Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal ventricular wall

  1. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems.

    PubMed

    Erol, Cengiz; Koplay, Mustafa; Olcay, Ayhan; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Ozbek, Seda; Seker, Mehmet; Paksoy, Yahya

    2012-11-01

    Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P=0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal-apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subclinical and clinical correlates of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in the community.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Gona, Philimon; Salton, Carol; Danias, Peter G; Blease, Susan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S; Albert, Mark; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Yeon, Susan B

    2011-03-15

    The prevalence and clinical correlates of left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities (WMAs), associated with morbidity and mortality, have not been well-characterized in the population. Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants (n = 1,794, 844 men, age 65 ± 9 years) underwent cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance for evaluation of LV function. A subset (n = 1,009, 460 men) underwent cardiac multidetector computed tomography for analysis of coronary artery calcium. The presence of coronary heart disease and heart failure (CHD-HF) were assessed in relation to the presence of WMAs. WMAs were present in 117 participants (6.5%) and were associated with male gender, elevated hemoglobin A1c, LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume, and lower LV ejection fraction. Of the 1,637 participants without CHD-HF, 68 (4.2%) had WMAs. In this group, WMAs were associated with obesity, hypertension, and Framingham coronary heart disease risk score in the age- and gender-adjusted analyses and were associated with male gender and hypertension on multivariate analysis. Most subjects with WMAs were in the greatest coronary artery calcium groups. The presence of coronary artery calcium greater than the seventy-fifth percentile and Agatston score >100 were associated with a greater than twofold risk of WMAs in the age- and gender-adjusted analysis but were no longer significant when additionally adjusted for CHD-HF. Previous Q-wave myocardial infarction was present in 29% of the 117 participants with WMAs. In conclusion, in the present longitudinally followed free-living population, 4.2% of the participants without CHD-HF had WMAs. WMAs were associated with the clinical parameters associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Aggressive risk factor modification may be prudent for subjects with WMAs, particularly those free of clinical CHD-HF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency of Inverted Electrocardiographic T Waves (Cerebral T Waves) in Patients With Acute Strokes and Their Relation to Left Ventricular Wall Motion Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jeremy; Mor-Avi, Victor; Ardelt, Agnieszka; Lang, Roberto M

    2018-01-01

    Transient, symmetric, and deep inverted electrocardiogram (ECG) T waves in the setting of stroke, commonly referred to as cerebral T waves, are rare, and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that cerebral T waves are associated with transient cardiac dysfunction. This retrospective study included 800 patients admitted with the primary diagnosis of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. ECGs were examined for cerebral T waves, defined as T-wave inversion of ≥5 mm depth in ≥4 contiguous precordial leads. Echocardiograms of those meeting these criteria were examined for the presence of left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities. Follow-up evaluation included both ECG and echocardiogram. Of the 800 patients, 17 had cerebral T waves on ECG (2.1%). All 17 patients had ischemic strokes, of which 11 were in the middle cerebral artery distribution (65%), and 2 were cerebellar (12%), whereas the remaining 4 involved other locations. Follow-up ECG showed resolution of the T-wave changes in all 17 patients. Of these patients, 14 (82%) had normal wall motion, and 3 had transient wall motion abnormalities (18%). Two of these patients had Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy with apical ballooning, and the third had globally reduced LV function. Coronary angiography showed no significant disease to explain the LV dysfunction. In summary, in our cohort of patients with acute stroke, cerebral T waves were rare and occurred only in ischemic stroke. Eighteen percent of patients with cerebral T waves had significant transient wall motion abnormalities. Patients with stroke with cerebral T waves, especially in those with ischemic strokes, should be assessed for cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Could quantitative longitudinal peak systolic strain help in the detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in our daily echocardiographic practice?

