressure, together with exercise capacity and symptomatic responses to exercise, provide the clinician with diagnostic and prognostic information that can contribute to subsequent clinical decisions. Nevertheless, there is a lack of convincing evidence that the results of stress echocardiography lead to clinical decisions that result in better outcomes, and therefore large-scale prospective randomized studies focusing on patient outcomes are needed in the future.

  5. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  6. Progress testing in the medical curriculum: students' approaches to learning and perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Henning, Marcus; Yielder, Jill; Jones, Rhys; Wearn, Andy; Weller, Jennifer

    2015-09-11

    Progress Tests (PTs) draw on a common question bank to assess all students in a programme against graduate outcomes. Theoretically PTs drive deep approaches to learning and reduce assessment-related stress. In 2013, PTs were introduced to two year groups of medical students (Years 2 and 4), whereas students in Years 3 and 5 were taking traditional high-stakes assessments. Staged introduction of PTs into our medical curriculum provided a time-limited opportunity for a comparative study. The main purpose of the current study was to compare the impact of PTs on undergraduate medical students' approaches to learning and perceived stress with that of traditional high-stakes assessments. We also aimed to investigate the associations between approaches to learning, stress and PT scores. Undergraduate medical students (N = 333 and N = 298 at Time 1 and Time 2 respectively) answered the Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at two time points to evaluate change over time. The R-SPQ-2F generated a surface approach and a deep approach score; the PSS generated an overall perceived stress score. We found no significant differences between the two groups in approaches to learning at either time point, and no significant changes in approaches to learning over time in either cohort. Levels of stress increased significantly at the end of the year (Time 2) for students in the traditional assessment cohort, but not in the PT cohort. In the PT cohort, surface approach to learning, but not stress, was a significant negative predictor of students' PT scores. While confirming an association between surface approaches to learning and lower PT scores, we failed to demonstrate an effect of PTs on approaches to learning. However, a reduction in assessment-associated stress is an important finding.

  7. Summary of tectonic and structural evidence for stress orientation at the Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Wilfred James

    1974-01-01

    A tectonic synthesis of the NTS (Nevada Test Site) region, when combined with seismic data and a few stress and strain measurements, suggests a tentative model for stress orientation. This model proposes that the NTS is undergoing extension in a N. 50 ? W.-S. 50 ? E. direction coincident with the minimum principal stress direction. The model is supported by (1) a tectonic similarity between a belt of NTS Quaternary faulting and part of the Nevada-California seismic belt, for which northwest-southeast extension has been suggested; (2) historic northeast- trending natural- and explosion-produced fractures in the NTS; (3) the virtual absence in the NTS of northwest-trending Quaternary faults; (4) the character of north-trending faults and basin configuration in the Yucca Flat area, which suggest a component of right-lateral displacement and post-10 m.y. (million year) oblique separation of the sides of the north-trending depression; (5) seismic evidence suggesting a north- to northwest-trending tension axis; (6) strain measurements, which indicate episodes of northwest-southeast extension within a net northeast-southwest compression; (7) a stress estimate based on tectonic cracking that indicates near-surface northwest-southeast-directed tension, and two stress measurements indicating an excess (tectonic) maximum principal compressive stress in a northeast-southwest direction at depths of about 1,000 feet (305 m); and (8) enlargement of some drill holes in Yucca Flat in a northwest-southeast direction. It is inferred that the stress episode resulting in the formation of deep alluvium-filled trenches began somewhere between 10 and possibly less than 4 m.y. ago in the NTS and is currently active. In the Walker Lane of western Nevada, crystallization of plutons associated with Miocene volcanism may have increased the competency and thickness of the crust and its ability to propagate stress, thereby modulating the frequency (spacing) of basin-range faults.

  8. Testing the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: Predicting Psychopathology Symptoms in Families Facing Economic Hardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98…

  9. Test Review: Abidin, R. R. (2012) "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" ("PSI-4"). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Alyce O.

