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Sample records for abnormal ultrasound findings

  1. Predictive value of specific ultrasound findings when used as a screening test for abnormalities on VCUG

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Tanya; Chow, Jeanne S.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is often used as an initial screening test for children after urinary tract infection (UTI). The 2011 AAP guidelines specifically recommend that RBUS be performed first, with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) to be performed only if the ultrasound is abnormal. While prior research has suggested that RBUS is neither sensitive nor specific for VCUG findings, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), it is uncertain as to whether specific RBUS findings, alone or in combination, might make RBUS more useful as a predictor of VCUG abnormalities. Aims To evaluate the association of specific RBUS with VCUG findings, and determine whether predictive models that accurately predict patients at high risk of VCUG abnormalities, based on RBUS findings, can be constructed. Methods and study sample A total of 3995 patients were identified with VCUG and RBUS performed on the same day. The RBUS and VCUG reports were reviewed and the findings were classified. Analysis was limited to patients aged 0–60 months with no prior postnatal genitourinary imaging and no history of prenatal hydronephrosis. Analysis The associations between large numbers of specific RBUS findings with abnormalities seen on VCUG were investigated. Both multivariate logistic models and a neural network machine learning algorithms were constructed to evaluate the predictive power of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities (including VUR or bladder/urethral findings). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and area under receiving operating curves (AUROC) of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities were determined. Results A total of 2259 patients with UTI as the indication for imaging were identified. The RBUS was reported as “normal” in 75.0%. On VCUG, any VUR was identified in 41.7%, VUR grade >II in 20.9%, and VUR grade >III in 2.8%. Many individual RBUS findings were significantly associated with VUR on VCUG. Despite these strong univariate associations, multivariate modeling

  2. Ultrasound findings in trisomy 22.

    PubMed

    Schwendemann, Wade D; Contag, Stephen A; Koty, Patrick P; Miller, Richard C; Devers, Patricia; Watson, William J

    2009-02-01

    We sought to identify the characteristic sonographic findings of fetal trisomy 22 by performing a retrospective review of nine cases of fetal trisomy 22. All cases of chromosomal mosaicism were excluded, as were first-trimester losses. Indications for sonography, gestational age, and sonographically detected fetal anomalies were analyzed. The majority of patients were referred for advanced maternal age or abnormal ultrasound findings on screening exam. Oligohydramnios was the most common sonographic finding, present in 55% of affected fetuses. Intrauterine growth restriction and increased nuchal thickness were slightly less frequent.

  3. Transvaginal Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Karen C; Goldstein, Steven R

    2017-03-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound is the first-line imaging test for the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Transvaginal ultrasound can be used to diagnose structural causes of abnormal bleeding such as polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyomas, hyperplasia, and malignancy, and can also be beneficial in making the diagnosis of ovulatory dysfunction. Traditional 2-dimensional imaging is often enhanced by the addition of 3-dimension imaging with coronal reconstruction and saline infusion sonohysterography. In this article we discuss specific ultrasound findings and technical considerations useful in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

  4. Ultrasound diagnosis of fetal renal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tiran; Sairam, Shanthi; Kumarasiri, Shanya

    2014-04-01

    Development of the urogenital system in humans is a complex process; consequently, renal anomalies are among the most common congenital anomalies. The fetal urinary tract can be visualised ultrasonically from 11 weeks onwards, allowing recognition of megacystis at 11-14 weeks, which warrants comprehensive risk assessment of possible underlying chromosomal aneuploidy or obstructive uropathy. A mid-trimester anomaly scan enables detection of most renal anomalies with higher sensitivity. Bilateral renal agenesis can be confirmed ultrasonically, with empty renal fossae and absent bladder filling, along with severe oligohydramnios or anhydramnios. Dysplastic kidneys are recognised as they appear large, hyperechoic, and with or without cystic spaces, which occurs within the renal cortex. Presence of dilated ureters without obvious dilatation of the collecting system needs careful examination of the upper urinary tract to exclude duplex kidney system. Sonographically, it is also possible to differentiate between infantile type and adult type of polycystic kidney diseases, which are usually single gene disorders. Upper urinary tract dilatation is one of the most common abnormalities diagnosed prenatally. It is usually caused by transient urine flow impairment at the level of the pelvi-ureteric junction and vesico-ureteric junction, which improves with time in most cases. Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction is mainly caused by posterior urethral valves and urethral atresia. Thick bladder walls and a dilated posterior urethra (keyhole sign) are suggestive of posterior urethral valves. Prenatal ultrasounds cannot be used confidently to assess renal function. Liquor volume and echogenicity of renal parenchyma, however, can be used as a guide to indirectly assess the underlying renal reserve. Renal tract anomalies may be isolated but can also be associated with other congenital anomalies. Therefore, a thorough examination of the other systems is mandatory to exclude possible

  5. Medial medullary infarction: abnormal ocular motor findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Soo; Choi, K-D; Oh, S-Y; Park, S-H; Han, M-K; Yoon, B-W; Roh, J-K

    2005-10-25

    In 20 consecutive patients with isolated medial medullary infarction, abnormal ocular motor findings included nystagmus (n = 8), ocular contrapulsion (n = 5), and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (n = 2). The nystagmus was ipsilesional (n = 4), gaze-evoked (n = 5), upbeating (n = 4), and hemiseesaw (n = 1). The ocular motor abnormalities may be explained by involvements of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial longitudinal fasciculus or efferent fibers from the vestibular nuclei, climbing fibers, and cells of the paramedian tracts.

  6. Ultrasound findings in cutaneous sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dybiec, Ewa; Pietrzak, Aldona; Kieszko, Robert; Kanitakis, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis relies mainly on the patient's history, presence of characteristic skin lesions and histological examination that shows a granulomatous, non-necrotizing dermal infiltration. The aim of the study was to assess the ultrasonographic features of cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis before and after treatment. A 38-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis and specific cutaneous lesions was treated with systemic steroids followed by hydroxychloroquine. Ultrasonographic examination of the cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions was performed with a Philips iU 22 and Siemens Acuson S 2000 device, with the use of linear 15 MHz and 17 MHz transducers. Histological examination of skin lesions showed characteristic, naked, non-necrotizing granulomas in the upper dermis. Ultrasound examination revealed well-demarcated, hypoechogenic changes. Power-Doppler scan revealed increased vascularity within the lesions and the surrounding tissue. Clinical improvement of the skin lesions was confirmed by ultrasound examination, which showed a decrease in their size and normalization of dermal echogenicity and vascularity. Ultrasound examination can show cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions and their regression after appropriate treatment. PMID:25821428

  7. Heterogeneous Intravascular Ultrasound Findings of Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Morofuji, Toru; Inaba, Shinji; Aisu, Hiroe; Takahashi, Kayo; Saito, Makoto; Higashi, Haruhiko; Yoshii, Toyofumi; Sumimoto, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The underlying mechanisms of stent thrombosis are not completely understood. Methods We experienced 12 definite stent thrombosis cases (1 early, 1 late, and 10 very late) at our hospital from July 2011 to April 2016 and evaluated the possible causes of stent thrombosis by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results Five different potential morphological causes of stent thrombosis (neoatherosclerosis, stent malapposition, stent fracture, edge dissection, and stent underexpansion) were detected by IVUS in 10 cases (83.3%); in 1 of the remaining 2 cases, the discontinuation of antithrombotic drugs resulted in early stent thrombosis without abnormal IVUS findings. Of the 12 stent thrombosis cases, 4 occurred at a bare-metal stent (average time from stent implantation, 106 months); in all 12, significant neointimal hyperplasia was observed on IVUS, and 2 had plaque ruptures at an in-stent or proximal reference. Malapposed stent struts were observed in three very-late stent thromboses, and all of these underwent sirolimus-eluting stent implantation. Stent thrombosis due to mechanical (stent fracture) or procedure-related complications (edge dissection and stent underexpansion) was observed in three cases. Conclusion In patients with stent thrombosis, heterogeneous findings were observed in IVUS. This IVUS case series illustrates the possible mechanisms of stent thrombosis. PMID:28154268

  8. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH...

  9. Routine radiographer screening for fetal abnormalities by ultrasound in an unselected low risk population.

    PubMed

    Shirley, I M; Bottomley, F; Robinson, V P

    1992-07-01

    A screening programme for fetal abnormalities began at The Hillingdon Hospital in July 1986. Second trimester ultrasound scans are performed by radiographers. A combined prospective and retrospective study of the ultrasound findings and outcome in all pregnancies delivered in 1989-1990 was undertaken. 6412 babies were born during this period, of whom 6183 (96%) were examined by ultrasound in the second trimester; 29 pregnancies were terminated for fetal abnormality. Of the 89 fetuses who were abnormal at birth or at induced termination of the pregnancy (1.4%), 84 were scanned in the second trimester. In 51 cases the abnormality was detected before 22 weeks gestation (sensitivity, 60.7%). 56 of these 84 abnormal fetuses scanned had potentially lethal or major handicapping abnormalities of which 41 were detected by ultrasound before 22 weeks gestation (sensitivity, 73%). There was one false positive diagnosis of abnormality which did not affect outcome. 6352 babies were normal at delivery or on discharge from hospital (specificity, 99.98%).

  10. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant...

  11. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

  12. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants caused by late-onset sepsis

    PubMed Central

    van den Dungen, F. A. M.; Vermeulen, R. J.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study describes cerebral ultrasound abnormalities caused by late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very preterm infants with a gestational age of < 32 weeks and/or birthweight < 1500 grams. Methods The prospective study (“INFANT study”) included 117 preterm infants with suspected LOS. Proven LOS was defined as a positive blood culture after 72 hours of life. In case of coagulase-negative staphylococci an elevated C-reactive protein was additionally required to establish proven LOS. Patients were identified as proven LOS and patients with only clinical symptoms of LOS. Cerebral ultrasound images were obtained in the first week after birth, during/after LOS and before discharge. Cerebral findings were divided in no/minor and major abnormalities. Results Eighty-six preterm infants had proven LOS and 31 preterm infants had only clinical signs of LOS. Four infants were excluded because pre-existing major brain abnormalities. No significant differences (p = 0.624) for incidence of major brain abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound were found. Conclusion No differences were revealed in prevalence of major brain abnormalities between the groups with proven LOS and with clinical signs of LOS. Both infants with a gram negative sepsis developed major brain abnormalities, whereas only two of 66 preterm infants coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis developed major brain abnormalities. PMID:28301503

  13. Trigger points – ultrasound and thermal findings

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, MC; Cojocaru, IM; Voiculescu, VM; Cojan-Carlea, NA; Dumitru, VL; Berteanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle pain can be elicited by any irritation of the nociceptors in the muscle or central sensitization in the central nervous system. The most frequently described muscle pain syndromes are myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome has a more localized manifestation, the trigger points. Objective: If there is a correlation between the clinical findings, the ultrasound examination and the thermal pattern of trigger points exist. Material and method: The presence of trigger points can be identified by using clinical criteria. An ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate the trigger point dimensions. The ultrasound showed an ellipsoidal hypoechogenic area in the muscle. A thermography of the low back region was performed in order to observe the thermal pattern of the area. Results: Trigger points are represented by a higher temperature area surrounded by a cooler area, probably caused by a deficit in the blood flow around those points. Discussion: Infrared thermography could be a great asset for the monitoring of neuromusculoskeletal disorders and their dynamics, as well as an important aid for the initial diagnosis of conditions associated with tissue temperature alterations. PMID:26351532

  14. Lung ultrasound findings in meconium aspiration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; Yousef, Nadya; Brat, Roselyne; Manzoni, Paolo; Mokhtari, Mostafa; De Luca, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a rare and life-threatening neonatal lung injury induced by meconium in the lung and airways. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a quick, easy and cheap imaging technique that is increasingly being used in critical care settings, also for newborns. In this paper we describe ultrasound findings in MAS. Six patients with MAS of variable severity were examined by LUS during the first hours of life. Chest X-rays were used as reference. The following dynamic LUS signs were seen in all patients: (1) B-pattern (interstitial) coalescent or sparse; (2) consolidations; (3) atelectasis; (4) bronchograms. No pattern was observed for the distribution of signs in lung areas, although the signs varied with time, probably due to the changing localisation of meconium in the lungs. LUS images corresponded well with X-ray findings. In conclusion, we provide the first formal description of LUS findings in neonates with MAS. LUS is a useful and promising tool in the diagnosis and management of MAS, providing real-time bedside imaging, with the additional potential benefit of limiting radiation exposure in sick neonates.

  15. Cranial ultrasound abnormalities in full term infants in a postnatal ward: outcome at 12 and 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Haataja, L.; Mercuri, E.; Cowan, F.; Dubowitz, L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate whether cranial ultrasound abnormalities found in low risk full term infants had any influence on neurodevelopmental outcome.
METHODS—For 103 infants who had a neurological assessment, a cranial ultrasound examination, and for whom antenatal and perinatal data were collected within 48 hours of delivery, neurodevelopmental status was evaluated at 12 and 18 months. The results of a scored neurological examination and the Griffiths mental developmental scale were correlated with the presence and type of ultrasound abnormality found in the neonatal period.
RESULTS—None of the infants with ultrasound abnormalities showed any signs of cerebral palsy or severe developmental delay. There was also no significant difference between the overall neurological and neurodevelopmental scores of the infants with normal and abnormal ultrasound findings. However, when the individual subscales of the Griffiths test were analysed, all infants with bulky choroid or intraventricular haemorrhage had normal scores in all subscales, four of eight with periventricular white matter lesions had low scores on the locomotor subscale, and three of five with asymmetrical ventricles had low scores on the performance subscale. The presence of adverse antenatal and perinatal factors did not affect the outcome in this group.
CONCLUSION—Incidental ultrasound abnormality in full term neonates, in particular intraventricular haemorrhage, although common, appear to have a good prognosis. Longer follow up studies are needed to see whether some of these infants, in particular those with white matter lesions, develop dyspraxia or other minor neurological impairments at school age.
 PMID:10685986

  16. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  17. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  18. Incidence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in apparently well neonates on a postnatal ward: correlation with antenatal and perinatal factors and neurological status

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Dubowitz, L.; Brown, S. P.; Cowan, F.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate cranial ultrasonography and neurological examination in a cohort of infants regarded as normal; and to determine the prevalence of ultrasound abnormalities and any potential association with antenatal or perinatal factors or deviant neurological signs.
METHODS—Cranial ultrasound findings and neurological status were evaluated in 177 newborns (gestational age 36.3 to 42 weeks), admitted to a postnatal ward directly after birth and regarded as normal by obstetric and paediatric staff. The age of the infants at the time of examination ranged between 6 and 48 hours. Ultrasound abnormalities were present in 35 of the 177 infants studied (20%). Ischaemic lesions, such as periventricular and thalamic densities were the most common finding (8%), followed by haemorrhagic lesions (6%). The possible sequelae of antenatal haemorrhages, such as focal ventricular dilatation or choroid cysts, were present in 6%. Abnormal ultrasound findings were not significantly associated with signs of perinatal distress, such as cardiotocographic abnormalities or passage of meconium. Abnormal ultrasound findings tended to be associated with antenatal problems, although this did not reach significance. Ultrasound abnormalities were strongly associated with deviant patterns on the neurological examination.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that ultrasound abnormalities are more common than has been reported up to now. Lesions that could be ischaemic, such as flare densities, are seen even in the absence of any antenatal or perinatal risk factor.

 PMID:10194988

  19. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  20. Ultrasound Findings of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.

    PubMed

    Longo, Victor; Jacobson, Jon A; Fessell, David P; Mautner, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this series was to retrospectively characterize the ultrasound findings of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The Institutional Review Board approved our study, and informed consent was waived. A retrospective search of radiology reports using the key phrase "delayed-onset muscle soreness" and key word "DOMS" from 2001 to 2015 and teaching files was completed to identify cases. The sonograms were reviewed by 3 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists by consensus. Sonograms were retrospectively characterized with respect to echogenicity (hypoechoic, isoechoic, or hyperechoic), distribution of muscle involvement, and intramuscular pattern (focal versus diffuse and well defined versus poorly defined). Images were also reviewed for muscle enlargement, fluid collection, muscle fiber disruption, and increased flow on color or power Doppler imaging. There were a total of 6 patients identified (5 male and 1 female). The average age was 22 years (range, 7-44 years). Of the 6 patients, there were a total of 11 affected muscles in 7 extremities (1 bilateral case). The involved muscles were in the upper extremity: triceps brachii in 27% (3 of 11), biceps brachii in 18% (2 of 11), brachialis in 18% (2 of 11), brachioradialis in 18% (2 of 11), infraspinatus in 9% (1 of 11), and deltoid in 9% (1 of 11). On ultrasound imaging, the abnormal muscle was hyperechoic in 100% (11 of 11), well defined in 73% (8 of 11), poorly defined in 27% (3 of 11), diffuse in 73% (8 of 11), and focal in 27% (3 of 11). Increased muscle size was found in 82% (9 of 11) and minimal hyperemia in 87.5% (7 of 8). The ultrasound findings of DOMS include hyperechoic involvement of an upper extremity muscle, most commonly appearing well defined and diffuse with increased muscle size and minimal hyperemia.

  1. [Clinical findings in a lamb with congenital multiple abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Chavez Moreno, V J; Henze, P

    1995-01-01

    A case of multiple, congenital malformations, with special emphasis on cardiac malformations (atrial- and ventricle septum defect, Ductus Botalli persistens, bilateral ventricle and atrial dilatation) in a lamb are described. Clinical findings, X-ray, ultrasound examination, electrocardio- and phonocardiogram, as well as pathology are discussed.

  2. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings.

  3. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  4. [Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of complex heart abnormality in routine screening].

    PubMed

    Kronich, W; Salzer-Muhar, U; Strigl, E; Gerstner, G J

    1990-02-01

    Case report on a severe cardial malformation associated with trisomia 21, diagnosed by ultrasound-screening in the 34th week of gestation. Further diagnostic evaluation of the case and therapeutic management are described. The problems of modern malformation diagnostics by routine ultrasound scanning in pregnancy are discussed.

  5. Clinical relevance of abnormal scintigraphic findings of adult equine ribs.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Jessica A; Ross, Michael W; Martin, Benson B; Davidson, Elizabeth J; Leitch, Midge

    2011-01-01

    Horses with cranial rib abnormalities may exhibit severe acute lameness and may have unusual gait deficits characterized by forelimb abduction during protraction at the walk. Horses with caudal rib abnormalities may resent being saddled and ridden. In a retrospective evaluation of 20 horses with a documented rib lesion, 25 sites of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were found in one or more ribs. Thirteen (52%) scintigraphic lesions involved the first rib; four were located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, eight were near the costochondral junction and one was at the costovertebral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved ribs 2-8; one was located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, three were at the costovertebral junction and two were near the costochondral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved the mid-portion (five) or costovertebral junction (one) of ribs 9-18. The 20 horses were divided into three groups based on the clinical relevance of the scintigraphic findings. Group 1 (n=3) horses had clinical signs attributed to a rib abnormality; Group 2 (n=6) horses had a rib abnormality that was a plausible explanation for clinical signs; Group 3 (n=11) horses had clinical signs that could not be attributed to a rib abnormality. For horses with cranial rib abnormalities, a modified lateral scintigraphic image with the ipsilateral limb pulled caudally and a left (right) 45° caudal-right (left) radiograph facilitated the diagnosis.

  6. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of temporal and occipital lobe dysplasia in a twin with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Pugash, D; Lehman, A M; Langlois, S

    2014-09-01

    Thanatophoric dysplasia, hypochondroplasia and achondroplasia are all caused by FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) mutations. Neuropathological findings of temporal lobe dysplasia are found in thanatophoric dysplasia, and temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities have been described recently in brain imaging studies of children with hypochondroplasia. We describe twins discordant for achondroplasia, in one of whom the prenatal diagnosis was based on ultrasound and fetal MRI documentation of temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities characteristic of hypochondroplasia, in addition to the finding of short long bones. Despite the intracranial findings suggestive of hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia was confirmed following postnatal clinical and genetic testing. These intracranial abnormalities have not been previously described in a fetus with achondroplasia.

  7. Auditory abnormalities in autism: toward functional distinctions among findings.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, Gabriella R; Fan, Jin; Gorman, Jack M

    2005-09-01

    Recently, findings on a wide range of auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism have been reported. To date, functional distinctions among these varied findings are poorly established. Such distinctions should be of interest to clinicians and researchers alike given their potential therapeutic and experimental applications. This review suggests three general trends among these findings as a starting point for future analyses. First, studies of auditory perception of linguistic and social auditory stimuli among individuals with autism generally have found impaired perception versus normal controls. Such findings may correlate with impaired language and communication skills and social isolation observed among individuals with autism. Second, studies of auditory perception of pitch and music among individuals with autism generally have found enhanced perception versus normal controls. These findings may correlate with the restrictive and highly focused behaviors observed among individuals with autism. Third, findings on the auditory perception of non-linguistic, non-musical stimuli among autism patients resist any generalized conclusions. Ultimately, as some researchers have already suggested, the distinction between impaired global processing and enhanced local processing may prove useful in making sense of apparently discordant findings on auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism.

  8. Entheseal ultrasound abnormalities in patients with SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Queiro, Rubén; Alonso, Sara; Alperi, Mercedes; Fernández, Mónica; Tejón, Patricia; Riestra, José L; Arboleya, Luis; Ballina, Javier

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the presence and characteristics of the ultrasound lesions that may be found in the entheses of patients with SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) syndrome. This cross-sectional study included 15 patients with SAPHO syndrome and 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index. Subjects with regular sport activities as well as those with other rheumatic conditions were excluded from the study. Ultrasonography was used in both groups to study 14 entheses of the upper and lower extremities. Different elementary lesions representative of enthesis damage were defined. A total of 210 entheses in the study group and 420 in the control group were evaluated. Only one patient presented clinical enthesitis. In the study group, seven of the 15 patients (47%) showed morpho-structural entheseal alterations, versus only four of the 30 controls (13.3%; p < 0.001). The subjects with SAPHO showed ultrasound alterations in 32/210 entheses (15%), while the controls showed alterations in 20/420 entheses (4.8%), p < 0.001. The entheses with the largest number of morpho-structural alterations were those of the patellar and Achilles tendon. None of the controls showed power Doppler signal at enthesis or perienthesis level. Ultrasound evidence of enthesopathy seems to be a common feature in this series of patients with SAPHO syndrome.

  9. Spondylodiscitis after Cervical Nucleoplasty without Any Abnormal Laboratory Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jun; Choi, Eun Joo

    2013-01-01

    Infective spondylodiscitis is a rare complication that can occur after interventional spinal procedures, of which symptoms are usually back pain and fever. Early diagnosis of infective spondylodiscitis is critical to start antibiotics and to improve prognosis. Laboratory examinations including complet blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are conventional tools for the early detection of infectious spondylitis. However, we experienced infective spondylodiscitis after cervical nucleoplasty which did not display any laboratory abnormalities, but was diagnosed through an MRI. A patient with cervical disc herniation received nucleoplasty at C5/6 and C6/7. One month later, the patient complained of aggravated pain. There were neither signs of chill nor fever, and the laboratory results appeared normal. However, the MRI findings were compatible with infectious spondylodiscitis at the nucleoplasty site. In conclusion, infectious spondylodiscitis can develop after cervical nucleoplasty without any laboratory abnormalities. Therefore, an MRI should be taken when there is a clinical suspicion for infection in order to not miss complications after interventional procedures, even if the laboratory findings are normal. PMID:23614083

  10. Hip arthroplasty. Part 2: normal and abnormal radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Pluot, E; Davis, E T; Revell, M; Davies, A M; James, S L J

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses the normal and abnormal radiographic findings that can be encountered during the follow-up of patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA). The relative significance of different patterns of radiolucency, bone sclerosis, and component position is discussed. The normal or pathological significance of these findings is correlated with design, surface, and fixation of the prosthetic components. It is essential to have a good knowledge of expected and unexpected radiological evolution according to the different types of prostheses. This paper emphasizes the importance of serial studies compared with early postoperative radiographs during follow-up in order to report accurately any sign of prosthetic failure and trigger prompt specialist referral. Basic technical guidelines and schedule recommendations for radiological follow-up are summarized.

  11. Imaging of plantar fascia disorders: findings on plain radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Ferdinando; Gitto, Salvatore; Bortolotto, Chandra; Draghi, Anna Guja; Ori Belometti, Gioia

    2017-02-01

    Plantar fascia (PF) disorders commonly cause heel pain and disability in the general population. Imaging is often required to confirm diagnosis. This review article aims to provide simple and systematic guidelines for imaging assessment of PF disease, focussing on key findings detectable on plain radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sonographic characteristics of plantar fasciitis include PF thickening, loss of fibrillar structure, perifascial collections, calcifications and hyperaemia on Doppler imaging. Thickening and signal changes in the PF as well as oedema of adjacent soft tissues and bone marrow can be assessed on MRI. Radiographic findings of plantar fasciitis include PF thickening, cortical irregularities and abnormalities in the fat pad located deep below the PF. Plantar fibromatosis appears as well-demarcated, nodular thickenings that are iso-hypoechoic on ultrasound and show low-signal intensity on MRI. PF tears present with partial or complete fibre interruption on both ultrasound and MRI. Imaging description of further PF disorders, including xanthoma, diabetic fascial disease, foreign-body reactions and plantar infections, is detailed in the main text. Ultrasound and MRI should be considered as first- and second-line modalities for assessment of PF disorders, respectively. Indirect findings of PF disease can be ruled out on plain radiography. Teaching Points • PF disorders commonly cause heel pain and disability in the general population.• Imaging is often required to confirm diagnosis or reveal concomitant injuries.• Ultrasound and MRI respectively represent the first- and second-line modalities for diagnosis.• Indirect findings of PF disease can be ruled out on plain radiography.

  12. Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Carss, Keren J.; Hillman, Sarah C.; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Kilby, Mark D.; Hurles, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

  13. Normal and abnormal US findings at the mastectomy site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of a mastectomy site is more effective with ultrasonography (US) than with either mammography or chest computed tomography because abnormalities are usually small and close to the skin surface. US does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and has a multiplanar scanning capability. The technique is readily available and inexpensive, and it allows real-time monitoring of needle tip placement during biopsy of a lesion. Normal US anatomy of the chest wall after mastectomy usually consists of four layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, pectoral muscles, and rib and intercostal muscle. The axilla is changed in appearance after lymph node dissection, but it remains the same in patients who have undergone simple mastectomy. US can accurately depict benign and malignant conditions in the mastectomy site, including fluid collection, fibrosis, local recurrent tumor, and metastatic lymphadenopathy, and can enable accurate diagnosis based on findings at fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  14. Indocyanine Green Angiographic Findings of Obscure Choroidal Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of choroidal neurofibromatosis, detected with the aid of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF)-1, otherwise having obscure findings based on ophthalmoscopy and fluoresceine angiography (FA). In case 1, the ophthalmoscopic exam showed diffuse bright or yellowish patched areas with irregular and blunt borders at the posterior pole. The FA showed multiple hyperfluorescent areas at the posterior pole in the early phase, which then showed more hyperfluorescence without leakage or extent in the late phase. The ICGA showed diffuse hypofluorescent areas in both the early and late phases, and the deep choroidal vessels were also visible. In case 2, the fundus showed no abnormal findings, and the FA showed weakly hypofluorescent areas with indefinite borders in both eyes. With the ICGA, these areas were more hypofluorescent and had clear borders. Choroidal involvement in NF-1 seems to occur more than expected. In selected cases, ICGA is a useful tool to be utilized when an ocular examination is conducted in a patient that has no definite findings based on the ophthalmoscope, B-scan, or FA tests. PMID:22670083

  15. Breaking bad news to a pregnant woman with a fetal abnormality on ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Andrea L; Conklin, Jona

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is a common procedure performed in pregnancy. Most obstetric patients have an ultrasound between 18 and 20 weeks' gestation. While there is debate regarding the utility of this ultrasound, it has become a routine part of prenatal care. Discovery of a fetal anomaly on ultrasound is most commonly an unexpected, emotionally devastating event for pregnant women. Counseling these women about the ultrasound findings requires empathy and sensitivity. This task falls on the physicians caring for pregnant women: maternal-fetal medicine specialists, radiologists, generalist obstetricians, and family medicine physicians. Their training regarding breaking bad news is varied. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a framework to break bad news of an anomalous fetus for physicians caring for pregnant women using the SPIKES protocol. The SPIKES acronym stands for setting, perception, invitation, knowledge, empathize, summary, and strategy.

  16. First applications of a targeted exome sequencing approach in fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities reveals an important fraction of cases with associated gene defects.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, Constantinos; Hagnefelt, Birgitta; Lilakos, Konstantinos; Konialis, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fetal malformations and other structural abnormalities are relatively frequent findings in the course of routine prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Due to their considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity, the underlying genetic cause is often elusive and the resulting inability to provide a precise diagnosis precludes proper reproductive and fetal risk assessment. We report the development and first applications of an expanded exome sequencing-based test, coupled to a bioinformatics-driven prioritization algorithm, targeting gene disorders presenting with abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings. Methods. We applied the testing strategy to14 euploid fetuses, from 11 on-going pregnancies and three products of abortion, all with various abnormalities or malformations detected through prenatal ultrasound examination. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was followed by variant prioritization, utilizing a custom analysis pipeline (Fetalis algorithm), targeting 758 genes associated with genetic disorders which may present with abnormal fetal ultrasound findings. Results. A definitive or highly-likely diagnosis was made in 6 of 14 cases (43%), of which 3 were abortuses (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Nemaline myopathy 2) and 3 involved on-going pregnancies (Citrullinemia, Noonan syndrome, PROKR2-related Kallmann syndrome). In the remaining eight on-going pregnancy cases (57%), a ZIC1 variant of unknown clinical significance was detected in one case, while in seven cases testing did not reveal any pathogenic variant(s). Pregnancies were followed-up to birth, resulting in one neonate harboring the PROKR2 mutation, presenting with isolated minor structural cardiac abnormalities, and in seven apparently healthy neonates. Discussion. The expanded targeted exome sequencing-based approach described herein (Fetalis), provides strong evidence suggesting a definite and beneficial increase in our diagnostic capabilities in prenatal diagnosis of

  17. Thyroid Ultrasound Findings in Children from Three Japanese Prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population

  18. Thyroid ultrasound findings in children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population

  19. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  20. Clinical value of color doppler ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis of umbilical cord entry abnormity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiandong; Wang, Li; Li, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of prenatal diagnosis of umbilical cord entry abnormity (UCEA) by means of color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS). Methods: Clinical data of sixty-four cases with confirmed umbilical cord entry abnormity were reviewed and the specific UCEA conditions and the outcomes of perinatal infants were analyzed. Results: Detection rates of marginal umbilical cord entry abnormity and velamentous umbilical cord entry abnormity by means of CDUS at second trimester were 94.1% and 93.8% respecdtively much higher than 80.0% and 68.8% which were those of third trimester. Discrepancy had statistical significance (P<0.05). True positive rate of prenatal diagnosis of UCEA by means of CDUS was 85.9% (55/64), and false negative rate was 14.1% (9/64). Among sixty four patients with UCEA, seventeen patients (26.6%) underwent selective caesarean delivery; twenty-six patients (35.9%) underwent emergency caesarean delivery and twenty-four patients (37.5%) had normal delivery. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of UCEA by means of CDUS is intuitive and accurate. It provides an evidence for determination of the best time to diagnose UCEA, and also offers a proper advice for pregnant women about delivery mode to ensure the fetus survival rate, which is clinically valuable. PMID:28083036

  1. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even <10 mm is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan.

  2. Subcutaneous lymphoid follicular hyperplasia secondary to vaccination: correlation of ultrasound findings with clinical and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Castro Copete, M C; Crespo Martínez, C; Martínez García, C; Calbo Maiques, J

    2016-10-19

    In recent years, the use of vaccines has been standardized within vaccination programs. Adverse effects at the puncture site are usually mild and transient. Nevertheless, in some cases, persistence subcutaneous nodules can develop; these are often underdiagnosed because they are so rare and because of the long time that can transpire between the vaccination and their appearance. Histologically, they consist of a lymphoid follicular hyperplasia that occurs as a reaction to the aluminum particles usually used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. We were unable to find any reference in the radiological literature to these soft-tissue nodules secondary to vaccination. We report the characteristic ultrasound findings that will enable radiologists to identify or strongly suspect these lesions and thereby avoid unnecessary imaging tests that might lead to confusion and inadequate management of these patients.

  3. A study of neurosonogram abnormalities, clinical correlation with neurosonogram findings, and immediate outcome of high-risk neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Niranjan; Berwal, Pramod Kumar; Srinivas, Anusha; Sehra, Ramnarayan; Swami, Sarika; Jeevaji, Prathyusha; Swami, Gotam; Choudary, Lokesh; Berwal, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neonatal sonography of the brain is now an essential part of newborn care, particularly in high risk and unstable premature infants. Cranial ultrasound is the most available and easily repeatable imaging technique for the neonatal brain showing brain development and the most frequently occurring forms of cerebral injury in the preterm and terms. This study aims to assess the importance of cranial ultrasound as an investigatory modality for high-risk neonates and to find out the morphology of various cerebral lesions and correlate clinically. Methodology: An observational correlation clinical study was conducted at Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner involving 100 high-risk neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) who was subjected to neurosonography on selected days as per protocol. Perinatal details were recorded, and clinical examination with appropriate investigations was done. The cranial ultrasound was done, and morphology of various findings was studied and recorded. Clinical correlation with cranial ultrasound findings and follow-up was done. Results: On cranial ultrasound, 38% of neonates had abnormal findings. Twelve percent of these had evidence of intracranial bleed, 13% periventricular echogenicity, 7% had ventriculomegaly, 2% had cerebral edema, and 1% had leukomalacia. Three neonates had findings suggestive of simple cyst in middle cranial fossa, agenesis of corpus callosum, and choroid plexus cyst. Conclusions: Cranial ultrasonography is the best point of care neuroimaging method available for high-risk neonates. It is critical as an investigatory modality in NICU and effectively documents morphology of cerebral damage. PMID:27857787

  4. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Omor, Y; Dhaene, B; Grijseels, S; Alard, S

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper.

  5. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Omor, Y.; Dhaene, B.; Grijseels, S.; Alard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper. PMID:26425380

  6. Automated linking of suspicious findings between automated 3D breast ultrasound volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-03-01

    Automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) is a 3D imaging technique which is rapidly emerging as a safe and relatively inexpensive modality for screening of women with dense breasts. However, reading ABUS examinations is very time consuming task since radiologists need to manually identify suspicious findings in all the different ABUS volumes available for each patient. Image analysis techniques to automatically link findings across volumes are required to speed up clinical workflow and make ABUS screening more efficient. In this study, we propose an automated system to, given the location in the ABUS volume being inspected (source), find the corresponding location in a target volume. The target volume can be a different view of the same study or the same view from a prior examination. The algorithm was evaluated using 118 linkages between suspicious abnormalities annotated in a dataset of ABUS images of 27 patients participating in a high risk screening program. The distance between the predicted location and the center of the annotated lesion in the target volume was computed for evaluation. The mean ± stdev and median distance error achieved by the presented algorithm for linkages between volumes of the same study was 7.75±6.71 mm and 5.16 mm, respectively. The performance was 9.54±7.87 and 8.00 mm (mean ± stdev and median) for linkages between volumes from current and prior examinations. The proposed approach has the potential to minimize user interaction for finding correspondences among ABUS volumes.

  7. First applications of a targeted exome sequencing approach in fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities reveals an important fraction of cases with associated gene defects

    PubMed Central

    Pangalos, Constantinos; Hagnefelt, Birgitta; Lilakos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fetal malformations and other structural abnormalities are relatively frequent findings in the course of routine prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Due to their considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity, the underlying genetic cause is often elusive and the resulting inability to provide a precise diagnosis precludes proper reproductive and fetal risk assessment. We report the development and first applications of an expanded exome sequencing-based test, coupled to a bioinformatics-driven prioritization algorithm, targeting gene disorders presenting with abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings. Methods. We applied the testing strategy to14 euploid fetuses, from 11 on-going pregnancies and three products of abortion, all with various abnormalities or malformations detected through prenatal ultrasound examination. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was followed by variant prioritization, utilizing a custom analysis pipeline (Fetalis algorithm), targeting 758 genes associated with genetic disorders which may present with abnormal fetal ultrasound findings. Results. A definitive or highly-likely diagnosis was made in 6 of 14 cases (43%), of which 3 were abortuses (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Nemaline myopathy 2) and 3 involved on-going pregnancies (Citrullinemia, Noonan syndrome, PROKR2-related Kallmann syndrome). In the remaining eight on-going pregnancy cases (57%), a ZIC1 variant of unknown clinical significance was detected in one case, while in seven cases testing did not reveal any pathogenic variant(s). Pregnancies were followed-up to birth, resulting in one neonate harboring the PROKR2 mutation, presenting with isolated minor structural cardiac abnormalities, and in seven apparently healthy neonates. Discussion. The expanded targeted exome sequencing-based approach described herein (Fetalis), provides strong evidence suggesting a definite and beneficial increase in our diagnostic capabilities in prenatal diagnosis of

  8. Prenatal aneupioidy detection by fluorencence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 1,068 second trimester pregnancies with fetal ultrasound abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.E.; Wright, M.; Lytle, C. |

    1994-09-01

    One indication for rapid prenatal aneuploidy detection in uncultured amniocytes by FISH is the identification of fetal abnormalities by ultrasound. We analyzed 1,068 consecutive specimens from second trimester pregnancies with fetal ultrasound abnormalities referred for FISH plus cytogenetics. These specimens are a subset (14.7%) of the most recent 7,240 clinical referrals for these combined analyses. Hybridization with specific probes for chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y were used to detect common aneuploidies. As defined by previously described criteria, specimens were reported as informative disomic, informative trisomic, or uninformative within two days of receipt. The rate of informative results from acceptable specimens was 90.1%. The vast majority of uninformative results was due to maternal cell contamination which precluded analysis. Within the informative group there were no false positives, false negatives nor reports of incorrect gender. Of the 1,068 tested specimens with ultrasound abnormalities, 135 (12.5%) were cytogenetically diagnosed as aneuploid. Prior to the cytogenetic analysis, a total of 107 aneuploidies were correctly identified by FISH. The remaining 26 aneuploidies generated an uninformative FISH result. The overall FISH detection rate for aneuploidy (including informative and uninformative results) was 79%. Other unbalanced chromosome abnormalities were present in 2.1% of specimens and 0.7% had balanced chromosome abnormalities. The inclusive total cytogenetic abnormality rate was 15.4%, of which 85% were potentially detectable by our FISH protocol. This clinical experience demonstrates that aneuploidy detection by FISH on uncultured amniocytes can provide accurate and rapid identification of aneuploidies, especially when such abnormalities are suspected following the diagnosis of fetal anomalies by ultrasound examination.

  9. Crouzon syndrome associated with acanthosis nigricans: prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings and postnatal 3D CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Nørgaard, Pernille; Hagen, Casper Petri; Hove, Hanne; Dunø, Morten; Nissen, Kamilla Rothe; Kreiborg, Sven; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2012-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (CAN) is a very rare condition with an approximate prevalence of 1 per 1 million newborns. We add the first report on prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings in CAN. In addition we present the postnatal 3D CT findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular testing. PMID:23986840

  10. Ultrasound biomicroscopic findings of the iridocorneal angle in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Kawata, Manabu; Ota, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    By using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), the cross-sectional structures of the entire iridocorneal angle (ICA) which are unable to assess with gonioscopic examination were evaluated objectively and quantitatively in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs. The ICAs of normotensive eyes in healthy dogs with normal open angle (NOR), a predisposition to primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG) (PREDIS) and suffering from unilateral PCAG (UNI), as well as the ICAs of hypertensive eyes with acute and chronic PCAG (ACG and CRG), were assessed. The opening of the ciliary cleft in PREDIS was smaller than that in NOR. In UNI, the opening and area of the ciliary cleft were significantly decreased compared with those of NOR and PREDIS. ACG had widespread structural abnormalities including marked decrease in the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus, and a thinner sclera than those in normotensive eyes, whereas the ICA collapsed in CRG with the thinnest sclera. Medical therapy-responsive glaucomatous cases had wider ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus than unresponsive ones. These findings suggest that the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus of the ICA are key structures contributing to not only the pathophysiology of canine glaucoma but also the responsiveness to medical therapy in glaucomatous eyes, and cross-sectional entire structures of the ICA should be evaluated quantitatively with UBM when diagnosing and managing canine glaucoma.

  11. Pituitary and ovarian abnormalities demonstrated by CT and ultrasound in children with features of the McCune-Albright syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1984-11-01

    In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.

  12. Abnormal findings on knee magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic NBA players.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.