    PubMed

    Benyounes, Nadia; Lang, Sylvie; Gout, Olivier; Ancédy, Yann; Etienney, Arnaud; Cohen, Ariel

    2016-10-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is the most commonly used tool for the detection of left ventricular wall motion (LVWM) abnormalities using "naked eye evaluation". This subjective and operator-dependent technique requires a high level of clinical training and experience. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), which is less operator-dependent, has been proposed for this purpose. However, the role of on-line segmental longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) values in the prediction of LVWM has not been fully evaluated. To test segmental LPSS for predicting LVWM abnormalities in routine echocardiography laboratory practice. LVWM was evaluated by an experienced cardiologist, during routine practice, in 620 patients; segmental LPSS values were then calculated. In this work, reflecting real life, 99.6% of segments were successfully tracked. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) segmental LPSS values for normal basal (n=3409), mid (n=3468) and apical (n=3466) segments were -16.7% (-16.9% to -16.5%), -18.2% (-18.3% to -18.0%) and -21.1% (-21.3% to -20.9%), respectively. Mean (95% CI) segmental LPSS values for hypokinetic basal (n=114), mid (n=116) and apical (n=90) segments were -7.7% (-9.0% to -6.3%), -10.1% (-11.1% to -9.0%) and -9.3% (-10.5% to -8.1%), respectively. Mean (95% CI) segmental LPSS values for akinetic basal (n=128), mid (n=95) and apical (n=91) segments were -6.6% (-8.0% to -5.1%), -6.1% (-7.7% to -4.6%) and -4.2% (-5.4% to -3.0%), respectively. LPSS allowed the differentiation between normal and abnormal segments at basal, mid and apical levels. An LPSS value≥-12% detected abnormal segmental motion with a sensitivity of 78% for basal, 70% for mid and 82% for apical segments. Segmental LPSS values may help to differentiate between normal and abnormal left ventricular segments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  6. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia with Structural Abnormalities of the Right Ventricle and Left Ventricular Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Martini, Bortolo; Trevisi, Nicola; Martini, Nicolò; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). ECG showed a QRS in left bundle branch block morphology with inferior axis. Echocardiography, ventricular angiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) revealed a normal right ventricle and a left ventricular diverticulum. Electrophysiology studies with epicardial voltage mapping identified a large fibrotic area in the inferolateral layer of the right ventricular wall and a small area of fibrotic tissue at the anterior right ventricular outflow tract. VT ablation was successfully performed with combined epicardial and endocardial approaches.

  7. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia with Structural Abnormalities of the Right Ventricle and Left Ventricular Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Bortolo; Trevisi, Nicola; Martini, Nicolò; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). ECG showed a QRS in left bundle branch block morphology with inferior axis. Echocardiography, ventricular angiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) revealed a normal right ventricle and a left ventricular diverticulum. Electrophysiology studies with epicardial voltage mapping identified a large fibrotic area in the inferolateral layer of the right ventricular wall and a small area of fibrotic tissue at the anterior right ventricular outflow tract. VT ablation was successfully performed with combined epicardial and endocardial approaches. PMID:26509086

  8. Does quantitative left ventricular regional wall motion change after fibrous tissue resection in endomyocardial fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Fernandes, Fabio; Sirvente, Raquel; Nastari, Luciano; Rosa, Leonardo Vieira; Ferreira, Cristiano A; Pena, José Luiz Barros; Picard, Michael H; Mady, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We compared left ventricular regional wall motion, the global left ventricular ejection fraction, and the New York Heart Association functional class pre- and postoperatively. Endomyocardial fibrosis is characterized by fibrous tissue deposition in the endomyocardium of the apex and/or inflow tract of one or both ventricles. Although left ventricular global systolic function is preserved, patients exhibit wall motion abnormalities in the apical and inferoapical regions. Fibrous tissue resection in New York Heart Association FC III and IV endomyocardial fibrosis patients has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality. We prospectively studied 30 patients (20 female, 30+/-10 years) before and 5+/-8 months after surgery. The left ventricular ejection fraction was determined using the area-length method. Regional left ventricular motion was measured by the centerline method. Five left ventricular segments were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Abnormality was expressed in units of standard deviation from the mean motion in a normal reference population. Left ventricular wall motion in the five regions did not differ between pre- and postoperative measurements. Additionally, the left ventricular ejection fraction did not change after surgery (0.45+/-0.13% x 0.43+/-0.12% pre- and postoperatively, respectively). The New York Heart Association functional class improved to class I in 40% and class II in 43% of patients postoperatively (p<0.05). Although endomyocardial fibrosis patients have improved clinical symptoms after surgery, the global left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion in these patients do not change. This finding suggests that other explanations, such as improvements in diastolic function, may be operational.