    2015-01-01

    The "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" (PSI-4) is a 120-item measure used to explore parental stress levels considering a parent's relationship with one of his or her children between the ages of 1 month and 12 years. The main purpose of the test is to define these stress levels and from where they originate in order to identify…

  10. Value of stress ultrasound for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability compared to manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Ho; Lee, Doo Hyung; Song, Hyung Keun; Bang, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Tai; Park, Young Uk

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians frequently diagnose chronic ankle instability using the manual anterior drawer test and stress radiography. However, both examinations can yield incorrect results and do not reveal the extent of ankle instability. Stress ultrasound has been reported to be a new diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of stress ultrasound for chronic ankle instability compared to the manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and arthroscopy. Twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy and subsequent modified Broström repair for treatment of chronic ankle instability were included. The arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. A standardized physical examination (manual anterior drawer test), stress radiography, MRI, and stress ultrasound were performed to assess the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) prior to operation. Ultrasound images were taken in the resting position and the maximal anterior drawer position. Grade 3 lateral instability was verified arthroscopically in all 28 cases with a clinical diagnosis (100%). Twenty-two cases showed grade III instability on the manual anterior drawer test (78.6%). Twenty-four cases displayed anterior translation exceeding 5 mm on stress radiography (86%), and talar tilt angle exceeded 15° in three cases (11 %). Nineteen cases displayed a partial chronic tear (change in thickness or signal intensity), and nine cases displayed complete tear on MRI (100%). Lax and wavy ATFL was evident on stress ultrasound in all cases (100 %). The mean value of the ATFL length was 2.8 ± 0.3 cm for the stressed condition and 2.1 ± 0.2 cm for the resting condition (p < 0.001). Stress ultrasound may be useful for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability in addition to the manual anterior drawer test and stress radiography. III.

  11. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  12. 12 CFR 325.206 - Required reports of stress test results to the FDIC and the Board of Governors of the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required reports of stress test results to the... MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.206 Required reports of stress test results to the FDIC and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (a) Report required for annual stress test results—(1) $10 billion...

  13. 12 CFR 325.206 - Required reports of stress test results to the FDIC and the Board of Governors of the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required reports of stress test results to the... MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.206 Required reports of stress test results to the FDIC and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (a) Report required for annual stress test results—(1) $10 billion...

  14. Effects of abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at different time points on neonatal complications and neurobehavioral development in the pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (a STROBE-compliant article).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Li; Xing, Jun; Liu, Cong-Hui; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Nan-Nan; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Shao, Ting

    2018-05-01

    With the improvement of living standard, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) incidence is increasing every year. We observed the effects of abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at different time points on neonatal complications and neurobehavioral development in GDM.A total of 144 newborns whose mothers were diagnosed with GDM and received prenatal examination and childbirth in our hospital from October 2015 to April 2016, were observed in this study. Pregnant women underwent 75 g OGTT and the blood glucose level was recorded on an empty stomach, as well as postprandial 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Based on the frequency of 75 g OGTT-abnormal time points, the pregnant women were divided into group 1 (OGTT abnormality at 1 time point), group 2 (OGTT abnormality at 2 time points), and group 3 (OGTT abnormality at 3 time points). Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was performed on the 3 groups, respectively.In the total score of NBNA, there was a significant difference among the 3 groups (F = 17.120, P = .000), and there were significant differences between the 3 groups (all P < .05). The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly lower in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3, and the incidence of macrosomia was significantly lower in groups 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (all P < .05). In the 144 newborns, NBNA scoring was significantly lower in the newborns with hypoglycemia than in the newborns with normal blood glucose level, and in macrosomia than in the newborns with normal body weight (all P < .01).With the increase of OGTT-abnormal time points in the pregnant women with GDM, the incidences of neonatal hypoglycemia and macrosomia rise and neonatal NBNA score decreases. Therefore, reasonable measures should be adopted as early as possible to prevent poor prognosis in the pregnant women with GDM.

  15. Risk pathways among traumatic stress, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and alcohol and drug problems: a test of four hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie

    2014-09-01

    The present study utilized longitudinal data from a community sample (n = 377; 166 trauma-exposed; 54% males; 73% non-Hispanic Caucasian; 22% Hispanic; 5% other ethnicity) to test whether pretrauma substance use problems increase risk for trauma exposure (high-risk hypothesis) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (susceptibility hypothesis), whether PTSD symptoms increase risk for later alcohol/drug problems (self-medication hypothesis), and whether the association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol/drug problems is attributable to shared risk factors (shared vulnerability hypothesis). Logistic and negative binomial regressions were performed in a path analysis framework. Results provided the strongest support for the self-medication hypothesis, such that PTSD symptoms predicted higher levels of later alcohol and drug problems, over and above the influences of pretrauma family risk factors, pretrauma substance use problems, trauma exposure, and demographic variables. Results partially supported the high-risk hypothesis, such that adolescent substance use problems increased risk for assaultive violence exposure but did not influence overall risk for trauma exposure. There was no support for the susceptibility hypothesis. Finally, there was little support for the shared vulnerability hypothesis. Neither trauma exposure nor preexisting family adversity accounted for the link between PTSD symptoms and later substance use problems. Rather, PTSD symptoms mediated the effect of pretrauma family adversity on later alcohol and drug problems, thereby supporting the self-medication hypothesis. These findings make important contributions to better understanding the directions of influence among traumatic stress, PTSD symptoms, and substance use problems.