  13. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... your test will be done. Alternative Names Sonogram Images Abdominal ultrasound Ultrasound in pregnancy 17 week ultrasound ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  14. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  15. Correlation between abnormal cardiac physical examination and echocardiographic findings in neonates with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McElhinney, Doff B; Straka, Michele; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Zackai, Elaine H

    2002-12-01

    Congenital heart disease is present in 40-50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Although cardiovascular evaluation is a standard component of the diagnostic work-up in patients with Down syndrome, the value of routine neonatal echocardiography in this population is debated. We studied 114 neonates with Down syndrome who underwent both cardiac physical examination and echocardiography in the neonatal period to assess the accuracy of physical examination for identifying cardiovascular anomalies in this population. We retrospectively reviewed physical examination records and echocardiogram reports in 114 neonates with Down syndrome and trisomy 21. A patient was considered to have an abnormal cardiac physical examination if there was a pathologic cardiac murmur and/or cyanosis or an abnormal systemic arterial oxygen saturation. The median age at the time of physical examination was 2 days (1-30 days). Physical examination findings suggestive of cardiovascular pathology were noted in 77 patients (68%), with an abnormal cardiac murmur in 34 (30%), cyanosis and/or a pulse oximeter reading of < or = 92% in 35 (31%), and both in 7 (6%). The echocardiogram was abnormal in 75 patients (66%), with an atrioventricular septal defect in 33, tetralogy of Fallot in 13, both of these anomalies in 2, a ventricular septal defect in 17, a patent ductus arteriosus beyond 7 days of age in 7, and other anomalies in 2. The sensitivity of physical examination findings for detection of cardiovascular anomalies was 80% and the specificity was 56%. The positive predictive value of an abnormal physical examination was 78% and the negative predictive value of a normal physical examination was 59%. Fifteen patients had a normal physical examination but an abnormal echocardiogram, nine of whom eventually required surgery. Physical examination alone is not sufficient to identify cardiovascular anomalies in neonates with Down syndrome. In the newborn with Down syndrome, the potential benefits of

  16. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalaei, Bahram; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist. Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR) findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter. Conclusion: Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay. PMID:28229064

  17. Identification of intestinal wall abnormalities and ischemia by modeling spatial uncertainty in computed tomography imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tsunoyama, Taichiro; Pham, Tuan D; Fujita, Takashi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal abnormalities and ischemia are medical conditions in which inflammation and injury of the intestine are caused by inadequate blood supply. Acute ischemia of the small bowel can be life-threatening. Computed tomography (CT) is currently a gold standard for the diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia in the emergency department. However, the assessment of the diagnostic performance of CT findings in the detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia has been a difficult task for both radiologists and surgeons. Little effort has been found in developing computerized systems for the automated identification of these types of complex gastrointestinal disorders. In this paper, a geostatistical mapping of spatial uncertainty in CT scans is introduced for medical image feature extraction, which can be effectively applied for diagnostic detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia from control patterns. Experimental results obtained from the analysis of clinical data suggest the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty mapping model.

  18. Common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after neck dissection: colour Doppler ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Flor, N; Sardanelli, F; Ghilardi, G; Tentori, A; Franceschelli, G; Felisati, G; Cornalba, G P

    2007-05-01

    Common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare disease, which has been previously unreported in association with neck dissection. We describe the Doppler ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography (CT) findings of a case of carotid pseudoaneurysm, one month after pharyngolaryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Multidetector CT confirmed the diagnosis made on the basis of Doppler ultrasound; the high image quality of axial and three-dimensional reconstructions avoided the need for pre-operative conventional angiography. In the presence of a pulsatile cervical mass after neck surgery, pseudoaneurysm of the carotid artery should be included in the differential diagnosis, and multidetector CT can be the sole pre-operative diagnostic imaging modality.

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting symptom is related to multiple uterine leiomyoma: an ultrasound-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Moutinho, José Alberto; Barbosa, Lígia Silva; Torres, Daniel Gonçalves; Nunes, Sara Morgado

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas, diagnosed by ultrasound, in a private health care setting located in the central eastern region of Portugal, and to explore the demographic and clinical factors related to diagnosis and symptomatology. Patients and methods The files of 624 patients attending a private clinic in Covilhã, Portugal, from January 2 to December 31, 2010 were retrieved for evaluation. Pelvic ultrasound record, age, weight, height, age at menarche, number of pregnancies and deliveries, marital status, menstrual cycles characteristic, and contraceptive method at consultation were included in the analysis. Results Uterine leiomyoma (UL) was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 161 (25.8%) patients. A single UL was diagnosed in 80 (49.7%) patients. In 79 (49.1%) patients, the largest leiomyoma had a dimension <20 mm. Prevalence of UL was age dependent: at 11.0% for women 20–39 years old; 45.4% for those aged 40–59 years; and 19.5% for women 60 years or older. Metrorrhagia was the most distressing presenting symptom. When menorrhagia was the presenting symptom, the probability of having an ultrasound diagnosis of UL was 73.3%. Metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, as presenting symptom, was significantly related to the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple ULs. Conclusion UL was especially prevalent in women aged between 40 and 59 years. Patients with multiple ULs had significantly more abnormal uterine bleeding. In patients with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, special attention should be taken in searching for the presence of multiple ULs during ultrasound. PMID:24194648

  20. MRI-guided targeted blood-brain barrier disruption with focused ultrasound: histological findings in rabbits.

    PubMed

    McDannold, Nathan; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Raymond, Scott; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2005-11-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a method to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) noninvasively and reversibly at targeted locations. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of this method by searching for ischemia and apoptosis in areas with BBB disruption induced by pulsed ultrasound in the presence of preformed gas bubbles and by looking for delayed effects up to one month after sonication. Pulsed ultrasound exposures (sonications) were performed in the brains of 24 rabbits under monitoring by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (ultrasound: frequency = 1.63 MHz, burst length = 100 ms, PRF = 1 Hz, duration = 20 s, pressure amplitude 0.7 to 1.0 MPa). Before sonication, an ultrasound contrast agent (Optison, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) was injected IV. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced MR images. Whole brain histologic examination was performed using haematoxylin and eosin staining for general histology, vanadium acid fuchsin-toluidine blue staining for ischemic neurons and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. The main effects observed were tiny regions of extravasated red blood cells scattered around the sonicated locations, indicating affected capillaries. Despite these vasculature effects, only a few cells in some of the sonicated areas showed evidence for apoptosis or ischemia. No ischemic or apoptotic regions were detected that would indicate a compromised blood supply was induced by the sonications. No delayed effects were observed either by MRI or histology up to 4 wk after sonication. Ultrasound-induced BBB disruption is possible without inducing substantial vascular damage that would result in ischemic or apoptotic death to neurons. These findings indicate that this method is safe for targeted drug delivery, at least when compared with the currently available invasive methods.

  1. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL. A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed. In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1–2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient. The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC. PMID:27124066

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic ring 22 duplication/deletion with terminal 22q13 deletion due to abnormal first trimester screening and choroid plexus cyst detected on ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Koç, Altuğ; Arisoy, Ozgür; Pala, Elif; Erdem, Mehmet; Kaymak, Ayşegül Oztürk; Erkal, Ozgür; Karaoğuz, Meral Yirmibeş

    2009-10-01

    We report a rare case of mosaic ring chromosome 22 duplication/deletion in a fetus for whom karyotype analysis was required because of an abnormal finding in the maternal serum screening test and a choroid plexus cyst detected on prenatal ultrasound. Additional prenatal study of the amniotic fluid by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and the terminal 22q13.3 deletion was detected on ring chromosome. The final karyotype was 45,XX,-22[3]/46,XX,r(22)(p11q13.2)[63]/46,XX,idicr(22)(p11q13.2;p11q13.2)[2]dn.ishder(22)(N25+, ARSA-, ter-). The pegnancy was terminated. Cytogenetic analysis of the intracardiac blood also revealed ring 22 mosaicism with only one metaphase spread with idicr(22) as the unstable isodicentric rings are subsequently lost from most cells. We discuss the prenatal diagnosis of this rare condition.

  3. Prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with proven ovarian torsion and a proposed triage schema.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher; Meyers, Arthur B; Capotasto, Juliana; Bokhari, Jamal

    2009-03-01

    Many women with ovarian torsion present with nonspecific abdominal/pelvic pain and initially receive computed tomography (CT). We hypothesize that the CT scans preformed on these women will all show abnormalities of the involved ovary. Our purpose is to review cases of surgically proven ovarian torsion at our institution over the last 20 years, assessing CT findings in women with ovarian torsion. A retrospective review of all patients at our institution with surgically proven ovarian torsion from 1985-2005 was conducted. Two physicians reviewed available CT reports, and a radiologist reviewed all available images. CT was obtained in 33% of the 167 patients. Dictated reports were available for 28 studies; all described an enlarged ovary, ovarian cyst, or adnexal mass of the involved ovary. Radiologist review of the available CT images confirmed these findings. This series supports the claim that a CT scan with well-visualized normal appearing ovaries rules out ovarian torsion, while abnormal pelvic findings or failure to visualize the ovaries in women with pelvic pain necessitates further evaluation of torsion.

  4. Ultrasound findings of mild neonatal periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage after different treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sida; Liao, Chunyan; Liang, Shuyuan; Zhong, Danni; Liu, Junjie; Li, Zhixian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ultrasound findings of mild neonatal periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) after different treatments, and to evaluate the neurological outcomes of mild PIVH with Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GDDS). Methods: A total of 194 newborns with grade I-II PIVH were recruited, and findings of cranial ultrasound examination before and 1 month after birth were included for analysis. The echo intensity and size of the lesions were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference in the echo intensity among three groups of grade I PIVH patients (P>0.05). There was significant difference in the echo intensity among three groups of grade II PIVH patients, and the ganglioside had the best therapeutic efficacy (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in the area change among three groups of grade I PIVH patients (P>0.05). However, significant difference was observed in the area change among three groups of grade II PIVH patients, and ganglioside had a better efficacy than cerebrolysin and control agent (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between cerebrolysin and control groups (P>0.05). GDDS evaluation showed no significant difference among three groups (P>0.05), and all the patients recovered completely. Conclusion: The efficacy of different treatments for mild PIVH can be reflected in the ultrasound findings. Mild PIVH children generally have a good neurological prognosis. PMID:26131081

  5. Multidetector CT appearance of the pelvis after cesarean delivery: normal and abnormal acute findings.

    PubMed

    Gui, Benedetta; Danza, Francesco Maria; Valentini, Anna Lia; Laino, Maria Elena; Caruso, Alessandro; Carducci, Brigida; Rodolfino, Elena; Devicienti, Ersilia; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section (CS) may have several acute complications that can occur in the early postoperative period. The most common acute complications are hematomas and hemorrhage, infection, ovarian vein thrombosis, uterine dehiscence and rupture. Pelvic hematomas usually occur at specific sites and include bladder flap hematoma (between the lower uterine segment and the bladder) and subfascial or rectus sheath hematoma (rectus sheath or prevescical space). Puerperal hemorrhage can be associated with uterine dehiscence or rupture. Pelvic infections include endometritis, abscess, wound infection, and retained product of conception. Radiologists play an important role in the diagnosis and management of postoperative complications as a result of increasing use of multidetector CT in emergency room. The knowledge of normal and abnormal postsurgical anatomy and findings should facilitate the correct diagnosis so that the best management can be chosen for the patient, avoiding unnecessary surgical interventions and additional treatments. In this article we review the surgical cesarean technique and imaging CT technique followed by description of normal and abnormal post-CS CT findings.

  6. Multidetector CT appearance of the pelvis after cesarean delivery: normal and abnormal acute findings

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Benedetta; Danza, Francesco Maria; Valentini, Anna Lia; Laino, Maria Elena; Caruso, Alessandro; Carducci, Brigida; Rodolfino, Elena; Devicienti, Ersilia; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section (CS) may have several acute complications that can occur in the early postoperative period. The most common acute complications are hematomas and hemorrhage, infection, ovarian vein thrombosis, uterine dehiscence and rupture. Pelvic hematomas usually occur at specific sites and include bladder flap hematoma (between the lower uterine segment and the bladder) and subfascial or rectus sheath hematoma (rectus sheath or prevescical space). Puerperal hemorrhage can be associated with uterine dehiscence or rupture. Pelvic infections include endometritis, abscess, wound infection, and retained product of conception. Radiologists play an important role in the diagnosis and management of postoperative complications as a result of increasing use of multidetector CT in emergency room. The knowledge of normal and abnormal postsurgical anatomy and findings should facilitate the correct diagnosis so that the best management can be chosen for the patient, avoiding unnecessary surgical interventions and additional treatments. In this article we review the surgical cesarean technique and imaging CT technique followed by description of normal and abnormal post-CS CT findings. PMID:27756714

  7. Point-of-care musculoskeletal ultrasound is critical for the diagnosis of hemarthroses, inflammation and soft tissue abnormalities in adult patients with painful haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Kidder, W; Nguyen, S; Larios, J; Bergstrom, J; Ceponis, A; von Drygalski, A

    2015-07-01

    We previously demonstrated in adult patients with haemophilia (PWH) that hemarthrosis is present in only ~1/3rd of acutely painful joints by using point-of-care-musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS). Therefore, other unrecognized tissue abnormalities must contribute to pain. Using high resolution MSKUS, employing grey scale and power Doppler, we sought to retrospectively (i) investigate soft tissue abnormalities in painful haemophilic joints and (ii) to determine to what extent MSKUS findings, functional or radiographic joint scores correlate with biomarkers of inflammation in PWH. Findings were correlated with Hemophilia Joint Health Scores (HJHS), Pettersson scores, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and von Willebrand factor activity and antigen levels. A total of 65 MSKUS examinations for acute and chronic joint pains were performed for 34 adult haemophilia patients, mostly for chronic joint pains (72.3%). The most prominent findings (66.5%) pertained to inflammatory soft tissue changes including synovitis, tendinitis, enthesitis, bursitis and fat pad inflammation. Effusions were present in 55.5% and 46.8% of MSKUS performed for acute and chronic pain, respectively. Of those, 90.0% were bloody during acute and 47.6% during persistent pains. While inflammatory biomarkers correlated well with overall HJHS and total Pettersson scores (P < 0.05), they did not differ between those patients with synovitis and those without. MSKUS is emerging as an important modality to diagnose treatable musculoskeletal abnormalities contributing to pain in haemophilic arthropathy, and therefore seems critical for a personalized approach to haemophilia care. The role of biomarkers in this setting remains less clear and requires further investigation.

  8. [Ultrasound-guided central venous access in adults and children: Procedure and pathological findings].

    PubMed

    Scheiermann, P; Seeger, F H; Breitkreutz, R

    2010-01-01

    Central venous line placement is a standard procedure in critical care and peri-operative medicine. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. In contrast to the landmark technique, ultrasound-guided punctures can significantly reduce the rate of complications. Patients with a high risk for difficult vascular access include critical care and emergency patients as well as patients on anticoagulation medication and dialysis. Placement of central venous catheters can be difficult in ventilated patients and if there has been prior surgery in the puncture area. In children and small infants central venous access can also be challenging due to the anatomical relationship in the head and neck region. Puncture techniques are explained briefly by means of ultrasound anatomy. Typical ultrasonographic images visualize pathological findings in order to identify dangers and complications in central venous catheterization.

  9. Abnormal ovarian cycles as diagnosed by ultrasound and serum estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Polan, M L; Totora, M; Caldwell, B V; DeCherney, A H; Haseltine, F P; Kase, N

    1982-03-01

    A significant portion of human infertility is presumably due to defective ovulation, including patients who fail to conceive despite medical induction of ovulation, those who fail despite repeated timely donor inseminations, and those with "infertility of unknown etiology". All point out the inadequacy of standard criteria for normal ovulation. This investigation correlates preovulatory serum estradiol and gonadotropin concentrations with dominant follicle growth measured ultrasonographically and serum progesterone levels. The data indicate a 35% incidence of cycles with significantly abnormal serum estradiol levels, decreased dominant follicle size, and abnormal progesterone levels despite biphasic basal body temperature curves and normal cycle length. If these cycles represent inadequate or abnormal ovulation, they can be distinguished from adequate cycles prior to follicle rupture and may benefit the treatment of human infertility.

  10. Hidden gout- Ultrasound findings in patients with musculo-skeletal problems and hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Reuss-Borst, Monika A; Pape, Cornelia A; Tausche, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of gout-specific ultrasonography findings in a cohort of hyperuricemic patients with various musculo-skeletal complaints. A blinded examiner regarding the patients' clinical and laboratory assessment performed standardized ultrasound examinations of 12 joints in 74 individuals with diverse musculo-skeletal complaints. Gout-specific changes were assessed and combined with the patients' medical history (diagnosis gout vs. non-gout) and laboratory values of hyperuricemia. Of 74 patients, 58 (mean age 55 yrs) had hyperuricemia (serum uric acid levels > 7 mg/dl/420 μmol/L). Of those, 27 (47%) had a history of gout attacks. In total, 888 joints were examined by ultrasound. With 44/324 joints (14%) the pathological finding most often found in joints of gout patients was the double contour sign compared to 29/372 joints (8%) in patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and 2/192 joints (1%) in normouricemic controls. In patients with gout, the ultrasound showed pathological findings in 67/324 joints (21%). In 26/39 (67%) previously affected joints, gout-specific sonographic indications were found. With regard to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, sonographic pathologies were detectable in 16/22 (73%) so far asymptomatic joints on the contralateral. Ultrasonographic gout-specific signs are not only found in joints affected by gout attacks, but often also in the corresponding contralateral, asymptomatic joint. Patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia already showed sonographic features implicating an as yet "silent" precipitation of urate crystals. As the examined cohort represents patients at high risk, further research for gout-specific findings is indicated, especially for hyperuricemic patients.

  11. Comparison between clinical, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and pathology findings in dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taeymans, Olivier; Penninck, Dominique G; Peters, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    This study compares clinical, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathology findings in 16 prospectively, and seven retrospectively recruited dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma. Of these, 17 were confirmed thyroid carcinoma, while six were initially misdiagnosed. These included four carotid body tumors, one para-esophageal abscess, and one undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thyroid carcinomas occurred in older dogs without evidence of sex predilection, and were more often unilateral. All were large, heterogeneous, moderately to strongly vascularized, and most commonly contained areas of dystrophic mineralization and/or fluid accumulations. On MRI, thyroid carcinomas appeared hyperintense compared to surrounding musculature in all imaging sequences used, while on CT they had a lower attenuation value than normal thyroid gland tissue. Histologically confirmed tumor capsule disruption with invasion of the surrounding structures was most commonly detected with MRI. Palpation was not an accurate predictor of locally invasive vs. well-encapsulated masses. Computed tomography had the highest specificity (100%) and MRI had the highest sensitivity (93%) in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma, while ultrasound had considerably lower results. We conclude that ultrasound is adequate for use as a screening tool for dogs with suspected thyroid carcinoma, but recommend either CT or MRI for preoperative diagnosis and staging.

  12. Physiological Motion and Registration of Abnormalities in Liver During Focused Ultrasound Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Sunita; Rh, Abhilash

    Continuous deformation and dislocation of soft tissues in the abdominal and thoracic region presents a major issue for effective targeting of all non-invasive ablative modalities such as radiotherapy/surgery and Focused Ultrasound Surgery. Most significant among these is the movement of the target organs due to physiological processes such as respiration. The movement is found to be most significant for liver and kidneys. We studied movement and compensation strategies with the aim to implement them during ultrasound ablation using our robotic system for targeted FUS dose delivery. The motion pattern of the liver can be assumed to be in a single plane as it closely follows the movement of the diaphragm. However, the movement of kidneys is three dimensional and follows complicated patterns. Kidney motion is highly subject specific and has poor repeatability. In our research, we quantify the relation of liver movement and the breathing pattern so as to achieve real-time movement compensation using a prediction-correlation approach.

  13. Ultrasound prediction of abnormal infant development in hypertensive pregnant women in the second and third trimester

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofang; Huang, Yajuan; Jiang, Lixin; Gu, Jinghong; Wang, Yaxin; Hu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the sensitivities and accuracies of Doppler ultrasound parameters in the second and third trimester of hypertensive pregnancies in determining perinatal outcomes. 1,054 pregnancies were retrospectively categorized into three groups (healthy pregnancies (HP, n = 988), pregnancies of hypertensive women (HypP, n = 30) and high-risk hypertension pregnancies (HRHypP, n = 36), depending on gestational hypertension as well as fetal birth weights and pregnancy outcomes. Systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of the bilateral uterine artery, umbilical artery and vein as well as venous flow velocity data were monitored by Doppler ultrasound. At 20–27 and 28–32 gestational weeks, uterine artery PIs and RIs were significantly higher in the HRHypP group than in the HP and HypP patients. At gestational weeks 20–27 and 28–32 left plus right PI data with cut-off values of 2.35 and 1.73 indicated a risk of stillbirth, premature pregnancy termination and a birth weight of less than 2,500 g with sensitivities of 94.4% and 93.1% as well as specificities of 95.2% and 90.1%, respectively. PMID:28091544

  14. Ultrasound findings of diffuse metastasis of gastric signet-ring-cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Morita, Koji; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Ota, Shuji; Masugi, Hideo; Chikuta, Ikumi; Mashimo, Yamato; Edo, Naoki; Tokairin, Takuo; Seki, Nobuhiko; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that metastases to the thyroid from extrathyroidal malignancies occur as solitary or multiple nodules, or may involve the whole thyroid gland diffusely. However, diffuse metastasis of gastric cancer to the thyroid is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old woman with diffuse infiltration of gastric adenocarcinoma (signet-ring-cell carcinoma/poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma) cells in the thyroid. The pathological diagnosis was made based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid. An 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed multiple lesions with increased uptake, including the bilateral thyroid gland. On thyroid ultrasound examination, diffuse enlargement with internal heterogeneity and hypoechoic reticular lines was observed. On color Doppler imaging, a blood-flow signal was not detected in these hypoechoic lines. These findings were similar to those of diffuse metastases caused by other primary cancers, such as lung cancer, as reported earlier. Therefore, the presence of hypoechoic reticular lines without blood-flow signals is probably common to diffuse thyroid metastasis from any origin and an important diagnostic finding. This is the first report to show detailed ultrasound findings of diffuse gastric cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland using color Doppler.

  15. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... called multiples) To screen for birth defects, like spina bifida or heart defects . Screening means seeing if your ... example, if the ultrasound shows your baby has spina bifida, she may be treated in the womb before ...

  16. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's uterus. The sound waves bounce off solid structures in the body ...

  17. Early cranial ultrasound findings among infants with neonatal encephalopathy in Uganda: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tann, Cally J.; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Hagmann, Cornelia; Webb, Emily L.; Nyombi, Natasha; Namiiro, Flaviah; Harvey-Jones, Kelly; Muhumuza, Anita; Burgoine, Kathy; Elliott, Alison M.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Cowan, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, the timing and nature of brain injury and their relation to mortality in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) are unknown. We evaluated cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans from term Ugandan infants with and without NE for evidence of brain injury. Methods: Infants were recruited from a national referral hospital in Kampala. Cases (184) had NE and controls (100) were systematically selected unaffected term infants. All had cUS scans <36 h reported blind to NE status. Results: Scans were performed at median age 11.5 (interquartile range (IQR): 5.2–20.2) and 8.4 (IQR: 3.6–13.5) hours, in cases and controls respectively. None had established antepartum injury. Major evolving injury was reported in 21.2% of the cases vs. 1.0% controls (P < 0.001). White matter injury was not significantly associated with bacteremia in encephalopathic infants (odds ratios (OR): 3.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98–9.60). Major cUS abnormality significantly increased the risk of neonatal death (case fatality 53.9% with brain injury vs. 25.9% without; OR: 3.34 (95% CI: 1.61–6.95)). Conclusion: In this low-resource setting, there was no evidence of established antepartum insult, but a high proportion of encephalopathic infants had evidence of major recent and evolving brain injury on early cUS imaging, suggesting prolonged or severe acute exposure to hypoxia–ischemia (HI). Early abnormalities were a significant predictor of death. PMID:27064242

  18. Successful Localization of Abnormal Parathyroid Gland Using Ultrasound-Guided Methylene Blue Dye Injection in the Reoperative Neck.

    PubMed

    Haciyanli, Mehmet; Koruyucu, Melike Bedel; Erdoğan, Nezahat Karaca; Dere, Ozcan; Sarı, Erdem; Kumkumoğlu, Yusuf; Tavusbay, Cengiz; Kamer, Erdinc

    2015-12-01

    Persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism is a challenging problem for endocrine surgeons. The aim of this study was to review our experience using ultrasound-guided (US-G) methylene blue dye injection for the localization and removal of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients having primary hyperparathyroidism and previous neck surgery. Between January 2012 and May 2013, six consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and previous neck surgery underwent focused parathyroidectomy with the use of US-G methylene blue dye injections to localize the presumed parathyroid adenoma were included in the study. We analyzed the data of six patients who underwent reoperative parathyroid surgery using US-G methylene blue dye injection retrospectively. The dye injection was performed just prior to surgery. All patients were successfully treated for their hyperparathyroidism which was confirmed by at least 50 % drop in intraoperative parathormone level 10 min after resection. There were no complications related with US-G dye injection or with surgery. US-G methylene blue dye injection is a cheap, safe, and effective method for localization of diseased parathyroid glands and guiding surgery in the reoperative neck.

  19. Abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, G A

    1994-11-01

    The normal anatomy of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder has been described in detail [1]. Descriptions of different pathologic processes affecting this structure also have been published [1-3] but have been incomplete, showing only a limited variety of abnormalities. In this article, abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon seen on MR images are illustrated in greater variety and detail. Recognizing abnormalities of the biceps tendon is important because they are a common source of shoulder pain both alone and in combination with abnormalities of the rotator cuff, labrum, and other structures. Because incomplete diagnosis can lead to treatment failure, it is important to recognize less common imaging manifestations of common entities.

  20. Beals syndrome (congenital contractural arachnodactyly): prenatal ultrasound findings and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Inbar-Feigenberg, M; Meirowitz, N; Nanda, D; Toi, A; Okun, N; Chitayat, D

    2014-10-01

    We report the prenatal findings in two cases of Beals syndrome. Both pregnancies presented with clinical features of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita/fetal akinesia syndrome (AMC/FAS), including clenched fists and multiple joint contractures on repeat prenatal ultrasound examinations. The first case was diagnosed as having Beals syndrome on physical examination shortly after birth and the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA analysis, shown as a point mutation in the fibrillin 2 (FBN2) gene. The second case was diagnosed with Beals syndrome following microarray analysis on amniocytes, which showed a deletion of the FBN2 gene. Although most cases with AMC/FAS carry a poor prognosis, Beals syndrome is consistent with normal cognitive development and a better prognosis. Thus, making the correct diagnosis is crucial, both pre- and postnatally, for accurate counseling and management.

  1. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Vestibular Schwannoma as the Most Common Cause of MRI Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-04-01

    The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL.A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed.In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1-2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient.The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC.

  2. ABNORMAL REGULATION OF MICROVASCULAR TONE IN A MURINE MODEL OF SICKLE CELL DISEASE ASSESSED BY CONTRAST ULTRASOUND

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Melinda D.; Belcik, J. Todd; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Yan; Benner, Cameron; Pei, Hong; Linden, Joel; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Microvascular dysregulation, abnormal rheology, and vaso-occlusive events play a role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). We hypothesized that abnormalities in skeletal muscle perfusion in a murine model of SCD could be parametrically assessed by quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging. Methods We studied a murine model of moderate SCD without anemia produced by homozygous β-globin deletion replaced by human βs-globin transgene (NY1DD−/−, n=18), heterozygous transgene replacement (NY1DD+/−, n=19), and C57Bl/6 control mice (n=14). Quantitative CEU of the proximal hindlimb skeletal muscle was performed at rest and during contractile exercise (2 Hz). Time-intensity data were analyzed to measure microvascular blood volume (MBV), microvascular blood transit rate (β), and microvascular blood flow (MBF). Erythrocyte deformability was measured by elongation at various rotational shears. Results At rest, muscle MBV was similar between strains whereas β was significantly (ANOVA p=0.0015) reduced to a similar degree in NY1DD−/− and NY1DD+/− compared to wild-type mice (0.24±0.10, 0.16±0.07, and 0.34±0.14 s−1, respectively), resulting in a reduction in MBF. During contractile exercise, there were no group-wise differences in β (1.43±0.67 s−1, 1.09±0.42 s−1, 1.36±0.49 s−1; for NY1DD−/−, NY1DD+/−, and wild-type, respectively), nor for MBF or MBV. Erythrocyte deformability at high shear stress (≥5 Pa) was mildly reduced in both transgenic groups, although it did not correlate with the blood flow or β. Conclusions CEU in skeletal muscle has revealed a lower microvascular blood transit rate in the NY1DD model of SCD and sickle trait but no alterations in MBV. The abnormality in microvascular blood transit rate is likely due to vasomotor dysfunction since it abrogated by contractile exercise and at rest is only weakly related to erythrocyte deformability. PMID:26123012

  3. Magnetic resonance angiography in children with sickle cell disease and abnormal transcranial Doppler ultrasonography findings enrolled in the STOP study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Miguel R; Cure, Joel; Granger, Suzanne; Gallagher, Dianne; Hsu, Lewis; Wang, Winfred; Woods, Gerald; Berman, Brian; Brambilla, Don; Pegelow, Charles; Lewin, Jonathan; Zimmermann, Robert A; Adams, Robert J

    2004-04-01

    The stroke prevention study in sickle cell disease (STOP) demonstrated a 90% reduction in stroke risk with transfusion among patients with time-averaged mean cerebral blood velocity (TAMV) of 200 cm/s or more as measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD). In STOP, 232 brain magnetic resonance angiograms (MRAs) were performed on 100 patients, 47 in the transfusion arm and 53 in the standard care arm. Baseline MRA findings were interpreted as normal in 75 patients and as indicating mild stenosis in 4 patients and severe stenosis in 21 patients. Among 35 patients who underwent magnetic resonance angiography within 30 days of random assignment, the TAMV was significantly higher in 7 patients with severe stenosis compared with 28 patients with normal MRA findings or mild stenosis (276.7 +/- 34 vs 215 +/- 15.6 cm/s; P<.001). In the standard care arm, 4 of 13 patients with abnormal MRA findings had strokes compared with 5 of 40 patients with normal MRA findings (P=.03). In this arm, TAMV became normal (less than 170 cm/s) or conditional (170-199 cm/s) in 26 of 38 patients with normal or mildly abnormal baseline MRA but remained abnormal in 8 of 10 patients with severely abnormal baseline MRA. These results suggest that TCD often detects flow abnormalities indicative of stroke risk before MRA lesions become evident. Furthermore, patients with abnormal MRA findings and higher TCD velocities are at higher risk for stroke, and their cerebral TAMVs are unlikely to decrease without transfusion.

  4. Differential profile of ultrasound findings associated with malignancy in mixed and solid thyroid nodules in an elderly female population.

    PubMed

    Vera, María Inés; Meroño, Tomás; Urrutia, María Agustina; Parisi, Carina; Morosan, Yanina; Rosmarin, Melanie; Schnitman, Marta; Brites, Fernando; Grisendi, Silvio; Serrano, María Sol; Luciani, Wilfredo; Serrano, Leonardo; Zuk, Carlos; De Barrio, Guillermo; Cejas, Claudia; Faingold, María Cristina; Brenta, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years) referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP)/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69 ± 8 years), the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56). While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P < 0.05). The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25-6.10), P: 0.012). Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules.

  5. Differential Profile of Ultrasound Findings Associated with Malignancy in Mixed and Solid Thyroid Nodules in an Elderly Female Population

    PubMed Central

    Vera, María Inés; Urrutia, María Agustina; Parisi, Carina; Morosan, Yanina; Rosmarin, Melanie; Schnitman, Marta; Brites, Fernando; Grisendi, Silvio; Serrano, María Sol; Luciani, Wilfredo; Serrano, Leonardo; Zuk, Carlos; De Barrio, Guillermo; Cejas, Claudia; Faingold, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years) referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP)/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69 ± 8 years), the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56). While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P < 0.05). The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25–6.10), P: 0.012). Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules. PMID:25050189

  6. Abnormal 18 F-FDG and 82 Rb PET Findings in Chagas Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Salimy, Medhi S; Parwani, Purvi J; Mukai, Kanae; Pampaloni, Miguel Hernandez; Flavell, Robert R

    2017-03-03

    Uptake of the radiopharmaceutical F-FDG visualized by PET imaging can reflect abnormal myocardial inflammation. When utilized in conjunction with other imaging modalities, such as echocardiography, PET F-FDG imaging can help distinguish between active cardiac sarcoidosis and other etiologies of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We present a case of a 46-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia who underwent an echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac Chagas disease. A subsequent F-FDG PET demonstrated abnormal hypermetabolism. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive serologic examination results.

  7. Preliminary findings of cortical thickness abnormalities in blast injured service members and their relationship to clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    York, G. E.; Reid, M. W.; Cooper, D. B.; Jones, L.; Robin, D. A.; Kennedy, J. E.; Lewis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Though cortical abnormalities have been demonstrated in moderate and severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, there have been no studies examining cortical changes following blast related mild TBI (mTBI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and functional relevance of blast mTBI on cortical thickness in a small cohort of carefully screened blast injured US Service Members (SM). Twelve SM with mTBI acquired through blast injury were compared to 11 demographically matched control SM without TBI. Both mTBI and control participants were active duty and had completed a combat deployment. Subjects underwent MRI examination and the T1 weighted anatomic images were processed using the FreeSurfer suite of tools. Cortical thickness maps were compared between groups and examined for relationships with time since injury (TSI). Utilizing a large database of functional imaging results (BrainMap), significant regions of interest (ROI) were used to determine the behavioral profiles most consistently associated with the specific ROI. In addition, clinical variables were examined as part of post-hoc analysis of functional relevance. Group comparisons controlling for age demonstrated several significant clusters of cortical thinning for the blast injured SM. After multiple comparisons correction (False Discovery Rate (FDR)), two left hemisphere clusters remained significant (left superior temporal (STG) and frontal (SFG) gyri). No clusters were significantly correlated with TSI after FDR correction. Behavioral analysis for the STG and SFG clusters demonstrated three significant behavioral/cognitive sub-domains, each associated with audition and language. Blast injured SMs demonstrated distinct areas of cortical thinning in the STG and SFG. These areas have been previously shown to be associated with audition and language. Post-hoc analyses of clinical records demonstrated significant abnormal audiology reports for the blast injured SM suggesting that the

  8. Diagnostic imaging findings of pelvic retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma in a child: a case report with the emphasis on initial ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Mut, Deniz Turkyılmaz; Orhan Soylemez, Umut Percem; Demir, Mesut; Tanık, Canan; Ozer, Alper

    2016-03-01

    Ganglioneuromas are rare benign tumors of neural crest origin developed along the sympathetic chain. The pelvic retroperitoneum is the rarest location of these tumors. Clinically these tumors are commonly asypmtomatic even if they reach large sizes. Here we report the radiological features of a 16 year old boy with pathologically proven retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma that was detected initially by ultrasound. Relevant literature is also discussed.

  9. [Standardised ultrasound scanning of the shoulder--normal and basic pathological findings].

    PubMed

    Laktasić-Zerjavić, Nadica; Perić, Porin

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound (US) is noninvasive, non-ionisating and cost-effective imaging diagnostic technique. It has emerged as a useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of joint and soft tissue pathology. The shoulder is probably the most frequently analyzed joint. Diagnostic US can be considered as an extension of physical examination and has better sensitivity and specificity for the detection of rotator cuff tendon tear compared to the physical examination. A high frequency linear probe (7.5-15 MHz) with high resolution transducer should be used. US investigation of the shoulder includes scanning of the long head of the biceps, the subskapularis, the supraspinatus, and the infraspinatus tendon in longitudinal and transverse planes, and scanning of the subacromial-subdeltoid (SA/SD) bursa, glenohumeral (GH) and acromioclavicular (AC)joint. The most frequent US findings of the shoulder are effusion in the long head of the biceps tendon, and in the SA/SD bursa, tendinosis or tear of the supraspinatus tendon, and the degenerative changes of the AC joint. In inflammatory arthopahies synovial effusion and hypertrophy of the GH joint can be evaluated. Power Doppler sonography is used for detection of sinovial vascularisation. In this paper standardized techinque for the US examination of the shoulder is described. Pictures of normal and sam basic phathological findings are presented.

  10. Molecular abnormalities of the hippocampus in severe psychiatric illness: postmortem findings from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Knable, Michael B; Barci, Beata M; Webster, Maree J; Meador-Woodruff, James; Torrey, E Fuller

    2004-06-01

    Between 1997 and 2002, 48 data sets from the hippocampus were produced on samples from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. From these data sets, 224 total measures were available from the various subdivisions of the hippocampus. An integrative analysis of these measures was performed using a multivariate, nonparametric analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA with correction for multiple comparisons indicated that parvalbumin-containing cells in CA2 were reduced in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In addition, reelin protein in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was decreased in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression at the trend level of statistical significance (P=0.065). These results strongly suggest a dysfunction of inhibitory GABA-ergic interneurons in severe mental illness. Without correction for multiple comparisons, 31 measures were abnormal in at least one disease, whereas 11 measures would be expected to appear abnormal by chance. Abnormal molecules included measures of synaptic density or neuronal plasticity (reelin, SNAP-25, BDNF, Complexin I and II), as well as parvalbumin, tyrosine receptor kinase A, glucocorticoid receptors, glutamate NR1 receptor subunits, serotonin 5HT2(A) and 5HT1(B) receptors, and dopamine D(5) receptors.

  11. Pathologic findings suggest long-term abnormality after conservative management of complex acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Matthew; Chalupka, Andrew; Butler, Kathryn; Gupta, Alok; Odom, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    Perforated or phlegmonous appendicitis is often treated with antibiotics and drainage as needed. The rationale, risk of recurrence, timing, or even the necessity of subsequent elective interval appendectomy (IA) is debated. We retrospectively reviewed all appendectomies performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 1997 and 2011. We determined if the appendix was removed emergently or as IA. Demographic characteristics, hospital length of stay, computed tomography (CT) results, and operation type (open or laparoscopic) were determined. In IA specimens, narrative pathology reports were assessed for evidence of anatomic, acute, or chronic abnormality. A total of 3562 patients had their appendix removed during this time period. Thirty-four patients were identified as having IA. Of these, only three (8.8%) had a pathologically normal appendix. All three patients were female and all had initially abnormal CT scans. Eight specimens (23.5%) had evidence of chronic and 10 (29.4%) had evidence of acute appendicitis. An additional 10 (29.4%) specimens contained a combination of acute and chronic inflammation. Mean time to operation in the IA group was 57.1 days (range, nine to 234 days) after index diagnosis by CT scan. Given the high percentage of IA specimens with acute or chronic appendicitis and the extremely high proportion (91%) of patients with pathologically abnormal specimens, it appears that IA may be justified in most cases.

  12. Dynamic ultrasound with postural change facilitated the detection of an incisional hernia in a case with negative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Wongsithichai, Patcharaporn; Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-09-01

    Incisional hernias commonly develop after abdominal surgeries with a lower incidence in patients receiving laparoscopy. Diagnosis through a non-surgical approach is usually made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance images (MRI) but both image modalities require patients to be examined in a supine position. We reported a case noticing a mass over her right lower abdomen after a laparoscopic liver segmentectomy with negative findings of hernia on MRI. A hernia sac was found by ultrasound with the patient being standing, highlighting the utility of dynamic ultrasound with postural change in investigation of incisional hernias.

  13. Polyhydramnios, fetal overgrowth, and macrocephaly: prenatal ultrasound findings of Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura P; Podraza, John; Proud, Virginia K

    2009-02-15

    Costello syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome consisting of dysmorphic facies, cutis laxa, short stature, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Complications include failure to thrive, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with arrhythmias, and benign and malignant tumors. This report describes a new case of Costello syndrome in a preterm infant born at 27 weeks gestation and diagnosed with Costello syndrome at 7 weeks of life who died at 6 months of age due to cardiac and pulmonary complications. In addition, data were compiled from parent surveys including growth parameters on 16 infants who were subsequently diagnosed with Costello syndrome and had mutation confirmation. The most common prenatal findings in the literature and in this cohort were polyhydramnios and fetal overgrowth with relative macrocephaly. Based on this study, ultrasound identification of polyhydramnios in the context of prenatal overgrowth, especially with relative macrocephaly, needs to raise the possibility of a diagnosis of Costello syndrome in the fetus because of the life-threatening cardiac complications that may occur early in the newborn period.