  9. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex andmore » then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.« less

  10. Evaluation of segmental left ventricular wall motion by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography.

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, D; Janowitz, W R; Holmes, D R; Cohen, H A

    1979-01-01

    The ability of equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography to detect segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities was determined in 26 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Multiple gated studies obtained in 30 degrees right anterior oblique and 45 degrees left anterior oblique projections, played back in a movie format, were compared to the corresponding LV ventriculograms. The LV wall in the two projections was divided into eight segments. Each segment was graded as normal, hypokinetic, akinetic, dyskinetic, or indeterminate. Thirteen percent of the segments in the gated images were indeterminate; 24 out of 27 of these were proximal or distal inferior wall segments. There was exact agreement in 86% of the remaining segments. The sensitivity of the radionuclide technique for detecting normal versus any abnormal wall motion was 71%, with a specificity of 99%. Equilibrium gated ventriculography is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating segmental LV wall motion. It is least reliable in assessing the proximal inferior wall and interventricular septum.

  11. Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Offer; Smith, Ronald; Nishikawa, Akaira; Gregoric, Igor D.; Smart, Frank W.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a case of subacute left ventricular free wall rupture during acute myocardial infarction in a 68-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiography. The patient was supported by an intra-aortic balloon pump until the ruptured wall could be successfully repaired by suturing and gluing a pericardial patch over the defect and bypassing the left anterior descending coronary artery with a vein graft. This case demonstrates that left ventricular free wall rupture is not always fatal and that early diagnosis and institution of intra-aortic balloon pump support in such patients can allow successful bridging to definitive emergency surgical therapy. PMID:16392235

  12. Left ventricular function abnormalities as a manifestation of silent myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C R; Conti, C R; Pepine, C J

    1986-11-01

    A large body of evidence exists indicating that left ventricular dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with severe coronary artery disease and represents silent or asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. Such dysfunction probably occurs early in the time course of every ischemic episode in patients with coronary artery disease whether symptoms are eventually manifested or not. The pathophysiology of silent versus symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemia appears to be identical. Silent ischemia-related left ventricular dysfunction can be documented during spontaneous or stress-induced perturbations in the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. It also may be detected by nitroglycerin-induced improvement in ventricular function or by salutary changes in wall motion following revascularization. Silent left ventricular dysfunction is a very early occurrence during ischemia and precedes electrocardiographic abnormalities. In this light, its existence should always be kept in mind when dealing with patients with ischemic heart disease. It can be hypothesized that because silent ischemia appears to be identical to ischemia with symptoms in a pathophysiologic sense, prognosis and treatment in both cases should be the same.

  13. Diastolic heart failure associated with hemangiosarcoma infiltrating left ventricular walls in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Morita, Tomoya; Kagawa, Yumiko; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A 9-year-old Shetland sheepdog was diagnosed with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Echocardiography revealed focally thickened left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum and left atrial dilation. Left ventricular systolic function was preserved. Doppler echocardiography of transmitral flow indicated restrictive left ventricular filling. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated hemangiosarcoma infiltrating the left ventricular walls. PMID:29089652

  14. Diastolic heart failure associated with hemangiosarcoma infiltrating left ventricular walls in a dog.

    PubMed

    Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Morita, Tomoya; Kagawa, Yumiko; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    A 9-year-old Shetland sheepdog was diagnosed with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Echocardiography revealed focally thickened left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum and left atrial dilation. Left ventricular systolic function was preserved. Doppler echocardiography of transmitral flow indicated restrictive left ventricular filling. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated hemangiosarcoma infiltrating the left ventricular walls.

  15. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress.

    PubMed

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-28

    Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised meal. Both ESS and cESS decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from fasting values 30 minutes after the meal, and had not returned to baseline after 110 minutes. ESS decreased from 65 ± 16 kdynes/cm2 (fasting) to 44 ± 12 kdynes/cm2 30 minutes after, and to 58 ± 13 kdynes/cm2 110 minutes after eating. cESS decreased from 98 ± 24 kdynes/cm2 to 67 ± 18 kdynes/cm2 30 minutes after, and to 87 ± 19 kdynes/cm2 110 minutes after the meal. This study shows that left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.

  16. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  17. Temporal Fourier analysis applied to equilibrium radionuclide cineangiography. Importance in the study of global and regional left ventricular wall motion.