  16. Experimental Psychological Stress on Quantitative Sensory Testing Response in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Araújo Oliveira Ferreira, Dyna Mara; Costa, Yuri Martins; de Quevedo, Henrique Müller; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César

    2018-05-15

    To assess the modulatory effects of experimental psychological stress on the somatosensory evaluation of myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. A total of 20 women with myofascial TMD and 20 age-matched healthy women were assessed by means of a standardized battery of quantitative sensory testing. Cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT), wind-up ratio (WUR), and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were performed on the facial skin overlying the masseter muscle. The variables were measured in three sessions: before (baseline) and immediately after the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) (stress) and then after a washout period of 20 to 30 minutes (poststress). Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the data, and the significance level was set at P = .050. A significant main effect of the experimental session on all thermal tests was found (ANOVA: F > 4.10, P < .017), where detection tests presented an increase in thresholds in the poststress session compared to baseline (CDT, P = .012; WDT, P = .040) and pain thresholds were reduced in the stress (CPT, P < .001; HPT, P = .001) and poststress sessions (CPT, P = .005; HPT, P = .006) compared to baseline. In addition, a significant main effect of the study group on all mechanical tests (MPT, WUR, and PPT) was found (ANOVA: F > 4.65, P < .037), where TMD patients were more sensitive than healthy volunteers. Acute mental stress conditioning can modulate thermal sensitivity of the skin overlying the masseter in myofascial TMD patients and healthy volunteers. Therefore, psychological stress should be considered in order to perform an unbiased somatosensory assessment of TMD patients.

  17. Effect of Jig Design and Assessment of Stress Distribution in Testing Metal-Ceramic Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mutlu; Kojima, Alberto Noriyuki; Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; Mesquita, Alfredo Mikail Melo; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Filho, Gilberto Duarte

    2016-12-01

    In testing adhesion using shear bond test, a combination of shear and tensile forces occur at the interface, resulting in complex stresses. The jig designs used for this kind of test show variations in published studies, complicating direct comparison between studies. This study evaluated the effect of different jig designs on metal-ceramic bond strength and assessed the stress distribution at the interface using finite element analysis (FEA). Metal-ceramic (Metal: Ni-Cr, Wiron 99, Bego; Ceramic: Vita Omega 900, Vita) specimens (N = 36) (diameter: 4 mm, veneer thickness: 4 mm; base diameter: 5 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were fabricated and randomly divided into three groups (n = 12 per group) to be tested using one of the following jig designs: (a) chisel (CH) (ISO 11405), (b) steel strip (SS), (c) piston (PI). Metal-ceramic interfaces were loaded under shear until debonding in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Failure types were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FEA was used to study the stress distribution using different jigs. Metal-ceramic bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The jig type significantly affected the bond results (p = 0.0001). PI type of jig presented the highest results (MPa) (p < 0.05) (58.2 ± 14.8), followed by CH (38.7 ± 7.6) and SS jig type (23.3 ± 4.2) (p < 0.05). Failure types were exclusively a combination of cohesive failure in the opaque ceramic and adhesive interface failure. FEA analysis indicated that the SS jig presented slightly more stress formation than with the CH jig. The PI jig presented small stress concentration with more homogeneous force distribution compared to the CH jig where the stress concentrated in the area where the force was applied. Metal-ceramic bond strength was affected by the jig design. Accordingly, the results of in vitro studies on metal-ceramic adhesion should be evaluated with caution. When adhesion of ceramic materials to metals is

  18. Exploratory rearing: a context- and stress-sensitive behavior recorded in the open-field test.

    PubMed

    Sturman, Oliver; Germain, Pierre-Luc; Bohacek, Johannes

    2018-02-16

    Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena). Using an automated open-field test, we show that both rearing behaviors appear to be strongly context dependent and show clear sex differences, with females rearing less than males. We show that unsupported rearing is sensitive to acute stress, and is reduced under more averse testing conditions. Repeated testing and handling procedures lead to changes in several parameters over varying test sessions, yet unsupported rearing appears to be rather stable within a given animal. Rearing behaviors could therefore provide an additional measure of anxiety in rodents relevant for behavioral studies, as they appear to be highly sensitive to context and may be used in repeated testing designs.