  14. Oral clefts with associated anomalies: findings in the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sárközi, Andrea; Wyszynski, Diego F; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the years, great efforts have been made to record the frequency of orofacial clefts in different populations. However, very few studies were able to account for the etiological and phenotypic heterogeneity of these conditions. Thus, data of cases with syndromic orofacial clefts from large population-based studies are infrequent. Methods Clinically recognized and notified syndromes and associations including cleft lip with or without cleft palate and other congenital anomalies were selected from the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry (HCAR) between 1973 and 1982 and prevalence rates were calculated. Results Of 3,110 cases reported as having orofacial clefts, 653 had multiple congenital abnormalities. Of these, 60 (9.2%) had a known etiology (monogenic: 25 or 3.8%, chromosomal: 31 or 4.7%, teratogenic: 4 or 0.6%). Seventy-three subjects (11.2%) had schisis in addition to the oral cleft. Skeletal anomalies were the most common malformations among cases with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Disorders of the central nervous system and cardiovascular malformations were also frequently associated. Conclusion Surveillance systems, such as the HCAR, provide useful information about prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in a population. However, in a field where new syndromes are being discovered and classifications regularly updated, these rates should only be accepted as provisional. PMID:15985166

  15. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Two Malaysian Siblings with Abnormal MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bee Chin; Mohd Rawi, Rowani; Meinsma, Rutger; Meijer, Judith; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; van Kuilenburg, André B.P.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine metabolism. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of thymine and uracil and a deficiency of metabolites distal to the catabolic enzyme. The disorder presents with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic to severe neurological manifestations, including intellectual disability, seizures, microcephaly, autistic behavior, and eye abnormalities. Here, we report on an 11-year-old Malaysian girl and her 6-year-old brother with DPD deficiency who presented with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and hypotonia. Brain MRI scans showed generalized cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and callosal body dysgenesis in the boy. Urine analysis showed strongly elevated levels of uracil in the girl and boy (571 and 578 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively) and thymine (425 and 427 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively). Sequence analysis of the DPYD gene showed that both siblings were homozygous for the mutation c.1651G>A (pAla551Thr). PMID:25565930

  16. The impact of endoscopic ultrasound findings on clinical decision making in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia or early esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bulsiewicz, W J; Dellon, E S; Rogers, A J; Pasricha, S; Madanick, R D; Grimm, I S; Shaheen, N J

    2014-07-01

    The clinical utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for staging patients with Barrett's esophagus and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal carcinoma (IMC) prior to endoscopic therapy is unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with HGD or IMC referred to an American medical center for endoscopic treatment between 2004 and 2010. All patients had pretreatment staging by EUS. We examined the frequency that EUS findings consistent with advanced disease (tumor invasion into the submucosa, lymph node involvement, or regional metastasis) led to a change in management. The analysis was stratified by nodularity and pre-EUS histology. We identified one hundred thirty-five patients with HGD (n = 106, 79%) or IMC (n = 29, 21%) had staging by EUS (79 non-nodular, 56 nodular). Pathologic lymph nodes or metastases were not found by EUS. There were no endosonographic abnormalities noted in any patient with non-nodular mucosa (0/79). Abnormal EUS findings were present in 8/56 patients (14%) with nodular neoplasia (five IMC, three HGD). Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed in 44 patients with a nodule, with 13% (6/44) having invasive cancer. In nodular neoplasia, the EUS and endoscopic mucosal resection were abnormal in 24% (5/21) and 40% (6/15) of those with IMC and 9% (3/35) and 0% (0/29) of those with HGD, respectively. In this study we found that EUS did not alter management in patients with non-nodular HGD or IMC. Because the diagnostic utility of EUS in subjects with non-nodular Barrett's esophagus is low, the value of performing endoscopic mucosal resection in this setting is questionable. For patients with nodular neoplasia, resection of the nodule with histological examination had greater utility than staging by EUS.

  17. [Biochemical and clinical findings in congenital abnormalities of galactose metabolism (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, F C; Kaloud, H; Istvan, L

    1975-01-10

    Current knowledge of the biochemical basis of abnormalities in galactose metabolism are discussed. The clinical picture, analysis of frequency and therapy are described. Although the galactokinase defect hat been described only rarely, abundant literature has been published on the Gal-1-PUT defect. Five variations of this defect are known (Duarte, Los Angeles, Rennes, Indiana and Negro variants), but these simulate only partially the clinical picture of galactosaemia. The UDP-Gal-4-epimerase defect has only once been described. Defects in galactose metabolism which show autosomal recessive inheritance are demonstrated in milk-fed infants by means of the Guthrie test. If the clinical picture arouses the suspicion of a defect in Gal-1-PUT or galactokinase, then a milk-free diet should be given until the diagnosis has been verified by enzyme analysis. Children who have been fed on a lactose-free diet show normal physical and mental development. If possible the entire family of the proband should undergo enzyme analysis in order to detect and to counsel all the heterozygotes in the family. Genetic counselling is considered to be absolutely indicated in this case. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated under any circumstances.

  18. [Apple-Macintosh compatible software for documentation, management and evaluation of ultrasound findings in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Kurmanavicius, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-02-01

    The advantage of using a computer to automate routine calculations and print out charts of the obstetrical ultrasound examination is obvious. This report describes a software designed to simplify the documentation and analysis of ultrasound data in obstetrics. The system is easy to use, even for persons with little computer knowledge. The programme was written in FoxBase+/Mac (Fox Software, Inc., USA). FoxBase+/Mac takes full advantage of the easy-to-learn, easy-to-use Macintosh interface and is also very fast. Another advantage of this software is that it can be used in teaching. Non-experienced examinators can double-check the correctness of their scanning planes by observing the ultrasound pictures with the markers indicating the right measurement sites and the lists of standard values of biometrical parameters for the corresponding gestational age on the screen. In routine obstetrical ultrasound examinations it takes less than 5 min to enter the foetal biometry data and print out reports. These reports are informative and easy to interpret.

  19. Thyroid ultrasound findings in a follow-up survey of children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Furuya, Fumihiko; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-03-12

    We conducted ultrasound thyroid screening in cohort of 4,365 children aged between 3 to 18 years in three Japanese prefectures (Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki) using the same procedures as used in the Fukushima Health Survey. Forty-four children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter detected at the first screening, and 31 of these children underwent the second follow-up survey. We collected information from thyroid ultrasound examinations and final clinical diagnoses and re-categorized the thyroid findings after the second examination. Twenty children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter at the second examination; of these, one child was diagnosed with a thyroid papillary carcinoma and the remaining 19 children were diagnosed with possibly benign nodules such as adenomas, adenomatous nodules, and adenomatous goiters. A further 11 children were re-categorized as "no further examinations were required." Our results suggest that ultrasound thyroid findings in children may change with a relatively short-term passing period, and that thyroid cancer may exist at a very low but certain frequency in the general childhood population.

  20. Ultrasound findings of bilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries associated with a persistent carotid-hypoglossal artery

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Annette; Steinhuber, Christine Robert; Bogdahn, Ulrich Robert; Schuierer, Gerhard Robert; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2009-01-01

    We present a 31-year-old female who was admitted to our neurology department for vertigo, partial left-sided hemihypesthesia and nuchal headache of subacute onset. Colour-duplex ultrasound disclosed bilateral low flow with a high resistance flow pattern in both vertebral arteries in the V2 segments, while the basilar artery had normal flow. CT angiography and MRI ruled out any ischaemic cerebral infarct and disclosed a persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA) originating from the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient was eventually treated for cervicobrachialgia. Persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis such as PHA may account for an atypical stroke pattern in carotid disease, aneurysms and arterovenous malformations. In retrospect, PHA is amendable to colour-Duplex investigation due to an abnormal ICA flow and a discrepancy between the vertebral and basilar flow patterns. Ultrasound investigation of the vertebrobasilar system remains a challenge as variants appear frequently; hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries should thus be confirmed using CT or MR angiography. PMID:21686784

  1. Ultrasound findings of bilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries associated with a persistent carotid-hypoglossal artery.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Annette; Steinhuber, Christine Robert; Bogdahn, Ulrich Robert; Schuierer, Gerhard Robert; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2009-01-01

    We present a 31-year-old female who was admitted to our neurology department for vertigo, partial left-sided hemihypesthesia and nuchal headache of subacute onset. Colour-duplex ultrasound disclosed bilateral low flow with a high resistance flow pattern in both vertebral arteries in the V2 segments, while the basilar artery had normal flow. CT angiography and MRI ruled out any ischaemic cerebral infarct and disclosed a persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA) originating from the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient was eventually treated for cervicobrachialgia. Persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis such as PHA may account for an atypical stroke pattern in carotid disease, aneurysms and arterovenous malformations. In retrospect, PHA is amendable to colour-Duplex investigation due to an abnormal ICA flow and a discrepancy between the vertebral and basilar flow patterns. Ultrasound investigation of the vertebrobasilar system remains a challenge as variants appear frequently; hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries should thus be confirmed using CT or MR angiography.

  2. Thymic Tumor Extension into the Heart, a Rare Finding Found by Point-of-Care Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Elizabeth; Hunter-Behrend, Michelle; Leroux, Eric; Gharahbaghian, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    We report a cardiac mass detected by point-of-care ultrasound performed within the emergency department on a 65-year-old male with thymic cancer who presented with chronic cough and fever. Results from the initial emergency workup, which included blood tests, urinalysis, and a computerized tomography with angiography scan with venous phasing of the chest, did not result in a definitive diagnosis. A point-of-care echocardiogram was performed to evaluate for possible infective endocarditis, but alternatively identified a large mass in the right atria and ventricle. The mass was later confirmed to be metastatic tumor from the patient’s known thymic cancer. This case emphasizes the vital role ultrasound can play in the acute care setting. PMID:27625910

  3. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    PubMed

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris.

  4. Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and White Matter Abnormality Findings in Service Members With Persistent Cognitive Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, David F; Gusman, Maria; Kini, Jonathan; Reid, Matthew; Velez, Carmen S; Drennon, Ann Marie; Cooper, Douglas B; Kennedy, Jan E; Bowles, Amy O; Bigler, Erin D; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Ritter, John; York, Gerald E

    2017-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major health concern among active duty service members and Veterans returning from combat operations, and it can result in variable clinical and cognitive outcomes. Identifying biomarkers that can improve diagnosis and prognostication has been at the forefront of recent research efforts. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of abnormalities identified using more traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences such as fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) to more advanced MRI sequences such as susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) among a cohort of active duty service members experiencing persistent cognitive symptoms after mTBI. One-hundred and fifty-two active duty service members (77 mTBI, 58 orthopedically injured [OI] only, 17 post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD] only) underwent MRI and neuropsychological evaluation at a large military treatment facility. Results demonstrated that FLAIR white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were present in all three groups at statistically similar rates (41% mTBI, 49% OI, and 29% PTSD). With the exception of a single OI participant showing a small discrete SWI lesion, SWI abnormalities were overwhelmingly present in mTBI patients (22% mTBI, 1% OI, and 0% PTSD). Functionally, mTBI participants with and without SWI abnormalities did not differ in demographics, symptom reporting, or cognitive performance. However, mTBI participants with and without WMH did differ for on measures of working memory with the mTBI participants with WMH having worse cognitive performance. No other significant differences were noted for those participants with and without imaging abnormalities for either the OI or PTSD only cohorts. These results appear to illustrate the sensitivity and specificity of SWI findings though these results did not have any significant functional impact in this cohort. In contrast, WMHs noted on FLAIR imaging were not sensitive or

  5. Ultrasound findings of the physiological changes and most common breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation*

    PubMed Central

    de Holanda, Antônio Arildo Reginaldo; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira; de Medeiros, Robinson Dias; de Oliveira, António Manuel Gouveia; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Because of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, diagnostic ultrasound of the breast during these periods is a challenge for physicians. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of imaging, anatomy, and physiology of the breast is important to effectively diagnosing diseases that can arise in women who are pregnancy or lactating. The aim of this article was to review the physiological changes that occur in the breasts during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to describe the main features of the breast diseases that occur most frequently during these periods. PMID:28057965

  6. Ultrasound findings of the physiological changes and most common breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Antônio Arildo Reginaldo; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira; de Medeiros, Robinson Dias; de Oliveira, António Manuel Gouveia; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Because of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, diagnostic ultrasound of the breast during these periods is a challenge for physicians. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of imaging, anatomy, and physiology of the breast is important to effectively diagnosing diseases that can arise in women who are pregnancy or lactating. The aim of this article was to review the physiological changes that occur in the breasts during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to describe the main features of the breast diseases that occur most frequently during these periods.

  7. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  8. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  9. Ultrasound pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  10. Transvaginal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Uterine bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Menstrual bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Infertility - transvaginal ultrasound; Ovarian - transvaginal ultrasound; Abscess - transvaginal ultrasound

  11. Visual Assessment of CT Findings in Smokers With Nonobstructed Spirometric Abnormalities in The COPDGene® Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Stinson, Douglas S.; Zach, Jordan A.; McKenzie, Alexander S.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Wan, Emily S.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study population of cigarette smokers, 9% were found to be unclassifiable by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. This study was to identify the differences in computed tomography (CT) findings between this nonobstructed (GOLDU) group and a control group of smokers with normal lung function. This research was approved by the institutional review board of each institution. CT images of 400 participants in the COPDGene® study (200 GOLDU, 200 smokers with normal lung function) were retrospectively evaluated in a blinded fashion. Visual CT assessment included lobar analysis of emphysema (type, extent), presence of paraseptal emphysema, airway wall thickening, expiratory air trapping, centrilobular nodules, atelectasis, non-fibrotic and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), pleural thickening, diaphragmatic eventration, vertebral body changes and internal thoracic diameters (in mm). Univariate comparisons of groups for each CT parameter and multiple logistic regression were performed to determine the imaging features associated with GOLDU. When compared with the control group, GOLDU participants had a significantly higher prevalence of unilateral diaphragm eventration (30% vs. 16%), airway wall thickening, centrilobular nodules, reticular abnormality, paraseptal emphysema (33% vs. 17%), linear atelectasis (60% vs. 35.6%), kyphosis (12% vs. 4%), and a smaller internal transverse thoracic diameter (255 ± 22.5 [standard deviation] vs. 264.8 ± 22.4, mm) (all p<0.05). With multiple logistic regression, all of these CT parameters, except non-fibrotic ILD and kyphosis, remained significantly associated with GOLDU status (p<0.05). In cigarette smokers, chest wall abnormalities and parenchymal lung disease, which contribute to restrictive physiologic impairment, are associated with GOLD-nonobstructed status. PMID:25197723

  12. Kupffer-phase findings of hepatic hemangiomas in contrast-enhanced ultrasound with sonazoid.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Saito, Kazuhiro; Yoshiara, Hiroki; Imai, Yasuharu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the Kupffer-phase enhancement patterns of hepatic hemangiomas in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with Sonazoid. A total of 46 patients with 46 hepatic hemangiomas (17.1 ± 6.2 mm in diameter, 34 typical type and 12 high-flow type) underwent CEUS in the Kupffer phase. The lesion-to-liver contrast ratio in the Kupffer phase was quantitatively assessed for both types of hemangioma. Most of the hepatic hemangiomas, whether or not they were the high-flow type, were iso- to hypo-echoic relative to the surrounding liver parenchyma. The contrast ratio was -5.33 ± 6.70 dB for the high-flow hemangiomas and -4.54 ± 6.28 dB for the typical hemangiomas. There was no significant difference in contrast ratio between the two types of lesions (p = 0.73). All of the hemangiomas, whether of typical or high-flow type, are iso- to hypo-echoic relative to the surrounding liver parenchyma on Kupffer-phase imaging.

  13. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

  14. Radiologic abnormalities of the appendicular skeleton of the lion (Panthera leo): incidental findings and Mycobacterium bovis-induced changes.

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Keet, Dewald F; Wagner, Wencke M

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic and pelvic limbs from 15 euthanized free-ranging lions (Panthera leo), ranging in age from 16 to 144 months, underwent standard radiographic evaluation. All lions had tested positive for Mycobacterium bovis by means of a modified intradermal tuberculn test. The radiographs of six lions were normal and nine had incidental findings of which six had more than one lesion. Seven lions had lesions suspected to be associated with tuberculosis, which was confirmed in specific joints in two lions. Incidental pathology was classified as traumatic injuries and degenerative or trauma-associated joint disease. The traumatic lesions were fractures of which the most remarkable was a femur malunion. Four lions had fibula and another three lions had metacarpal/tarsal and phalangeal fractures. Joint lesions included glenoid, humeral head, and accessory carpal bone osteophytes. There was evidence of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture in an 8-year-old male. Trauma induced joint lesions were seen in four stifles (fragmented or displaced sesamoid bones, fragmented meniscal ossicle, or mineralized fragments). Radiological abnormalities believed to be caused by M. bovis were present in one stifle, one radiocarpal three tibiotarsal, and one tarsometatarsal joints. These had evidence of septic arthritis with extensive bone formation and capsular mineralization. In one 20-month-old lion, changes typical of a bone abscess were found in a proximal tibia. Radiologic evidence of elbow hygromas were seen in three elbows, all believed to be caused by M. bovis. Lions appeared to cope fairly well with a variety of traumatic injuries and were also susceptible to some of the aging/incidental radiologic findings seen in dogs and cats. The suspected M. bovis osseous lesions were more likely to involve the joints, particularly the tarsal joint and were mainly proliferative.

  15. A French Approach to Test Fetuses with Ultrasound Abnormalities Using a Customized Microarray as First-Tier Genetic Test.

    PubMed

    Malan, Valérie; Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Egloff, Matthieu; Goidin, Didier; Beaujard, Marie-Paule; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Bessières, Bettina; Bernard, Jean-Pierre; Roth, Philippe; Stirnemann, Julien; Salomon, Laurent; Romana, Serge; Vekemans, Michel; Ville, Yves; Turleau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic microarray analysis is now the first-tier genetic test used in a postnatal clinical setting to explore genomic imbalances in individuals with developmental disability and/or birth defects. However, in a prenatal setting, this technique is not widely implemented, largely because the clinical impact of some copy number variants (CNVs) remains difficult to assess. This limitation is especially true in France where termination of pregnancy for medical reasons may be performed at any stage of gestation. During a period of 15 months, we investigated 382 fetuses presenting with ultrasound anomalies, using a customized microarray designed to avoid the detection of CNVs raising challenges for genetic counseling. After excluding common aneuploidies, 20/374 (5.3%) fetuses had a pathogenic CNV, among which 12/374 (3.2%) could have been detected by karyotyping, whereas 8/374 (2.1%) were cryptic. Within these 374 cases, 300 were ongoing pregnancies at the time of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing. For these pregnancies, we detected 18/300 (6%) pathogenic CNVs, among which 6/300 (2%) were cryptic. Using this approach, only 2/300 (0.6%) of the detected CNVs raised difficulties for genetic counseling. This study confirms the added value of this strategy in a prenatal clinical setting to minimize ethical issues for genetic counseling while enhancing the detection of genomic imbalances.

  16. An abnormal clinical course of an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block using 0.375% bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Sites, Brian D; Bertrand, Marc L; Gallagher, John D

    2006-09-01

    We report on the case of a reappearance of a supraclavicular nerve block after the apparent initiation of its resolution in a 21-year-old athlete undergoing repair of a valgus impaction syndrome of his right elbow. The patient's anesthetic management consisted of a supraclavicular nerve block and general anesthesia. The patient was discharged home with an apparent resolving nerve block. He returned to the hospital urgently when, at 7 hours after blockade, he lost all motor-sensory function in his arm. His workup ultimately yielded negative results, and the block resolved at 23 hours. In addition to documenting an abnormal course of a supraclavicular block, this case report questions the appropriateness of placing long-acting nerve blocks in outpatients.

  17. Neonatal cranial sonography: ultrasound findings in neonatal meningitis—a pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Hemal; Bansal, Itisha; Hooda, Kusum; Sapire, Joshua M.; Anand, Rama; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is a common manifestation of late onset neonatal sepsis. Cranial sonography (CRS) has a crucial role in assessment of infants with clinical suspicion of bacterial meningitis as well as follows up of its complications. CRS is performed with high frequency transducer through anterior fontanelle in both coronal and sagittal planes. Various sonographic findings range from echogenic and widened sulci, ventriculomegaly, ventriculitis, hydrocephalus, extra-axial fluid collections, cerebritis and brain abscess. Sonography is extremely beneficial in evaluating intraventricular contents, especially debris and intraventricular septations. Linear high frequency probe along with color Doppler interrogation are of utmost importance in evaluating extra-axial fluid collection and helps differentiating it from benign subarachnoid space enlargement. Due to low cost, easy portability, speed of imaging, no need for sedation and above all lack of ionizing radiation make it superior to other cross sectional imaging, like CT and MRI, in evaluation of these sick neonates. Apart from textbooks, there is paucity of recently available literature on cranial sonographic findings in neonatal meningitis. This article is written with an educational intent to review the spectrum of findings in neonatal meningitis, with stress on findings that will be beneficial in the clinical practice. PMID:28275563

  18. Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome (CHAOS) as part of Fraser syndrome: ultrasound and autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Mesens, T; Witters, I; Van Robaeys, J; Peeters, H; Fryns, J P

    2013-01-01

    Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome (CHAOS) is a potential lethal condition. We describe a case report of CHAOS, with additional malformations diagnosed at 20 weeks. Autopsy findings are suggestive for Fraser syndrome (cryptophthalmos-syndactyly syndrome; OMIM 219000). The diagnosis was confirmed by mutation analysis of FRAS1.

  19. Clinical application of modern ultrasound techniques after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Teegen, Eva Maria; Denecke, Timm; Eisele, Robert; Lojewski, Christian; Neuhaus, Peter; Chopra, Sascha Santosh

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation has been established as a first-line therapy for a number of indications. Conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are methods of choice during the postoperative period as a safe and fast tool to detect potential complications and to enable early intervention if necessary. CEUS increases diagnostic quality and is an appropriate procedure for the examination of vessels and possibly bile ducts. This article presents the state of the art of ultrasound application during the early period after liver transplantation. It addresses common vascular complications and describes the identification of postoperative abnormal findings using ultrasound and CEUS.

  20. Mucinous borderline ovarian tumor: a case report with diagnostic insights on ultrasound findings

    PubMed Central

    Śniadecki, Marcin; Bianek-Bodzak, Agnieszka; Liro, Marcin; Szurowska, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors represent about 10% of all epithelial ovarian cancers, but in contrast to epithelial ovarian cancers, they constitute a group of tumors with a much better prognosis. An assessment of clinical presentation, physical examination, radiological and biochemical findings is necessary to tailor management strategies for patients with ovarian tumors. The article, which is based on a case report, describes different approaches for preoperative diagnosis as well as discusses approaches that might bring some insights on tumor histology. Furthermore, it raises a question about which imaging techniques should be proposed for a reliable diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors to ensure safe surgery planning. PMID:28138412

  1. Gangliocytic paraganglioma, a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Endoscopic ultrasound findings presented

    SciTech Connect

    Smithline, A.E.; Hawes, R.H.; Kopecky, K.K.; Cummings, O.W.; Kumar, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is an uncommon benign neurogenic tumor of the digestive tract that is usually located in the descending duodenum. Patients with GP usually present with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which reflects the tendency of the tumor to ulcerate the mucosa. The authors report a patient in whom the tumor was overlooked on routine radiologic examinations and initial endoscopy. It was discovered in the distal transverse duodenum at small bowel enteroscopy. The findings of endoscopic ultrasonography are correlated with radiographic and histologic examination. 10 refs.

  2. Application of Carnegie stages of development to unify human and baboon ultrasound findings early in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; De Leon-Luis, Juan; Friel, Lara A; Wolf, Roman

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons. Mean gestational age at ultrasonographic studies was significantly different for humans and baboons (50.4 vs. 41 days, respectively; p>0.01). Significant correlations (p>0.01) were noted between ultrasonographic measurements and Carnegie stages of development in both humans and baboons. Only the gestational and the yolk sacs were significantly smaller in baboons than in humans (p>0.05). The findings that embryonic CRL, extra-embryonic space and heart rate are very similar between the 17th and 23rd Carnegie developmental stages make the baboon a promising surrogate of human pregnancy for investigations using celocentesis.

  3. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... A duplex ultrasound combines: Traditional ultrasound: This uses sound waves that bounce off blood vessels to create pictures. Doppler ultrasound: This ...

  4. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  5. Screening of sarcomere gene mutations in young athletes with abnormal findings in electrocardiography: identification of a MYH7 mutation and MYBPC3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Chika; Arimura, Takuro; Hayashi, Takeharu; Naruse, Taeko K; Kawai, Sachio; Kimura, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    There is an overlap between the physiological cardiac remodeling associated with training in athletes, the so-called athlete's heart, and mild forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common hereditary cardiac disease. HCM is often accompanied by unfavorable outcomes including a sudden cardiac death in the adolescents. Because one of the initial signs of HCM is abnormality in electrocardiogram (ECG), athletes may need to monitor for ECG findings to prevent any unfavorable outcomes. HCM is caused by mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins, but there is no report on the systematic screening of gene mutations in athletes. One hundred and two genetically unrelated young Japanese athletes with abnormal ECG findings were the subjects for the analysis of four sarcomere genes, MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3. We found that 5 out of 102 (4.9%) athletes carried mutations: a heterozygous MYH7 Glu935Lys mutation, a heterozygous MYBPC3 Arg160Trp mutation and another heterozygous MYBPC3 Thr1046Met mutation, all of which had been reported as HCM-associated mutations, in 1, 2 and 2 subjects, respectively. This is the first study of systematic screening of sarcomere gene mutations in a cohort of athletes with abnormal ECG, demonstrating the presence of sarcomere gene mutations in the athlete's heart.

  6. Lower Urinary Tract Urological Abnormalities and Urodynamic Findings of Physiological Urinary Incontinence Versus Non-mono Symptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although 98% of children attain daytime bladder control by three years of age, urinary incontinence is regarded physiological up to the fifth year of life. Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether lower urinary tract urological abnormalities and abnormal urodynamic findings are infrequent in children with physiological urinary incontinence in contrast to those with non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). Patients and Methods: During a three-year period (2007-2009), 66 neurologically normal children including 51 children (34 girls, 17 boys) older than five years of age with NMNE and intermittent daytime incontinence, and 15 children with physiological urinary incontinence (eight girls and seven boys) aged four to five years of age without any known urological abnormalities were enrolled in the study. Patients with neurologic deficits or known urological anomalies were excluded from the study. Kidney-bladder ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), and urodynamic studies were performed to evaluate the anatomy of urinary tract and bladder function. Results: Urinary tract infection was found in 23 (34.8%) children, 17 (33.3%) and 6 (40%) patients with NMNE and physiological urinary incontinence, respectively. Out of 48 patients who underwent VCUG, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was found in seven and eight children younger and older than five years of age, respectively. Abnormal urodynamic findings were reported in 5 (62.5%) of eight children younger than five-year-old, and 14 (63.6%) of 22 patients older than 5-year-old. Conclusions: VUR might be more frequent in children with physiological urinary incontinence than the normal population, and might be as common as NMNE with intermittent daytime incontinence. PMID:24783173

  7. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  8. The Effect of Symbiotic Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, C-reactive Protein and Ultrasound Findings in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Atefe; Askari, Gholamreza; Esmailzade, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Mohammadi, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regarding to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concentrating on various strategies to its prevention and management seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of symbiotic on C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and ultrasound findings in patients with NAFLD. Methods: Eighty NAFLD patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received symbiotic in form of a 500 mg capsule (containing seven species of probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides) or a placebo capsule daily for 8 weeks. Ultrasound grading, CRP, and liver enzymes were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: In the symbiotic group, ultrasound grade decreased significantly compared to baseline (P < 0.005) but symbiotic supplementation was not associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. In the placebo group, there was no significant change in steatosis grade whereas ALT and AST levels were significantly increased (P = 0.002, P = 0.02, respectively). CRP values remained static in either group. Conclusions: Symbiotic supplementation improved steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD or protective against its progression. PMID:27076897

  9. Billowing of Endologix Powerlink Stent Graft in Post Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Simultaneous Findings on CT and Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Helo, Naseem; Chang, Arthur C; Hyun, Christine; Chon, Kenneth S; Yi, Alex C

    2016-08-01

    Endoleaks remain a main concern in endovascular aneurysm repair. A potential false positive in the diagnosis of endoleak surveillance includes "billowing," a phenomenon of the polytetrafluoroethylene plastic outer fabric of the stent graft is seen separated from the struts of the metallic endoskeleton. Contrast presents beyond the endoskeleton but is still contained within the graft. This is secondary to intermittent attachment of the graft to the endoskeleton, and is only found in the Endologix Powerlink. The finding of billowing has been previously reported and is a common knowledge by those who deploy the stent graft. We report a case where there is contemporaneous imaging on computed tomography angiography as well as on ultrasound.

  10. Is routine ultrasound examination of the gallbladder justified in critical care patients?

    PubMed

    Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Evodia, Efimia; Vlachou, Ioanna; Petrocheilou, Glykeria; Gavala, Alexandra; Pappa, Maria; Baltopoulos, George; Karakitsos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated whether routine ultrasound examination may illustrate gallbladder abnormalities, including acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods. Ultrasound monitoring of the GB was performed by two blinded radiologists in mechanically ventilated patients irrespective of clinical and laboratory findings. We evaluated major (gallbladder wall thickening and edema, sonographic Murphy's sign, pericholecystic fluid) and minor (gallbladder distention and sludge) ultrasound criteria. Measurements and Results. We included 53 patients (42 males; mean age 57.6 ± 2.8 years; APACHE II score 21.3 ± 0.9; mean ICU stay 35.9 ± 4.8 days). Twenty-five patients (47.2%) exhibited at least one abnormal imaging finding, while only six out of them had hepatic dysfunction. No correlation existed between liver biochemistry and ultrasound results in the total population. Three male patients (5.7%), on the grounds of unexplained sepsis, were diagnosed with AAC as incited by ultrasound, and surgical intervention was lifesaving. Patients who exhibited ≥2 ultrasound findings (30.2%) were managed successfully under the guidance of evolving ultrasound, clinical, and laboratory findings. Conclusions. Ultrasound gallbladder monitoring guided lifesaving surgical treatment in 3 cases of AAC; however, its routine application is questionable and still entails high levels of clinical suspicion.

  11. Trauma Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  13. A familial case of Coffin-Lowry syndrome caused by RPS6KA3 C.898C>T mutation associated with multiple abnormal brain imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Aksoy, A; Ceylaner, S; Hanauer, A

    2015-01-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X linked mental retardation syndrome characterised by severe psychomotor and growth retardation, distinct facial phenotype, and progressive skeletal malformations. It is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene located at Xp22.2. In this report we describe a family with CLS consists of three affected males, and two affected females, arising from c.898C>T mutation in RPS6KA3 gene. A 6 year-old, and a 3 year-old boy both had distinct clinical features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome; severe mental and motor retardation, microcephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, large mouth, large ears, large soft hands, puffy tapered fingers, and pectus carinatum. In addition, they had multiple abnormal brain MRI findings. Other siblings presented with a mild and variable phenotype.

  14. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  15. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population.

  16. A role for maternal serum screening in detecting chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with isolated choroid plexus cysts: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Kliewer, M A; Hertzberg, B S; Ruiz, C; Stamper, T H; Rosnes, J; Lucas, A; Wright, L N; Chescheir, N C; Farmer, L; Jordan, S; Kay, H H

    1999-05-01

    A prospective multicentre study was performed to identify patients with fetal choroid plexus cysts and examine the association between choroid plexus cysts and chromosome abnormalities in the context of variables such as maternal age, serum triple-screen results, race, other prenatally-identified fetal anomalies and cyst characteristics. A total of 18 437 scans were performed in 5 centres and 257 fetuses were identified with choroid plexus cysts. Outcome was available on 250 patients, and of these, chromosomal abnormalities were detected in a total of 13 (5.2 per cent) fetuses. 26 patients in the group had additional ultrasound abnormalities, and 8 of these had fetal chromosome abnormalities. Among the 224 patients with isolated choroid plexus cysts, 5 (2.2 per cent) were found to have chromosomal abnormalities. All cases with identified chromosomal abnormalities were associated with an additional risk factor, such as other ultrasound findings, advanced maternal age or abnormal maternal serum triple-screen results.

  17. Abdominal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ultrasound - Abdomen Ultrasound imaging of the abdomen uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures within ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  18. Hip Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Hip Ultrasound Hip ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of muscles, tendons, ligaments, ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  19. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Obstetric Ultrasound Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of a baby (embryo ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  20. Scrotal ultrasound findings in previously congenital and acquired unilateral undescended testes and their contralateral normally descended testis.

    PubMed

    van Brakel, J; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S M P F; van Casteren, N J; Hazebroek, F W; Dohle, G R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report on different anomalies found by physical examination and scrotal ultrasound in men with previously unilateral congenital undescended testes (UDT; N = 50), acquired UDT (N = 49), their contralateral normally descended testis (CNDT) and control testes (N = 53). Acquired UDT significantly more often had a testicular volume being <15 mL than congenital UDT (88% vs. 68%). In the congenital group, significant differences were found between UDT and CNDT for soft consistency (UDT 36% vs. CNDT 14%), epididymal diameter (UDT 7.6 mm vs. CNDT 8.9 mm), testicular volume (UDT 9.8 mL vs. CNDT 13.8 mL), and inhomogeneous parenchyma (UDT 38% vs. CNDT 14%). In the acquired group, significant differences were found between UDT and CNDT for epididymal diameter (UDT 7.5 mm vs. CNDT 8 mm), testicular volume (UDT 9.3 mL vs. CNDT 14.1 mL), testicular volume <15 mL (UDT 88% vs. CNDT 59%), and inhomogeneous parenchyma (UDT 27% vs. CNDT 6%). The following parameters of congenital UDT, acquired UDT, congenital CNDT, and/or acquired CNDT significantly differed compared with controls: soft testicular consistency (congenital UDT 36%, acquired UDT 20%, congenital CNDT 14%, acquired CNDT 12% vs. controls 0%), epididymal diameter (congenital UDT 7.6 mm, acquired UDT 7.5 mm, acquired CNDT 8 mm vs. controls 9.2 mm), testicular volume (congenital UDT 9.8 mL, acquired UDT 9.3 mL, congenital CNDT 13.8 mL, acquired CNDT 14.1 mL vs. control testes 15.8 mL), testicular volume <15 mL (congenital UDT 68%, acquired UDT 88%, congenital CNDT 66% vs. controls 43%), inhomogeneous parenchyma (congenital UDT 38%, acquired UDT 27%, congenital CNDT 14% vs. controls 0%), and testicular microlithiasis (congenital CNDT 24% vs. control testes 8%). Few differences between congenital and acquired unilateral UDT and congenital and acquired CNDT support the hypothesis of a spectrum of maldescended testes containing congenital and acquired UDT instead of them being

  1. Evaluation of Waiting Times and Sonographic Findings in Patients with First Trimester Vaginal Bleeding at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Can Emergency Department Ultrasound Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    French, S; Henry, T; Williams, EW

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnant female patients with vaginal bleeding in the first trimester are seen commonly in the Emergency Department (ED) at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Kingston, Jamaica. The protocol for the management of these patients requires that they have a sonographic evaluation performed for the purpose of localizing the pregnancy where possible, to assist with determining the risk for an ectopic pregnancy. The ultrasound examinations are performed in the radiology department. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate how long patients wait for a pelvic ultrasound. We also sought to establish how many patients had ultrasound findings that would have allowed safe discharge home. Methods: The records of 150 patients seen in the six-month period from January 1 to July 30, 2008 were examined. Data were extracted pertaining to age, time to see an emergency room doctor, time taken for ultrasound examination to be obtained from the radiology department and the ultrasound findings. Result: Fifty-four per cent presented to the Emergency Department with a complaint of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain, 29% with bleeding only, 16% with abdominal pain only and one with syncope. One hundred and sixteen of the patients enrolled had an ultrasound performed at UHWI. The average waiting time for an ultrasound was 3.8 ± 2.5 hours. The majority (66/116) of the patients had an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) demonstrated on ultrasound. Twenty-nine had no IUP, free fluid or adnexal mass. These 95 patients would likely have been discharged home. Ten patients had an adnexal mass with or without free fluid, and ten had free fluid only on ultrasound. One patient was found to have a definite ectopic pregnancy. These 21 patients would have been referred for evaluation by the obstetrician on call for further management. Conclusion: The majority of patients had sonographic findings that would have allowed safe and timely discharge from the

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses sound waves to help locate a lump or abnormality ... exam. The transducer sends out inaudible, high—frequency sound waves into the body and then listens for ...

  3. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Symptomatic Subjects With Advanced Vascular Atherosclerosis of the Carotid Artery (Type III and IV b Findings Using Ultrasound)

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ansgar; Bojara, Waldemar; Schunk, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background A study was conducted as to whether the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) in symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery was more successful using ultrasound technology than exercise electrocardiography (ECG). Methods Within the scope of an occupational screening program using subjects from diverse employment sectors, people were given the opportunity to determine their risk of heart attack. During the study, the total plaque area (TPA), the maximum plaque thickness in the carotid artery and the PROCAM scores of 3,513 healthy men and 2,088 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 65 were determined. During the subsequent follow-up study, 36 subjects developed symptoms such as exertional dyspnea, atypical angina pectoris (AP) or typical AP. Four patients displayed no symptoms. The initial cardiac diagnostic testing was conducted on 31 patients using an exercise ECG, four patients were assessed using a coronary angiogram, and five further patients were assessed using a computed tomography (CT) coronary angiogram. An ultrasound examination of the carotid artery of 39 patients revealed a type IV b finding and in one patient, the examination revealed a type III finding. Results In 17 patients, the PROCAM score was < 10%, 13 patients had a score of 10-20% and 10 patients had a score of > 20%. In the final analysis, only two patients had entirely smooth coronary arteries, seven had coronary sclerosis, seven had a 30% stenosis, one had a 30-40% stenosis, one had a 40% stenosis, and 22 patients had a stenosis ≥ 50%, and in extreme cases, a left main coronary artery stenosis with three-vessel disease was shown. The exercise ECG only achieved a true positive result in four patients, and in 21 patients, the result was false negative. Conclusions Symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery (type III and type IV b findings) had a high risk for CHD. The diagnosis of CHD is better achieved by

  4. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  5. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  7. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  10. Abdominal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  11. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  12. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  13. Hip Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  14. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  15. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... the examination. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a console ... ultrasound that require biopsy are not cancers. Many facilities do not offer ultrasound screening, and the procedure ...

  16. Radiological findings of uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report of an unusual and life-threatening cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Farias, Marcela Sales; Santi, Clara Campagnaro; Lima, Aline Aparecida A de A; Teixeira, Sabrina Mendes; De Biase, Tatiana Co Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations may cause life-threatening abnormal genital bleeding in women at childbearing age. Transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography is a widely available, noninvasive and excellent diagnostic method. The authors report the case of a patient with history of gestational trophoblastic disease and multiple curettage procedures who developed uterine arteriovenous malformations, with remission of the lesions after treatment with methotrexate.

  17. Radiological findings of uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report of an unusual and life-threatening cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Marcela Sales; Santi, Clara Campagnaro; Lima, Aline Aparecida A. de A.; Teixeira, Sabrina Mendes; De Biase, Tatiana Co Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations may cause life-threatening abnormal genital bleeding in women at childbearing age. Transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography is a widely available, noninvasive and excellent diagnostic method. The authors report the case of a patient with history of gestational trophoblastic disease and multiple curettage procedures who developed uterine arteriovenous malformations, with remission of the lesions after treatment with methotrexate. PMID:25741061

  18. Thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ghervan, Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid ultrasound is easy to perform due to the superficial location of the thyroid gland, but appropriate equipment is mandatory with a linear high frequency transducer (7.5 - 12) MHz. Some pathological aspects of the thyroid gland are easily diagnosed by ultrasound, like the enlargement of the thyroid volume (goiter) or the presence of nodules and cysts; while other aspects are more difficult and need more experience (diffuse changes in the structure, echogenicity and vascularization of the parenchyma, differential diagnosis of malignant nodules). Ultrasound has become the diagnostic procedure of choice in guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules; most structural abnormalities of the thyroid need evaluation and monitoring but not intervention. A good knowledge of the normal appearance of the thyroid gland is compulsory for an accurate ultrasound diagnosis.