    PubMed

    Cardot, J C; Berthout, P; Verdenet, J; Bidet, A; Faivre, R; Bassand, J P; Bidet, R; Maurat, J P

    1982-01-01

    Regional and global left ventricular wall motion was assessed in 120 patients using radionuclide cineangiography (RCA) and contrast angiography. Functional imaging procedures based on a temporal Fourier analysis of dynamic image sequences were applied to the study of cardiac contractility. Two images were constructed by taking the phase and amplitude values of the first harmonic in the Fourier transform for each pixel. These two images aided in determining the perimeter of the left ventricle to calculate the global ejection fraction. Regional left ventricular wall motion was studied by analyzing the phase value and by examining the distribution histogram of these values. The accuracy of global ejection fraction calculation was improved by the Fourier technique. This technique increased the sensitivity of RCA for determining segmental abnormalities especially in the left anterior oblique view (LAO).

  18. Dynamic radionuclide determination of regional left ventricular wall motion using a new digital imaging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, P.; Kirch, D.

    1975-01-01

    In 47 men with arteriographically defined coronary artery disease comparative studies of left ventricular ejection fraction and segmental wall motion were made with radionuclide data obtained from the image intensifier camera computer system and with contrast cineventriculography. The radionuclide data was digitized and the images corresponding to left ventricular end-diastole and end-systole were identified from the left ventricular time-activity curve. The left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic images were subtracted to form a silhouette difference image which described wall motion of the anterior and inferior left ventricular segments. The image intensifier camera allows manipulation of dynamically acquired radionuclide data because of the high count rate and consequently improved resolution of the left ventricular image.

  19. The relationship between arterial wall stiffness and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Li, L; Shen, L; Gao, H

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and arterial wall stiffening. A total of 218 patients over the age of 45 diagnosed with hypertension in Jinan City and hospitalised between 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. LV function was evaluated using echocardiography (ECHO). Blood pressure was monitored with an automated tonometric device, and the parameters of arterial wall stiffness were measured. In addition, the metabolic parameters of blood samples, such as glucose and lipids, were also determined using the Cobas E601 analyser. Stiffness parameter beta positively correlated with LV diastolic function (E/Em ratio) (r = 0.255, p < 0.001). LV end-diastolic diameter not only related to the E/Em ratio (r = 0.196, p = 0.009) but also with beta (r = 0.220, p = 0.002). The stiffness parameter beta was an early indicator of E/Em ratio as determined by multiple regression analysis (R (2) = 0.381, p < 0.01). Age, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose contributed to stiffness parameter beta (p < 0.05), as well as the E/Em ratio (p < 0.01). Our findings suggested that LV dysfunction may have a direct relationship to arterial stiffening, independently of having similar risk factors. In addition, arterial stiffness can be an independent predictor of LV diastolic function, suggesting that the severity of arterial stiffness directly correlates with the severity of LV dysfunction.

  20. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Smerup, Morten; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil; Baandrup, Ulrik T; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Nygaard, Hans; Funder, Jonas; Aalkjær, Christian; Sauer, Cathrine; Buchanan, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Østergaard, Kristine; Grøndahl, Carsten; Candy, Geoffrey; Hasenkam, J Michael; Secher, Niels H; Bie, Peter; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Giraffes--the tallest extant animals on Earth--are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. Arterial pressure may exceed 300 mmHg and has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. Recently, this has been refuted by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It thus remains unexplained how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such massive arterial pressures. We hypothesized that giraffe hearts have a small intraventricular cavity and a relatively thick ventricular wall, allowing for generation of high arterial pressures at normal left ventricular wall tension. In nine anaesthetized giraffes (495±38 kg), we determined in vivo ventricular dimensions using echocardiography along with intraventricular and aortic pressures to calculate left ventricular wall stress. Cardiac output was also determined by inert gas rebreathing to provide an additional and independent estimate of stroke volume. Echocardiography and inert gas-rebreathing yielded similar cardiac outputs of 16.1±2.5 and 16.4±1.4 l min(-1), respectively. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 521±61 ml and 228±42 ml, respectively, yielding an ejection fraction of 56±4% and a stroke volume of 0.59 ml kg(-1). Left ventricular circumferential wall stress was 7.83±1.76 kPa. We conclude that, relative to body mass, a small left ventricular cavity and a low stroke volume characterizes the giraffe heart. The adaptations result in typical mammalian left ventricular wall tensions, but produce a lowered cardiac output. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Clinical applications of a quantitative analysis of regional lift ventricular wall motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, R. F.; Rich, J. M.; Pollack, M. E.; Altieri, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were summarized which may have clinical application. These were obtained from a quantitative analysis of wall motion that was used to detect both hypokinesis and tardokinesis in left ventricular cineangiograms. The method was based on statistical comparisons with normal values for regional wall motion derived from the cineangiograms of patients who were found not to have heart disease.