  19. Trends in referral patterns, invasive management, and mortality in elderly patients referred for exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús; Broullón, Francisco J; Calviño-Santos, Ramón; Mosquera, Víctor X; Barbeito-Caamaño, Cayetana; Larrañaga-Moreira, José María; Maneiro-Melón, Nicolás; Álvarez-García, Nemesio; Vázquez-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Scarce data are available on the temporal patterns in clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients referred for exercise stress testing. We aimed to assess the trends in baseline characteristics, tests results, referrals for invasive management, and mortality in these patients. We evaluated 11,192 patients aged ≥65years who were referred for exercise stress testing between January 1998 and December 2013. Calendar years were grouped into four quadrennia (1998-2001, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013), and trends in clinical characteristics of the patients, type and results of the tests, referrals for invasive management, and mortality across the different periods were assessed. Despite a progressive decrease in the proportion of patients with non-interpretable baseline electrocardiograms or prior history of coronary artery disease, there was a gradual and marked increase in the use of cardiac imaging from 32.8% in 1998-2001 to 67.6% in 2010-2013 (p<0.001). In addition, despite a gradual decline in the probability of positive exercise stress testing both without imaging (from 18.9 to 13.6%, p<0.001) and with imaging assessment (from 40.2 to 29.7%, p<0.001), the cumulative rate of coronary revascularization at 1year increased (from 10.8 to 13.7%, p<0.001). One-year mortality also decreased progressively from 3% to 1.6% (p<0.001). Among older adults referred for exercise stress testing, we observed a decline over time in the probability of inducible myocardial ischemia, an increase in the use of cardiac imaging and in the rate of coronary revascularization, and an improvement in the survival rate at 1year. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

  1. Hypertension is strongly associated with false-positive bicycle exercise stress echocardiography testing results.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karsten; Stelzer, Kathrin; Munzel, Thomas; Ostad, Mir Abolfazl

    2016-12-01

    Exercise echocardiography is a reliable routine test in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. However, in ∼15% of all patients, stress echocardiography leads to false-positive stress echocardiography results. We aimed to investigate the impact of hypertension on stress echocardiographic results. We performed a retrospective study of patients with suspected or known stable coronary artery disease who underwent a bicycle exercise stress echocardiography. Patients with false-positive stress results were compared with those with appropriate results. 126 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease were included in this retrospective study. 23 patients showed false-positive stress echocardiography results. Beside comparable age, gender distribution and coronary artery status, hypertension was more prevalent in patients with false-positive stress results (95.7% vs. 67.0%, p = 0.0410). Exercise peak load revealed a borderline-significance with lower loads in patients with false-positive results (100.0 (IQR 75.0/137.5) vs. 125.0 (100.0/150.0) W, p = 0.0601). Patients with false-positive stress results showed higher systolic (2.05 ± 0.69 vs. 1.67 ± 0.39 mmHg/W, p = 0.0193) and diastolic (1.03 ± 0.38 vs. 0.80 ± 0.28 mmHg/W, p = 0.0165) peak blood pressure (BP) per wattage. In a multivariate logistic regression test, hypertension (OR 17.6 [CI 95% 1.9-162.2], p = 0.0115), and systolic (OR 4.12 [1.56-10.89], p = 0.00430) and diastolic (OR 13.74 [2.46-76.83], p = 0.00285) peak BP per wattage, were associated with false-positive exercise results. ROC analysis for systolic and diastolic peak BP levels per wattage showed optimal cut-off values of 1.935mmHg/W and 0.823mmHg/W, indicating false-positive exercise echocardiographic results with AUCs of 0.660 and 0.664, respectively. Hypertension is a risk factor for false-positive stress exercise echocardiographic results in patients with known or

  2. The effect of Brazilian Propolis on leg health in broilers reared under heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposing broiler chickens to heat stress increases leg abnormalities and Gait Score, also it reduced the time of Latency to Lie Test. This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplemention with green Brazilian propolis on Latency to Lie Test for leg strength and leg abnormaliti...