  19. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  20. The role of tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of childhood febrile urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    İlarslan, Nisa Eda Çullas; Fitöz, Ömer Suat; Öztuna, Derya Gökmen; Küçük, Nuriye Özlem; Yalçınkaya, Fatma Fatoş

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the ability of tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound in the detection of childhood febrile urinary tract infections in comparison with the gold standard reference method: Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinicacid renal cortical scintigraphy. Material and Methods: This prospective study included 60 patients who were hospitalized with a first episode of febrile urinary tract infections. All children were examined with dimercaptosuccinicacid scan and tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound within the first 3 days of admission. Results: Signs indicative of acute infection were observed in 29 patients according to the results of tissue harmonic imaging ultrasound combined with power Doppler ultrasound while dimercaptosuccinicacid scan revealed abnormal findings in 33 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tissue harmonic imaging combined with power Doppler ultrasound using dimercaptosuccinicacid scintigraphy as the reference method in patients diagnosed with first episode febrile urinary tract infections were calculated as 57.58% (95% confidence interval: 40.81%–72.76%); 62.96% (95% confidence interval: 44.23%–78.47%); 65.52% (95% confidence interval: 52.04%–77%); 54.84% (95% confidence interval: 41.54%–67.52%); respectively. Conclusions: Although current results exhibit inadequate success of power Doppler ultrasound, this practical and radiation-free method may soon be comprise a part of the routine ultrasonographic evaluation of febrile urinary tract infections of childhood if patients are evaluated early and under appropriate sedation. PMID:26265892

  1. Ultrasound and echocardiographic findings obtained in the second and third trimesters of gestation in fetuses with normal karyotype and increased nuchal translucency

    PubMed Central

    Janiak, Katarzyna; Słodki, Maciej; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Numerous papers have proven that an increased nuchal translucency is connected with a raised risk of chromosomal aberrations, but few analyses are related to the further state of fetuses with a normal karyotype. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of cardiac defects and other developmental disorders in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency and normal findings of a standard cytogenetic examination. Methods The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 5183 examinations of 3376 patients who reported to the Department of Diagnosis and Prophylaxis of Congenital Malformations in the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Łódź in the period from January 2008 to March 2011 for prenatal ultrasound and echocardiographic examinations. The authors analyzed the results of the examinations performed in the second and third trimesters of gestation in fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency of ≥3 mm in the first trimester and with a normal karyotype. Results Fifty-seven patients (1.7% of the examined group) fulfilled the criteria necessary to be included in the study. In 31 pregnant women (54%) structural defects or anomalies of the fetus were found. Cardiac anomalies were detected in 17 fetuses (29.8%). The authors detected various types of cardiac defects such as tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular septal defect, transposition of the great arteries and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Conclusions In more than half of the fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency (NT ≥ 3 mm) and a normal karyotype, developmental defects of various organs appeared in the further course of pregnancy: mainly heart defects that were either isolated, or accompanied other anomalies. PMID:26673632

  2. Renal transplant ultrasound: The nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Khai Gene; Coombs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the principal roles of a nephrologist is to closely monitor renal transplant allograft function and promptly evaluate any dysfunction. Renal transplant sonography has a major role in this assessment process given its ability to easily define renal transplant anatomy and surrounding structures. Abnormalities can be extrarenal or involve vascular, parenchymal and urological components of the graft and these can acutely or chronically influence graft function and survival. Procedural guidance as is required during allograft biopsy, as well as routine surveillance and screening for post transplant complications such as malignancy are also important applications of ultrasound in the management of renal transplant recipients. This article outlines key ultrasound findings and applications in renal transplantation from the clinician's perspective. PMID:28191257

  3. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  4. [Usefulness, validity, and reliability of ultrasound in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis: a critical review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Guinsburg, Mara; Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Bernal, Araceli; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Pineda, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is outstripping other diagnostic imaging techniques in the evaluation of osteoarthritis (OA). Due to its sub-millimetric resolution, ultrasound has the ability to detect minimal morphostructural abnormalities, even from preclinical or asymptomatic disease stages located in the main joint structures predominantly affected by OA: articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and subchondral bone. As of today, ultrasound has proven to be a useful tool for the detection of abnormalities occurring within soft tissues, including synovial hypertrophy, fluid accumulation, and synovial cysts, as well as bony abnormalities, such as osteophyte formation. Additionally, power Doppler signal correlated with histologic evidence of synovial membrane vascularization. In order to describe the ultrasonographic findings of OA, its utility, reliability, and validity as a diagnostic and monitoring tool, a critical review of the literature of hand, hip, and knee OA is provided.

  5. [Ultrasound of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Bojunga, J

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid abnormalities are common findings in the general population. Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool for diagnosing thyroid disease. In the majority of cases a correct diagnosis can already be made in synopsis of the sonographic together with clinical findings and basal thyroid hormone parameters and an appropriate therapy can be initiated thereafter. A differentiation of hormonally active versus inactive nodes, and in particular benign versus malignant nodules is sonographically, however, not reliably possible. In this context, radioscanning has its clinical significance predominantly in diagnosing hormonal activity of thyroid nodules. Efforts of the past years aimed to improve sonographic risk stratification to predict malignancy of thyroid nodules through standardized diagnostic assessment of evaluated risk factors in order to select patients, who need further diagnostic work up. According to the "Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System" (BI-RADS), "Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems" (TI-RADS) giving standardized categories with rates of malignancy were evaluated as a basis for further clinical management. Recent technological developments, such as elastography, also show promising data and could gain entrance into clinical practice. The ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is the key element in the diagnosis of sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules and significantly contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy versus benignity.

  6. [Ultrasound of the Thyroid].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Bojunga, J

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid abnormalities are common findings in the general population. Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool for diagnosing thyroid disease. In the majority of cases a correct diagnosis can already be made in synopsis of the sonographic together with clinical findings and basal thyroid hormone parameters and an appropriate therapy can be initiated thereafter. A differentiation of hormonally active vs. inactive nodes, and in particular benign vs. malignant nodules is sonographically, however, not reliably possible. In this context, radioscanning has its clinical significance predominantly in diagnosing hormonal activity of thyroid nodules. Efforts of the past years aimed to improve sonographic risk stratification to predict malignancy of thyroid nodules through standardized diagnostic assessment of evaluated risk factors in order to select patients, who need further diagnostic work up. According to the "Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System" (BI-RADS), "Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems" (TI-RADS) giving standardized categories with rates of malignancy were evaluated as a basis for further clinical management. Recent technological developments, such as elastography, also showpromising data and could gain entrance into clinical practice. The ultrasound-guided fineneedle aspiration is the key element in the diagnosis of sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules and significantly contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy versus benignity.

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in a patient with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type I: The first report describing an important association between cytogenetic findings and TD

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Mehmet; Demirhan, Osman; Tunc, Erdal; Bucak, Ibrahim Hakan; Canoz, Perihan Yasemen; Temiz, Fatih; Tumgor, Gokhan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is the most lethal and most severe type of dysplasia. It has distinct features, the most important of which is short tubular bones and short ribs with platyspondyly, allowing a precise radiologic and prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis. It has been reported to be caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene, but exactly how cytogenetic abnormalities might lead to TD is unclear. Case Report: We report a case of TD with different prenatal sonographic features compatible with the classification of type I. In the result of cytogenetic examination, we found de novo CAs in 28% of cells analyzed from the affected infant; 75% of the abnormalities were numerical, and of those, 25% were structural aberrations; 21% of cells revealed predominantly numerical aberrations. Monosomy 18, 21 and 22 was observed in 4% of cells, monosomy 20 in 2%, and monosomy 7, 8, 14, 17 and 19 in 1%. Structural changes were observed in 7% of cells. Conclusions: It appears that these chromosomes may be preferentially involved in and important for TD development. PMID:23569503

  9. Breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ueno, E

    1996-03-01

    In ultrasound, ultrasonic images are formed by means of echoes among tissues with different acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance is the product of sound speed and bulk modulus. The bulk modulus expresses the elasticity of an object, and in the human body, the value is increased by conditions such as fibrosis and calcification. The sound speed is usually high in elastic tissues and low in water. In the body, it is lowest in the fatty tissue. Ultrasound echoes are strong on the surface of bones which are hard and have a high sound speed. In organs filled with air such as the lungs, the bulk modulus is low and the sound speed is extremely low at 340 m/s, which produce strong echoes (the sound speed in solid tissues is 1,530 m/s). Human tissue is constructed of units smaller than the ultrasonic beam, and it is necessary to understand back-scattering in order to understand the ultrasonic images of these tissues. When ultrasound passes through tissue, it is absorbed as thermal energy and attenuated. Fiber is a tissue with a high absorption and attenuation rate. When the rate increases, the posterior echoes are attenuated. However, in masses with a high water content such as cysts, the posterior echoes are accentuated. This phenomenon is an important, basic finding for determining the properties of tumors. Breast cancer can be classified into two types: stellate carcinoma and circumscribed carcinoma. Since stellate carcinoma is rich in fiber, the posterior echoes are attenuated or lacking. However, circumscribed carcinoma has a high cellularity and the posterior echoes are accentuated. The same tendency is also seen in benign tumors. In immature fibroadenomas, posterior echoes are accentuated, while in fibroadenomas with hyalinosis, the posterior echoes are attenuated. Therefore, if the fundamentals of this tissue characterization and the histological features are understood, reading of ultrasound becomes easy. Color Doppler has also been developed and has contributed

  10. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007646.htm Endoscopic ultrasound To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Endoscopic ultrasound is a type of imaging test. It is ...

  12. Ultrasound, normal fetus - head measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of a head measurement, indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

  13. Ultrasound, normal fetus - abdomen measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of an abdominal measurement. It shows a cross-section of the abdomen, ...

  14. HIGH PREVALENCE OF SUBCLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS BY CAROTID ULTRASOUND AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: DISCORDANCE WITH 10-YEAR RISK ASSESSMENT USING THE FRAMINGHAM RISK SCORE

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Susan T.; Smulevitz, Beverly; Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Rentfro, Anne R.; McPherson, David D.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) were validated in a mostly Caucasian population. Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis by carotid ultrasound may improve ascertainment of risk in non-White populations. This study aimed to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaquing among Mexican Americans, and to correlate these markers with coronary risk factors and the FRS. Methods/Results Participants (n=141) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. Carotid artery ultrasound was performed and cIMT measured. Carotid plaque was defined as areas of thickening >50% of the thickness of the surrounding walls. Mean age was 53.1±11.7 years (73.8% female). Most were overweight or obese (88.7%) and more than half (53.2%) had the metabolic syndrome. One third (34.8%) had abnormal carotid ultrasound findings (either cIMT ≥75th percentile for gender and age or presence of plaque). Among those with abnormal carotid ultrasound, the majority were classified as being at low 10-year risk for cardiovascular events. Carotid ultrasound reclassified nearly a third of the cohort as being at high risk. This discordance between 10-year FRS and carotid ultrasound was noted whether risk was assessed for hard coronary events or global risk. Concordance between FRS and carotid ultrasound findings was best when long-term (30-year) risk was assessed and no subject with an abnormal carotid ultrasound was categorized as low risk by the 30-year FRS algorithm. Conclusions Integration of carotid ultrasound findings to coronary risk assessments and use of longer term prediction models may provide better risk assessment in this minority population, with earlier initiation of appropriate therapies. PMID:22747630

  15. Carotid Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Carotid Ultrasound Also known as carotid duplex. Carotid ultrasound is a painless imaging test that uses high- ... of your carotid arteries. This test uses an ultrasound machine, which includes a computer, a screen, and ...

  16. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  17. [Abnormal MR findings in the temporal lobe and basal ganglia along with vasospasm in a case of hemiballism associated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Uchibori, Ayumi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Chiba, Atsuro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Sakuta, Manabu

    2003-06-01

    A 46-year-old woman with a nine-year history of diabetes mellitus (DM) without treatment had an acute onset of right hemiballism. For the treatment of hyperglycemia (random blood sugar 588 mg/dl) conventional insulin therapy was started, and HbA1c rapidly decreased from 16.3% to 8.8% over the first two months. During this period, there were no hypoglycemic symptoms or episodes, though amnesia appeared just after the insulin therapy was started. T1-weighted MRI showed hyperintensity in the left basal ganglia, which has been reported in many cases of chorea or ballism associated with DM. In addition, there were unique changes in the left temporal lobe, including transient contrast enhancement along the cortex followed by transient hyperintensity in the cortical-subcortical area on T2 weighted and FLAIR images, and then hyperintensity along the cortex on T1 weighted images and atrophy. These findings were thought to indicate a consecutive process, i.e., capillary hyperlucency followed mainly by vasogenic edema and then laminar necrosis. Similar MR findings were reported in hypoglycemic coma. MRA also revealed a transient vasospasm in the left MCA M1-M2 portions in this patient. These signal changes may have been related to the prolonged hyperglycemic state as well as blood sugar control that was too rapid.

  18. Ultrasound physics.

    PubMed

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  19. Thyroid Ultrasound: State of the Art Part 1 - Thyroid Ultrasound reporting and Diffuse Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Manjiri; Barr, Richard; Bojunga, Jörg; Cantisani, Vito; Chammas, Maria Cristina; Cosgrove, David; Cui, Xin Wu; Dong, Yi; Fenner, Franziska; Radzina, Maija; Vinayak, Sudhir; Xu, Jun Mei; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2017-01-31

    Accurate differentiation of focal thyroid nodules (FTL) and thyroid abnormalities is pivotal for proper diagnostic and therapeutic work-up. In these two part articles, the role of ultrasound techniques in the characterization of FTL and evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases is described to expand on the recently published World Federation in Ultrasound and Medicine (WFUMB) thyroid elastography guidelines and review how this guideline fits into a complete thyroid ultrasound exam.

  20. Disparity between Clinical and Ultrasound Examinations in Neonatal Hip Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Bong Soo; Jeong, Woong Kyo; Park, Si Young

    2016-01-01

    Background For early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), neonatal hip screening using clinical examination and/or ultrasound has been recommended. Although there have been many studies on the reliability of both screening techniques, there is still controversy in the screening strategies; clinical vs. selective or universal ultrasound screening. To determine the screening strategy, we assessed the agreement among the methods; clinical examination by an experienced pediatric orthopedic surgeon, sonographic morphology, and sonographic stability. Methods From January 2004 to June 2009, a single experienced pediatric orthopedic surgeon performed clinical hip screenings for 2,686 infants in the neonatal unit and 43 infants who were referred due to impressions of hip dysplasia before 3 months of age. Among them, 156 clinically unstable or high-risk babies selectively received bilateral hip ultrasound examinations performed by the same surgeon using the modified Graf method. The results were analyzed statistically to detect any correlations between the clinical and sonographic findings. Results Although a single experienced orthopedic surgeon conducted all examinations, we detected only a limited relationship between the results of clinical and ultrasound examinations. Ninety-three percent of the clinically subluxatable hips were normal or immature based on static ultrasound examination, and 74% of dislocating hips and 67% of limited abduction hips presented with the morphology below Graf IIa. A total of 80% of clinically subluxatable, 42% of dislocating and 67% of limited abduction hips appeared stable or exhibited minor instability on dynamic ultrasound examination. About 7% of clinically normal hips were abnormal upon ultrasound examination; 5% showed major instability and 3% showed dysplasia above Graf IIc. Clinical stability had small coefficients between ultrasound examinations; 0.39 for sonographic stability and 0.37 for sonographic morphology

  1. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... sickle cell disease. It is also used to measure conditions affecting blood flow to and within the brain, such as: Stenosis : ... saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures ... represent the flow of blood through the blood vessels. top of ...

  2. Congenital anomalies of the uterus, and ultrasound diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miseljic, Nenad; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Mehmedbasic, Senad; Miseljic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Sonographic detection and evaluation of congenital anomalies of the uterus represent an important segment in the additional therapeutic procedure, that is, treatment of patients with congenital anomalies of the uterus. Besides the primary reason that is manifested in the total cure of the patients, the secondary reason represents the decrease of costs of treatment of congenital anomalies of the uterus. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used in this paper. In 1997 Kurjak and Kupesic compared the sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultra sound, color Doppler, hysterosonography and three-dimensional ultrasound during diagnosis of the uterus septum. Representation of pathological findings in our paper in comparison to the examined group is: uterus subseptus = 15.38%, double horned uterus = 10.25%. The examined group includes intrauterine abnormalities of the uterus, analyzing, in that process, individual, pathological entities of intrauterine abnormalities. The research is a prospective, target, clinical study. In the examined group, due to the clinical suspicion of intrauterine abnormalities, 78 patients were examined in the following manner: two-dimensional transabdominal and transvaginal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations were made and then three-dimensional transabdominal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations. This means that in the detection of congenital anomalies of the uterus, the same sonographic techniques were first applied on the conventional and then also on the multidimensional base. Our research showed that three-dimensional technique is a more reliable diagnostic tool than two-dimensional technique. Sensitivity and specificity rate as well as positive predictive value show that this technique is an extraordinary one for assessing the volume, and position of congenital abnormalities.

  3. The utility of repeat ultrasound imaging in the follow-up of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty patients

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, GS; Janardhan, S; Brash, L; Pynsent, PB; Dunlop, DJ; James, SLJ

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed changes in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (MoMHAs) after repeat ultrasound examination. Methods This retrospective, single-centre cohort study involved all patients undergoing two ultrasound examinations of the same MoMHA. Between 2010 and 2014, 96 ultrasound examinations were performed in 48 MoMHAs (mean time between scans = 1.1 years). A radiologist assigned each scan to one of four grades and measured volumes of any solid/cystic masses. Changes in grade and lesion volume between scans were analysed. Results Change in grade between scans was significant (p=0.012); 27% (n=13) of MoMHAs increased in grade, 67% (n=32) had no grade change, and 6% (n=3) decreased in grade. The mean increase in lesion volume was 24.2cm3 by the second scan, and was significant (p=0.023). Evidence of progression in findings was observed in 54% (26/48) of MoMHAs. Of patients with normal scans initially, 44% (8/18) developed abnormalities. No factors (including blood metal ion concentrations and cup position) were associated significantly with progression of ultrasound findings. Conclusions Repeat ultrasound in MoMHA patients demonstrated that findings frequently progress in the short-term. Therefore, regular surveillance of MoMHA patients is important, with ultrasound representing an effective investigation for identifying the development and progression of lesions. PMID:26741659

  4. Clinical benefits of combined diagnostic three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varjonen, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena

    2005-04-01

    Our goal is to evaluate diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging clinical value in detecting and diagnosing early stage breast cancers. Determine if fusion imaging would decrease the number of biopsies and reduce further patient workup otherwise required to establish a definitive diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical results based on the study conducted at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Presentation demonstrates clinical dual modality images and results. Tomosynthesis of amorphous selenium based full field digital mammography system will be also presented. Forty asymptomatic women enrolled in the study based on prior identification of suspicious findings on screening mammograms where the possibility of breast cancer could not be excluded. Abnormal screening mammogram findings included tumor-like densities, parenchymal asymmetries and architectural distortions. Eight women were operated and 32 were not referred for surgery. Those cases, which were operated, three lesions represented ductal carcinoma in situ, two ductal carcinomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia, one fibroadenoma and one radial scar. The 32 not operated cases revealed to be benign or superimposition of normal parenchymal breast tissue. The cases were returned to biennial screening. Ultrasound did not show clearly any lesions, but using tomosynthesis and ultrasound together we were able to analyze and locate the lesions exactly. Special tomosynthesis improves overall lesion detection and analysis. The value of tomosynthesis and ultrasound fusion imaging will be to provide additional clinical information in order to improve decision making accuracy to either confirm or exclude a suspected abnormality and in particular detect small breast cancers.

  5. Utility of post-urinary tract infection imaging in patients with normal prenatal renal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun; Parajuli, Nirmala; Sharma, Preeti; Nanda, Maya; Shah, Rina; Gershel, Jeffrey; Rauch, Daniel A

    2012-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends renal ultrasound (RUS) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) for all infants after a first urinary tract infection (UTI). However, many congenital renal anomalies are identified by a prenatal US. At the present time, there are no data regarding the yield of post-UTI imaging among infants who have a documented normal prenatal US. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients <1 year of age with a first UTI who had normal kidneys noted on prenatal US to determine the frequency of abnormal findings. Abnormal RUS and VCUG results were noted in 5.1% (24 of 471) and 20.4% (75 of 368) of infants, respectively. While the abnormal US rate is significantly less than what has been previously reported, the frequency of abnormal VCUGs is similar. These results suggest that a post-UTI RUS may not be needed if the prenatal US was normal. However, a VCUG continues to be indicated.

  6. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan for their effective treatment. detect blood clots (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the major veins of ... What are the limitations of Vascular Ultrasound? Vessels deep in the body are harder to see than ...

  8. A dose-finding randomised controlled trial of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Versha; Rana, Shelly; Chaudhary, Sudarshan Kumar; Singh, Jai; Verma, Ravinder Kumar; Sood, Saloni

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) has been used as an adjuvant in brachial plexus block with encouraging results; however, there is no consensus regarding its optimal dose. Thereby, we compared the efficacy of two doses of MgSO4 as an adjuvant in ultrasound (USG) guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Methods: Ninety patients, aged 20–60 years, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, were given USG-guided supraclavicular block. Group B (n = 30) received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 5 ml normal saline (NS), Group BM0.5(n = 30) received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 3.75 ml NS and 125 mg MgSO4 (1.25 ml) and Group BM1(n = 30) received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 2.5 ml NS and 250 mg MgSO4 (2.5 ml). The primary outcome of study was the duration of post-operative analgesia. The normally distributed data were analysed using analysis of variance and categorical data analysed using Chi-square test. Results: Duration of post-operative analgesia was prolonged in Groups BM1 and BM0.5 (665.13 ± 97.874, 475.10 ± 53.294) min respectively as compared to Group B (272.03 ± 40.404 min: P = 0.00). The onset times of sensory and motor block were shorter in Group BM1 (5.17 ± 2.2 min) as compared to Groups BM0.5 and B (8.9 ± 2.3 and 17.7 ± 5.1 min: P = 0.00) respectively. Sensory and motor block durations were prolonged in Group BM1 as compared to BM0.5 and B (P = 0.00). Conclusions: MgSO4 as adjuvant in brachial plexus block increases the duration of post-operative analgesia. MgSO4 in the dose of 250mg has greater efficacy as compared to 125 mg.

  9. Toward image analysis and decision support for ultrasound technology.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Gillian; Padman, Rema; Maharaja, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a low cost and efficient method of detecting diseases and abnormalities in the body. Yet there is a lack of precision and reliability associated with the technology, partly due to the operator dependent nature of ultrasound scanning. When scanning is performed to an agreed protocol, ultrasound has been shown to be highly reliable. This research aims to minimize these limitations that arise during ultrasound training, scanning and reporting by developing and evaluating an image analysis and decision support system that can aid the decision making process. We hypothesize that this intervention will likely increase the role of ultrasound in diagnosis when compared with other imaging technologies, particularly in low resource settings.

  10. Carotid Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Carotid Carotid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the carotid arteries ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  11. [Ultrasound of gallbladder and bile duct].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Joleini, S; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cystic nature of the gallbladder and bile duct when dilated, and the advantages of ultrasound as a quick, reproducible, convenient, cheap and low risk technique, with a high sensitivity and specificity, make it the most eligible technique in biliary pathology studies. Ultrasound has become a valuable tool for doctors studying biliary pathology and its complications, from abnormal liver function results, right upper quadrant pain, or jaundice, to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or suspicion of biliary tumors.

  12. Fetal Neurosonogaphy: Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Competition.

    PubMed

    Tercanli, S; Prüfer, F

    2016-12-01

    superior to the MRI findings.Another study appearing in this issue study of CNS anomalies in fetuses with complex clubfoot also showed additionally diagnosed CNS anomalies in 4 cases on MRI. MRI yielded supplementary findings that were not visible on ultrasound in 6 cases. Although the number of cases is small, it was able to be shown, as in other studies, that a certain percentage of CNS anomalies is able to be evaluated on an additional or supplementary basis on MRI.Since intrauterine MRI has been becoming increasingly important in recent years, it is necessary to determine when MRI is indicated. There is general consensus in the literature that MRI is not a screening method for detecting fetal anomalies but should be viewed as a supplementary method to ultrasound 8 9 10. However, MRI application in pregnancy is increasing. Intrauterine MRI is most commonly used in the case of abnormal ultrasound findings regarding the CNS 11 12 13. This includes morphological evaluation of malformations and recently also of acquired hypoxic-ischemic diseases, bleeding and inflammation such as CMV infections. Thoracic and abdominal malformations are also indications for MRI for the evaluation of the lung volume in diaphragmatic defects and in the case of suspicion of esophageal atresia abnormal placentation. Further possible indications for the use of MRI include monochorial multiple pregnancies with a feto-fetal transfusion syndrome (for the evaluation of neurological development) and select cases with known diseases and syndromes 14. The majority of studies for comparing intrauterine MRI to sonographic diagnosis include a small number of cases with limited or no follow-up. Data regarding sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values is limited. Many studies simply calculate the difference in percentages on the basis of a small number of cases. The best available data is in regard to CNS anomalies. In one of the few meta-analyses including 34 studies and documented

  13. Prenatal findings in carpenter syndrome and a novel mutation in RAB23.

    PubMed

    Haye, Damien; Collet, Corinne; Sembely-Taveau, Catherine; Haddad, Georges; Denis, Christelle; Soulé, Nathalie; Suc, Annie-Laure; Listrat, Antoine; Toutain, Annick

    2014-11-01

    Carpenter syndrome is caused by mutations of the RAB23 gene. To date, 12 distinct mutations have been identified among 34 patients from 26 unrelated families. We report on the prenatal findings in a fetus with Carpenter syndrome with a novel RAB23 mutation. Cystic hygroma, bowed femora, abnormal skull shape and a complex heart defect were seen on ultrasound scan, and Carpenter syndrome was diagnosed at birth. Craniosynostosis and preaxial hexadactyly of the feet were retrospectively detectable on the fetal CT scan. Sequencing of RAB23 identified a homozygous mutation leading to skipping of exon 6 and premature termination codon (c.481G>C; p.Val161Leufs*16). This observation illustrates the difficulty of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome. To our knowledge, this diagnosis was suggested on ultrasound scan in only one prior patient, although in five other patients abnormal skull shape and variable findings, mainly limb anomalies including bowed femora in one case, were described during the pregnancy. Heart defect and bowed femora are rare postnatal findings. The diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome should therefore be considered on prenatal imaging in cases of bowed femora and/or cardiac defect associated with abnormal skull shape.

  14. Contribution of ultrasound scans in the first episode of urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Jellouli, Manel; Ben Mansour, Asma; Abidi, Kamel; Ferjani, Meriem; Naija, Ouns; Hammi, Yousra; Zarrouk, Chokri; Gargah, Tahar

    2016-06-01

    Background - Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric urologic disorder. After the first urinary tract infection (UTI), imaging studies are recommended, starting with a renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). We propose to determine whether abnormalities found on US can help indicate the necessity of VCUG in children after the first urinary tract infection. Methods - A retrospective study included all children admitted with their first episode of urinary tract infection from January 2007 to December 2012. Results - A total of 311 children were included. The median age was 2.5 years, 72.3% were female. VUR Prevalence was 14%.  Forty-four patients were found to have VUR on VCUG, giving a prevalence of 14%. Of these 44 patients, 11 had grade I reflux, 6 had grade II reflux, 3 had grade III reflux, 15had grade IV reflux, and 9 had grade V reflux. Ultrasound findings were positive for VUR in 43 patients, 19 of them had RVU. Twenty five patients had a normal ultrasound but showed VUR on VCUG (11 had grade I reflux, six grade II reflux, three grade III reflux and five grade IV reflux).  The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in suggesting VUR were 43% and 91%, respectively. The positive predictive value of ultrasound in suggesting VUR was 44%; the negative predictive value was 91%. Conclusion - Renal ultrasound findings are specific for VUR in children with a first UTI, but no sensitive. Clinicians should consider renal ultrasound results to take decision on whether or not to proceed with a VCUG in the investigation of a first episode UTI in young children.

  15. Symptom burden, Metabolic profile, Ultrasound findings, Rhythm, neurohormonal activation, haemodynamics and health-related quality of life in patients with atrial Fibrillation (SMURF): a protocol for an observational study with a randomised interventional component

    PubMed Central

    Charitakis, Emmanouil; Walfridsson, Ulla; Nyström, Fredrik; Nylander, Eva; Strömberg, Anna; Alehagen, Urban; Walfridsson, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5–2%. It is an independent risk factor for ischaemic stroke and is estimated to cause about 20–25% of all stroke cases. AF has a great impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, one unresolved issue related to AF is the wide variation in its symptoms. Methods and analysis The symptom burden, metabolic profile, ultrasound findings, rhythm, neurohormonal activation, haemodynamics and HRQoL in patients with AF (Symptom burden, Metabolic profile, Ultrasound findings, Rhythm, neurohormonal activation, haemodynamics and health-related quality of life in patients with atrial Fibrillation, SMURF) study is a prospective observational, cohort study, with a randomised interventional part. The aim of the study is to investigate, in patients with AF, the relationship between symptom burden and metabolic aspects, atrial function and different neurohormones, and the effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The interventional part of the study will give an insight into the neurohormonal and intracardiac pressure changes directly after initiation of AF. Consecutive patients with symptomatic AF accepted for treatment with RFA for the first time at Linköping University Hospital are eligible for participation. The enrolment started in January 2012, and a total of 200 patients are to be included into the study, with 45 of them being enrolled into the interventional study with initiation of AF. The sample size of the interventional study is based on a small pilot study with 5 patients induced to AF while 2 served as controls. The results indicated that, in order to find a statistically significant difference, there was a need to include 28 patients; for safety reasons, 45 patients will be included. Ethics and dissemination The SMURF study is approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden. The results will

  16. MRI and Ultrasound Injury in Preterm Infants with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Sullivan, Joseph; Rogers, Elizabeth; Ferriero, Donna M.; Goldstein, Ruth; Barkovich, A. James

    2010-01-01

    The utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a universal screening tool in preterm infants has been contested; however, MR is increasingly used in investigation of neonatal seizures. We evaluated 236 infants <34 weeks gestation at birth. Seizures were documented according to clinical standard of care. Infants were imaged using MRI and head ultrasound during the neonatal period. A neuroradiologist and ultrasonologist performed detailed reviews of the images. Nine infants (3.8%) had clinical suspicion of seizures during the hospital course. MRI was abnormal in each case (three with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular hemorrhagic infarct, two with findings of hypoxia-ischemia, three with white matter injury (WMI) and one each with schizencephaly and dysplasia –one infant had two lesions). Periventricular hemorrhagic infarct was more common in infants with seizures (33% vs 6% of those without seizures, OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.8-36.7). Infants with seizures were more likely to have WMI, though the difference was not significant (RR 2.4, 95% CI 0.54-11.1, P=0.3). Head ultrasound failed to detect the extent of brain abnormality in eight (89%) of the infants. In this large cohort, infants with clinical suspicion of seizures had a high rate of MRI abnormalities that were not as well characterized by head ultrasound. MRI may be the study of choice for evaluating preterm infants with seizures. Further studies using better seizure monitoring are necessary to evaluate electrographic seizures and their relationship to brain injury on MRI. PMID:19745086

  17. Clinical and molecular studies in two families with Fraser syndrome: a new FRAS1 gene mutation, prenatal ultrasound findings and implications for genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Ogur, G; Zenker, M; Tosun, M; Ekici, F; Schanze, D; Ozyilmaz, B; Malatyalioglu, E

    2011-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by cryptophthalmus, variable expression of cutaneous syndactyly of fingers and toes, genital ambiguity and renal agenesis/dysgenesis. We present here molecular and clinical findings of four fetuses with FS from two families. Molecular genetic studies in the two families revealed mutations in FRAS1 gene allowing better genetic counselling and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in one of the two families. In family one, a nonsense mutation (c.3730C>T, p.R1244X) previously described in a Polish patient was found. In family two a novel nonsense mutation previously not known was detected (c.370C>T, p.R124X). PGD is planned for family 1.

  18. Maximum intensity projection with magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating synovitis of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with clinical and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Daigo; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Ikeda, Takumi; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kishida, Aiko; Yamasaki, Tetsuro; Kawahito, Yutaka; Seno, Takahiro; Ito, Hirotoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with maximum intensity projection (MIP) is used to evaluate the hand in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MIP yields clear visualization of synovitis over the entirety of the bilateral hands with a single image. In this study, we assessed synovitis with MIP images, clinical findings, and power Doppler (PD) findings to examine the clinical usefulness of MIP images for RA in the hand. Thirty RA patients were assessed for swelling and tenderness in the joints included in the DAS28, and both contrast-enhanced MRI for bilateral hands and ultrasonography for bilateral wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were performed. Articular synovitis was scored in MIP images, and the scores were compared with those for PD. The agreement on synovitis between MIP and conventional MR images was excellent. Palpation showed low sensitivity and high specificity compared with both MIP and PD images. There were joints that were positive in MIP images only, but there were no joints that were positive in PD images only. A statistically significant correlation between the scores of MIP and PD images was found. Furthermore, the agreement between grade 2 on MIP images and positive on PD images was 0.87 (κ = 0.73) for the wrist and 0.92 (κ = 0.57) for MCP joints. Using MIP images together with palpation makes detailed evaluation of synovitis of the hand in RA easy. MIP images may predict further joint damage, since they allow semiquantitative estimation of the degree of thickening of the synovial membrane.

  19. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: “Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler.” Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. 1 Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. 2 There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. 3 Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. 4 Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. CONCLUSION: Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:26735221

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  1. Anal atresia, abnormal genitalia, and absent thumb: congenital malformations associated with mosaic ring chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Z; Ozlu, T; Vural, M

    2013-01-01

    Because of the deletion of a segment of the chromosome during the formation of a ring, several clinical findings may be associated with ring chromosomes. Ring chromosome 13 is one of such disorders in which the genotype-phenotype correlation is stronger by virtue of the accumulating literature. It can be associated with multiple congenital abnormalities and severe mental retardation. We report a case with mosaic ring chromosome 13 whose prenatal ultrasound revealed bilateral ventriculomegaly. Anal atresia, unidentifiable external genitalia, and an absent thumb were observed in the postmortem examination.

  2. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially when the mass is solid). Blood flow images of the testicles are not always reliable in determining the presence or absence of blood supply to a testicle that has twisted. When searching for an absent testicle, ultrasound may not be ...

  3. Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) System: Development of Combined Transmission and Reflection Ultrasound with New Reconstruction Algorithms for Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P J; Duric, N; Azevedo, S; Chambers, D; Candy, J V; Johnson, S; Auner, G; Rather, J; Holsapple, E T

    2001-09-07

    Our Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system has been developed to the engineering prototype stage and generated unique data sets of both transmission and reflection ultrasound (US). This paper will help define the clinical underpinnings of the developmental process and interpret the imaging results from a similar perspective. The CURE project was designed to incorporate numerous diagnostic parameters to improve upon two major areas of early breast cancer detection. CURE may provide improved tissue characterization of breast masses and reliable detection of abnormal microcalcifications found in some breast cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Current breast US is limited to mass evaluation, whereas mammography also detects and guides biopsy of malignant calcifications. Screening with CURE remains a distant goal, but improved follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may represent a feasible breakthrough. Improved tissue characterization could result in reduction of the estimated one million benign biopsies each year in the United States, costing up to several billion dollars. Most breast calcifications are benign and comprise-80% of stereotactic biopsies guided by mammography. Ultrasound has the capability of finding some groups of calcifications, but further improvements in resolution should also address tissue characterization to define the soft tissue filling of ducts by DCIS. In this manner, CURE may be able to more accurately identify the malignant calcifications associated with progression of DCIS or early cancers. Currently, high-resolution US images of the breast are performed in the reflection mode at higher frequencies, which also limits depth of penetration. Reconstruction of reflection ultrasound images relies upon acoustic impedance differences in the tissue and includes only direct backscatter of the ultrasound signal. Resolution and tissue contrast of current US continues to improve with denser transducer arrays and image

  4. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  5. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  6. The Impact of Systematic Point-of-Care Ultrasound on Management of Patients in a Resource-Limited Setting.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Alastair; Wajanga, Bahati M K; Jaka, Hyasinta; Purcell, Rachael; Byrne, Lauren; Williams, Felicity; Rypien, Candace; Sharpe, Abigail; Laws, Patrick; Faustine, Lucas; Leeme, Tshepo; Mwabutwa, Emmanuel; Peck, Robert; Stephens, Matthew; Kaminstein, Daniel

    2017-02-08

    Although target point-of-care (POC) ultrasonography has been shown to benefit patients in resource-limited settings, it is not clear whether a systematic POC ultrasound assessment in these settings can also lead to similar changes in patient management. A predefined systematic set of POC ultrasound scans were performed on inpatients at a tertiary referral hospital in Tanzania to see if this resulted in changes to patient management. Of the 55 patients scanned, an abnormality was detected in 75% (N = 41), and a change in patient management was recommended or implemented on the basis of POC ultrasound findings in 53% (N = 29). The main impact was earlier initiation of treatment due to more rapid and accurate diagnosis. Further research is warranted to determine whether systematic POC ultrasonography would result in improved patient outcomes in resource-limited settings.

  7. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  8. Predicting fetal karyotype in fetuses with omphalocele: the current role of ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Zork, Noelia M; Pierce, Sara; Zollinger, Terrell; Kominiarek, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of ultrasound in predicting abnormal karyotype in pregnancies with prenatally diagnosed omphaloceles and to compare its test characteristics to previously published studies. Methods A retrospective case-control study of omphaloceles diagnosed at one center was performed from 1995–2007. Cases were those with an abnormal karyotype and controls were those with a normal karyotype. Data collection included demographics, karyotype results, and ultrasound findings. The number and type of associated anomalies were compared between the cases and controls. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for predicting an abnormal karyotype were calculated from previously published studies. Results Of the 73 subjects, there were 12 cases and 61 controls. The majority of women were Caucasian and primigravida. The cases were less likely to have an isolated omphalocele [1(8.3%) vs. 27(42.6%), OR 0.122 95% CI 0.02–0.08] but were more likely to have two or more major anomalies [8 (66.7%) vs. 17(27.9%), OR 5.18 95% CI 1.19–24.04)] compared to the controls. Cardiac anomalies and only one additional major anomaly were not different between the two groups, P>0.05. The test characteristics for this study were similar to previously published studies. Conclusions Isolated omphaloceles were more likely to have a normal karyotype; however fetuses with multiple anomalies were more likely to have an abnormal karyotype. Despite advances in ultrasound technology, its ability for predicting an abnormal karyotype in these fetuses has not improved. PMID:24815707

  9. Thyroid ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... The thyroid feels big or irregular, called a goiter . You have abnormal lymph nodes near your thyroid. ... due to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Thyroiditis, or inflammation of the thyroid ( ...

  10. Fetal and umbilical Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Alfirevic, Zarko; Stampalija, Tamara; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could encourage inappropriate early delivery. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009) and the reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of Doppler ultrasound for the investigation of umbilical and fetal vessels waveforms in high-risk pregnancies compared to no Doppler ultrasound. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Eighteen completed studies involving just over 10,000 women were included. The trials were generally of unclear quality with some evidence of possible publication bias. The use of Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancy was associated a reduction in perinatal deaths (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.98, 16 studies, 10,225 babies, 1.2% versus 1.7 %, numbers needed to treat = 203; 95%CI 103 to 4352). There were also fewer inductions of labour (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99, 10 studies, 5633 women, random effects) and fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97, 14 studies, 7918 women). No difference was found in operative vaginal births (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.14, four studies, 2813 women) nor in Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.24, seven studies, 6321 babies). Authors’ conclusions Current evidence suggests that the use of Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancies reduced the risk of perinatal deaths and resulted in less

  11. [Ultrasound diagnosis of nephrologic and urologic diseases in pediatrics. Report on 1000 patients].

    PubMed

    Maurer, G

    1985-01-04

    Urological conditions of infancy and childhood account for the largest single disease group requiring either surgical or medical intervention. This makes early detection and classification of abnormalities mandatory. This study presents an analysis of the results of ultrasonic screening in 1000 patients. Ultrasonic examination was readily instituted even in children with uncharacteristic symptoms for the early detection of abnormalities. Most cases of kidney and upper urinary tract abnormalities were diagnosable by ultrasound examination alone, whereby the characteristic pathoanatomical pattern of the lesion was seen. Lower urinary tract abnormalities were also detected with high accuracy. However, in most patients radiographic investigations were necessary for further classification. Sonography was also of great value in the initial investigation of acute renal failure; in patients with non-specific clinical and laboratory findings ultrasonography often presented the key to the diagnosis. Ultrasound also proved extremely useful in the follow up of patients with kidney and urinary tract disease. Based on the ultrasonic examination of 1000 patients it is shown that sonography is a most helpful and reliable method for the diagnosis or exclusion of kidney and/or urinary tract disease in paediatric patients of any age.

  12. [Scrotal ultrasound: anatomy and pathological findings].

    PubMed

    Iannicelli, E; Sessa, B; Sapori, A; Cappucci, M; Briani, C; Federici, G F; Di Pietropaolo, M; Merola, S

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of scrotal disease. It provides high anatomical detail and in most cases, it is essential to enable a correct diagnosis and to obtain the right management of the patient. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a non invasive technique that aids important information about testicular perfusion, necessary in reaching a specific diagnosis in many pathologic conditions; moreover contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), recently introduced in the clinical practice, may be considered an additional tool in the classification and differentiation of testicular pathology. The purpose of this review, is to provide the state of the art on the role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of different scrotal pathologies including vaginal process' disorders, acute scrotum, varicocele, hydrocele, chronic inflammatory diseases and testicular tumours.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  14. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  15. Carotid Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  16. Ultrasound in cardiac trauma.

    PubMed

    Saranteas, Theodosios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Mandila, Christina; Poularas, John; Panou, Fotios

    2017-04-01

    In the perioperative period, the emergency department or the intensive care unit accurate assessment of variable chest pain requires meticulous knowledge, diagnostic skills, and suitable usage of various diagnostic modalities. In addition, in polytrauma patients, cardiac injury including aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and pericardial effusion should be immediately revealed and treated. In these patients, arrhythmias, mainly tachycardia, cardiac murmurs, or hypotension must alert physicians to suspect cardiovascular trauma, which would potentially be life threatening. Ultrasound of the heart using transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are valuable diagnostic tools that can be used interchangeably in conjunction with other modalities such as the electrocardiogram and computed tomography for the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities in trauma patients. Although ultrasound of the heart is often underused in the setting of trauma, it does have the advantages of being easily accessible, noninvasive, and rapid bedside assessment tool. This review article aims to analyze the potential cardiac injuries in trauma patients, and to provide an elaborate description of the role of echocardiography for their accurate diagnosis.

  17. In Vivo Evaluation of the Potential of High-Frequency Ultrasound for Arthroscopic Examination of the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Puhakka, Jani; Afara, Isaac O.; Paatela, Teemu; Sormaala, Markus J.; Timonen, Matti A.; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Töyräs, Juha; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accurate arthroscopic evaluation of cartilage lesions could significantly improve the outcome of repair surgery. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential of intra-articular ultrasound as an arthroscopic tool for grading cartilage defects in the human shoulder joint in vivo and compared the outcome to results from arthroscopic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Design A total of 26 sites from 9 patients undergoing routine shoulder arthroscopy were quantitatively evaluated with a clinical intravascular (40MHz) ultrasound imaging system, using the regular arthroscopy portals. Reflection coefficient (R), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), apparent integrated backscattering (AIB), and ultrasound roughness index (URI) were calculated, and high-resolution ultrasound images were obtained per site. Each site was visually graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) system. “Ultrasound scores” corresponding to the ICRS system were determined from the ultrasound images. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted and cartilage integrity at each site was classified into 5 grades (0 = normal, 4 = severely abnormal) by a radiologist. Results R and IRC were lower at sites with damaged cartilage surface (P = 0.033 and P = 0.043, respectively) and correlated with arthroscopic ICRS grades (rs = −0.444, P = 0.023 and rs = −0.426, P = 0.03, respectively). Arthroscopic ICRS grades and ultrasound scores were significantly correlated (rs = 0.472, P = 0.015), but no significant correlation was found between magnetic resonance imaging data and other parameters. Conclusion The results suggest that ultrasound arthroscopy could facilitate quantitative clinical appraisal of articular cartilage integrity in the shoulder joint and provide information on cartilage lesion depth and severity for quantitative diagnostics in surgery. PMID:27375840

  18. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast.

  19. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast. PMID:27703251

  20. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy.

    PubMed

    Trzebińska, Anna; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Jędrzejowski, Maciej

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonography is a primary imaging technique in patients with suspected thyroid disease. It allows to assess the location, size and echostructures of the thyroid gland as well as detect focal lesions, along with indication of their size, echogenicity, echostructure and vascularity. Based on these features, ultrasound examination allows to predict abnormal focal lesions for biopsy and monitor the biopsy needle track. This paper presents the standards of thyroid ultrasound examination regarding ultrasound apparatus technical requirements, scanning techniques, readings, measurements, and the description of the examination. It discusses the ultrasound features of increased malignancy risk in focal lesions (nodules) found in the thyroid gland. It presents indications for fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland for the visibility of single nodules (focal lesions) and numerous lesions as well as discusses contraindications for thyroid biopsy. It describes the biopsy technique, possible complications and rules for post-biopsy monitoring of benign lesions. The paper is an update of the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society issued in 2011. It has been prepared on the basis of current literature, taking into account the information contained in the following publications: Thyroid ultrasound examination and Recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society for the performance of the FNAB of the thyroid.

  1. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  2. [Psychological aspects of ultrasound examinations during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schönholzer, S M; Götzmann, L; Zimmermann, R; Buddeberg, C

    2000-01-01

    The acceptability of ultrasound examinations during pregnancy has been documented in many studies. Yet there is little empirical evidence for the postulated psychological benefits of ultrasound examinations. Although seeing the baby is most often rated as a moving experience, there are no proven long-term effects of ultrasound visualization on bonding with the fetus or on pregnant women's health-related maternal behaviour. There is evidence to support the notion that attenuated anxiety and stress immediately following the examination are likely artefactual - a reflection of increased anxiety before real-time scan. Review of the literature indicates no evidence as to whether antenatal detection of fetal abnormalities leads to improvement in coping or only prolongs the phase of psychological stress and mourning. This articles provides an overview of current research on psychological effects of prenatal ultrasound examination.

  3. First-Trimester Detection of Surface Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rousian, Melek; Koning, Anton H. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Cornette, Jérôme M. J.; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Teunissen, Katinka K.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Exalto, Niek

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D_VR_US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D_US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22 normal, 26 abnormal) were evaluated offline using both techniques by 5 experienced, blinded sonographers. In each case, we analyzed whether each organ category was correctly indicated as normal or abnormal and whether the specific diagnosis was correctly made. Sensitivity in terms of normal or abnormal was comparable for both techniques (P = .24). The general sensitivity for specific diagnoses was 62.6% using 3D_VR_US and 52.2% using 2D/3D_US (P = .075). The 3D_VR_US more often correctly diagnosed skeleton/limb malformations (36.7% vs 10%; P = .013). Mean evaluation time in 3D_VR_US was 4:24 minutes and in 2D/3D_US 2:53 minutes (P < .001). General diagnostic performance of 3D_VR_US and 2D/3D_US apparently is comparable. Malformations of skeleton and limbs are more often detected using 3D_VR_US. Evaluation time is longer in 3D_VR_US. PMID:24440996

  4. Ultrasound for the Anesthesiologists: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Elbarbary, Mahmoud; Blaivas, Michael; Durieux, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a safe, portable, relatively inexpensive, and easily accessible imaging modality, making it a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool in medicine. Anesthesiologists encounter a variety of emergent situations and may benefit from the application of such a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in their routine practice. This paper reviews current and potential applications of ultrasound in anesthesiology in order to encourage anesthesiologists to learn and use this useful tool as an adjunct to physical examination. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade and vascular access represent the most popular ultrasound applications in anesthesiology. Ultrasound has recently started to substitute for CT scans and fluoroscopy in many pain treatment procedures. Although the application of airway ultrasound is still limited, it has a promising future. Lung ultrasound is a well-established field in point-of-care medicine, and it could have a great impact if utilized in our ORs, as it may help in rapid and accurate diagnosis in many emergent situations. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement and transcranial color coded duplex (TCCD) are relatively new neuroimaging modalities, which assess intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Gastric ultrasound can be used for assessment of gastric content and diagnosis of full stomach. Focused transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography facilitate the assessment of left and right ventricular function, cardiac valve abnormalities, and volume status as well as guiding cardiac resuscitation. Thus, there are multiple potential areas where ultrasound can play a significant role in guiding otherwise blind and invasive interventions, diagnosing critical conditions, and assessing for possible anatomic variations that may lead to plan modification. We suggest that ultrasound training should be part of any anesthesiology training program curriculum. PMID:24348179

  5. Prevalence of defined ultrasound findings of unknown significance at the second trimester fetal anomaly scan and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Welsh study of mothers and babies population‐based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Lisa; Wright, Melissa; Dunstan, Frank; Thomas, Susan; Brook, Fiona; Morris, Susan; Tucker, David; Wills, Marilyn Ann; Davies, Colin; John, Gareth; Fone, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this article was to estimate the population prevalence of seven defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance (‘markers’) in the second trimester and the associated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Method A prospective record‐linked cohort study of 30 078 pregnant women who had second trimester anomaly scans between July 2008 and March 2011 in Wales was conducted. Results The prevalence of markers ranged from 43.7 per 1000 singleton pregnancies for cardiac echogenic foci [95% confidence interval (CI): 38.8, 51.1] to 0.6 for mild‐to‐moderate ventriculomegaly (95% CI: 0.3, 1.0). Isolated echogenic bowel was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies [risk ratio (RR) 4.54, 95% CI: 2.12, 9.73] and preterm birth (RR 2.30, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.90). Isolated pelvicalyceal dilatation was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 3.82, 95% CI: 2.16, 6.77). Multiple markers were associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 5.00, 95% CI: 1.35, 18.40) and preterm birth (RR 3.38, 95% CI 1.20, 9.53). Conclusions These data are useful for counselling families and developing clinical guidance and care pathways following the detection of markers in clinical practice, particularly the need for follow‐up scans to monitor placental function and growth in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel, and further investigation for multiple markers. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26475362

  6. Baseline ultrasound and clinical correlates in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Daniel H.; Ye, Wen; Molleston, Jean P.; Weymann, Alexander; Ling, Simon; Paranjape, Shruti M.; Romero, Rene; Schwarzenberg, Sara Jane; Palermo, Joseph; Alonso, Estella M.; Murray, Karen F.; Marshall, Bruce C.; Sherker, Averell H.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Harned, Roger; Karmazyn, Boaz; Magee, John C.; Narkewicz, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between abdominal ultrasound (US) findings and demographic, historical and clinical features in children with CF. Study design Children age 3-12 years with CF without known cirrhosis, were enrolled in a prospective, multi-center study of US to predict hepatic fibrosis. Consensus US patterns were assigned by 3 radiologists as normal, heterogeneous, homogeneous, or cirrhosis. Data were derived from direct collection and U.S. or Toronto CF registries. Chi-square or ANOVA were used to compare variables among US groups and between normal and abnormal. Logistic regression was used to study risk factors for having abnormal US. Results Findings in 719 subjects were normal (n=590, 82.1%), heterogeneous (64, 8.9%), homogeneous (41, 5.7%), and cirrhosis (24, 3.3%). Cirrhosis (p=0.0004), homogeneous (p<0.0001) and heterogeneous (p=0.03) were older than normal. More males were heterogeneous (p=0.001). More heterogeneous (15.0%, p=0.009) and cirrhosis (25.0%, p=0.005) had CF-related diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance versus normal (5.4%). Early infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (<2 years old) was associated with a lower risk (OR 0.42, p=0.0007) of abnormal. Ursodeoxycholic acid use (OR 3.69, p <0.0001) and CF-related diabetes (OR 2.21, p=0.019) were associated with increased risk of abnormal. Conclusions Unsuspected cirrhosis is seen in 3.3% of young patients with CF, heterogeneous in 8.9%. abnormal US is associated with CF-related diabetes, and early P aeruginosa is associated with normal US. Prospective assessment of these risk factors may identify potential interventional targets. PMID:26254836

  7. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  10. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  11. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  12. Ultrasound and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril

    This paper begins with an overview and a description of the interactions between ultrasound and biological tissues encountered during treatment protocols. In a second part of this seminar, two clinical applications of therapeutic ultrasound will be described in details: -Kidney stone destruction by ultrasound (lithotripsy) and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for treating prostate cancer (HIFU).

  13. [Ultrasound in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, F; Deltour, S; Petrovic, T

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound has revolutionized the practice of emergency medicine, particularly in prehospital setting. About a patient with dyspnea, we present the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and emergency treatment. Echocardiography, but also hemodynamic ultrasound (vena cava) and lung exam are valuable tools. Achieving lung ultrasound and diagnostic value of B lines B are detailed.

  14. Ultrasound annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an analyses of developments in the field of diagnostic ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian follicles for in vitro fertilization are addressed. The use of Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow in obstetrics is also examined.

  15. Early blood gas abnormalities and the preterm brain.

    PubMed

    Leviton, Alan; Allred, Elizabeth; Kuban, Karl C K; Dammann, Olaf; O'Shea, T Michael; Hirtz, Deborah; Schreiber, Michael D; Paneth, Nigel

    2010-10-15

    The authors explored associations between blood gas abnormalities in more than 1,000 preterm infants during the first postnatal days and indicators of neonatal brain damage. During 2002-2004, women delivering infants before 28 weeks' gestation at one of 14 participating institutions in 5 US states were asked to enroll in the study. The authors compared infants with blood gas values in the highest or lowest quintile for gestational age and postnatal day (extreme value) on at least 1 of the first 3 postnatal days with the remainder of the subjects, with separate analyses for blood gas abnormalities on multiple days and for partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolar gas of <35. Outcomes analyzed were ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion on an ultrasound scan in the neonatal intensive care unit, and cerebral palsy, microcephaly, and a low score on a Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 24 months. Every blood gas derangement (hypoxemia, hyperoxemia, hypocapnia, hypercapnia, and acidosis) was associated with multiple indicators of brain damage. However, for some, the associations were seen with only 1 day of exposure; others were evident with 2 or more days' exposure. Findings suggest that individual blood gas derangements do not increase brain damage risk. Rather, the multiple derangements associated with indicators of brain damage might be indicators of immaturity/vulnerability and illness severity.

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  17. Ultrasound manifestations of unusual trisomies-excluding trisomy 13, 18, and 21: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Manjiri; Cheng, Edith; Dubinsky, Theodore

    2009-03-01

    Trisomy is the most commonly identified chromosome abnormality, occurring in at least 4% of all clinically recognized pregnancies (1). Most of the trisomies are associated with a single additional chromosome, although 2 other types of trisomic conceptions are occasionally observed, those with 2 additional chromosomes or double trisomy and those with both a normal and trisomic cell line or mosaic trisomies. The adverse effects of trisomy on the phenotype are well established. In this review article, we consider the prevalence of the unusual trisomies (excluding 13, 18, and 21) and present a review of their ultrasound findings.

  18. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  19. Ultrasound characterization of the infertile male testis with rf power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Rondeau, Mark; Coleman, D. J.; Schlegel, Peter

    2002-04-01

    Objective: To investigate and diagnose testicular pathology in patients with testicular dysfunction using the technique of ultrasound power spectrum analysis. Methods: Testicular ultrasound studies with power spectrum tissue characterization analysis were performed on men with testicular abnormalities as well as normal controls. Semen analysis, biopsy data, microscopic intra-operative findings and data pertaining to testicular function were collected for each surgically evaluated subject. Ultrasound data were analyzed for power spectrum characteristics of microscopic scatterer size and concentration within discrete areas of testicular tissue. Results: Patients with varicoceles and greater than 2x106 sperm/ml on semen analysis had larger average scatterer size (107.7 micrometers ) and lower scatterer concentration (-15.02 dB) than non-obstructed, azoospermic patients with varicoceles (92.4 micrometers and -11.41 dB, respectively). Subjects with obstructed azoospermia had slightly larger average tissue scatterer size (108.1 micrometers ) and lower concentration (-15.73 dB) while normal control data revealed intermediate values of size (102.3 micrometers ) and concentration (-13.1 dB) of scatterers. Spectral data from pure testicular seminoma lesions had the lowest average scatterer size (82.3 micrometers ) with low relative concentration (-14.7 dB). Summary: Ultrasound tissue characterization based on RF spectrum analysis may distinguish different types of testicular pathology including obstructed and non-obstructed azoospermia and tissue changes due to varicocele and tumor.

  20. The diagnostic validity of musculoskeletal ultrasound in lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound is considered a reliable, widely available, non-invasive and inexpensive imaging technique for assessing soft tissue involvement in Lateral epicondylalgia. Despite the number of diagnostic studies for Lateral Epicondylalgia, there is no consensus in the current literature on the best abnormal ultrasound findings that confirm lateral epicondylalgia. Methods Eligible studies identified by searching electronic databases, scanning reference lists of articles and chapters on ultrasound in reference books, and consultation of experts in sonography. Three reviewers (VCDIII, KP, KW) independently searched the databases using the agreed search strategy, and independently conducted all stages of article selection. Two reviewers (VCDIII, KP) then screened titles and abstracts to remove obvious irrelevance. Potentially relevant full text publications which met the inclusion criteria were reviewed by the primary investigator (VCDIII) and another reviewer (CGS). Results Among the 15 included diagnostic studies in this review, seven were Level II diagnostic accuracy studies for chronic lateral epicondylalgia based on the National Health and Medical Research Council Hierarchy of Evidence. Based from the pooled sensitivity of abnormal ultrasound findings with homogenous results (p > 0.05), the hypoechogenicity of the common extensor origin has the best combination of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. It is moderately sensitive [Sensitivity: 0.64 (0.56-0.72)] and highly specific [Specificity: 0.82 (0.72-0.90)] in determining elbows with lateral epicondylalgia. Additionally, bone changes on the lateral epicondyle [Sensitivity: 0.56 (0.50-0.62)] were moderately sensitive to chronic LE. Conversely, neovascularity [Specificity: 1.00 (0.97-1.00)], calcifications [Specificity: 0.97 (0.94-0.99)] and cortical irregularities [Specificity: 0.96 (0.88-0.99)] have strong specificity for chronic lateral epicondylalgia. There is insufficient evidence supporting the

  1. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized.

  2. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems

  3. Usefulness of Ultrasound Imaging in Detecting Psoriatic Arthritis of Fingers and Toes in Patients with Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    De simone, Clara; Caldarola, Giacomo; D'Agostino, Magda; Carbone, Angelo; Guerriero, Cristina; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Amerio, Pierluigi; Magarelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Background. Given that clinical evaluation may underestimate the joint damage and that early treatment can slow down psoriatic arthritis (PsA) progression, screening psoriasis patients with imaging tools that can depict early PsA changes would entail clear benefits. Objective. To compare the ability of X-ray and ultrasound (US) examination in detecting morphological abnormalities consistent with early PsA in patients with psoriasis, using rheumatological evaluation as the gold standard for diagnosis. Methods. Patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and no previous PsA diagnosis attending our outpatient dermatology clinic and reporting finger/toe joint and/or tendon pain underwent X-ray and US evaluation; they were subsequently referred to a rheumatologist for clinical examination and review of imaging findings. Results. Abnormal US and/or X-ray findings involving at least one finger and/or toe (joints and/or tendons) were seen in 36/52 patients: 11 had one or more X-ray abnormalities, including erosion, joint space narrowing, new bone formation, periarticular soft tissue swelling, and periarticular osteoporosis; 36 had suspicious changes on US. Conclusion. US proved valuable in detecting joint and/or tendon abnormalities in the fingers and toes of patients with suspicious changes. The dermatologist should consider US to obtain an accurate assessment of suspicious findings. PMID:21461353

  4. The Sherlock Holmes approach to diagnosing fetal syndromes by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Benacerraf, Beryl B

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal detection of fetal anomalies is one of the major goals of obstetrical ultrasound. The primary reason is the options that are often offered to the family and caregivers from therapy in selected cases to special care at delivery to termination of the pregnancy. An important aspect of the diagnosis is to determine whether the anomaly is expected to be lethal or associated with severe physical or mental impediments. This goal is often difficult to accomplish without a clear diagnosis. A systematic approach is essential when an abnormality is first identified sonographically to help the practitioner discover certain patterns of associated defects. The use of this logical and stepwise strategy facilitates arriving at the correct diagnosis of specific syndrome by taking all anatomic findings into account. This process focuses on first pinpointing a key or sentinel feature specific to each syndrome and which can anchor the diagnosis.

  5. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  6. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  7. Molecular profiling of gene copy number abnormalities in key regulatory genes in high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: frequency and their association with clinicopathological findings in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prerana; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2017-05-01

    Genes related to key cellular pathways are frequently altered in B cell ALL and are associated with poor survival especially in high-risk (HR) subgroups. We examined gene copy number abnormalities (CNA) in 101 Indian HR B cell ALL patients and their correlation with clinicopathological features by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, CNA were detected in 59 (59%) cases, with 26, 10 and 23% of cases harboring 1, 2 or +3 CNA. CNA were more prevalent in BCR-ABL1 (60%), pediatric (64%) and high WCC (WBC count) (63%) patients. Frequent genes deletions included CDNK2A/B (26%), IKZF1 (25%), PAX5 (14%), JAK2 (7%), BTG1 (6%), RB1 (5%), EBF1 (4%), ETV6 (4%), while PAR1 region genes were predominantly duplicated (20%). EBF1 deletions selectively associated with adults, IKZF1 deletions occurred frequently in high WCC and BCR-ABL1 cases, while PAR1 region gains significantly associated with MLL-AF4 cases. IKZF1 haploinsufficiency group was predominant, especially in adults (65%), high WCC (60%) patients and BCR-ABL1-negative (78%) patients. Most cases harbored multiple concurrent CNA, with IKZF1 concomitantly occurring with CDNK2A/B, PAX5 and BTG1, while JAK2 occurred with CDNK2A/B and PAX5. Mutually exclusive CNA included ETV6 and IKZF1/RB1, and EBF1 and JAK2. Our results corroborate with global reports, aggregating molecular markers in Indian HR B-ALL cases. Integration of CNA data from rapid methods like MLPA, onto background of existing gold-standard methods detecting significant chromosomal abnormalities, provides a comprehensive genetic profile in B-ALL.

  8. Visualizing ultrasound through computational modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Theresa W.

    2004-01-01

    The Doppler Ultrasound Hematocrit Project (DHP) hopes to find non-invasive methods of determining a person s blood characteristics. Because of the limits of microgravity and the space travel environment, it is important to find non-invasive methods of evaluating the health of persons in space. Presently, there is no well developed method of determining blood composition non-invasively. This projects hopes to use ultrasound and Doppler signals to evaluate the characteristic of hematocrit, the percentage by volume of red blood cells within whole blood. These non-invasive techniques may also be developed to be used on earth for trauma patients where invasive measure might be detrimental. Computational modeling is a useful tool for collecting preliminary information and predictions for the laboratory research. We hope to find and develop a computer program that will be able to simulate the ultrasound signals the project will work with. Simulated models of test conditions will more easily show what might be expected from laboratory results thus help the research group make informed decisions before and during experimentation. There are several existing Matlab based computer programs available, designed to interpret and simulate ultrasound signals. These programs will be evaluated to find which is best suited for the project needs. The criteria of evaluation that will be used are 1) the program must be able to specify transducer properties and specify transmitting and receiving signals, 2) the program must be able to simulate ultrasound signals through different attenuating mediums, 3) the program must be able to process moving targets in order to simulate the Doppler effects that are associated with blood flow, 4) the program should be user friendly and adaptable to various models. After a computer program is chosen, two simulation models will be constructed. These models will simulate and interpret an RF data signal and a Doppler signal.

  9. Rheumatoid shoulder assessed by ultrasonography: prevalence of abnormalities and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Elbinoune, Imane; Amine, Bouchra; Wabi, Moudjibou; Rkain, Hanan; Aktaou, Souad; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The shoulder involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is common. It can be subclinical and compromise the function of the upper limb. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography can detect subclinical abnormalities in rheumatoid shoulder. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of ultrasound abnormalities in rheumatoid shoulder, and investigate their association with different parameters. Methods Cross-sectional study including 37 patients with RA, meeting the ACR/EULAR 2010 classification criteria, who were enrolled during a month. A questionnaire with sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data was filled in for all patients. Ultrasound evaluation was performed by a single experienced operator. For each patient, both of shoulders were evaluated. Results Mean age was 50 years with female predominance. Median disease duration of RA was 7.5 years. All patients had a seropositive form of RA. Mean clinical DAS28 was 5.1. Mean HAQ was 1.2. Thirty-one (83.8%) patients had involvement of the shoulder: unilateral in 9(24.3%) cases and bilateral in 22(59.5%) cases. Synovitis was found in 16(43.2%) patients with Doppler in 4 (10.8%) cases. Sub-acromial bursitis was noted in 14 (37.8%) cases and the effusion in 20 (54.1%). Synovitis was noted especially in elderly individuals (p: 0.01). The Doppler was visualized in elderly patients (p: 0.01), with a shorter disease duration (p: 0.02) and with a high SDAI (p: 0.006). US inflammatory findings in anterior recess of glenohumeral joint were linked to a higher synovial index (p: 0.03) and a higher level of rheumatoid factor (p: 0.01). Conclusion 59.5% of our RA patients had bilateral involvement of the shoulder which was related to the disease activity. Ultrasound should be a systematic tool to look for the involvement of this joint in RA patients. PMID:27800090

  10. Mapping of Autogenous Saphenous Veins as an Imaging Adjunct to Peripheral MR Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease and Peripheral Bypass Grafting: Prospective Comparison with Ultrasound and Intraoperative Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jah-Kabba, Ann-Marie Bintu Munda; Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Hadizadeh, Dariusch Reza; Träber, Frank; Koscielny, Arne; Kabba, Mustapha Sundifu; Verrel, Frauke; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background Mapping of the great saphenous vein is very important for planning of peripheral and coronary bypass surgery. This study investigated mapping of the great saphenous vein as an adjunct to peripheral MR angiography using a blood pool contrast agent in patients who were referred for evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and bypass surgery. Methods 38 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (21 men; mean age: 71 years, range, 44–88 years) underwent peripheral MR angiography using the blood pool contrast agent Gadofosveset trisodium. Apart from primary arterial assessment images were evaluated in order to determine great saphenous vein diameters at three levels: below the saphenofemoral junction, mid thigh and 10 cm above the knee joint (usability: diameter range: >3 and <10 mm at one level and >3.5 and <10 mm at a neighboring level). Duplex ultrasound was performed by an independent examiner providing diameter measurements at the same levels. Additionally, vessel usability was determined intraoperatively by the vascular surgeon during subsequent bypass surgery. Results Mean venous diameters for MR angiography/duplex ultrasound were 5.4±2.6/5.5±2.8 mm (level 1), 4.7±2.7/4.6±2.9 mm (level 2) and 4.4±2.2/4.5±2.3 mm (level 3), respectively, without significant differences between the modalities (P = 0.207/0.806/0.518). Subsequent surgery was performed in 27/38 patients. A suitable saphenous vein was diagnosed in 25 and non-usability was diagnosed in 2 of the 27 patients based on MR angiography/duplex ultrasound, respectively. Usability was confirmed by intraoperative assessment in all of the 24 patients that received a venous bypass graft in subsequent bypass surgery. In 1 case, in which the great saphenous vein was assessed as useable by both MR angiography and duplex ultrasound, it was not used during subsequent bypass surgery due to the patients clinical condition and comorbidities. Conclusion Simultaneous mapping of the

  11. Effects of ultrasound beam angle and surface roughness on the quantitative ultrasound parameters of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kaleva, E; Saarakkala, S; Jurvelin, J S; Virén, T; Töyräs, J

    2009-08-01

    High-resolution arthroscopic ultrasound imaging provides a potential quantitative technique for the diagnostics of early osteoarthritis. However, an uncontrolled, nonperpendicular angle of an ultrasound beam or the natural curvature of the cartilage surface may jeopardize the reliability of the ultrasound measurements. We evaluated systematically the effect of inclining an articular surface on the quantitative ultrasound parameters. Visually intact (n = 8) and mechanically degraded (n = 6) osteochondral bovine patella samples and spontaneously fibrillated (n = 1) and spontaneously proteoglycan depleted (n = 1) osteochondral human tibial samples were imaged using a 50-MHz scanning acoustic system. The surface of each sample was adjusted to predetermined inclination angles (0, 2, 5 and 7 degrees ) and five ultrasound scan lines along the direction of the inclination were analyzed. For each scan line, reflection coefficient (R), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC) and ultrasound roughness index (URI) were calculated. Nonperpendicularity of the cartilage surface was found to affect R, IRC and URI significantly (p < 0.05). Importantly, all ultrasound parameters were able to distinguish (p < 0.05) the mechanically degraded samples from the intact ones even though the angle of incidence of the ultrasound beam varied between 0 and 5 degrees among the samples. Diagnostically, the present findings are important because the natural curvature of the articular surface varies, and a perfect perpendicularity between the ultrasound beam and the surface of the cartilage may be challenging to achieve in a clinical measurement.

  12. Clinical ultrasound physics.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Hefny, Ashraf F; Corr, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the basic physics of ultrasound is essential for acute care physicians. Medical ultrasound machines generate and receive ultrasound waves. Brightness mode (B mode) is the basic mode that is usually used. Ultrasound waves are emitted from piezoelectric crystals of the ultrasound transducer. Depending on the acoustic impedance of different materials, which depends on their density, different grades of white and black images are produced. There are different methods that can control the quality of ultrasound waves including timing of ultrasound wave emission, frequency of waves, and size and curvature of the surface of the transducer. The received ultrasound signal can be amplified by increasing the gain. The operator should know sonographic artifacts which may distort the studied structures or even show unreal ones. The most common artifacts include shadow and enhancement artifacts, edge artifact, mirror artifact and reverberation artifact.

  13. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  14. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  15. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  16. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  17. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  18. Ultrasound diagnosis of cephalopagus conjoined twin pregnancy at 29 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Sabih, D; Ahmad, E; Sabih, A; Sabih, Q

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a case of a cephalopagus conjoined twin that was diagnosed at 29 weeks of gestation despite the mother having had two ultrasounds done previously. The fetus had one head and face, fused thoraces, common umbilicus but had two pelvises and two sets of genitalia. The fetus had four normally formed legs and arms. Antenatal ultrasound images are supplemented by post natal photographs. A review of literature, clues to ultrasound diagnosis and possible causes of missing this significant abnormality until the 3rd trimester are discussed. PMID:21611074

  19. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  20. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Ultrasound of lower limb sports injuries

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neeraj B

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound utilises high-frequency linear transducers to produce high-resolution images of soft tissue structures. It is an increasingly useful tool in the assessment of both acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries; it is relatively cheap, portable and can be used to facilitate targeted injections. In this review paper, we aim to provide a summary on the normal and abnormal appearances of skeletal tissue in the setting of acute and chronic lower limb sporting injuries. PMID:27433251

  2. Endobronchial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Franco; Fois, Flavio; Grosso, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    Complex technical problems interfered with the application of thoracic ultrasound (US) for studies and clinical research. Moreover, in contrast to radiologists, cardiologists, gastroenterologists, internists, obstetricians, gynecologists and others, pulmonologists were not trained in the basics of US images. However, endoscopic US methods were developed in the last 20 years and these methods also provided important results for pulmonologists. As soon as the technical problems interfering with US application in air-containing spaces were solved, endobronchial US (EBUS) became a valuable technique as well. With EBUS, the delicate multilayer structure of the tracheobronchial wall can be analyzed. This knowledge became decisive for the management of early cancer in the central airways. These lesions can undergo local treatment instead of surgical intervention if the bronchial cartilage is intact and if the adjacent lymph nodes are not involved. EBUS proved valuable as well for the staging of more advanced lung cancer, especially with regard to endoluminal, intramural and extraluminal tumor spread. Endobronchial endosonographers are able to diagnose mediastinal lymph nodes similar to the experience of gastrointestinal endosonographers. EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) improved the results of N-staging of lung cancer, especially in difficult lymph node levels without any clear endoscopic landmarks. The possibility of identifying N2 and N3 stages by means of a nonsurgical procedure can modify the management of lung cancer and decrease the number of unnecessary surgical interventions. EBUS can reduce the need for more invasive procedures such as thoracoscopy or mediastinoscopy. It is also useful for biopsying peripheral lesions or solitary pulmonary nodules instead of fluoroscopic guidance and also plays an important role in the strategy of interventional endoscopy.

  3. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  4. Hepatobiliary Ultrasonographic Abnormalities in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Steady State in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoye, Oluwatosin O.; Ndububa, Dennis A.; Yusuf, Musah; Bolarinwa, Rahman A.; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga O.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with structural manifestations in the hepatobiliary axis. This study aimed to investigate the hepatobiliary ultrasonographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle cell anaemia in steady state attending the Haematology clinic of a federal tertiary health institution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material/Methods Basic demographic data as well as right upper abdominal quadrant ultrasonography of 50 consecutive sickle cell anaemia patients were compared with those of 50 age- and sex-matched subjects with HbAA as controls. Results Each of the study groups (patients and controls) comprised of 21 (42%) males and 29 (58%) females. The age range of the patients was 18–45 years with a mean (±SD) of 27.6±7.607 years, while that of the controls was 21–43 years with a mean (±SD) of 28.0±5.079 years (p=0.746). Amongst the patients, 32 (64%) had hepatomegaly, 15 (30%) cholelithiasis and 3 (6%) biliary sludge. Fourteen (28%) of the patients had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. In the control group, one (2%) person had cholelithiasis, one (2%) biliary sludge, one (2%) fatty liver and none hepatomegaly. Forty-seven (94%) of the controls had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of hepatomegaly and cholelithiasis between the patients and controls (p value <0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusions In this study, hepatomegaly, cholelithiasis and biliary sludge were the most common hepatobiliary ultrasound findings in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Ultrasonography is a useful tool for assessing hepatobiliary abnormalities in patients with sickle cell anaemia. PMID:28105246

  5. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING OUTCOME OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED RADIOFREQUENCY HEAT ABLATION FOR TREATMENT OF PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Bucy, Daniel; Pollard, Rachel; Nelson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) parathyroid ablation is a noninvasive treatment for hyperparathyroidism in dogs. There are no published data assessing factors associated with RF parathyroid ablation success or failure in order to guide patient selection and improve outcome. The purpose of this retrospective analytical study was to determine whether imaging findings, biochemical data, or concurrent diseases were associated with RF heat ablation treatment failure. For inclusion in the study, dogs must have had a clinical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, undergone cervical ultrasound and RF ablation of abnormal parathyroid tissue, and must have had at least 3 months of follow-up information available following the date of ultrasound-guided parathyroid ablation. Dogs were grouped based on those with recurrent or persistent hypercalcemia and those without recurrent or persistent hypercalcemia following therapy. Parathyroid nodule size, thyroid lobe size, nodule location, and presence of concurrent disease were recorded. Recurrence of hypercalcemia occurred in 9/32 dogs that had ablation of abnormal parathyroid tissue (28%) and one patient had persistent hypercalcemia (3%) following parathyroid ablation. Nodule width (P = 0.036), height (P = 0.028), and largest cross-sectional area (P = 0.023) were larger in dogs that had recurrent or persistent hypercalcemia following ablation. Hypothyroidism was more common in dogs with recurrent disease (P = 0.044). Radiofrequency ablation was successful in 22/32 (69%) dogs. Larger parathyroid nodule size and/or concurrent hypothyroidism were associated with treatment failure in dogs that underwent ultrasound-guided RF parathyroid nodule ablation.

  6. Ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc ligament.

    PubMed

    Kaicker, Jatin; Zajac, Mercedes; Shergill, Ravi; Choudur, Hema N

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to prospectively evaluate the ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc's ligament in 50 patients (100 ft) with no prior or current ligament injury. Fifty normal asymptomatic patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years were assessed. Three key features were recorded: ultrasound appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament. Patients excluded from this study included pediatric patients and those with history of injury or symptoms related to the foot. The mean right- and left-sided ligament (RT) thickness were 0.096 (0.021) and 0.104 (0.023), respectively. The mean right- and left-sided ligament RT length was 0.54 (0.11) and 0.57 (0.11), respectively. The appearance of the ligament was similar in all patients with a central thin band of hypoechogenicity lined by hyperechoic lines on either side. Understanding the normal appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament in a large sample is imperative to diagnose abnormal appearances of this ligament including sprains and tears by ultrasound. Ultrasound, with its easy accessibility, can be used in the emergency department to rapidly exclude injury of the ligament. Increased understanding and awareness of the Lisfranc's ligament on ultrasound can allow for more accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  7. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  8. The technology and performance of 4D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Obruchkov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in 4D ultrasound imaging technology allow clinicians to obtain not only rich visual information but also quantitative data that can be used for diagnosis and treatment. Some argue that the extension of 2D ultrasound is unnecessary and does not offer any benefits to diagnosis, while others argue that it is possible to better assess an abnormality in 3D than 2D. Anatomy can be reconstructed in perspectives that were never seen with conventional 2D US imaging. Advanced rendering techniques in three dimensions can be customized to be sensitive to specific pathology, thus making diagnosis more accurate. Volume and function of certain anatomical components can be measured with greater accuracy. This article reviews physical principles behind the ultrasound technology, how they are applied to advance the field of ultrasound imaging, and maybe reach its limits. Advances in ultrasound technology make 4D ultrasound imaging faster and less dependent on the operator's expertise, thus opening up more research possibilities in the fields of data processing and visualization. Currently, 4D ultrasound is extensively used in the field of obstetrics and interven-tional radiology. The goal of 4D ultrasound is to overcome the limitations posed by its predecessor technology and to be more clinically useful as an imaging tool.

  9. Changes in and Efficacies of Indications for Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Cytogenomic Abnormalities: 13 Years of Experience in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jinlai; Matarese, Chelsea; Crivello, Julianna; Wilcox, Katherine; Wang, Dongmei; DiAdamo, Autumn; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining

    2015-01-01

    Background Because the future application of cell-free fetal DNA screening is expected to dramatically improve the diagnostic yield and reduce unnecessary invasive procedures, it is time to summarize the indications of invasive prenatal diagnosis. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the changes and efficacies of indications of invasive procedures for detecting cytogenomic abnormalities from 2000 to 2012. Material/Methods From our regional obstetric unit, 7818 invasive procedures were referred by indications of advance maternal age (AMA), abnormal ultrasound findings (aUS), abnormal maternal serum screening (aMSS), and family history (FH). Chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses were performed on chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniotic fluid (AF) specimens at the Yale Cytogenetics Laboratory. The abnormal findings from single or combined indications were compared to evaluate the diagnostic yield. Results The annual caseload declined by 57.2% but the diagnostic yield increased from 7.2% to 13.4%. Chromosomal and genomic abnormalities were detected in 752 cases (9.6%, 752/7818) and 12 cases (4%, 12/303), respectively. Significantly decreased AMA referrals and increased aUS and aMSS referrals were noted. The top 3 indications by diagnostic yield were AMA/aUS (51.4% for CVS, 24.2% for AF), aUS (34.7% for CVS, 14.5% for AF), and AMA/aMSS (17.8% for CVS, 9.9% for AF). Conclusions Over a period of 13 years, the indication of aMSS and aUS were increasing while AMA was decreasing for prenatal diagnosis of cytogenomic abnormalities, and there was a continuous trend of reduced invasive procedures. Prenatal evaluation using AMA/aUS was the most effective in detecting chromosomal abnormalities, but better indications for genomic abnormalities are needed. PMID:26143093

  10. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  11. Errors made in the ultrasound diagnostics of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Joanna; Walas, Maria Krystyna

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonography, like any imaging method, entails the risk of errors. From among all means of imaging, it is the most subjective and dependent on the examiner's knowledge and experience. This paper presents the causes of examiner-dependent errors as well as those which result from technical settings and preparation of the patient for the examination. Moreover, the authors discuss the most frequent errors in the diagnosis of splenic conditions, which result from insufficient knowledge concerning anatomical variants of this organ, wrong measurements and incorrect examination technique. The mistakes made in the differentiation of focal lesions of the spleen and its hilum are also discussed. Additionally, the differentiation of collateral circulation, lymph nodes and accessory spleens is mentioned. The authors also draw attention to erroneous interpretation of the left liver lobe as a fragment of the spleen as well as the prominent tail of the pancreas filled with gastric contents and intestinal loops as abnormal masses or fluid cisterns in the area of the splenic hilum. Furthermore, the pathologies of the hilum are discussed such as tumors of the splenic flexure of the colon, lesions arising from the left kidney or the left adrenal gland. The authors list characteristic imaging features of the most common focal lesions visualized in a standard ultrasound scan as well as enhancement patterns appearing in contrast-enhanced examinations. The article discusses the features and differentiation of, among others, infarction, splenic cysts including hydatid ones, abscesses and angiomas. The ultrasound appearance of lymphoma and secondary involvement of the spleen by other malignant neoplasms is also mentioned. Moreover, the authors provide useful tips connected with imaging techniques and interpretation of the findings. The ultrasound examination carried out in compliance with current standards allows for an optimal assessment of the organ and reduction of the error

  12. Functional and structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract in severely malnourished children - A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Misbah; Moorani, Khemchand N; Sameen, Ifra; Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Kulsoom, Shazia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The association of malnutrition and systemic diseases like chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. Various urinary tract abnormalities may be associated with malnutrition. So objective of current study was to determine the frequency of functional and structural urinary tract abnormalities in severely malnourished children admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) of a tertiary care facility, Karachi. Methods: This descriptive cases series of 78 children was conducted in NRU from October 2014 - March 2015. All newly admitted children aged 2-60 months, diagnosed as Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) were studied and children with known kidney and urinary tract disorders were excluded. Detailed history, examination and investigations like serum creatinine, ultrasound kidney and urinary tract in addition to routine tests for SAM, were done. A proforma was used to collect demographic data, clinical history, physical findings, and radio-imaging and biochemical investigations. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using Schwartz equation. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Among 78 children, male to female ratio was equal. Mean age was 18±15.53 months and majority (79.48%) of children were below 24 months. Majority (82%) of children with SAM had marasmus whereas 18% had edematous malnutrition. Out of 78, 57 (73%) children had either functional (80.7%) and or structural (19.3%) abnormalities whereas 21(36.84%) had normal functional and structural status. Most common functional abnormality was subnormal GFR (<90ml/min/1.73 m2) found in all 46 children. Functional abnormities were more common in children below 24 months. Other functional disorders were Bartter syndrome, renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection (UTI) found in two cases each. Common structural abnormalities were echogenic kidneys (n=4, 36%), hydronephrosis (n=3, 27%), hypoplastic kidneys (n=3, 27%) and calculi (n=1, 9%). Subnormal GFR was also

  13. Prenatal findings of holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Sugiura, Tokio; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a rare brain abnormality characterized by an incomplete cleavage of the primitive prosencephalon of forebrain during early embryogenesis. To determine the clinical characteristics and outcome of fetuses with HPE, we retrospectively analyzed nine patients who were prenatally diagnosed as fetal HPE by ultrasounds. The mean diagnostic weeks were 20 weeks of gestation. Two cases died within one day after birth. The chromosomal examinations were performed in seven cases (trisomy 18: n = 2; trisomy 13: n = 2; 45,XX,der(18)t(18;21)(p10;p10)mat: n = 1; normal karyotype: n = 2). In our HPE cases, most cases had serious facial anomalies and poor prognosis. Our data suggested that the early prenatal diagnosis of HPE allowed time for parental counseling and delivery planning.