  3. Full-field fabric stress mapping by micro Raman spectroscopy in a yarn push-out test.

    PubMed

    Lei, Z K; Qin, F Y; Fang, Q C; Bai, R X; Qiu, W; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    The full-field stress distribution of a two-dimensional plain fabric was mapped using micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) through a novel yarn push-out test, simulating a quasi-static projectile impact on the fabric. The stress-strain relationship for a single yarn was established using a digital image correlation method in a single-yarn tensile test. The relationship between Raman peak shift and aramid Kevlar 49 yarn stress was established using MRS in a single-yarn tensile test. An out-of-plane loading test was conducted on an aramid Kevlar 49 plain fabric, and the yarn stress was measured using MRS. From the full-field fabric stress distribution, it can be observed that there is a cross-shaped distribution of high yarn stress; this result would be helpful in further studies on load transfer on a fabric during a projectile impact.

  4. Comparison of the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to the Word Memory Test in neuropsychological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2008-03-01

    The most commonly feigned cognitive and psychiatric disorders for survivors of traumatic injury are memory dysfunction and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The position of the National Academy of Neuropsychology is that symptom validity tests (SVTs) should be part of any comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. In this article the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (MENT), a SVT for PTSD, was compared to a SVT for memory, the Word Memory Test (WMT). Available archival data on 216 consecutive referrals for neuropsychological evaluations at the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System were reviewed. Of the total records reviewed 37 patients had been administered both the MENT and the WMT. The clinically recommended cutoff on the WMT was used as the main criterion to classify patients into two groups: simulating impairment or credible. The results indicated that the simulating impairment group had significantly more errors on the MENT than the credible group did (p <.0001). The criterion-related characteristics of the MENT in assessing response bias in relation to the WMT were confirmed Clinical and research implications of the utilization of the MENT are discussed in this study.

  5. Insights Gained from Ultrasonic Testing of Piping Welds Subjected to the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.

    2010-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. Thismore » compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.« less

  6. Sex ratios in the two Germanies: a test of the economic stress hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Ralph A

    2003-09-01

    Literature describing temporal variation in the secondary sex ratio among humans reports an association between population stressors and declines in the odds of male birth. Explanations of this phenomenon draw on reports that stressed females spontaneously abort male more than female fetuses, and that stressed males exhibit reduced sperm motility. This work has led to the argument that population stress induced by a declining economy reduces the human sex ratio. No direct test of this hypothesis appears in the literature. Here, a test is offered based on a comparison of the sex ratio in East and West Germany for the years 1946 to 1999. The theory suggests that the East German sex ratio should be lower in 1991, when East Germany's economy collapsed, than expected from its own history and from the sex ratio in West Germany. The hypothesis is tested using time-series modelling methods. The data support the hypothesis. The sex ratio in East Germany was at its lowest in 1991. This first direct test supports the hypothesis that economic decline reduces the human sex ratio.

  7. Perceived stress and resilience in Alzheimer's disease caregivers: testing moderation and mediation models of social support.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth

    2008-05-01

    The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.

  8. The effect of thought importance on stress responses: a test of the metacognitive model.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Lora; Morrison, Anthony P; Wells, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Negative metacognitive beliefs are central determinants of distress in the metacognitive model of psychological vulnerability to stress. The current study tested this assertion in 75 undergraduate students assigned to either experimental (metacognitive belief manipulation) or control (no metacognitive belief manipulation) condition. All participants underwent a fake EEG, where they were told that the EEG would detect negative thoughts. The experimental subjects were informed that if they had a negative thought they may be exposed to a contingent burst of loud noise, while the control condition was told that they may be exposed to a burst of loud noise at random. Participants also underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. The results showed that on physiological measures (skin conductance level) there were no significant differences between groups. However, on self-report measures (positive and negative affect) participants in the experimental condition reported greater levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect in response to stress and maintained low positive affect at recovery. The results are consistent with the metacognitive model and suggest that metacognitive beliefs impact on positive and negative affect in reaction to and recovery from stress exposure.