  14. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  15. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-05-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin.

  16. [Consanguinity and congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Marie; Vedsted-Jakobsen, Agnete

    2003-04-28

    Knowledge of consanguinity is relevant for employees in the Danish national health service, since about 7.5% of the Danish population has another ethnic background than Danish and the majority comes from cultures where consanguineous marriages are not unusual. In the literature it is found that consanguineous couples have a higher risk of having children with congenital malformations. The risk is increased by a factor 2 to 2 1/2. The average risk in Denmark is about 3%. Primarily, the autosomal recessive diseases are expressed in children with consanguineous parents. In order to advise and diagnose it is essential to clarify the consanguinity state. In case of pregnancy with consanguineous parents, we recommend: 1) Counselling to estimate the risk of foetal illness and information about possible examination possibilities. 2) An ultrasound scan at the gestational age of 11-14 weeks in order to measure nuchal translucency and an early malformation scan. 3) An ultrasound scan for malformations at the gestational age of 18-20 weeks. 4) An ultrasound scan especially in order to detect foetal heart malformations at the gestational age of 20-24 weeks.

  17. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  18. Fortuitous Diagnosis of Preexisting Neuropathy During Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia Performance: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Marty, Philippe; Basset, Bertrand; Marquis, Constance; Merouani, Medhi; Rontes, Olivier; Delbos, Alain

    2017-03-31

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia requires the anesthesia provider to interpret new information. This article reports on the case of a 38-year-old man scheduled for a fifth metacarpal fracture repair. Ultrasound nerve examination revealed abnormal pathology of the axillary brachial plexus consisting of an increased volume of the terminal nerves of the brachial plexus. Ultrasound scanning initiated the subsequent diagnosis of multifocal motor neuropathy. Regional anesthesia was abandoned in favor of general anesthesia. Ultrasonography training needs to be expanded in the coming years to include awareness of the abnormal pathology, as it might impact the choice of anesthetic procedure and patient outcome.

  19. Artificial Neural Network Application in the Diagnosis of Disease Conditions with Liver Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Ramachandra Dattatraya; Joshi, Mukund; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary study presented within this paper shows a comparative study of various texture features extracted from liver ultrasonic images by employing Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), a type of artificial neural network, to study the presence of disease conditions. An ultrasound (US) image shows echo-texture patterns, which defines the organ characteristics. Ultrasound images of liver disease conditions such as “fatty liver,” “cirrhosis,” and “hepatomegaly” produce distinctive echo patterns. However, various ultrasound imaging artifacts and speckle noise make these echo-texture patterns difficult to identify and often hard to distinguish visually. Here, based on the extracted features from the ultrasonic images, we employed an artificial neural network for the diagnosis of disease conditions in liver and finding of the best classifier that distinguishes between abnormal and normal conditions of the liver. Comparison of the overall performance of all the feature classifiers concluded that “mixed feature set” is the best feature set. It showed an excellent rate of accuracy for the training data set. The gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) feature shows better results when the network was tested against unknown data. PMID:25332717

  20. First Trimester Ultrasound in Prenatal Diagnosis-Part of the Turning Pyramid of Prenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Ran

    2014-09-05

    First-trimester sonographic assessment of the risk of chromosomal abnormalities is routinely performed throughout the world, primarily by measuring fetal nuchal translucency thickness between 11-13 weeks' gestation, combined with assessment of serum markers. The development of high-frequency transvaginal transducers has led to improved ultrasound resolution and better visualization of fetal anatomy during the first-trimester. Continuous improvement in ultrasound technology allows a thorough detailed assessment of fetal anatomy at the time of the nuchal translucency study. Using transabdominal or transvaginal sonography, or a combination of both approaches, it is now possible to diagnose a wide range of fetal anomalies during the first trimester. Multiple studies reported early diagnosis of major fetal anomalies after demonstrating the association of increased nuchal translucency thickness with structural defect in chromosomally normal and abnormal fetuses. Normal sonographic findings provide reassurance for women at high risk while detection of fetal malformation during the first trimester enables discussion and decisions about possible treatments and interventions, including termination of pregnancy, during an early stage of pregnancy.

  1. First Trimester Ultrasound in Prenatal Diagnosis—Part of the Turning Pyramid of Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Neiger, Ran

    2014-01-01

    First-trimester sonographic assessment of the risk of chromosomal abnormalities is routinely performed throughout the world, primarily by measuring fetal nuchal translucency thickness between 11–13 weeks’ gestation, combined with assessment of serum markers. The development of high-frequency transvaginal transducers has led to improved ultrasound resolution and better visualization of fetal anatomy during the first-trimester. Continuous improvement in ultrasound technology allows a thorough detailed assessment of fetal anatomy at the time of the nuchal translucency study. Using transabdominal or transvaginal sonography, or a combination of both approaches, it is now possible to diagnose a wide range of fetal anomalies during the first trimester. Multiple studies reported early diagnosis of major fetal anomalies after demonstrating the association of increased nuchal translucency thickness with structural defect in chromosomally normal and abnormal fetuses. Normal sonographic findings provide reassurance for women at high risk while detection of fetal malformation during the first trimester enables discussion and decisions about possible treatments and interventions, including termination of pregnancy, during an early stage of pregnancy. PMID:26237489

  2. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  3. [Ultrasound in pediatric dermatology].

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, F J; Muñoz-Garza, F Z; Hernández-Martín, A

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous ultrasound is particularly useful in pediatric dermatology to diagnose numerous diseases without the need to use invasive tests. The present articles reviews some frequent dermatological entities in children whose study can be simplified through cutaneous ultrasound. This article also provides practical recommendations reported in the literature that may facilitate ultrasound examination, with special mention of benign tumoural disease, both congenital and acquired, and vascular anomalies.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  5. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  6. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.

  7. Intravascular ultrasound imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaye, D.M.; White, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This book will give vascular surgeons, cardiologists, radiologists, and technologists a complete working knowledge of intravascular ultrasound imaging and the crucial role of this new technology in endovascular diagnosis and therapy. The book reviews the essential principles of vascular pathology and ultrasound imaging and then provides state-of-the-art information on intraluminal ultrasound imaging devices and techniques, including practical guidelines for using catheters, optimizing image quality, and avoiding artifacts. Image interpretation and computerized image reconstruction are also discussed in detail. The first section explains the diagnostic, therapeutic, and experimental applications of intravascular ultrasound, particularly as a adjunct to angioplasty and other current interventional procedures.

  8. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  9. Use of high‐frequency ultrasound to study the prenatal development of cranial neural tube defects and hydrocephalus in Gldc‐deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Autuori, Maria C.; Pai, Yun J.; Stuckey, Daniel J.; Savery, Dawn; Marconi, Anna M.; Massa, Valentina; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Copp, Andrew J.; David, Anna L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective We used non‐invasive high‐frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging to investigate embryonic brain development in a mouse model for neural tube defects (NTDs) and non‐ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Method Using HFUS, we imaged embryos carrying loss of function alleles of Gldc encoding glycine decarboxylase, a component of the glycine cleavage system in mitochondrial folate metabolism, which is known to be associated with cranial NTDs and NKH in humans. We serially examined the same litter during the second half of embryonic development and quantified cerebral structures. Genotype was confirmed using PCR. Histology was used to confirm ultrasound findings. Results High‐frequency ultrasound allowed in utero detection of two major brain abnormalities in Gldc‐deficient mouse embryos, cranial NTDs (exencephaly) and ventriculomegaly (corresponding with the previous finding of post‐natal hydrocephalus). Serial ultrasound allowed individual embryos to be analysed at successive gestational time points. From embryonic day 16.5 to 18.5, the lateral ventricle volume reduced in wild‐type and heterozygous embryos but increased in homozygous Gldc‐deficient embryos. Conclusion Exencephaly and ventriculomegaly were detectable by HFUS in homozygous Gldc‐deficient mouse embryos indicating this to be an effective tool to study CNS development. Longitudinal analysis of the same embryo allowed the prenatal onset and progression of ventricle enlargement in Gldc‐deficient mice to be determined. © 2017 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:28056489

  10. Ultrasound for patients in a high HIV/tuberculosis prevalence setting: a needs assessment and review of focused applications for Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tom; Mtemang'ombe, Eric A; Huson, Michaëla A M; Heuvelings, Charlotte C; Bélard, Sabine; Janssen, Saskia; Phiri, Sam; Grobusch, Martin P

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly used in point-of-care applications and has great potential to support the diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 100 Malawian patients with a clinical indication for ultrasound. Furthermore, the literature on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in Sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to establish its applicability, most frequent indications, findings, and implications for treatment, and therefore relevance in POCUS curricula, with a main focus on infectious diseases. In Malawi, the main indications for ultrasound were weight loss, abdominal pain, and shortness of breath. Abnormal findings were observed in 77% of patients, the most common being enlarged abdominal lymph nodes (n=17), pericardial effusion (n=15), splenic microabscesses (n=15), and pleural effusion (n=14). POCUS led to a change in treatment in 72% of patients. The literature on the various POCUS applications used in Malawi was reviewed, including focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB (FASH), heart, liver, kidney, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and gynaecology. Based on disease prevalence, impact of POCUS on treatment, and technical difficulty, it is proposed that FASH, heart, and DVT are the most relevant POCUS applications in comparable Sub-Saharan African settings and should be incorporated in POCUS curricula.

  11. Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE): First Clinical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, N.; Littrup, P.; Rama, O.; Holsapple, E.

    The Karmanos Cancer Institute has developed an ultrasound (US) tomography system, known as Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE), for detecting and evaluating breast cancer, with the eventual goal of providing improved differentiation of benign masses from cancer. We report on our first clinical findings with CURE.

  12. Local frequency dependence in transcranial ultrasound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. J.; Clement, G. T.; Hynynen, K.

    2006-05-01

    The development of large-aperture multiple-source transducer arrays for ultrasound transmission through the human skull has demonstrated the possibility of controlled and substantial acoustic energy delivery into the brain parenchyma without the necessitation of a craniotomy. The individual control of acoustic parameters from each ultrasound source allows for the correction of distortions arising from transmission through the skull bone and also opens up the possibility for electronic steering of the acoustic focus within the brain. In addition, the capability to adjust the frequency of insonation at different locations on the skull can have an effect on ultrasound transmission. To determine the efficacy and applicability of a multiple-frequency approach with such a device, this study examined the frequency dependence of ultrasound transmission in the range of 0.6-1.4 MHz through a series of 17 points on four ex vivo human skulls. Effects beyond those that are characteristic of frequency-dependent attenuation were examined. Using broadband pulses, it was shown that the reflected spectra from the skull revealed information regarding ultrasound transmission at specific frequencies. A multiple-frequency insonation with optimized frequencies over the entirety of five skull specimens was found to yield on average a temporally brief 230% increase in the transmitted intensity with an 88% decrease in time-averaged intensity transmission within the focal volume. This finding demonstrates a potential applicability of a multiple-frequency approach in transcranial ultrasound transmission.

  13. Local Frequency Dependence in Transcranial Ultrasound Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. J.; Clement, G. T.; Hynynen, K.

    2006-05-01

    The development of large-aperture multiple-source transducer arrays for ultrasound transmission through the human skull has demonstrated the possibility of controlled and substantial acoustic energy delivery into the brain parenchyma without the necessitation of a craniotomy. The individual control of acoustic parameters from each ultrasound source allows for the correction of distortions arising from transmission through the skull bone and also opens up the possibility for electronic steering of the acoustic focus within the brain. In addition, the capability to adjust the frequency of sonication at different locations on the skull can have an effect on ultrasound transmission. To determine the efficacy and applicability of a multiple-frequency approach with such a device, this study examined the frequency dependence of ultrasound transmission in the range of 0.6-1.4 MHz through a series of seventeen points on four ex vivo human skulls. Effects beyond those that are characteristic of frequency-dependent attenuation were examined. Using broadband pulses, it was shown that the reflected spectra from the skull revealed information regarding ultrasound transmission at specific frequencies. This finding demonstrates a potential applicability of a multiple-frequency approach in transcranial ultrasound transmission.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of foetuses with congenital abnormalities and duplication of the MECP2 region.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fang; Liu, Huan-ling; Li, Ru; Han, Jin; Yang, Xin; Min, Pan; Zhen, Li; Zhang, Yong-ling; Xie, Gui-e; Lei, Ting-ying; Li, Yan; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-zhi; Liao, Can

    2014-08-10

    MECP2 duplication results in a well-recognised syndrome in 100% of affected male children; this syndrome is characterised by severe neurodevelopmental disabilities and recurrent infections. However, no sonographic findings have been reported for affected foetuses, and prenatal molecular diagnosis has not been possible for this disease due to lack of prenatal clinical presentation. In this study, we identified a small duplication comprising the MECP2 and L1CAM genes in the Xq28 region in a patient from a family with severe X-linked mental retardation and in a prenatal foetus with brain structural abnormalities. Using high-resolution chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) to screen 108 foetuses with congenital structural abnormalities, we identified additional three foetuses with the MECP2 duplication. Our study indicates that ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, choroid plexus cysts, foetal growth restriction and hydronephrosis might be common ultrasound findings in prenatal foetuses with the MECP2 duplication and provides the first set of prenatal cases with MECP2 duplication, the ultrasonographic phenotype described in these patients will help to recognise the foetuses with possible MECP2 duplication and prompt the appropriate molecular testing.

  15. Endovaginal ultrasound-assisted pain mapping in endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Yong, P J; Sutton, C; Suen, M; Williams, C

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the combination of tenderness-guided endovaginal ultrasound and digital pelvic exam (i.e. EVUS-assisted exam) for preoperative pain mapping, in cases without nodules or endometriomas, increases sensitivity/specificity for laparoscopic findings. This was a retrospective review of women with chronic pelvic pain ± infertility with preoperative pain mapping exam prior to laparoscopy (n = 97, 2006-7). Predictor variables (EVUS-assisted exam vs digital pelvic exam alone, for pain mapping) were coded as tender vs non-tender. Primary outcome was findings on laparoscopy (e.g. endometriosis or adhesions) and was coded as abnormal vs normal. We found that EVUS-assisted exam had greater sensitivity (0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.89) for abnormal laparoscopy compared with digital pelvic exam alone (0.58, 95% CI: 0.46-0.69) (McNemar's test, p < 0.001). Specificity was limited for both types of pain mapping (0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.44 for EVUS-assisted; and 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20-0.61 for digital), with no significant difference (p = 0.13). In conclusion, in the absence of nodules or endometriomas, EVUS-assisted exam increases sensitivity, but with no benefit in specificity, for prediction of abnormal laparoscopy.

  16. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  17. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  18. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  19. Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal

    MedlinePlus

    ... pelvic ultrasound. In: Lumb P, Karakitsos D, eds. Critical Care Ultrasound. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 43. Review Date 3/4/2016 Updated by: Irina Burd, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, ...

  20. An open access thyroid ultrasound image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, Lina; Vargas, Carlos; Narváez, Fabián.; Durán, Oscar; Muñoz, Emma; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD) have been developed to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities and a large number of pattern recognition techniques have been proposed to obtain a second opinion. Most of these strategies have been evaluated using different datasets making their performance incomparable. In this work, an open access database of thyroid ultrasound images is presented. The dataset consists of a set of B-mode Ultrasound images, including a complete annotation and diagnostic description of suspicious thyroid lesions by expert radiologists. Several types of lesions as thyroiditis, cystic nodules, adenomas and thyroid cancers were included while an accurate lesion delineation is provided in XML format. The diagnostic description of malignant lesions was confirmed by biopsy. The proposed new database is expected to be a resource for the community to assess different CAD systems.

  1. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  2. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  3. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A; Varma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  4. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  5. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  6. Safety of Microbubbles and Transcranial Ultrasound in Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, William C.; Brown, Aliza T.; Hennings, Leah; Lowery, John; Culp, Benjamin C.; Erdem, Eren; Roberson, Paula; Matsunaga, Terry O.

    2007-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the safety of large doses of microbubbles and ultrasound administered to the head of rabbits as if they were receiving acute stroke therapy of a similar nature. Materials and Methods: Female New Zealand White rabbits were used, N=24, in three groups 1] n=4 control (no treatment), 2] n=10 bubble control (ultrasound plus aspirin), and 3] n=10 target group (ultrasound plus aspirin plus MRX-815 microbubbles). Group 3 was infused with IV bubbles over 1 hour at 0.16cc/kg. Ultrasound was delivered to the dehaired side of the head during bubble infusion and for 1 additional hour at 0.8 W/cm2 20% pulsed wave. Rabbits survived for 22 to 24 hours, were imaged with computerized tomography and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging including contrast studies, and sacrificed. Tetrazolium (TTC) and Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) sections were made for pathological examination. Results: All 24 animals showed absence of bleeding, endothelial damage, EKG abnormalities, stroke, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, or other acute abnormalities. CT and MRI showed no bleeding or signs of stroke, but two animals had mild hydrocephalus. The EKGs showed normal variation in QTc. Rabbit behavior was normal in all. Minimal chronic inflammation unrelated to the study was seen in 5. Two animals were excluded because of protocol violations and replaced during the study. Conclusion: The administered dose of microbubbles and ultrasound demonstrated no detrimental effects on the healthy rabbit animal model.

  7. Ultrasound in regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, J; Nicholls, B

    2010-04-01

    Ultrasound guidance is rapidly becoming the gold standard for regional anaesthesia. There is an ever growing weight of evidence, matched with improving technology, to show that the use of ultrasound has significant benefits over conventional techniques, such as nerve stimulation and loss of resistance. The improved safety and efficacy that ultrasound brings to regional anaesthesia will help promote its use and realise the benefits that regional anaesthesia has over general anaesthesia, such as decreased morbidity and mortality, superior postoperative analgesia, cost-effectiveness, decreased postoperative complications and an improved postoperative course. In this review we consider the evidence behind the improved safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, before discussing its use in pain medicine, paediatrics and in the facilitation of neuraxial blockade. The Achilles' heel of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is that anaesthetists are far more familiar with providing general anaesthesia, which in most cases requires skills that are achieved faster and more reliably. To this ends we go on to provide practical advice on ultrasound-guided techniques and the introduction of ultrasound into a department.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Secondary Ultrasound Exam in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Kanafi, Alireza; Giti, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Mohammad Hossein; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background: In stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, accurate diagnosis of visceral injuries is crucial. Objectives: To determine whether repeating ultrasound exam will increase the sensitivity of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) through revealing additional free intraperitoneal fluid in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective observational study by performing primary and secondary ultrasound exams in blunt abdominal trauma patients. All ultrasound exams were performed by four radiology residents who had the experience of more than 400 FAST exams. Five routine intraperitoneal spaces as well as the interloop space were examined by ultrasound in order to find free fluid. All patients who expired or were transferred to the operating room before the second exam were excluded from the study. All positive ultrasound results were compared with intra-operative and computed tomography (CT) findings and/or the clinical status of the patients. Results: Primary ultrasound was performed in 372 patients; 61 of them did not undergo secondary ultrasound exam; thus, were excluded from the study.Three hundred eleven patients underwent both primary and secondary ultrasound exams. One hundred and two of all patients were evaluated by contrast enhanced CT scan and 31 underwent laparotomy. The sensitivity of ultrasound exam in detecting intraperitoneal fluid significantly increased from 70.7% for the primary exam to 92.7% for the secondary exam. Examining the interloop space significantly improved the sensitivity of ultrasonography in both primary (from 36.6% to 70.7%) and secondary (from 65.9% to 92.7%) exams. Conclusions: Performing a secondary ultrasound exam in stable blunt abdominal trauma patients and adding interloop space scan to the routine FAST exam significantly increases the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting intraperitoneal free fluid. PMID:25763079

  9. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  10. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  11. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  12. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Spleen examination.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Joanna; Walas, Maria Krystyna

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound scan of the spleen is an integral part of the overall abdominal examination. Due to its anatomical position, physical examination of the spleen is frequently supplemented with an ultrasound which plays a special role in the differential diagnostics of splenic diseases and facilitates the determination of further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Similarly to other types of ultrasound scans, the examiner should be familiar with all significant clinical information as well as results of examinations and tests conducted so far. This enables to narrow the scope of search for etiological factors and indicate specific disease entities in the findings as well as allows for accurate assessment of coexistent pathologies. The article presents the standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society concerning the apparatus, preparation for the examination, technique and description of the findings. The authors discuss the normal anatomy of the spleen and the most common pathologies ranging from splenomegaly to splenic traumas. The indications for the contrast-enhanced ultrasound and characteristic patterns of enhancement of individual focal lesions are presented. This article is supplemented with photographic documentation, which provides images of the discussed lesions. The ultrasound examination, if carried out in compliance with current standards, allows for accurate interpretation of detected changes. This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated with the current knowledge.

  13. Ultrasound mediated transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Khoury, Luai; Enden, Giora; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injections. However, the stratum corneum serves as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances to the skin. Application of ultrasound (US) irradiation to the skin increases its permeability (sonophoresis) and enables the delivery of various substances into and through the skin. This review presents the main findings in the field of sonophoresis in transdermal drug delivery as well as transdermal monitoring and the mathematical models associated with this field. Particular attention is paid to the proposed enhancement mechanisms and future trends in the fields of cutaneous vaccination and gene therapy.

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Renal lymphoma imaged by ultrasound and Gallium-67

    SciTech Connect

    Shirkhoda, A.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-10-01

    Lymphomatous involvement of the kidneys, usually a secondary process, may be seen as single or multiple sonolucent or weakly echogenic masses on ultrasound. The majority of these patients have a known diagnosis of lymphoma and are being evaluated for change in nodal mass size, flank pain, and/or deteriorating renal function. Occasionally, these masses are discovered on an excretory urogram and are further investigated with ultrasound. The ultrasound findings may be confirmed with gallium scanning. Five such cases are presented along with the ultrasonic and gallium scan findings.

  16. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... A radiologist (a doctor who's specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray and ultrasound images) will ...

  19. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... radiologist (a doctor who is specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray and ultrasound images) will ...

  20. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... A radiologist (a doctor who's specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray and ultrasound images) will ...

  1. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... A radiologist (a doctor who's specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray, ultrasound, and other imaging ...

  2. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg – a condition often referred to as deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation ... leg. This condition is often referred to as deep vein thrombosis or DVT. These clots may break ...

  3. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pelvic area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  4. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  5. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  6. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... hip area, and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  8. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  9. [Crohn disease: diagnosis by graded compression ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Tarján, Z; Makó, E; Dévai, T; Tulassay, Z

    1995-08-27

    Fifty-four patients with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel underwent ultrasound examination with graded compression. The pathologic sonographic findings were compared with the clinical, endoscopic and in 32 cases with the parallel performed CT and selective enterographic examinations. Of the 29 proven cases of Crohn's disease 26 (89.7%) had bowel wall thickening detectable with US. The change in the bowel wall structure correlated to the stage of the disease. The luminal narrowing, the mesenteric involvement, the enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes, the abscesses and fistulas were judged easily, but the length and the location of the bowel segment were estimated only approximately. The characteristic but nonspecific signs observed by ultrasound were found to be a useful adjunct to the endoscopic and roentgen examinations. The ultrasound with graded compression in our view is a well usable alternative method for both diagnosis and follow-up, informing about the transmural spread of the pathology.

  10. Pelvic ultrasound immediately following MDCT in female patients with abdominal/pelvic pain: is it always necessary?

    PubMed

    Yitta, Silaja; Mausner, Elizabeth V; Kim, Alice; Kim, Danny; Babb, James S; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Genevieve L

    2011-10-01

    To determine the added value of reimaging the female pelvis with ultrasound (US) immediately following multidetector CT (MDCT) in the emergent setting. CT and US exams of 70 patients who underwent MDCT for evaluation of abdominal/pelvic pain followed by pelvic ultrasound within 48 h were retrospectively reviewed by three readers. Initially, only the CT images were reviewed followed by evaluation of CT images in conjunction with US images. Diagnostic confidence was recorded for each reading and an exact Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare the two. Changes in diagnosis based on combined CT and US readings versus CT readings alone were identified. Confidence intervals (95%) were derived for the percentage of times US reimaging can be expected to lead to a change in diagnosis relative to the diagnosis based on CT interpretation alone. Ultrasound changed the diagnosis for the ovaries/adnexa 8.1% of the time (three reader average); the majority being cases of a suspected CT abnormality found to be normal on US. Ultrasound changed the diagnosis for the uterus 11.9% of the time (three reader average); the majority related to the endometrial canal. The 95% confidence intervals for the ovaries/adnexa and uterus were 5-12.5% and 8-17%, respectively. Ten cases of a normal CT were followed by a normal US with 100% agreement across all three readers. Experienced readers correctly diagnosed ruptured ovarian cysts and tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) based on CT alone with 100% agreement. US reimaging after MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis is not helpful: (1) following a normal CT of the pelvic organs or (2) when CT findings are diagnostic and/or characteristic of certain entities such as ruptured cysts and TOA. Reimaging with ultrasound is warranted for (1) less-experienced readers to improve diagnostic confidence or when CT findings are not definitive, (2) further evaluation of suspected endometrial abnormalities. A distinction should be made between the need for

  11. Ultrasound in trauma.

    PubMed

    Rippey, James C R; Royse, Alistair G

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound is well suited for use in the emergency setting for assessment of the trauma patient. Currently, portable ultrasound machines with high-resolution imaging capability allow trauma patients to be imaged in the pre-hospital setting, emergency departments and operating theatres. In major trauma, ultrasound is used to diagnose life-threatening conditions and to prioritise and guide appropriate interventions. Assessment of the basic haemodynamic state is a very important part of ultrasound use in trauma, but is discussed in more detail elsewhere. Focussed assessment with sonography for Trauma (FAST) rapidly assesses for haemoperitoneum and haemopericardium, and the Extended FAST examination (EFAST) explores for haemothorax, pneumothorax and intravascular filling status. In regional trauma, ultrasound can be used to detect fractures, many vascular injuries, musculoskeletal injuries, testicular injuries and can assess foetal viability in pregnant trauma patients. Ultrasound can also be used at the bedside to guide procedures in trauma, including nerve blocks and vascular access. Importantly, these examinations are being performed by the treating physician in real time, allowing for immediate changes to management of the patient. Controversy remains in determining the best training to ensure competence in this user-dependent imaging modality.

  12. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  13. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities.

  14. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  15. Role of diagnostic ultrasound in the assessment of musculoskeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    The wide availability and recent improvement in technology coupled with portability, low cost and safety makes ultrasound the first choice imaging investigation for the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases. Diagnostic use of ultrasound findings is greatly enhanced by knowledge of the clinical presentation. Conversely, ultrasound skills with its prerequisite anatomical knowledge make the clinical diagnosis more precise and reduce uncertainty in the choice of therapy. Therefore, it is essential for rheumatologists to acquire ultrasonography skills in order to improve patient care. Ultrasound examination provides an excellent opportunity for patient education and to explain the rationale for therapy. This review summarizes the indications for musculoskeletal ultrasound and describes its role in diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. PMID:23024711

  16. Comparative study of ultrasound and computed tomography for incidentally detecting diffuse thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin; Ha, Tae Kwun; Park, Ha Kyoung; Kang, Taewoo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of thyroid ultrasound (US) and neck computed tomography (CT) in incidentally detecting diffuse thyroid disease (DTD). A single radiologist made US and CT diagnoses of incidentally detected DTD in 130 consecutive patients before thyroidectomy for various malignancies. Histopathologic examinations confirmed normal thyroid (n = 80), Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 20), non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 28) and diffuse hyperplasia (n = 2). Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the best diagnostic indices of both imaging methods were achieved on the basis of two or more abnormal imaging findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of US and CT in incidentally detecting DTD by this classification were 72% and 72%, 87.5% and 91.3% and 81.5% and 83.8%, respectively. Thyroid US and neck CT have similar diagnostic values for differentiating incidental DTD from normal thyroid.

  17. Ocular findings in conjoined (Siamese) twins.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mansour, N; Rosenberg, H S

    1991-01-01

    Conjoined twinning is a rare form of congenital anomaly. The ocular findings in six sets of conjoined twins as well as those reported elsewhere include abnormal optic nerve decussation, pseudosynophthalmos, microphthalmia, abnormal eyelids, orbital encephalocele, occipital encephalocele, and eyelid coloboma. These findings are interpreted as due to deformations from appositional fusion-related factors or malformations from developmental factors.

  18. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  19. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  20. The role of ultrasound in women who undergo cell-free DNA screening.

    PubMed

    Norton, Mary E; Biggio, Joseph R; Kuller, Jeffrey A; Blackwell, Sean C

    2017-03-01

    The introduction of cell-free DNA screening for aneuploidy into obstetric practice in 2011 revolutionized the strategies utilized for prenatal testing. The purpose of this document is to review the current data on the role of ultrasound in women who have undergone or are considering cell-free DNA screening. The following are Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine recommendations: (1) in women who have already received a negative cell-free DNA screening screen, ultrasound at 11-14 weeks of gestation solely for the purpose of nuchal translucency measurement (Current Procedural Terminology code 76813) is not recommended (grade 1B); (2) we recommend that diagnostic testing should not be recommended to patients solely for the indication of an isolated soft marker in the setting of a negative cell-free DNA screen (grade 2B); (3) in women with an isolated soft marker without other clinical implications (ie, choroid plexus cyst or echogenic intracardiac focus) and a negative cell-free DNA screen, we recommend describing the finding as not clinically significant or as a normal variant (grade 2B); (4) in women with an isolated soft marker that has no other clinical implication (ie, choroid plexus cyst or echogenic intracardiac focus) and a negative first- or second-trimester screening result, we recommend describing the finding as not clinically significant or as a normal variant (grade 2B); (5) we recommend that all women in whom a structural abnormality is identified by ultrasound should be offered diagnostic testing with chromosomal microarray (grade 1A); and (6) we recommend against routine screening for microdeletions with cell-free DNA screening (grade 1B).

  1. Neonatal outcome of fetuses with urinary tract abnormalities diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, B T; De Maria, J; Toi, A; Stafford, A; Hunter, D; Caco, C

    1987-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1986 an abnormality of the urinary tract was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination in 93 fetuses. Postnatal investigation at a large teaching hospital showed a definite abnormality in 85 infants, 66 of whom were boys. An obstructed urinary tract, usually requiring surgery, was present in 46 infants. Other abnormalities included a multicystic kidney (in 15 infants), vesicoureteric reflux (in 9), prune-belly syndrome (in 5) and polycystic kidneys (in 5). Early recognition and treatment of urinary tract disorders in infants should be accompanied by informed prenatal counselling to minimize parents' anxiety. PMID:3297273

  2. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  3. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  4. Portable Ultrasound Imaging of the Brain for Use in Forward Battlefield Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    REPORT DATE: TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702...accurately and precisely imaged, along with all abnormalities currently detectable with ultrasound only after craniotomy, or in pediatric cranial ultrasound

  5. Emergency Point-of-Care Ultrasound Detection of Cancer in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jamjoom, Roaa S; Etoom, Yousef; Solano, Tanya; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Fischer, Jason W

    2015-08-01

    The use of point-of-care ultrasound in the pediatric emergency department is evolving beyond conventional applications as users become more expert with the technology. In this case series, we describe the potential utility of recognizing abnormal anatomy to impact care in the context of possible cancer in pediatric patients. We describe 4 patients with Langerhans histiocytosis, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma, in which point-of-care ultrasound was used to facilitate the diagnoses.

  6. Tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with a pulsating artery: effectiveness of high-resolution ultrasound in diagnosing tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkuk; Childers, Martin K

    2010-01-01

    We describe a patient with tarsal tunnel syndrome in whom ultrasound imaging revealed compression of the posterior tibial nerve by a pulsating artery. High-resolution ultrasound showed a round pulsating hypoechoic lesion in contact with the posterior tibial nerve. Ultrasound-guided injection of 0.5% lidocaine temporarily resolved the paresthesia. These findings suggest an arterial etiology of tarsal tunnel syndrome.

  7. Hand ultrasound: a high-fidelity simulation of lung sliding.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Simulation training has been effectively used to integrate didactic knowledge and technical skills in emergency and critical care medicine. In this article, we introduce a novel model of simulating lung ultrasound and the features of lung sliding and pneumothorax by performing a hand ultrasound. The simulation model involves scanning the palmar aspect of the hand to create normal lung sliding in varying modes of scanning and to mimic ultrasound features of pneumothorax, including "stratosphere/barcode sign" and "lung point." The simple, reproducible, and readily available simulation model we describe demonstrates a high-fidelity simulation surrogate that can be used to rapidly illustrate the signs of normal and abnormal lung sliding at the bedside.

  8. A novel software-based technique for quantifying placental calcifications and infarctions from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John T.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Higgins, Mary; Stanton, Marie; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    In obstetrics, antenatal ultrasound assessment of placental morphology comprises an important part of the estimation of fetal health. Ultrasound analysis of the placenta may reveal abnormalities such as placental calcification and infarcts. Current methods of quantification of these abnormalities are subjective and involve a grading system of Grannum stages I-III. The aim of this project is to develop a software tool that quantifies semi-automatically placental ultrasound images and facilitates the assessment of placental morphology. We have developed a 2D ultrasound imaging software tool that allows the obstetrician or sonographer to define the placental region of interest. A secondary reference map is created for use in our quantification algorithm. Using a slider technique the user can easily define an upper threshold based on high intensity for calcification classification and a lower threshold to define infarction regions based on low intensity within the defined region of interest. The percentage of the placental area that is calcified and also the percentage of infarction is calculated and this is the basis of our new metric. Ultrasound images of abnormal and normal placentas have been acquired to aid our software development. A full clinical prospective evaluation is currently being performed and we are currently applying this technology to the three-dimensional ultrasound domain. We have developed a novel software-based technique for calculating the extent of placental calcification and infarction, providing a new metric in this field. Our new metric may provide a more accurate measurement of placental calcification and infarction than current techniques.

  9. Morphology of the adrenal medulla indicating multiple neuroectodermal abnormalities in pheochromocytoma patients.

    PubMed

    Jansson, S; Tisell, L E; Hansson, G

    1988-01-01

    25 of 85 (29.4%) consecutive patients operated on for pheochromocytoma had other neuroectodermal abnormalities. Medullary thyroid carcinoma was the most common associated neuroectodermal abnormality followed by von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. Other abnormalities were intracranial tumors, parathyroid hyperplasia and midgut carcinoid. The adrenal medulla was studied to find out morphological characteristics in patients with associated neuroectodermal abnormalities. All patients with multiple pheochromocytomas (n = 7) and all patients with hyperplasia of the extratumoral adrenal medulla (n = 13) had other neuroectodermal abnormalities. It is important to detect the associated neuroectodermal abnormalities because they can be lethal. Patients with associated neuroectodermal abnormalities often have hereditary syndromes.

  10. Ultrasound physics in a nutshell.

    PubMed

    Coltrera, Marc D

    2010-12-01

    This content presents to the neophyte ultrasonographer the essential nutshell of information needed to properly interpret ultrasound images. Basic concepts of physics related to ultrasound are supported with formulas and related to clinical use.

  11. Quo vadis medical ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Lewin, Peter A

    2004-04-01

    The last three decades of development in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and technology are briefly reviewed and the impact of the crucial link between the two apparently independent research efforts, which eventually facilitated implementation of harmonic imaging modality is explored. These two efforts included the experiments with piezoelectric PVDF polymer material and studies of the interaction between ultrasound energy and biological tissue. Harmonic imaging and its subsequent improvements revolutionized the diagnostic power of clinical ultrasound and brought along images of unparalleled resolution, close to that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality. The nonlinear propagation effects and their implications for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound are also briefly addressed. In diagnostic applications, the impact of these effects on image resolution and tissue characterization is reviewed; in therapeutic applications, the influence of nonlinear propagation effects on highly localized tissue ablation and cauterization is examined. Next, the most likely developments and future trends in clinical ultrasound technology, including 3D and 4D imaging, distant palpation, image enhancement using contrast agents, monitoring, and merger of diagnostic and therapeutic applications by e.g. introducing ultrasonically controlled targeted drug delivery are reviewed. Finally, a possible competition from other imaging modalities is discussed.

  12. Medical ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jeff; Kremkau, Frederick

    2011-08-06

    Medical ultrasound imaging has advanced dramatically since its introduction only a few decades ago. This paper provides a short historical background, and then briefly describes many of the system features and concepts required in a modern commercial ultrasound system. The topics addressed include array beam formation, steering and focusing; array and matrix transducers; echo image formation; tissue harmonic imaging; speckle reduction through frequency and spatial compounding, and image processing; tissue aberration; Doppler flow detection; and system architectures. It then describes some of the more practical aspects of ultrasound system design necessary to be taken into account for today's marketplace. It finally discusses the recent explosion of portable and handheld devices and their potential to expand the clinical footprint of ultrasound into regions of the world where medical care is practically non-existent. Throughout the article reference is made to ways in which ultrasound imaging has benefited from advances in the commercial electronics industry. It is meant to be an overview of the field as an introduction to other more detailed papers in this special issue.

  13. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Orlandi, Davide; Lacelli, Francesca; Serafini, Giovanni; Mauri, Giovanni; Secchi, Francesco; Silvestri, Enzo; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an established modality for shoulder evaluation, being accurate, low cost and radiation free. Different pathological conditions can be diagnosed using ultrasound and can be treated using ultrasound guidance, such as degenerative, traumatic or inflammatory diseases. Subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis is the most common finding on ultrasound evaluation for painful shoulder. Therapeutic injections of corticosteroids are helpful to reduce inflammation and pain. Calcific tendinopathy of rotator cuff affects up to 20% of painful shoulders. Ultrasound-guided treatment may be performed with both single- and double-needle approach. Calcific enthesopathy, a peculiar form of degenerative tendinopathy, is a common and mostly asymptomatic ultrasound finding; dry needling has been proposed in symptomatic patients. An alternative is represented by autologous platelet-rich plasma injections. Intra-articular injections of the shoulder can be performed in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory and degenerative diseases with corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid respectively. Steroid injections around the long head of the biceps brachii tendon are indicated in patients with biceps tendinopathy, reducing pain and humeral tenderness. The most common indication for acromion-clavicular joint injection is degenerative osteoarthritis, with ultrasound representing a useful tool in localizing the joint space and properly injecting various types of drugs (steroids, lidocaine or hyaluronic acid). Suprascapular nerve block is an approved treatment for chronic shoulder pain non-responsive to conventional treatments as well as candidate patients for shoulder arthroscopy. This review provides an overview of these different ultrasonography-guided procedures that can be performed around the shoulder.

  14. In-flight ultrasound identification of pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Quick, Jacob A; Uhlich, Rindi M; Ahmad, Salman; Barnes, Stephen L; Coughenour, Jeffrey P

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound is a standard adjunct to the initial evaluation of injured patients in the emergency department. We sought to evaluate the ability of prehospital, in-flight thoracic ultrasound to identify pneumothorax. Non-physician aeromedical providers were trained to perform and interpret thoracic ultrasound. All adult trauma patients and adult medical patients requiring endotracheal intubation underwent both in-flight and emergency department ultrasound evaluations. Findings were documented independently and reviewed to ensure quality and accuracy. Results were compared to chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT). One hundred forty-nine patients (136 trauma/13 medical) met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 44.4 (18-94) years; 69 % were male. Mean injury severity score was 17.68 (1-75), and mean chest injury score was 2.93 (0-6) in the injured group. Twenty pneumothoraces and one mainstem intubation were identified. Sixteen pneumothoraces were correctly identified in the field. A mainstem intubation was misinterpreted. When compared to chest CT (n = 116), prehospital ultrasound had a sensitivity of 68 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 46-85 %), a specificity of 96 % (95 % CI 90-98 %), and an overall accuracy of 91 % (95 % CI 85-95 %). In comparison, emergency department (ED) ultrasound had a sensitivity of 84 % (95 % CI 62-94 %), specificity of 98 % (95 % CI 93-99 %), and an accuracy of 96 % (95 % CI 90-98 %). The unique characteristics of the aeromedical environment render the auditory element of a reliable physical exam impractical. Thoracic ultrasonography should be utilized to augment the diagnostic capabilities of prehospital aeromedical providers.

  15. Learning to Diagnose Cirrhosis with Liver Capsule Guided Ultrasound Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Song, Jia Lin; Wang, Shuo Hong; Zhao, Jing Wen; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM) classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images. PMID:28098774

  16. Check the Head: Emergency Ultrasound Diagnosis of Fetal Anencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Hall, John W.; Denne, Nicolas; Minardi, Joseph J.; Williams, Debra; Balcik, BJ

    2016-01-01

    Background Early pregnancy complaints in emergency medicine are common. Emergency physicians (EP) increasingly employ ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of these complaints. As a result, it is likely that rare and important diagnoses will be encountered. We report a case of fetal anencephaly diagnosed by bedside emergency US in a patient presenting with first-trimester vaginal bleeding. Case Report A 33-year-old patient at 10 weeks gestation presented with vaginal bleeding. After initial history and physical examination, a bedside US was performed. The EP noted the abnormal appearance of the fetal cranium and anencephaly was suspected. This finding was confirmed by a consultative high-resolution fetal US. Making the diagnosis at the point of care allowed earlier detection and more comprehensive maternal counseling about pregnancy options. This particular patient underwent elective abortion which was able to be performed at an earlier gestation, thus decreasing maternal risk. If this diagnosis would not have been recognized by the EP at the point of care, it may not have been diagnosed until the second trimester, and lower-risk maternal options would not have been available. PMID:27429697

  17. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  18. Ultrasound in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David S.; South, Donna A.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Arbeille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Physiology of the human body in space has been a major concern for space-faring nations since the beginning of the space era. Ultrasound (US) is one of the most cost effective and versatile forms of medical imaging. As such, its use in characterizing microgravity-induced changes in physiology is being realized. In addition to the use of US in related ground-based studies, equipment has also been modified to fly in space. This involves alteration to handle the stresses of launch and different power and cooling requirements. Study protocols also have been altered to accommodate the microgravity environment. Ultrasound studies to date have shown a pattern of adaptation to microgravity that includes changes in cardiac chamber sizes and vertebral spacing. Ultrasound has been and will continue to be an important component in the investigation of physiological and, possibly, pathologic changes occurring in space or as a result of spaceflight.

  19. Ultrasound in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Priego Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound is a type of energy which can help analytical chemists in almost all their laboratory tasks, from cleaning to detection. A generic view of the different steps which can be assisted by ultrasound is given here. These steps include preliminary operations usually not considered in most analytical methods (e.g. cleaning, degassing, and atomization), sample preparation being the main area of application. In sample preparation ultrasound is used to assist solid-sample treatment (e.g. digestion, leaching, slurry formation) and liquid-sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction, emulsification, homogenization) or to promote heterogeneous sample treatment (e.g. filtration, aggregation, dissolution of solids, crystallization, precipitation, defoaming, degassing). Detection techniques based on use of ultrasonic radiation, the principles on which they are based, responses, and the quantities measured are also discussed.

  20. Ultrasound in management of rheumatoid arthritis: ARCTIC randomised controlled strategy trial

    PubMed Central

    Aga, Anna-Birgitte; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Lillegraven, Siri; Hammer, Hilde B; Uhlig, Till; Fremstad, Hallvard; Madland, Tor Magne; Lexberg, Åse Stavland; Haukeland, Hilde; Rødevand, Erik; Høili, Christian; Stray, Hilde; Noraas, Anne; Hansen, Inger Johanne Widding; Bakland, Gunnstein; Nordberg, Lena Bugge; van der Heijde, Désirée; Kvien, Tore K

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a treatment strategy based on structured ultrasound assessment would lead to improved outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis, compared with a conventional strategy. Design Multicentre, open label, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled strategy trial. Setting Ten rheumatology departments and one specialist centre in Norway, from September 2010 to September 2015. Participants 238 patients were recruited between September 2010 and April 2013, of which 230 (141 (61%) female) received the allocated intervention and were analysed for the primary outcome. The main inclusion criteria were age 18-75 years, fulfilment of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug naivety with indication for disease modifying drug therapy, and time from first patient reported swollen joint less than two years. Patients with abnormal kidney or liver function or major comorbidities were excluded. Interventions 122 patients were randomised to an ultrasound tight control strategy targeting clinical and imaging remission, and 116 patients were randomised to a conventional tight control strategy targeting clinical remission. Patients in both arms were treated according to the same disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug escalation strategy, with 13 visits over two years. Main outcome measures The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a combination between 16 and 24 months of clinical remission, no swollen joints, and non-progression of radiographic joint damage. Secondary outcomes included measures of disease activity, radiographic progression, functioning, quality of life, and adverse events. All participants who attended at least one follow-up visit were included in the full analysis set. Results 26 (22%) of the 118 analysed patients in the ultrasound tight control arm and 21 (19%) of the 112 analysed patients in the

  1. Calibration and Evaluation of Ultrasound Thermography using Infrared Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Deng, Cheri X.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of the spatiotemporal evolution of tissue temperature is important to ensure safe and effective treatment in thermal therapies including hyperthermia and thermal ablation. Ultrasound thermography has been proposed as a non-invasive technique for temperature measurement, and accurate calibration of the temperature-dependent ultrasound signal changes against temperature is required. Here we report a method that uses infrared (IR) thermography for calibration and validation of ultrasound thermography. Using phantoms and cardiac tissue specimens subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) heating, we simultaneously acquired ultrasound and IR imaging data from the same surface plane of a sample. The commonly used echo time shift-based method was chosen to compute ultrasound thermometry. We first correlated the ultrasound echo time shifts with IR-measured temperatures for material-dependent calibration and found that the calibration coefficient was positive for fat-mimicking phantom (1.49 ± 0.27) but negative for tissue-mimicking phantom (− 0.59 ± 0.08) and cardiac tissue (− 0.69 ± 0.18 °C-mm/ns). We then obtained the estimation error of the ultrasound thermometry by comparing against the IR measured temperature and revealed that the error increased with decreased size of the heated region. Consistent with previous findings, the echo time shifts were no longer linearly dependent on temperature beyond 45 – 50 °C in cardiac tissues. Unlike previous studies where thermocouples or water-bath techniques were used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound thermography, our results show that high resolution IR thermography provides a useful tool that can be applied to evaluate and understand the limitations of ultrasound thermography methods. PMID:26547634

  2. [Ultrasound and regional anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, L; Plantet, F; Jochum, D

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound is the latest major evolution in regional anaesthesia. Review of available literature shows significant changes in clinical practice. Ultrasound guidance allows the visualization of anatomical variations or unsuspected intraneural injections, reduces the volume of local anaesthetic injections and confirms correct local anaesthetic distribution or catheter placement. No study has found a statistical difference in success rates and safety because all studies were underpowered. However, the ability to visualize an invasive procedure that has been performed blindly in the past is an undeniable progress in terms of safety. The necessity to be familiar with the machine and the learning curve can be repulsive. The aim of this article is to demystify ultrasound guidance by explaining the fundamentals of the clinical use of ultrasound. With the help of different chapters, the authors explain the different adjustments and possible artefacts and give easy solutions for the use of bedside ultrasound. Training is essential and can be performed on manikins or training phantom. For each region the main anatomical landmarks are explained. One must be familiar with several imaging techniques: short axis (transverse) or long axis (longitudinal) nerve imaging, in-plane or out-of-plane imaging and hydrolocalization. Viewing the needle's tip position during its progression remains the main safety endpoint. Therefore, electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasound guidance should be combined, especially for beginners, to confirm proximity to neural structures and to help in case of difficulty. Optimizing safety and clinical results must remain a key priority in regional anaesthesia. Finally, specific regulations concerning the transducers are described. Paediatric specificities are also mentioned.

  3. Thermal Field Imaging Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andereck, D.; Rahal, S.; Fife, S.

    2000-01-01

    is then possible to find the average temperature at different locations along the chamber, thereby determining the temperature profile along the system. (In the future we will construct an array of transducers. This will give us the capability to determine the temperature profile much more rapidly than at present, an important consideration if time-dependent phenomena are to be studied.) To validate our procedure we introduced encapsulated liquid crystal particles into glycerol. The liquid crystal particles' color varies depending on the temperature of the fluid. A photograph of the fluid through transparent sidewalls therefore gives a picture of the temperature field of the convecting fluid, independent of our ultrasound imaging. A representative result is shown in the Figure 1, which reveals a very satisfying correspondence between the two techniques. Therefore we have a great deal of confidence that the ultrasound imaging approach is indeed measuring the actual temperature profile of the fluid. The technique has also been applied to convecting liquid metal flows, and representative data will be presented from those experiments as well.

  4. Xampling in ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Noam; Eldar, Yonina C.; Feuer, Arie; Danin, Gilad; Friedman, Zvi

    2011-03-01

    Recent developments of new medical treatment techniques put challenging demands on ultrasound imaging systems in terms of both image quality and raw data size. Traditional sampling methods result in very large amounts of data, thus, increasing demands on processing hardware and limiting the flexibility in the postprocessing stages. In this paper, we apply Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques to analog ultrasound signals, following the recently developed Xampling framework. The result is a system with significantly reduced sampling rates which, in turn, means significantly reduced data size while maintaining the quality of the resulting images.

  5. Paradoxical Air Microembolism Induces Cerebral Bioelectrical Abnormalities and Occasionally Headache in Patent Foramen Ovale Patients With Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Sevgi, Eser Başak; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Demirci, Mehmet; Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Dalkara, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Background Although controversial, paradoxical embolism via patent foramen ovale (PFO) may account for some of the migraine attacks in a subset of migraine with aura (MA) patients. Induction of MA attacks with air bubble injection during transcranial Doppler ultrasound in MA patients with PFO supports this view. It is likely that cerebral embolism in patients with right-to-left shunt induces bioelectrical abnormalities to initiate MA under some conditions. Methods and Results We investigated changes in cerebral bioelectrical activity after intravenous microbubble injection in 10 MA patients with large PFO and right-to-left cardiac shunt. Eight PFO patients without migraine but with large right-to-left shunt and 12 MA patients without PFO served as controls. Four MA patients with PFO were reexamined with sham injections of saline without microbubbles. Bioelectrical activity was evaluated using spectral electroencephalography and, passage of microbubbles through cerebral arteries was monitored with transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Microbubble embolism caused significant electroencephalographic power increase in MA+PFO patients but not in control groups including the sham-injected MA+PFO patients. Headache developed in 2 MA with PFO patients after microbubble injection. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that air microembolism through large PFOs may cause cerebral bioelectrical disturbances and, occasionally, headache in MA patients, which may reflect an increased reactivity of their brain to transient subclinical hypoxia–ischemia, and suggest that paradoxical embolism is not a common cause of migraine but may induce headache in the presence of a large PFO and facilitating conditions. PMID:23316313

  6. Computed tomography of the abnormal pericardium

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Harell, G.S.; Korobkin, M.

    1983-06-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 18 patients with documented pericardial disease are reported. The pericardium appears as a thin, curvilinear, 1- to 2-mm-thick density best seen anterior to the right ventricular part of the heart. Pericardial abnormalities detected by CT include effusions, thickening, calcification, and cystic and solid masses. Computed tomography is complimentary to echocardiography in its ability to more accurately characterize pericardial effusions, masses, and pericardial thickening.

  7. Is ankle involvement underestimated in rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a multicenter ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Pineda, Carlos; Salaffi, Fausto; Raffeiner, Bernd; Cazenave, Tomas; Martinez-Nava, Gabriela A; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Vreju, Florentin; Inanc, Nevsun; Villaman, Eduardo; Delle Sedie, Andrea; Dal Pra, Fernando; Rosemffet, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of subclinical ankle involvement by ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study was conducted on 216 patients with RA and 200 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Patients with no history or clinical evidence of ankle involvement underwent US examination. For each ankle, tibio-talar (TT) joint, tibialis anterior (TA) tendon, extensor halux (EH) and extensor common (EC) tendons, tibialis posterior (TP) tendon, flexor common (FC) tendon and flexor hallux (FH) tendon, peroneous brevis (PB) and longus (PL) tendons, Achilles tendon (AT) and plantar fascia (PF) were assessed. The following abnormalities were recorded: synovitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, enthesopathy and rupture. BMI, DAS28, RF ESR and CRP were also obtained. A total of 432 ankles of patients with RA and 400 ankles of healthy controls were assessed. In 188 (87%) patients with RA, US showed ankle abnormalities whereas, in control group, US found abnormalities in 57 (28.5 %) subjects (p = 0.01). The most frequent US abnormality in RA patients was TP tenosynovits (69/216) (31.9 %), followed by PL tenosynovitis (58/216) (26.9 %), TT synovitis (54/216) (25 %), PB tenosynovitis (51/216) (23.6 %), AT enthesopathy (41/216) (19 %) and AT bursitis (22/216) (10.2 %). In 118 RA patients out of 216 (54.6%), a positive PD was found. No statistically significant correlation was found between the US findings and age, disease duration, BMI, DAS28, RF, ESR and CRP. The present study provides evidence of the higher prevalence of subclinical ankle involvement in RA patients than in age- and gender-matched healthy controls identified by US.

  8. Ultrasound of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Petranova, Tzvetanka; Vlad, Violeta; Porta, Francesco; Radunovic, Goran; Micu, Mihaela C; Nestorova, Rodina; Iagnocco, Annamaria

    2012-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a helpful imaging tool in the evaluation of the musculoskeletal system. It has some advantages over the other imaging techniques, such as plain radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, represented by the non-invasiveness and multiplanar imaging capability, repeatability, lack of radiation burden, good patient acceptance, and relatively limited costs. US offers an excellent resolution and a possibility for real-time dynamic examination of the joints and surrounding soft tissues, as well as enables monitoring of therapeutic response. The most common clinical indications for US examination of the shoulder are rotator cuff and biceps tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinosis, complete and partial tears, and impingement) and disorders of other soft-tissue structures (joint recesses, bursae, muscles, suprascapular and axillary nerves) as well as bony cortex abnormalities. US is very useful for US-guided procedures (biopsy, joint and bursae aspirations and injections, aspiration and dissolution of calcific tendinosis). The aim of this article is to analyze the current literature about US of the shoulder and to describe both normal and pathological findings.

  9. Cardiac 4D Ultrasound Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'hooge, Jan

    Volumetric cardiac ultrasound imaging has steadily evolved over the last 20 years from an electrocardiography (ECC) gated imaging technique to a true real-time imaging modality. Although the clinical use of echocardiography is still to a large extent based on conventional 2D ultrasound imaging it can be anticipated that the further developments in image quality, data visualization and interaction and image quantification of three-dimensional cardiac ultrasound will gradually make volumetric ultrasound the modality of choice. In this chapter, an overview is given of the technological developments that allow for volumetric imaging of the beating heart by ultrasound.

  10. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  11. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  12. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  13. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler; Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C; Lu, Huihong; Mathewson, Kory; Walsh, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J

    2009-11-23

    We report on the development of an imaging system capable of combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging based on a fast-scanning single-element 25-MHz ultrasound transducer and a unique light-delivery system. The system is capable of 20 ultrasound frames per second and slower photoacoustic frame rates limited by laser pulse-repetition rates. Laser and ultrasound pulses are interlaced for co-registration of photoacoustic and ultrasound images. In vivo imaging of a human finger permits ultrasonic visualization of vessel structures and speckle changes indicative of blood flow, while overlaid photoacoustic images highlight some small vessels that are not clear from the ultrasound scan. Photoacoustic images provide optical absorption contrast co-registered in the structural and blood-flow context of ultrasound with high-spatial resolution and may prove important for clinical diagnostics and basic science of the microvasculature.

  14. Recent advances in medical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound has become one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine; yet, before ultrasound-imaging systems became available, high intensity ultrasound was used as early as the 1950s to ablate regions in the brains of human patients. Recently, a variety of novel applications of ultrasound have been developed that include site-specific and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, histotripsy, tissue regeneration, and bloodless surgery, among many others. This lecture will review several new applications of therapeutic ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors.

  15. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff.

  16. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  17. Pleural ultrasound for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M

    2016-11-01

    Pleural ultrasonography is useful for identifying and characterising pleural effusions, solid pleural lesions (nodules, masses, swellings) and pneumothorax. Pleural ultrasonography is also considered the standard care for guiding interventionist procedures on the pleura at the patient's bedside (thoracentesis, drainage tubes, pleural biopsies and pleuroscopy). Hospitals should promote the acquisition of portable ultrasound equipment to increase the patient's safety.

  18. Ultrasound and the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist researchers in writing their research protocols and subject consent forms so that both the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and subjects are assured of the minimal risk associated with diagnostic B-scan ultrasound as it is used in speech research. There have been numerous epidemiological studies on fetal…

  19. History of intraoperative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, M; Torzilli, G; Machi, J

    1998-11-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) using A-mode or non-real-time B-mode imaging started in the 1960s; however, it was not widely accepted mainly because of difficulty in image interpretation. In the late 1970s, IOUS became one of the topics in the surgical communities upon the introduction of high-frequency real-time B-mode ultrasound. Special probes for operative use were developed. In the 1980s, all over the world the use of IOUS spread to a variety of surgical fields, such as hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery, neurosurgery, and cardiovascular surgery. IOUS changed hepatic surgery dramatically because IOUS was the only modality that was capable of delineating and examining the interior of the liver during surgery. After 1990, color Doppler imaging and laparoscopic ultrasound were incorporated into IOUS. Currently, IOUS is considered an indispensable operative procedure for intraoperative decision-making and guidance of surgical procedures. For better surgical practice, education of surgeons in the use of ultrasound is the most important issue.

  20. Intravascular ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, A F; de Korte, C L; Céspedes, E I

    1998-10-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound Blastography. The response of a tissue to mechanical excitation is a function of its mechanical properties. Excitation can be dynamic or quasistatic in nature. The response (e.g. displacement, velocity, compression) can be measured via ultrasound. This is the main principle underlying ultrasound elasticity imaging, sonoelasticity imaging, or ultrasound elastography. It is of great interest to know the local hardness of vessel wall and plaques. Intravascular elastography yields information unavailable or inconclusive if obtained from IVUS alone and thus contributes to more correct diagnosis. Potentially it can be used for therapy guidance. During the last decade several working groups used elastography in intravascular applications with varying success. In this paper we discuss the various approaches by different working groups. Focus will be on the approach of the Rotterdam group. Using a 30 MHz IVUS catheter, RF data are acquired from vessels in vitro at different intraluminal pressures. Local tissue displacement estimation by cross-correlation is followed by computation of the local strain. The resulting image supplies local information on the elastic properties of the vessel and plaque with high spatial resolution. Feasibility and usefulness are shown by means of phantom measurements. Furthermore, initial in vitro results of femoral arteries and correlation with histology are discussed. Phantom data show that the elastograms reveal information not presented by the echogram. In vitro artery data prove that in principle elastography is capable of identifying plaque composition where echography fails.

  1. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  2. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  3. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  4. Effect of Power Ultrasound on Food Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoungill; Feng, Hao

    Recent food processing technology innovations have been centered around producing foods with fresh-like attributes through minimal processing or nonthermal processing technologies. Instead of using thermal energy to secure food safety that is often accompanied by quality degradation in processed foods, the newly developed processing modalities utilize other types of physical energy such as high pressure, pulsed electric field or magnetic field, ultraviolet light, or acoustic energy to process foods. An improvement in food quality by the new processing methods has been widely reported. In comparison with its low-energy (high-frequency) counterpart which finds applications in food quality inspection, the use of high-intensity ultrasound, also called power ultrasound, in food processing is a relatively new endeavor. To understand the effect of high-intensity ultrasound treatment on food quality, it is important to understand the interactions between acoustic energy and food ingredients, which is covered in Chapter 10. In this chapter, the focus will be on changes in overall food quality attributes that are caused by ultrasound, such as texture, color, flavor, and nutrients.

  5. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  6. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  7. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-06

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  8. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J.; Lang, Julie E.; Sener, Stephen F.; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E.; Kirk Shung, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  9. Constructing the meaning of ultrasound viewing in abortion care.

    PubMed

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A

    2015-07-01

    As ultrasound scanning becomes increasingly routine in abortion care, scholars and activists have forwarded claims about how viewing the ultrasound image will affect pregnant women seeking abortion, speculating that it will dissuade them from abortion. These accounts, however, fail to appreciate how viewing is a social process. Little research has investigated how ultrasound workers navigate viewing in abortion care. We draw on interviews with twenty-six ultrasound workers in abortion care for their impressions and practices around ultrasound viewing. Respondents reported few experiences of viewing dissuading women from abortion, but did report that it had an emotional effect on patients that they believed was associated with gestational age. These impressions informed their practices, leading many to manage patient viewing based on the patient's gestational age. Other aspects of their accounts, however, undercut the assertion that the meaning of ultrasound images is associated with gestation and show the pervasiveness of cultural ideas associating developing foetal personhood with increasing gestational age. Findings demonstrate the social construction of ultrasound viewing, with implications in the ongoing contestation over abortion rights in the US.

  10. Epididymis microlithiasis and semen abnormalities in young adult kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, G; Lunelli, L; Berlingheri, M; Groppali, E; Carmignani, L

    2013-10-01

    Microlithiasis of the epididymis is a rare ultrasound finding in the general population, but the incidence of calcifications in various organs of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is extremely high. The aim of this study was to describe epididymal microlithiasis in 22 previously dialysed patients who received kidney transplantations at a median age of 19 years (range 9-30). The patients underwent scrotum ultrasonography, semen analysis and laboratory tests (renal function, sexual hormones, Ca, P and PTH) and were administered the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. Seventeen presented calcifications of the epididymis, two of whom had concomitant testicular calcifications; a further three patients had isolated testicular calcifications without epididymis involvement. It was not possible to investigate the fertility of all of the patients but 12 of the 13 whose semen was analysed showed abnormalities: five were azoospermic and seven oligospermic with various degrees of morphological anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first published data concerning the prevalence of epididymal calcifications in young dialysed patients undergoing renal transplantation. Epididymal microlithiasis and infertility were common findings and so performing a spermiogram and preserving semen before ESRD for future paternity may be good advice in this selected population.

  11. Impact of the introduction of ultrasound services in a limited resource setting: rural Rwanda 2008

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, utilization of ultrasound technology by non-radiologist physicians has grown. Recent advances in affordability, durability, and portability have brought ultrasound to the forefront as a sustainable and high impact technology for use in developing world clinical settings as well. However, ultrasound's impact on patient management plans, program sustainability, and which ultrasound applications are useful in this setting has not been well studied. Methods Ultrasound services were introduced at two rural Rwandan district hospitals affiliated with Partners in Health, a US nongovernmental organization. Data sheets for each ultrasound scan performed during routine clinical care were collected and analyzed to determine patient demographics, which ultrasound applications were most frequently used, and whether the use of the ultrasound changed patient management plans. Ultrasound scans performed by the local physicians during the post-training period were reviewed for accuracy of interpretation and image quality by an ultrasound fellowship trained emergency medicine physician from the United States who was blinded to the original interpretation. Results Adult women appeared to benefit most from the presence of ultrasound services. Of the 345 scans performed during the study period, obstetrical scanning was the most frequently used application. Evaluation of gestational age, fetal head position, and placental positioning were the most common findings. However, other applications used included abdominal, cardiac, renal, pleural, procedural guidance, and vascular ultrasounds. Ultrasound changed patient management plans in 43% of total patients scanned. The most common change was to plan a surgical procedure. The ultrasound program appears sustainable; local staff performed 245 ultrasound scans in the 11 weeks after the departure of the ultrasound instructor. Post-training scan review showed the concordance rate of interpretation between the

  12. [Electronic documentation of findings and image in ultrasound diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, K

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art for computer-based generation and documentation of ultrasonography reports is described. Arguments for standard nomenclature and structured data collection are given. Remarks concerning system integration, data privacy, and image archiving follow.

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  14. Papillary carcinoma of the pancreas: findings of US and CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.Y.; Lim, J.H.; Lee, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    Two cases of papillary carcinoma of the pancreas were evaluated by ultrasound and CT. The sonographic and CT findings were those of a well-defined oval mass with partial cystic change. There was radiologic-pathologic correlation.

  15. CT and ultrasound of gastric and duodenal duplications

    SciTech Connect

    Guibaud, L.; Genin, G.; Fouque, P.

    1996-05-01

    We present the radiological findings of gastric and duodenal duplications in four adults, in whom abdominal ultrasound, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and CT were primarily used for diagnosis. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed in all cases. Preoperative diagnosis of duplications was possible with ultrasound in three patients, in whom CT showed a nonspecific cystic structure. Ultrasound demonstrated a pathognomonic multilayered wall appearance suggestive of a digestive origin, including an echogenic inner mucosal layer and a hypoechoic muscular layer, better appreciated using EUS in one patient. In one case, digestive origin was confirmed by direct visualization of a peristaltic activity within the cystic wall after water ingestion. In the last patient, a non-specific heterogeneous mainly solid mass of the esophagogastric junction was found to be an adenocarcinoma arising from a duplication on the histological analysis of the surgical specimen. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. The commodification of obstetric ultrasound scanning in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuý

    2007-05-01

    Growing numbers of pregnant women across the world now routinely have ultrasound scans as part of antenatal care, including in low-income countries. This article presents the findings of anthropological research on the use of obstetric ultrasonography in routine antenatal care in Hanoi, Viet Nam. The findings come from observation, a survey and interviews with women seeking ultrasound scans at a main maternity hospital and interviews with doctors providing ultrasound there. We found a dramatic overuse of ultrasound scanning; the 400 women surveyed had had an average of 6.6 scans and 8.3 antenatal visits during pregnancy, while one-fifth had had ten scans or more. Doctors considered obstetric ultrasound an indispensable part of modern antenatal care. For two-thirds of the women, the main reason for frequent scans was reassurance of normal fetal development. However, the women often also said their doctor had recommended the scans. This overuse must be seen in the context of growing commercialisation in the Vietnamese health care system, where ultrasound provides an important source of revenue for both private and public providers. There is an urgent need in Viet Nam for policy and practice guidelines on the appropriate use of ultrasonography in pregnancy and how best to combine it with essential antenatal care, and information dissemination to women.

  17. Sialoendoscopy, sialography, and ultrasound: a comparison of diagnostic methods

    PubMed Central

    Pniak, Tomáš; Štrympl, Pavel; Staníková, Lucia; Zeleník, Karol; Matoušek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of ultrasound, sialography, and sialendoscopy for examining benign salivary gland obstructions. Methods In this prospective study, patients with symptoms of obstruction of the major salivary gland duct system presenting at the ENT Clinic University Hospital, Ostrava, from June 2010 to December 2013 were included. All patients (n=76) underwent ultrasound, sialography, and sialoendoscopy. The signs of sialolithiasis, ductal stenosis, or normal findings were recorded after the examinations. Statistical analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of all the methods was performed, as well as a comparison of the accuracy of each method for different kinds of pathology (sialolithiasis or stenosis). Results The sensitivity of ultrasound, sialography, and sialoendoscopy for sialolithiasis findings were 71.9%, 86.7 %, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of sialography and sialoendoscopy for stenosis of the duct was 69.0%, and 100%, respectively. The study showed impossibility of ultrasonic diagnostics of ductal stenosis. The sensitivity of sialoendoscopy for both pathologies was significantly higher than that from ultrasound or sialography (p<0.05). The specificity of sialoendoscopy was significantly higher than that from by ultrasound or sialography (p<0.05). Conclusion Sialoendoscopy was the most accurate method for examination ductal pathology, with significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than by ultrasound or sialography. PMID:28352836

  18. General applications of ultrasound in rheumatology: why we need it in our daily practice.

    PubMed

    Ruta, Santiago; Reginato, Anthony M; Pineda, Carlos; Gutierrez, Marwin

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive imaging technique that continues to gain interest among rheumatologists because of its undoubted utility for the assessment of a wide range of abnormalities in rheumatic diseases. It also has a great potential to be used at the time of consultation as an extension of the clinical examination.Current data demonstrate that the standard clinical approach could result in an insensitive assessment of some the different aspects of the various rheumatic diseases for which US has become a feasible and effective imaging modality that allows early detection of anatomical changes, careful guidance for the aspiration and/or local treatment, and short- and long-term therapy monitoring at the joint, tendon, enthesis, nail, and skin levels. The spectrum of pathological conditions for which US plays a crucial role continues to increase over time and includes rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, osteoarthritis, crystal-related arthropathies, connective tissue disorders, and vasculitis.It is expected that the inclusion of more longitudinal studies with a larger number of patients and more rigorous methodological approach will undoubtedly provide a better understanding of the significance of the abnormal US findings detected in order to provide the proper diagnostic and/or therapeutic approaches. In this article, we analyze the current potential applications of US in rheumatology and discuss the evidence supporting its use in the daily rheumatologic practice.

  19. Good sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for detecting pseudotumors in 83 failed metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Lainiala, Olli; Elo, Petra; Reito, Aleksi; Pajamäki, Jorma; Puolakka, Timo; Eskelinen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Ultrasound is used for imaging of pseudotumors associated with metal-on-metal (MoM) hips. Ultrasound has been compared with magnetic resonance imaging, but to date there have been no studies comparing ultrasound findings and revision findings. Methods We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ultrasound for detecting pseudotumors in 82 patients with MoM hip replacement (82 hips). Ultrasound examinations were performed by 1 of 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, and pseudotumors seen by ultrasound were retrospectively classified as fluid-filled, mixed-type, or solid. Findings at revision surgery were retrieved from surgical notes and graded according to the same system as used for ultrasound findings. Results Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI: 63–93) and a specificity of 92% (CI: 82–96) for detecting trochanteric region pseudotumors, and a sensitivity of 79% (CI: 62–89) and a specificity of 94% (CI: 83–98) for detecting iliopsoas-region pseudotumors. Type misclassification of pseudotumors found at revision occurred in 8 of 23 hips in the trochanteric region and in 19 of 33 hips in the iliopsoas region. Interpretation Despite the discrepancy in type classification between ultrasound and revision findings, the presence of pseudotumors was predicted well with ultrasound in our cohort of failed MoM hip replacements. PMID:25582840

  20. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  1. The Impact of Ultrasound on Developing Brain Neurons. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Prenatal Exposure to Ultrasound Waves Impacts Neuronal Migration in Mice" (E. S. B. C. Ang, Jr.; V. Gluncic; A. Duque; M. E. Schafer; and P.…

  2. Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome have a broad spectrum of abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Noë, Michaël; Hackeng, Wenzel; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Debeljak, Marija; Yu, Jun; Suenaga, Masaya; Singhi, Aatur D; Zaheer, Atif; Boyce, Alison; Robinson, Cemre; Eshleman, James R; Goggins, Michael G; Hruban, Ralph H; Collins, Michael T; Lennon, Anne Marie; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-10

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is a rare sporadic syndrome caused by post-zygotic mutations in the GNAS oncogene, leading to constitutional mosaicism for these alterations. Somatic activating GNAS mutations also commonly occur in several gastrointestinal and pancreatic neoplasms, but the spectrum of abnormalities in these organs in patients with MAS has yet to be systematically described. We report comprehensive characterization of the upper gastrointestinal tract in seven patients with MAS and identify several different types of polyps, including gastric heterotopia/metaplasia (7/7), gastric hyperplastic polyps (5/7), fundic gland polyps (2/7), and a hamartomatous polyp (1/7). In addition, one patient had an unusual adenomatous lesion at the gastroesophageal junction with high-grade dysplasia. In the pancreas, all patients had endoscopic ultrasound findings suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), but only two patients met the criteria for surgical intervention. Both of these patients had IPMNs at resection, one with low-grade dysplasia and one with high-grade dysplasia. GNAS mutations were identified in the majority of lesions analyzed, including both IPMNs and the adenomatous lesion from the gastroesophageal junction. These studies suggest that there is a broad spectrum of abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in patients with MAS and that patients with MAS should be evaluated for gastrointestinal pathology, some of which may warrant clinical intervention due to advanced dysplasia.

  3. Review of Quantitative Ultrasound: Envelope Statistics and Backscatter Coefficient Imaging and Contributions to Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Michael L; Mamou, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Conventional medical imaging technologies, including ultrasound, have continued to improve over the years. For example, in oncology, medical imaging is characterized by high sensitivity, i.e., the ability to detect anomalous tissue features, but the ability to classify these tissue features from images often lacks specificity. As a result, a large number of biopsies of tissues with suspicious image findings are performed each year with a vast majority of these biopsies resulting in a negative finding. To improve specificity of cancer imaging, quantitative imaging techniques can play an important role. Conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging is mainly qualitative in nature. However, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging can provide specific numbers related to tissue features that can increase the specificity of image findings leading to improvements in diagnostic ultrasound. QUS imaging can encompass a wide variety of techniques including spectral-based parameterization, elastography, shear wave imaging, flow estimation, and envelope statistics. Currently, spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics are not available on most conventional clinical ultrasound machines. However, in recent years, QUS techniques involving spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics have demonstrated success in many applications, providing additional diagnostic capabilities. Spectral-based techniques include the estimation of the backscatter coefficient (BSC), estimation of attenuation, and estimation of scatterer properties such as the correlation length associated with an effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and the effective acoustic concentration (EAC) of scatterers. Envelope statistics include the estimation of the number density of scatterers and quantification of coherent to incoherent signals produced from the tissue. Challenges for clinical application include correctly accounting for attenuation effects and transmission losses and implementation of QUS on

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen

    Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.

  5. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  6. Sparsity driven ultrasound imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.; C¸etin, Müjdat; Karl, W. Clem

    2012-01-01

    An image formation framework for ultrasound imaging from synthetic transducer arrays based on sparsity-driven regularization functionals using single-frequency Fourier domain data is proposed. The framework involves the use of a physics-based forward model of the ultrasound observation process, the formulation of image formation as the solution of an associated optimization problem, and the solution of that problem through efficient numerical algorithms. The sparsity-driven, model-based approach estimates a complex-valued reflectivity field and preserves physical features in the scene while suppressing spurious artifacts. It also provides robust reconstructions in the case of sparse and reduced observation apertures. The effectiveness of the proposed imaging strategy is demonstrated using experimental data. PMID:22352501

  7. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  8. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  9. Clinical ophthalmic ultrasound improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. B.; Piro, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital synthetic aperture techniques to obtain high resolution ultrasound images of eye and orbit was proposed. The parameters of the switched array configuration to reduce data collection time to a few milliseconds to avoid eye motion problems in the eye itself were established. An assessment of the effects of eye motion on the performance of the system was obtained. The principles of synthetic techniques are discussed. Likely applications are considered.

  10. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  11. Ultrasound Imaging Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    texture mapping hardware," IEEE Tranactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Submitted. [14] C.R. Castro Pareja , J.M. Jagadeesh and R. Shekhar...modulation in real-time three-dimensional sparse synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging systems "* Carlos R. Castro Pareja , Masters of Science, The Ohio...C.R. Castro Pareja , "An architecture for real-time image registration," M.S. Thesis, The Ohio State University, March 2002. 14. C.R. Castro Pareja , R

  12. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Train Veterinary Students in Performing Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, Érika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jéssika

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are…

  13. Achondrogenesis type 2 diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H

    1993-06-01

    Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination.

  14. SQL based cardiovascular ultrasound image classification.

    PubMed

    Nandagopalan, S; Suryanarayana, Adiga B; Sudarshan, T S B; Chandrashekar, Dhanalakshmi; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to analyze and classify the cardiovascular ultrasound echocardiographic images using Naïve-Bayesian model via database OLAP-SQL. Efficient data mining algorithms based on tightly-coupled model is used to extract features. Three algorithms are proposed for classification namely Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Discrete variables (NBCD) with SQL, NBCD with OLAP-SQL, and Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Continuous variables (NBCC) using OLAP-SQL. The proposed model is trained with 207 patient images containing normal and abnormal categories. Out of the three proposed algorithms, a high classification accuracy of 96.59% was achieved from NBCC which is better than the earlier methods.

  15. Physics and instrumentation of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, John P

    2007-08-01

    A thorough understanding of the physics of ultrasound waves and the instrumentation will provide the user with a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of ultrasound equipment. The ultrasound machine combines two technologies: image production (M-mode and 2-dimensional imaging) with Doppler assessment (continuous and pulse wave as well as color-flow mapping). These distinct technologies have been combined to provide the examiner with the ability to make accurate and comprehensive diagnoses and guide therapeutic intervention.

  16. Doppler Ultrasound: What Is It Used for?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your neck (carotid artery stenosis) A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses ...

  17. Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    Focused ultrasound surgery for uterine fibroids Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a noninvasive treatment option for ... whether you're a good candidate for focused ultrasound surgery, your doctor may perform a pelvic magnetic ...

  18. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2001-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  19. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2004-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  20. Clinician-performed thyroid ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Coltrera, Marc D

    2014-08-01

    This article is intended to demystify the process for those with a potential interest in acquiring ultrasound skills. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of head and neck ultrasound but, rather, is focused on the bare minimum requirements and considerations involved in clinician-performed ultrasound. The article covers the initial diagnosis and the unparalleled usefulness of ultrasound for surgical planning just before incision. Further readings are listed at the end of the article to direct the reader to some excellent texts to help build confidence and experience.

  1. Congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract: the clue is in the cord?

    PubMed

    Daoub, Ahmed; Drake, Thomas M

    2014-12-02

    Congenital abnormalities of the female urogenital tract are not uncommon, with an estimated incidence of 2-4% across the female population. Within this population, up to 40% will have associated renal tract abnormalities. A previously well 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting and a palpable pelvic mass. Ultrasound and MR scans were performed. The imaging revealed a didelphys uterus, an obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis, characteristic of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. The patient was noted at birth to have a single umbilical artery, which is associated with an increased risk of congenital abnormalities and useful information for the early identification of abnormalities that have implications for renal function and future fertility.

  2. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  3. Occurrence of fetal choroid plexus cysts in siblings: concerns regarding recurrence and chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Kimura, Tadashi; Tokugawa, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Masayasu; Murata, Yuji; Shimizu, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    Choroid plexus cysts (CPC) are a well-known ultrasound aneuploidy marker easily detectable at second-trimester ultrasound examination. However, their genetic etiology is totally unknown. We report two cases of Japanese mothers who carried two and three siblings respectively; all the fetuses that had CPC were noticed at second trimester. Genetic amniocentesis revealed that each fetus had different karyotypes, that is, trisomy 18 and 46,XX in the case of one mother, and trisomy 18, 46,XY and trisomy 21 in the case of the other. These observations indicate that the genetic basis of the cysts is not linked to abnormal chromosomes. We propose that careful ultrasound observation and genetic counseling of the siblings should be offered to patients who have previously had a baby with CPC, despite that baby having a normal karyotype.

  4. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  5. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  6. Ultrasound of the pectoralis major muscle after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mascarinas, Angelie L; Newman, Joel S; Warner, Jon J P; Jain, Nitin B

    2014-12-01

    Only a few reports exist in the literature for sonographic assessment of the pectoralis major muscle. Presented is a case of pectoralis major muscle atrophy as a cause of persistent internal rotation weakness diagnosed via ultrasound in a patient with multiple previous surgeries and contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging because of a shoulder implant. This patient's physical examination suggested an abnormal contour of the pectoralis major muscle on contraction, so he was referred for diagnostic ultrasound. The ultrasound was key to guiding the management of this patient because surgical repair of a torn pectoralis major muscle was planned if this was found. No pectoralis major tear or rupture was seen on ultrasound, but there was evidence of pectoralis major muscle atrophy. Accordingly, surgery was avoided and the patient was able to continue with his physical therapy program.

  7. Abnormal placentation: evidence-based diagnosis and management of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria; Yankowitz, Jerome; Spinnato, Joseph A

    2012-08-01

    Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa cause significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. With the increasing incidence of both cesarean delivery and pregnancies using assisted reproductive technology, these 3 conditions are becoming more common. Advances in grayscale and Doppler ultrasound have facilitated prenatal diagnosis of abnormal placentation to allow the development of multidisciplinary management plans to achieve the best outcomes for mother and baby. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on abnormal placentation including an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management.

  8. Correlation between Ultrasound Reflection Intensity and Tumor Ablation Ratio of Late-Stage Pancreatic Carcinoma in HIFU Therapy: Dynamic Observation on Ultrasound Reflection Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hui-Yu; Miao, Li-Ying; Wang, Jin-Rui; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Yan, Fang; Zheng, Cui-Shan; Jia, Jian-Wen; Cui, Li-Gang; Chen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is thermal ablation treatment for late-stage pancreatic carcinoma with widely recognized safety and effectiveness, but there are currently no instant assessment methods for its ablation effect. It is vital to find a real-time high-sensitive assessment method. This research aims to dynamically observe the variation rules of ultrasound reflection intensity, analyze the correlation between ultrasound reflection intensity and tumor ablation ratio, and find out the value of ultrasound reflection intensity in prognosis of HIFU ablation effect. HIFU intermittent therapies were retrospectively analyzed for 31 subjects with late-stage pancreatic carcinoma from March 2007 to December 2009 in the study. The variation rules of the ultrasound reflection intensity during HIFU therapy were summarized and the correlation between ultrasound reflection intensity and tumor ablation ratio was analyzed based on the tumor ablation ratio indicated by CT scanning. The conclusion is that variation of ultrasound reflection intensity can be used for initial assessment of tumor ablation in HIFU therapy and early prognosis of overall HIFU ablation, providing important clinical basis for improving safety and effectiveness of HIFU therapy. Ultrasound can work as a real-time imaging instrument for observation of HIFU ablation effect in treating late-stage pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:24453916

  9. Correlation between ultrasound reflection intensity and tumor ablation ratio of late-stage pancreatic carcinoma in HIFU therapy: dynamic observation on ultrasound reflection intensity.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hui-Yu; Miao, Li-Ying; Wang, Jin-Rui; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Yan, Fang; Zheng, Cui-Shan; Jia, Jian-Wen; Cui, Li-Gang; Chen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is thermal ablation treatment for late-stage pancreatic carcinoma with widely recognized safety and effectiveness, but there are currently no instant assessment methods for its ablation effect. It is vital to find a real-time high-sensitive assessment method. This research aims to dynamically observe the variation rules of ultrasound reflection intensity, analyze the correlation between ultrasound reflection intensity and tumor ablation ratio, and find out the value of ultrasound reflection intensity in prognosis of HIFU ablation effect. HIFU intermittent therapies were retrospectively analyzed for 31 subjects with late-stage pancreatic carcinoma from March 2007 to December 2009 in the study. The variation rules of the ultrasound reflection intensity during HIFU therapy were summarized and the correlation between ultrasound reflection intensity and tumor ablation ratio was analyzed based on the tumor ablation ratio indicated by CT scanning. The conclusion is that variation of ultrasound reflection intensity can be used for initial assessment of tumor ablation in HIFU therapy and early prognosis of overall HIFU ablation, providing important clinical basis for improving safety and effectiveness of HIFU therapy. Ultrasound can work as a real-time imaging instrument for observation of HIFU ablation effect in treating late-stage pancreatic carcinoma.