  9. Analysis of Stress in Steel and Concrete in Cfst Push-Out Test Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzeszykowski, Bartosz; Szadkowska, Magdalena; Szmigiera, Elżbieta

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis of stress in steel and concrete in CFST composite elements subjected to push-out tests. Two analytical models of stress distribution are presented. The bond at the interface between steel and concrete in the initial phase of the push-out test is provided by the adhesion. Until the force reach a certain value, the slip between both materials does not occur or it is negligibly small, what ensures full composite action of the specimen. In the first analytical model the full bond between both materials was assumed. This model allows to estimate value of the force for which the local loss of adhesion in given cross section begins. In the second model it was assumed that the bond stress distribution is constant along the shear transfer length of the specimen. Based on that the formulas for triangle distribution of stress in steel and concrete for the maximum push-out force were derived and compared with the experimental results. Both models can be used to better understand the mechanisms of interaction between steel and concrete in composite steel-concrete columns.

  10. Rapid measurement of the yield stress of anaerobically-digested solid waste using slump tests.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Bernet, D; Loisel, D; Guizard, G; Buffière, P; Steyer, J P; Escudié, R

    2011-04-01

    The anaerobic digestion of solid waste is usually performed using dry or semi-dry technology. Incoming waste and fermenting digestate are pasty media and thus, at the industrial scale, their suitability for pumping and mixing is a prerequisite at the industrial scale. However, their rheology has been poorly characterised in the literature because there is no suitable experimental system for analysing heterogeneous media composed of coarse particles. We have developed a practical rheometrical test, a "slump test", for the analysis of actual digested solid waste. It makes it possible to estimate yield stress from the final slump height. From the slump behavior, we conclude that digestates behave as visco-elastic materials. The yield stress of different digested waste was measured between 200 and 800Pa. We show that the media containing smaller particles or with higher moisture content are characterised by smaller yield stresses. This study thus demonstrates the impact of the origin of the digestate on the yield stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 47217 - Proposed Supervisory Guidance on Implementing Dodd-Frank Act Company-Run Stress Tests for Banking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ..., that are designed to ensure that its stress testing processes are effective in meeting the requirements... specific methodological practices. Consistent with this approach, this guidance sets general supervisory... use any specific methodological practices for their stress tests. Companies may use various practices...

  12. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... would help regulators conduct comparative analyses across firms. Another commenter suggested that the... aspect of the guidance is to provide organizations flexibility on how they design their individual stress testing frameworks. Thus, each banking organization should design a specific stress testing framework to...

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  14. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... the flu or common cold. Vaccines, such as the flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  15. Repeatable electrical measurement instrumentation for use in the accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. W.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the construction, calibration, and performance of a repeatable measurement system for use in conjunction with the accelerated stress testing of a-Si:H cells. A filtered diode array is utilized to approximate the spectral response of any type of solar cell in discrete portions of the spectrum. It is noted that in order to achieve the necessary degree of overall repeatability, it is necessary to pay particular attention to methods of contacting and positioning the cells.

  16. High-speed high-stress ring shear tests on granular sods and clayey soils

    Treesearch

    Hiroshi Fukuoka; Kyoji Sassa

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study is to obtain exact knowledge of the influences on friction angle during shear by shearing speeds. Ring shear tests on sandy and clayey materials have been carried out with a newly developed High-speed High-Stress Ring Shear Apparatus to examine if there are some changes in the frictional behaviors of these materials at high shearing speeds of...

  17. Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, S.; Jones, G.; Campbell, M.; Johnson, S.; Ledger, W.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a digital home ovulation test have any effect on the level of stress in women seeking to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER No difference was found in levels of stress between women using digital ovulation tests to time intercourse compared with women who were trying to conceive without any additional aids: in addition, their use did not negatively impact time to conception in users but may provide additional benefits, including an increased understanding of the menstrual cycle, reassurance and confidence in focusing conception attempts to the correct time in the cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that timing of intercourse in such a way that it coincides with ovulation by using ovulation tests can lead to emotional distress; however, no study has been conducted to investigate this hypothesis specifically, until now. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The study was performed over two complete menstrual cycles as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative methods. The intervention (test) group were given digital ovulation tests to time intercourse to the most fertile time of the cycle and the control group were provided with the current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for increasing the chances of conception (intercourse every 2–3 days) and asked not to use any additional methods to time when ovulation occurs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS A total of 210 women who were seeking to conceive were recruited from the general UK population. A total of 115 women were randomized to the test group and 95 to the control group through block randomization. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure subjective stress levels, the Short-Form 12 health survey was used as a measure of general health and well-being and urine samples were measured for biochemical markers of stress including urinary