  10. Spectrum of imaging findings on MDCT enterography in patients with small bowel tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kalra, N; Agrawal, P; Mittal, V; Kochhar, R; Gupta, V; Nada, R; Singh, R; Khandelwal, N

    2014-03-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common extrapulmonary site of involvement. The sites of involvement in abdominal tuberculosis, in descending order of frequency, are lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity, and gastrointestinal tract. The radiological armamentarium for evaluating tuberculosis of the small bowel (SBTB) includes barium studies (small bowel follow-through, SBFT), CT (multidetector CT, CT enterography, and CT enteroclysis), ultrasound (sonoenteroclysis), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; enterography and enteroclysis). In this review, we illustrate the abnormalities at MDCT enterography in 20 consecutive patients with SB TB and also describe extraluminal findings in these patients. MDCT enterography allows non-invasive good-quality assessment of well-distended bowel loops and the adjacent soft tissues. It displays the thickness and enhancement of the entire bowel wall in all three planes and allows examination of all bowel loops, especially the ileal loops, which are mostly superimposed. The terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction are the most common sites of small bowel involvement in intestinal TB. The most common abnormality is short-segment strictures with symmetrical concentric mural thickening and homogeneous mural enhancement. Other findings include lymphadenopathy, ascites, enteroliths, peritoneal thickening, and enhancement. In conclusion, MDCT enterography is a comprehensive technique for the evaluation of SB TB.

  11. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V.

  12. Investigation of a scanned cylindrical ultrasound system for breast hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Tseng, Li-Te; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Lin, Win-Li

    2006-02-07

    This paper investigates the feasibility of a scanned cylindrical ultrasound system for producing uniform heating from the central to the superficial portions of the breast or localized heating within the breast at a specific location. The proposed system consists of plane ultrasound transducer(s) mounted on a scanned cylindrical support. The breast was immersed in water and surrounded by this system during the treatment. The control parameters considered are the size of the transducer, the ultrasound frequency, the scan angle and the shifting distance between the axes of the breast and the system. Three-dimensional acoustical and thermal models were used to calculate the temperature distribution. Non-perfused phantom experiments were performed to verify the simulation results. Simulation results indicate that high frequency ultrasound could be used for the superficial heating, and the scan angle of the transducer could be varied to obtain an appropriate high temperature region to cover the desired treatment region. Low frequency ultrasound could be used for deep heating and the high temperature region could be moved by shifting the system. In addition, a combination of low and high frequency ultrasound could result in a portion treatment from the central to the superficial breast or an entire breast treatment. Good agreement was obtained between non-perfused experiments and simulation results. The findings of this study can be used to determine the effects of the control parameters of this system, as well as to select the optimal parameters for a specific treatment.

  13. Characteristics of the audio sound generated by ultrasound imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners use high-energy pulses to probe the human body. The radiation force resulting from the impact of such pulses on an object can vibrate the object, producing a localized high-intensity sound in the audible range. Here, a theoretical model for the audio sound generated by ultrasound scanners is presented. This model describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound. It has been shown that the sound has rich frequency components at the pulse repetition frequency and its harmonics. Experiments have been conducted in a water tank to measure the sound generated by a clinical ultrasound scanner in various operational modes. Results are in general agreement with the theory. It is shown that a typical ultrasound scanner with a typical spatial-peak pulse-average intensity value at 2 MHz may generate a localized sound-pressure level close to 100 dB relative to 20 μPa in the audible (<20 kHz) range under laboratory conditions. These findings suggest that fetuses may become exposed to a high-intensity audio sound during maternal ultrasound examinations. Therefore, contrary to common beliefs, ultrasound may not be considered a passive tool in fetal imaging..

  14. Novel brain MRI abnormalities in Gitelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Norbash, Alexander; Vattoth, Surjith

    2015-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. The syndrome is caused by a defective thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidneys. Gitelman syndrome could be confused with Bartter syndrome; the main differentiating feature is the presence of low urinary calcium excretion in the former. Descriptions of neuroradiological imaging findings associated with Gitelman syndrome are very scarce in the literature and include basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and sclerochoroidal calcification. Cauda equina syndrome-like presentation has been reported, but without any corresponding imaging findings on lumbar spine MRI. We report a 13-year-old male with Gitelman syndrome who presented with altered mental status following a fall and scalp laceration and unremarkable brain CT, followed during hospitalization by somnolence and seizures. Metabolically the patient demonstrated hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. MRI demonstrated features of encephalopathy including predominantly right-sided cerebral hemispheric signal abnormality and cytotoxic edema, with bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalami, midbrain tegmentum and tectum and cerebellar dentate nuclei. MRI after five months obtained during a later episode of encephalopathy showed resolution of the signal abnormalities with setting in of brain atrophy and also areas of newly developed cytotoxic edema in the left thalamus, bilateral dorsal midbrain and right greater than left dentate nuclei. The described abnormalities, either recurrent or in isolation, have not previously been published in patients with Gitelman syndrome. We believe that the findings are due to alteration of respiratory chain function secondary to the metabolic derangement and hence have a similar imaging appearance as encephalopathy related to mitochondrial cytopathy or

  15. Errors and mistakes in ultrasound diagnostics of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Jędrzejowski, Maciej; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Trzebińska, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland permits to evaluate its size, echogenicity, margins, and stroma. An abnormal ultrasound image of the thyroid, accompanied by other diagnostic investigations, facilitates therapeutic decision-making. The ultrasound image of a normal thyroid gland does not change substantially with patient's age. Nevertheless, erroneous impressions in thyroid imaging reports are sometimes encountered. These are due to diagnostic pitfalls which cannot be prevented by either the continuing development of the imaging equipment, or the growing experience and skill of the practitioners. Our article discusses the most common mistakes encountered in US diagnostics of the thyroid, the elimination of which should improve the quality of both the ultrasound examination itself and its interpretation. We have outlined errors resulting from a faulty examination technique, the similarity of the neighboring anatomical structures, and anomalies present in the proximity of the thyroid gland. We have also pointed out the reasons for inaccurate assessment of a thyroid lesion image, such as having no access to clinical data or not taking them into account, as well as faulty qualification for a fine needle aspiration biopsy. We have presented guidelines aimed at limiting the number of misdiagnoses in thyroid diseases, and provided sonograms exemplifying diagnostic mistakes.

  16. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  17. Ultrasound modulates ion channel currents

    PubMed Central

    Kubanek, Jan; Shi, Jingyi; Marsh, Jon; Chen, Di; Deng, Cheri; Cui, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (US) has been demonstrated to stimulate neurons in animals and humans, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. It has been hypothesized that US, a mechanical stimulus, may mediate cellular discharge by activating mechanosensitive ion channels embedded within cellular membranes. To test this hypothesis, we expressed potassium and sodium mechanosensitive ion channels (channels of the two-pore-domain potassium family (K2P) including TREK-1, TREK-2, TRAAK; NaV1.5) in the Xenopus oocyte system. Focused US (10 MHz, 0.3–4.9 W/cm2) modulated the currents flowing through the ion channels on average by up to 23%, depending on channel and stimulus intensity. The effects were reversible upon repeated stimulation and were abolished when a channel blocker (ranolazine to block NaV1.5, BaCl2 to block K2P channels) was applied to the solution. These data reveal at the single cell level that focused US modulates the activity of specific ion channels to mediate transmembrane currents. These findings open doors to investigations of the effects of  US on ion channels expressed in neurons, retinal cells, or cardiac cells, which may lead to important medical applications. The findings may also pave the way to the development of sonogenetics: a non-invasive, US-based analogue of optogenetics. PMID:27112990

  18. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  19. Thumb ultrasound: Technique and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder P; Kumar, Shwetam; Kathiria, Atman V; Harjai, Rachit; Jawed, Akram; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is ideally suited for the assessment of complex anatomy and pathologies of the thumb. Focused and dynamic thumb ultrasound can provide a rapid real-time diagnosis and can be used for guided treatment in certain clinical situations. We present a simplified approach to scanning technique for thumb-related pathologies and illustrate a spectrum of common and uncommon pathologies encountered. PMID:27857468

  20. Ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Wong, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of synovium is an increasingly performed procedure with a high diagnostic yield. In this review, we discuss the normal synovium, as well as the indications, technique, tissue handling and clinical applications of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. PMID:26581578

  1. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  2. Evaluation of osteoporosis using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Joaquim M.; Costa, Eduardo T.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.; Dantas, Ricardo G.

    2000-04-01

    We have developed an equipment using ultrasound transducers to help in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The equipment consists of an X-Y axes displacement system controlled by a microcomputer and uses two ultrasound transducers in opposite sides to inspect the calcaneus region of the patient. We have used two pairs of transducers with 500 kHz and 1 MHz central frequencies. Each pair of transducers was fixed in the X-Y displacement system submerged in a small water tank with a support for the foot of the patient. The transmitter was excited with pulses of 400 - 600 kHz or 800 - 1200 kHz and the ultrasound waves propagating through the bone in the calcaneus region are received by the opposite transducer, amplified and acquired in a digital oscilloscope. The data are transferred to the microcomputer and the ultrasound attenuation and the ultrasound transmission velocity are determined. The system was tested in patients, selected from a group that had already been diagnosed using a DEXA equipment. The results showed that there is a decrease in the ultrasound transmission velocity and the ultrasound attenuation in osteoporotic patients when compared to healthy patients of the same sex and age group. The conclusion is that ultrasound attenuation and the transmission velocity in the calcaneus region may be used as parameters in the evaluation of osteoporosis using our new system.

  3. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  4. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  5. Cardiac arrhythmias produced by ultrasound and contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, Claudio

    effects on the murine heart were also discovered. In the presence of microbubbles, ultrasound could produce morphological changes in the ECG and vascular damage in the myocardium. Taken together, these results indicate that ultrasound-induced arrhythmias were produced by intravascular microbubble activity. The findings of this thesis provide a greater understanding of acoustic cavitation in vivo, useful for the advancement of ultrasound contrast agents in imaging and therapy.

  6. Obstetric ultrasound education for the developing world: A learning partnership with the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology.

    PubMed

    Baj, N; Dubbins, P; Evans, J A

    2015-02-01

    The ultrasound techniques in pregnancy e-learning project is an online resource commissioned and supported by the Education Committee of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB). This currently consists of 10 e-learning sessions aimed at midwives and other health workers in developing countries where WFUMB has Educational Centres of Excellence, and in particular at those based mainly in rural communities at considerable distance from urban training centres. The project covers all of the basics of obstetric ultrasound such as fetal and maternal anatomy, ultrasound techniques, assessment in both early and late pregnancy, prediction of pregnancy complications and identification of common abnormalities that might interfere with delivery. The e-learning project complements a wider training programme which covers operator skills and machine controls, in order to minimise the time that the professional has to leave their rural, often poorly staffed, workplace to attend classroom-based courses in the city. Each session outlines often complex concepts using simple diagrams, interactive exercises and cine clips. Tips, tricks and best practice guidelines are provided in simple terms.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound in mediastinal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Ecka, Ruth Shifa; Somasundaram, Aravindh; Shoukat, Abid; Kirnake, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubercular lymphadenitis is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation in cervical and mediastinal locations. Normal characteristics of lymph nodes (LN) have been described on ultrasonography as well as by Endoscopic Ultrasound. Many ultrasonic features have been described for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. The inter and intraobserver agreement of the endosonographic features have not been uniformly established. Methods and Results: A total of 266 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and 134 cases were diagnosed as mediastinal tuberculosis. The endoscopic ultrasound location and features of these lymph nodes are described. Conclusion: Our series demonstrates the utility of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration as the investigation of choice for diagnosis of mediastinal tuberculosis and also describes various endoscopic ultrasound features of such nodes. PMID:27051097

  8. What's new in urologic ultrasound?

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Anupam; Naranje, Priyanka; Pavunesan, Santhosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is an imaging technology that has evolved swiftly and has come a long way since its beginnings. It is a commonly used initial diagnostic imaging modality as it is rapid, effective, portable, relatively inexpensive, and causes no harm to human health. In the last few decades, there have been significant technological improvements in the equipment as well as the development of contrast agents that allowed ultrasound to be even more widely adopted for urologic imaging. Ultrasound is an excellent guidance tool for an array of urologic interventional procedures and also has therapeutic application in the form of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for tumor ablation. This article focuses on the recent advances in ultrasound technology and its emerging clinical applications in urology. PMID:26166960

  9. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  10. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Moore, Michael J; Kolios, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  11. Ultrasound Prenatal Diagnosis of Inguinal Scrotal Hernia and Contralateral Hydrocele

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, G.; Sglavo, G.; Cavallaro, A.; Pastore, G.; Nappi, C.; Di Carlo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal inguinal scrotal hernia is a rare condition resulting in an abnormal embryonic process of the tunica vaginalis. We report a case of ultrasound prenatal diagnosis of inguinal scrotal hernia associated with contralateral hydrocele in a woman at 37 weeks of gestation, referred to our clinic for a scrotal mass. Differential diagnosis includes hydrocele, teratoma, hemangiomas, solid tumours of testis, bowel herniation, and testicular torsion. Bowel peristalsis is an important ultrasound sign and it allowed us to make diagnosis of inguinal scrotal hernia. Diagnosis was confirmed at birth and a laparoscopic hernia repair was performed without complications on day 10. During surgery, a bilateral defect of canal inguinal was seen and considered as the cause of scrotal inguinal hernia and contralateral hydrocele observed in utero. PMID:24455356

  12. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Carmelo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Orlandi, Davide; Lacelli, Francesca; Serafini, Giovanni; Mauri, Giovanni; Secchi, Francesco; Silvestri, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an established modality for shoulder evaluation, being accurate, low cost and radiation free. Different pathological conditions can be diagnosed using ultrasound and can be treated using ultrasound guidance, such as degenerative, traumatic or inflammatory diseases. Subacromial–subdeltoid bursitis is the most common finding on ultrasound evaluation for painful shoulder. Therapeutic injections of corticosteroids are helpful to reduce inflammation and pain. Calcific tendinopathy of rotator cuff affects up to 20% of painful shoulders. Ultrasound-guided treatment may be performed with both single- and double-needle approach. Calcific enthesopathy, a peculiar form of degenerative tendinopathy, is a common and mostly asymptomatic ultrasound finding; dry needling has been proposed in symptomatic patients. An alternative is represented by autologous platelet-rich plasma injections. Intra-articular injections of the shoulder can be performed in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory and degenerative diseases with corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid respectively. Steroid injections around the long head of the biceps brachii tendon are indicated in patients with biceps tendinopathy, reducing pain and humeral tenderness. The most common indication for acromion–clavicular joint injection is degenerative osteoarthritis, with ultrasound representing a useful tool in localizing the joint space and properly injecting various types of drugs (steroids, lidocaine or hyaluronic acid). Suprascapular nerve block is an approved treatment for chronic shoulder pain non-responsive to conventional treatments as well as candidate patients for shoulder arthroscopy. This review provides an overview of these different ultrasonography-guided procedures that can be performed around the shoulder. PMID:26313499

  13. Myelin vs axon abnormalities in white matter in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-03-13

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ.

  14. Myelin vs Axon Abnormalities in White Matter in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ. PMID:25409595

  15. 'Women think pregnancy management means obstetric ultrasound': Vietnamese obstetricians' views on the use of ultrasound during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Kristina; Graner, Sophie; Thi, Lan Pham; Åhman, Annika; Small, Rhonda; Lalos, Ann; Mogren, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    ultrasound based on clinical indications. Better regulation of private obstetric practice also appears to be needed. While the root causes of sex selection need to be addressed at societal level, efforts are also required more immediately to find ways to combat the inappropriate use of ultrasound for the purpose of sex selection.

  16. [Cervical cancer staging - preoperative assessment of tumor extent (a review of the most recent ultrasound studies)].

    PubMed

    Fischerová, D

    2014-12-01

    For treatment planning of cervical cancer it is necessary preoperatively to determine the presence and size of residual tumour after the biopsy, the tumour topography within the cervix and the parametrial and lymph node status. According to current data, ultrasound is comparably accurate with magnetic resonance imaging in view of tumour presence and local extent assessment. Ultrasound, if compared with the magnetic resonance imaging, does not have known contraindications and it is a broadly available diagnostic test. Currently no advanced imaging technique exists that can reliably detect infiltrated lymph nodes in the clinically early stage of the disease, as it often manifests as micrometastatic involvement in non-enlarged lymph nodes. The sensitivity of lymph node detection using ultrasound in the early stage is around 40%, but the specificity is high (96%). For daily practice, this means that a negative ultrasound finding should be always verified by surgical staging based on systematic lymphadenectomy, while positive ultrasound finding usually changes the treatment strategy.

  17. Sphincter lesions observed on ultrasound after transanal endoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mora López, Laura; Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Navarro Soto, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the morphological impact of transanal endoscopic surgery on the sphincter apparatus using the modified Starck classification. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 118 consecutive patients undergoing Transanal Endoscopic Operation/Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEO/TEM) from March 2013 to May 2014 was performed. All the patients underwent an endoanal ultrasound prior to surgery and one and four months postoperatively in order to measure sphincter width, identify sphincter defects and to quantify them in terms of the level, depth and size of the affected anal canal. To assess the lesions, we used the “modified” Starck classification, which incorporates the variable “sphincter fragmentation”. The results were correlated with the Wexner incontinence questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 118 patients, twelve (sphincter lesions) were excluded. The results of the 106 patients were as follows after one month: 31 (29.2%) lesions found on ultrasound after one month, median overall Starck score of 4 (range 3-6); 10 (9.4%) defects in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and 3 (2.8%) in the external anal sphincter (EAS); 17 patients (16%) had fragmentation of the sphincter apparatus with both sphincters affected in one case. At four months: 7 (6.6%) defects, all in the IAS, overall median Starck score of 4 (range 3-6). Mean IAS widths were 3.5 mm (SD 1.14) preoperatively, 4.38 mm (SD 2.1) one month postoperatively and 4.03 mm (SD 1.46) four months postoperatively. The only statistically significant difference in sphincter width in the IAS measurements was between preoperatively and one month postoperatively. No incontinence was reported, even in cases of ultrasound abnormalities. CONCLUSION: TEO/TEM may produce ultrasound abnormalities but this is not accompanied by clinical changes in continence. The modified Starck classification is useful for describing and managing these disorders. PMID:26674666

  18. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  19. Accelerated Focused Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    White, P. Jason; Thomenius, Kai; Clement, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most, basic trade-offs in ultrasound imaging involves frame rate, depth, and number of lines. Achieving good spatial resolution and coverage requires a large number of lines, leading to decreases in frame rate. An even more serious imaging challenge occurs with imaging modes involving spatial compounding and 3-D/4-D imaging, which are severely limited by the slow speed of sound in tissue. The present work can overcome these traditional limitations, making ultrasound imaging many-fold faster. By emitting several beams at once, and by separating the resulting overlapped signals through spatial and temporal processing, spatial resolution and/or coverage can be increased by many-fold while leaving frame rates unaffected. The proposed approach can also be extended to imaging strategies that do not involve transmit beamforming, such as synthetic aperture imaging. Simulated and experimental results are presented where imaging speed is improved by up to 32-fold, with little impact on image quality. Object complexity has little impact on the method’s performance, and data from biological systems can readily be handled. The present work may open the door to novel multiplexed and/or multidimensional protocols considered impractical today. PMID:20040398

  20. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  1. Aesthetic ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, Peter G.; Slayton, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound provides key benefits in aesthetic surgery compared to laser and RF based energy sources. We present results of research, development, pre-clinical and clinical studies, regulatory clearance and commercialization of a revolutionary non-invasive aesthetic ultrasound imaging and therapy system. Clinical applications for this platform include non-invasive face-lifts, brow-lifts, and neck-lifts achieved through fractionated treatment of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and subcutaneous tissue. Treatment consists of placing a grid of micro-coagulative lesions on the order of 1 mm3 at depths in skin of 1 to 6 mm, source energy levels of 0.1 to 3 J, and spacing on the order of 1.5 mm, from 4 to 10 MHz dual-mode image/treat transducers. System details are described, as well as a regulatory pathway consisting of acoustic and bioheat simulations, source characterization (hydrophone, radiation force, and Schlieren), pre-clinical studies (porcine skin ex vivo, in vivo, and human cadaver), human safety studies (treat and resect) and efficacy trials which culminated in FDA clearance (2009) under a new device classification and world-wide usage. Clinical before and after photographs are presented which validate the clinical approach.

  2. A New Era in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Superb Microvascular Imaging: Preliminary Results in Pediatric Hepato-Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasuharu; Fujimoto, Tamotsu; Shibata, Yukari

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Superb microvascular imaging is a new ultrasound image processing technique that uses advanced clutter suppression to extract flow signals from vessels and which helps us visualize very small vascular structures that were not previously visible without the use of a contrast agent. We herein analyzed the usefulness of superb microvascular imaging in the diagnosis of hepato-gastrointestinal disorders in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Fifty-six pediatric patients who underwent a total of 81 superb microvascular imaging examinations with an Aplio 300 ultrasound system (Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) were enrolled in this study. The subjects underwent conventional ultrasound examinations, including Doppler imaging followed by superb microvascular imaging. The superb microvascular imaging findings and standard imaging were compared. All of the examinations were performed without sedation. Results The average age of the patients (male, n = 38; female, n = 18) was 4 years. The clinical diagnoses included hepatobiliary disorders (n = 29), acute appendicitis (n = 10), and other intestinal disorders (n = 17). The target organs for superb microvascular imaging were the liver, appendix, rectum, intestine, gallbladder, and lymph node. In most of the patients, superb microvascular imaging achieved the excellent visualization of microvascular structures, revealing abnormal vasculature in 21 out of 46 (45.7%) examinations of the liver, 9/9 (100%) examinations of the appendix, 0/11 (0%) examinations of the rectum, 9/11 (81.8%) examinations of the intestine, 0/1 (0%) examinations of the gallbladder, and 3/3 (100%) examinations of the lymph nodes. Superb microvascular imaging was superior to Doppler imaging for depicting the microvascular structures. Conclusions Superb microvascular imaging is especially useful for depicting the microvascular flow and can aid in the diagnosis and treatment planning for pediatric patients with

  3. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  4. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters.

  5. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF.

  6. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  7. Determining Directions of Ultrasound in Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasound shadows cast by grooves. Improved method for determining direction of ultrasound in materials is shadow method using Scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Direction of ultrasound calculated from dimensions of groove and portion of surface groove shields from ultrasound. Method has variety of applications in nontraditional quality-control applications.

  8. Multimodal classification of prostate tissue: a feasibility study on combining multiparametric MRI and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashab, Hussam Al-Deen; Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Nir, Guy; Kozlowski, Piotr; Black, Peter; Jones, Edward C.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Moradi, Mehdi

    2015-03-01

    The common practice for biopsy guidance is through transrectal ultrasound, with the fusion of ultrasound and MRI-based targets when available. However, ultrasound is only used as a guidance modality in MR-targeted ultrasound-guided biopsy, even though previous work has shown the potential utility of ultrasound, particularly ultrasound vibro-elastography, as a tissue typing approach. We argue that multiparametric ultrasound, which includes B-mode and vibro-elastography images, could contain information that is not captured using multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and therefore play a role in refining the biopsy and treatment strategies. In this work, we combine mpMRI with multiparametric ultrasound features from registered tissue areas to examine the potential improvement in cancer detection. All the images were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy and cancer detection was validated based on 36 whole mount histology slides. We calculated a set of 24 texture features from vibro-elastography and B-mode images, and five features from mpMRI. Then we used recursive feature elimination (RFE) and sparse regression through LASSO to find an optimal set of features to be used for tissue classification. We show that the set of these selected features increases the area under ROC curve from 0.87 with mpMRI alone to 0.94 with the selected mpMRI and multiparametric ultrasound features, when used with support vector machine classification on features extracted from peripheral zone. For features extracted from the whole-gland, the area under the curve was 0.75 and 0.82 for mpMRI and mpMRI along with ultrasound, respectively. These preliminary results provide evidence that ultrasound and ultrasound vibro-elastography could be used as modalities for improved cancer detection in combination with MRI.

  9. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism.

    PubMed

    Good, Ryan J; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V; Press, Craig A; Carpenter, Todd C

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots.

  10. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    PubMed

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time.

  11. Unpowered wireless ultrasound tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Farshad; Huang, Haiying

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an unpowered wireless ultrasound tomography system is presented. The system consists of two subsystems; the wireless interrogation unit (WIU) and three wireless nodes installed on the structure. Each node is designed to work in generation and sensing modes, but operates at a specific microwave frequency. Wireless transmission of the ultrasound signals between the WIU and the wireless nodes is achieved by converting ultrasound signals to microwave signals and vice versa, using a microwave carrier signal. In the generation mode, both a carrier signal and an ultrasound modulated microwave signal are transmitted to the sensor nodes. Only the node whose operating frequency matches the carrier signal will receive these signals and demodulate them to recover the original ultrasound signal. In the sensing mode, a microwave carrier signal with two different frequency components matching the operating frequencies of the sensor nodes is broadcasted by the WIU. The sensor nodes, in turn, receive the corresponding carrier signals, modulate it with the ultrasound sensing signal, and wirelessly transmit the modulated signal back to the WIU. The demodulation of the sensing signals is performed in the WIU using a digital signal processing. Implementing a software receiver significantly reduces the complexity and the cost of the WIU. A wireless ultrasound tomography system is realized by interchanging the carrier frequencies so that the wireless transducers can take turn to serve as the actuator and sensors.

  12. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  13. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    PubMed

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  14. Radiological Findings of Michel Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayse; Demirtas, Hakan; Celik, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital abnormalities of the inner ear is the most common cause of neurosensory hearing loss. Michel inner ear deformity is a rare developmental anomaly refers to the total aplasia of the inner ear. It is caused by developmental arrest of otic placode early during the third week of gestational age. Case report: We have discussed here that three year old girl diagnosed Michel aplasia with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. PMID:27482139

  15. Value of Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taeyoung; Horton, Laura; Emery, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology clinical practice has rapidly increased over the past decade. Ultrasound has enabled rheumatologists to diagnose, prognosticate and monitor disease outcome. Although international standardization remains a concern still, the use of ultrasound in rheumatology is expected to grow further as costs fall and the opportunity to train in the technique improves. We present a review of value of ultrasound, focusing on major applications of ultrasound in rheumatologic diseases. PMID:23580002

  16. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed.

  17. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  18. Ultrasound assessment of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Radunovic, Goran; Vlad, Violeta; Micu, Mihaela C; Nestorova, Rodina; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Porta, Francesco; Iagnocco, Annamaria

    2012-06-01

    Ultrasonography of the elbow is a very helpful and reliable diagnostic procedure for a broad spectrum of rheumatic and orthopedic conditions, representing a possible substitute to magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of soft tissues of the elbow. Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) shows many advantages over other imaging modalities, probably the most important being its capability to perform a dynamic assessment of musculoskeletal elements with patient's partnership and observation during examination. In addition, ultrasonography is cost effective, easy available, and has excellent and multiplanar capability to visualize superficial soft tissue structures. Among all imaging procedures, US is highly accepted by patients. US assessment of the elbow requires good operator experience in the assessment of normal anatomy, and suitable high-quality equipment. US of the elbow provides detailed information including joint effusions, medial and lateral epicondylitis, tears of the distal biceps and triceps tendons, radial and ulnar collateral ligament tears, ulnar nerve entrapment, cubital or olecranon bursitis and intra-articular loose bodies. The aim of this paper is to review the screening technique and the basic normal and pathological findings in elbow US.

  19. [Ultrasound study in colonic diverticular microperforation].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, M A

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of ultrasound (US) study in 34 patients with a history of colonic diverticulosis, who have been admitted to hospital for the clinical manifestations of diverticular microperforation. Diverticulosis was verified by X-ray irrigoscopy in 15 patients, by oral contrast-enhanced computed tomography in 6, and by colonoscopy in 18. Analysis of US findings revealed the major US syndromes of colonic diverticular microperforation, namely a change in the intestinal wall as its thickening and lower echogenicity, as well as perifocal infiltration and local accumulation of free fluid outside the altered bowel.

  20. Porcelain gallbladder: ultrasound and CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.A.; Jacobs, R.; Katz, J.; Costello, P.

    1984-07-01

    Nine patients with calcification of the gallbladder wall (porcelain gallbladder) were analyzed by ultrasound and the appearance correlated with the CT, radiographic, clinical, and surgical findings. Three distinct patterns were identified: (a) a hyperechoic similunar structure with acoustic shadowing posteriorly, simulating a stone-filled gallbladder devoid of bile, which was seen in 5 patients; (b) a biconvex, curvilinear echogenic structure with variable acoustic shadowing, seen in all 3 patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder; and (c) an irregular clump of echoes with posterior acoustic shadowing, seen in 1 patient. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of gallbladder calcification are presented, and the association between calcification and cancer is emphasized.

  1. A case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality associated with facial cleft

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tomoko; Kojima, Shota; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Ueki, Mari; Sugasawa, Jun; Oku, Hidehiro; Tajiri, Kensuke; Shigemura, Yuka; Ueda, Koichi; Harada, Atsuko; Yamasaki, Mami; Yamanaka, Takumi; Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of facial cleft is rare and ranges between 1.43 and 4.85 per 100,000 births. To date, there have been few reports of detailed ophthalmologic examinations performed in cases of facial cleft. Here, we report a case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality associated with facial cleft. Case report A 9-day-old female infant was delivered by cesarian section at 34 weeks of gestational age (the second baby of twins) and weighed 2,276 g upon presentation. She had a facial cleft and ectrodactyly at birth. Right eye-dominant blepharophimosis was obvious. Examination of the right eye revealed inferior corneal opacity with vascularization, downward corectopia, and optic-nerve hypoplasia. The corneal diameter was 8 mm in both eyes, and tonometry by use of a Tono-Pen® XL (Reichert Technologies, Depew, NY, USA) handheld applanation tonometer revealed that her intraocular pressure was 11–22 mmHg (Oculus Dexter) and 8 mmHg (Oculus Sinister). B-mode echo revealed no differences in axial length between her right and left eyes. When she was 15–16 months old, we attempted to examine her eyes before she underwent plastic surgery under general anesthesia. She had a small optic disc in both eyes and the right-eye disc was tilted. After undergoing canthotomy, gonioscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed that almost all directions were open except for the peripheral anterior synechia. Since magnetic resonance imaging revealed ventriculomegaly associated with an interhemispheric cyst at birth, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted at 12 days of age. At 25 months of age, her condition suddenly deteriorated due to occlusion of the ventricular shunt catheter, and she died 5 days later. In this patient, amniotic band syndrome was presumed to be the primary cause due to the clinical findings. Conclusion We experienced a case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality that occurred with facial cleft. The cause of these

  2. [Role of ultrasound diagnostics in evaluating of adaptational changes in heart in miners].

    PubMed

    Ibraev, S A; Koĭgel'dinova, Sh S

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of cardiovascular system covered apparently healthy coal miners with consideration of service under exposure to coal rock dust. Findings are increased blood velocity, higher pressure gradient and average pulmonary artery pressure, thicker front wall of right ventricle.

  3. Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

    2014-10-31

    The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids.

  4. Instant magnetic labeling of tumor cells by ultrasound in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Runyang; Yang, Jian; Wu, Ed X.; Lin, Shuyu

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic labeling of living cells creates opportunities for numerous biomedical applications. Here we describe an instantly cell magnetic labeling method based on ultrasound. We present a detailed study on the ultrasound performance of a simple and efficient labeling protocol for H-22 cells in vitro. High frequency focus ultrasound was investigated as an alternative method to achieve instant cell labeling with the magnetic particles without the need for adjunct agents or initiating cell cultures. Mean diameter of 168 nm dextran-T40 coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles were prepared by means of classical coprecipitation in solution in our laboratory. H-22 tumor cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH=7.2) were exposed to ultrasound at 1.37 MHz for up to 120 s in the presence of SPIOs. The cellular uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles was detected by prussion blue staining. The viability of cells was determined by a trypan blue exclusion test. At 2 W power and 60 s ultrasound exposure in presence of 410 μg/ml SPIOs, H-22 cell labeling efficiency reached 69.4±6.3% and the labeled cells exhibited an iron content of 10.38±2.43 pg per cell. Furthermore, 95.2±3.2% cells remained viable. The results indicated that the ultrasound protocol could be potentially applied to label cells with large-sized magnetic particles. We also calculated the shear stress at the 2 W power and 1.37 MHz used in experiments. The results showed that the shear stress threshold for ultrasonically induced H-22 cell reparable sonoporation was 697 Pa. These findings provide a quantitative guidance in designing ultrasound protocols for cell labeling.

  5. Multimodality imaging of intrauterine devices with an emphasis on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jeffrey S; Brindle, Kathleen A; Khati, Nadia Juliet

    2012-12-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is one of the most widely used reversible contraception methods throughout the world. With advancing technology, it has rapidly gained acceptance through its increased effectiveness and practicality compared with more invasive means such as laparoscopic tubal ligation. This pictorial essay will present the IUDs most commonly used today. It will illustrate both normal and abnormal positions of IUDs across all cross-sectional imaging modalities including 2-dimensional ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a focus on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound as the modality of choice.

  6. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  7. Ultrasound guided fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoqiang; Lesage, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a hybrid-model imaging system combining fluorescence and ultrasound (US) was investigated with the motivation of providing structural priors towards improvement of fluorescence reconstruction. A single element transducer was scanned over the sample for anatomy. In the fluorescence part, a laser source was scanned over the sample with the emission received by an EMCCD camera. Synchronization was achieved by a pair of motorized linear stages. Structural information was derived from the US images and a profilometry and used to constrain reconstruction. In the reconstruction, we employed a GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for forward modeling and a pattern-based method to take advantage of the huge dataset for the inverse problem. Performance of this system was validated with two phantoms with fluorophore inclusions. The results indicated that the fluorophore distribution could be accurately reconstructed. And the system has a potential for the future in-vivo study.

  8. Therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalapathy, Suresh; Nayar, Manu K

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is now firmly established as one of the essential tools for diagnosis in most gastrointestinal MDTs across the UK. However, the ability to provide therapy with EUS has resulted in a significant impact on the management of the patients. These include drainage of peripancreatic collections, EUS-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram, EUS-guided coeliac plexus blocks, etc. The rapid development of this area in endoscopy is a combination of newer tools and increasing expertise by endosonographers to push the boundaries of intervention with EUS. However, the indications are limited and we are at the start of the learning curve for these high-risk procedures. These therapies should, therefore, be confined to centres with a robust multidisciplinary team, including interventional endoscopists, radiologists and surgeons. PMID:28261439

  9. Ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Ignee, Andre; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Schuessler, Gudrun; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays an important role in imaging of the mediastinum and abdominal organs. Since the introduction of US contrast agents (UCA) for transabdominal US, attempts have been made to apply contrast-enhanced US techniques also to EUS. Since 2003, specific contrast-enhanced imaging was possible using EUS. Important studies have been published regarding contrast-enhanced EUS and the characterization of focal pancreatic lesions, lymph nodes, and subepithelial tumors. In this manuscript, we describe the relevant UCA, their application, and specific image acquisition as well as the principles of image tissue characterization using contrast-enhanced EUS. Safety issues, potential future developments, and EUS-specific issues are reviewed. PMID:27824024

  10. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  11. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  12. Ultrasound detects subclinical joint inflammation in the hands and wrists of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without musculoskeletal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Rui; Oliveira, João F; Pinheiro, Sofia; Vieira, Luís S; Moraes-Fontes, Maria Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and severity of ultrasonographic abnormalities of the hand and wrist of asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and compare these findings with those from patients with SLE with musculoskeletal signs or symptoms and healthy controls. Methods We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study that evaluated bilaterally, with grey-scale and power Doppler (PD) ultrasound (US), the dorsal hand (2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal and 2nd to 5th proximal interphalangeal joints) and wrist (radiocarpal, ulnocarpal and intercarpal joints) of 30 asymptomatic patients with SLE, 6 symptomatic patients with SLE and 10 controls. Synovial hypertrophy (SH) and intra-articular PD signal were scored using semiquantitative grading scales (0–3). Individual scores were graded as normal (SH≤1 and PD=0) or abnormal (SH≥2 or PD≥1). Global indexes for SH and PD were also calculated. US findings were correlated with clinical and laboratory data and disease activity indexes. Results US detected SH (score ≥1) in 77% asymptomatic patients with SLE, mostly graded as minimal (score 1: 63%). 23% of the asymptomatic patients with SLE showed abnormal US PD findings (SH≥2 or PD≥1). SH was present in all symptomatic patients with SLE, mostly graded as moderate (grade 2: 67%), and with associated PD signal (83%). SH (score 1) was identified in 50% of controls, however, none presented abnormal US PD findings. SH index in the asymptomatic SLE group was higher than in the control group (2.0 (0–5) vs 0.5 (0–2), median (range), p=0.01) and lower than in the symptomatic SLE group (7.0 (4–23), median (range), p<0.001). No significant correlation was demonstrated between US PD findings and clinical or laboratory variables and disease activity indexes. Conclusion A small subgroup of asymptomatic patients with SLE may present subclinical joint inflammation. Global US scores and PD signal may be important in disease evaluation and

  13. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  14. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  15. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  16. CHAOS: Prenatal imaging findings with post mortem contrast radiographic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanika; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Manoharan, Kiruba Shankar; Rajalakshmi, Vaithianathan; Menon, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome is a rare fetal anomaly with characteristic constellation of prenatal findings on ultrasound and MRI. The typical triad of imaging features are enlarged and echogenic lungs, flattening or inversion of diaphragm and fetal hydrops. Early prenatal recognition of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome by ultrasound and/or MRI is mandatory for the appropriate perinatal management. We report a case of a male fetus with typical imaging findings of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome on ultrasound and MRI at 19 weeks of gestation. The role of contrast radiographs of fetal airways, including retrograde laryngogram, in confirming the postnatal diagnosis of this fetal condition is demonstrated. The prenatal imaging findings were correlated with contrast radiographs of upper airways, sonography of aborted fetus and fetal autopsy findings. PMID:27761192

  17. A simulation algorithm for ultrasound liver backscattered signals.

    PubMed

    Zatari, D; Botros, N; Dunn, F

    1995-11-01

    In this study, we present a simulation algorithm for the backscattered ultrasound signal from liver tissue. The algorithm simulates backscattered signals from normal liver and three different liver abnormalities. The performance of the algorithm has been tested by statistically comparing the simulated signals with corresponding signals obtained from a previous in vivo study. To verify that the simulated signals can be classified correctly we have applied a classification technique based on an artificial neural network. The acoustic features extracted from the spectrum over a 2.5 MHz bandwidth are the attenuation coefficient and the change of speed of sound with frequency (dispersion). Our results show that the algorithm performs satisfactorily. Further testing of the algorithm is conducted by the use of a data acquisition and analysis system designed by the authors, where several simulated signals are stored in memory chips and classified according to their abnormalities.

  18. Skin Ultrasound in Kaposi Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, R; Alfageme, F; Roustán, G; Suarez, M D

    2016-05-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging has recently been increasing in numerous dermatologic diseases. This noninvasive technique provides additional details on the structure and vascularization of skin lesions. Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that typically arises in the skin and mucosas. It can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs. We performed B-mode and color Doppler ultrasound studies in 3 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma confirmed by histological examination. We found differences in the ultrasound pattern between nodular and plaque lesions, in both B-mode and color Doppler. We believe that skin ultrasound imaging could be a useful technique for studying cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma, providing additional information on the structural and vascular characteristics of the lesion.

  19. Ultrasound-modulated bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Schotland, John C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly scattering medium from ultrasound-modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  20. Can ultrasound help to manage patients with scrotal trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Adlan, T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the scrotum are uncommon but, when they do occur, frequently lead to serious complications. Early complications include testicular infarction, necrosis and abscess formation; in the longer-term trauma may result in testicular atrophy and subfertility. Early surgical intervention in patients with testicular rupture can significantly improve the clinical outcome and reduce the need for delayed orchidectomy. However, clinical examination of the scrotum following trauma is difficult and frequently inaccurate; this may result in incorrect triage of patients for surgical exploration. Scrotal ultrasound can reliably assess scrotal injuries and diagnose testicular rupture with a high level of accuracy. Additionally, ultrasound can provide important information regarding testicular perfusion, which can further inform decisions on surgical management. This article reviews the sonographic findings that may be encountered in patients with scrotal trauma, with an emphasis on blunt trauma. It describes the pivotal role that ultrasound can play in the accurate triage of these patients to surgical or conservative management. PMID:27433221