  18. Simulated Service and Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing for Friction Stir Welded Spun Form Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Torres, Pablo D.; Caratus, Andrei A.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Damage tolerance testing development was required to help qualify a new spin forming dome fabrication process for the Ares 1 program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One challenge of the testing was due to the compound curvature of the dome. The testing was developed on a sub-scale dome with a diameter of approximately 40 inches. The simulated service testing performed was based on the EQTP1102 Rev L 2195 Aluminum Lot Acceptance Simulated Service Test and Analysis Procedure generated by Lockheed Martin for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. This testing is performed on a specimen with an induced flaw of elliptical shape generated by Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) and subsequent fatigue cycling for crack propagation to a predetermined length and depth. The specimen is then loaded in tension at a constant rate of displacement at room temperature until fracture occurs while recording load and strain. An identical specimen with a similar flaw is then proof tested at room temperature to imminent failure based on the critical offset strain achieved by the previous fracture test. If the specimen survives the proof, it is then subjected to cryogenic cycling with loads that are a percentage of the proof load performed at room temperature. If all cryogenic cycles are successful, the specimen is loaded in tension to failure at the end of the test. This standard was generated for flat plate, so a method of translating this to a specimen of compound curvature was required. This was accomplished by fabricating a fixture that maintained the curvature of the specimen rigidly with the exception of approximately one-half inch in the center of the specimen containing the induced flaw. This in conjunction with placing the center of the specimen in the center of the load train allowed for successful testing with a minimal amount of bending introduced into the system. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were performed using the typical double beam assembly and with 4

  19. Longitudinal and integrative tests of family stress model effects on Mexican origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-05-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents' cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized integrative family stress model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across 3 times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers' perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms 5 years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for a wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers' perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers' familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Oxidative Stress Level in the Testes of Mice and Rats during Nickel Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Murawska-Ciałowicz, Eugenia; Bal, Wojciech; Januszewska, Lidia; Zawadzki, Marcin; Rychel, Joanna; Zuwała-Jagiełło, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    The genotioxic and carcinogenic effect of nickel probably results from its capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturb the redox balance. The aim of the study was to find out if rats lacking spermatic protamine 2 are less susceptible to Ni(II) than mice. Consequently, the levels of malondialdehyde + 4 hydroxynonenal (MDA+4HDA) − markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured within the rat and mouse testes. Our results showed that the levels of lipid peroxidation markers were elevated in testicular homogenates of intoxicated mice without any changes in rats. GSH level was lower in the group of intoxicated mice comparing to the control without statistically significant changes in rats' homogenates. Moreover, the level of GSH in the testes of intoxicated mice was lower than in rats. On the basis of our results, it appears that Ni(II) can initiate oxidative stress in the testes of mice but not of rats and can reduce GSH level. Consequently, the antioxidative defense of the testes is reduced. Ni(II) that causes oxidative stress in the testes may also contribute to infertility. PMID:22448131

  1. Cardiac stress test as a risk-stratification tool for posttransplant cardiac outcomes in diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeraj; Parikh, Samir; Bhatt, Udayan; Vonvisger, Jon; Nori, Uday; Hasan, Ayesha; Samavedi, Srinivas; Andreoni, Kenneth; Henry, Mitchell; Pelletier, Ronald; Rajab, Amer; Elkhammas, Elmahdi; Pesavento, Todd

    2012-12-27

    The utility of cardiac stress testing as a risk-stratification tool before kidney transplantation remains debatable owing to discordance with coronary angiography and outcome yields at different centers. We conducted a retrospective study of 273 diabetic kidney transplant recipients from 2006 to 2010. By protocol, all diabetic patients underwent pharmacological radionucleotide stress test or dobutamine stress echocardiography before transplant. We compared the 1-year cardiac outcomes between those with negative stress test results and those with positive stress test results. Patients with a positive stress test result (n=67) underwent coronary angiogram, and significant coronary artery disease (≥70% coronary stenosis) was found in 35 (52.2%) patients. Of the latter, 32 (91.4%) underwent cardiac revascularization (24 underwent cardiac stenting and 8 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting). The rest (n=35) were treated medically. Within 1 year after transplant, the group with positive stress test results experienced more cardiac events (34.3% vs. 3.9%, P<0.001) including acute myocardial infarction (22.4% vs. 3.4%, P<0.001) and ventricular arrhythmias (8.9% vs. 0.05%, P=0.001), higher all-cause mortality (19.4% vs. 4.8%, P<0.001), and cardiac mortality (17.9% vs. 0.9%, P<0.001) compared with the group with negative stress test results. In this diabetic population, stress testing showed positive and