  2. Paediatric chest wall trauma causing delayed presentation of ventricular arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Tegethoff, Angela M; Raney, Emerald; Mendelson, Jenny; Minckler, Michael R

    2017-07-24

    This report describes a paediatric patient presenting with haemodynamically stable non-sustained ventricular tachycardia 1 day after minor blunt chest trauma. Initial laboratory studies, chest X-ray and echocardiography were normal; however, cardiac MRI revealed precordial haematoma, myocardial contusion and small pericardial effusion. Throughout her hospital course, she remained asymptomatic aside from frequent couplets and triplets of premature ventricular contractions. Ectopy was controlled with oral verapamil. This case highlights how significant cardiac injury may be missed with standard diagnostic algorithms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Elevated ventricular wall stress disrupts cardiomyocyte t-tubule structure and calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Michael; Ruud, Marianne; Espe, Emil K S; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Røe, Åsmund T; Zhang, Lili; Norseng, Per Andreas; Sejersted, Ole M; Christensen, Geir A; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William E

    2016-10-01

    Invaginations of the cellular membrane called t-tubules are essential for maintaining efficient excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Disruption of t-tubule structure during heart failure has been linked to dyssynchronous, slowed Ca(2+) release and reduced power of the heartbeat. The underlying mechanism is, however, unknown. We presently investigated whether elevated ventricular wall stress triggers remodelling of t-tubule structure and function. MRI and blood pressure measurements were employed to examine regional wall stress across the left ventricle of sham-operated and failing, post-infarction rat hearts. In failing hearts, elevated left ventricular diastolic pressure and ventricular dilation resulted in markedly increased wall stress, particularly in the thin-walled region proximal to the infarct. High wall stress in this proximal zone was associated with reduced expression of the dyadic anchor junctophilin-2 and disrupted cardiomyocyte t-tubular structure. Indeed, local wall stress measurements predicted t-tubule density across sham and failing hearts. Elevated wall stress and disrupted cardiomyocyte structure in the proximal zone were also associated with desynchronized Ca(2+) release in cardiomyocytes and markedly reduced local contractility in vivo. A causative role of wall stress in promoting t-tubule remodelling was established by applying stretch to papillary muscles ex vivo under culture conditions. Loads comparable to wall stress levels observed in vivo in the proximal zone reduced expression of junctophilin-2 and promoted t-tubule loss. Elevated wall stress reduces junctophilin-2 expression and disrupts t-tubule integrity, Ca(2+) release, and contractile function. These findings provide new insight into the role of wall stress in promoting heart failure progression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  4. Wall Thickness, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Diastolic Filling Abnormalities Predict Response to Postoperative Biventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Brusen, Robin M.; Hahn, Rebecca; Cabreriza, Santos E.; Cheng, Bin; Wang, Daniel Y.; Truong, Wanda; Spotnitz, Henry M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Post-cardiopulmonary bypass biventricular pacing improves hemodynamics but without clearly defined predictors of response. Based on preclinical studies and prior observations, it was suspected that diastolic dysfunction or pulmonary hypertension is predictive of hemodynamic benefit. Design Randomized controlled study of temporary biventricular pacing after cardiopulmonary bypass. Setting Single-center study at university-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Interventions Patients who underwent bypass with pre-operative ejection fraction ≤40% and QRS duration ≥100 ms or double-valve surgery were enrolled. At 3 time points between separation from bypass and postoperative day 1, pacing delays were varied to optimize hemodynamics. Participants Data from 43 patients were analyzed. Measurements and Main Results Cardiac output and arterial pressure were measured under no pacing, atrial pacing, and biventricular pacing. Preoperative echocardiograms and pulmonary artery catheterizations were reviewed, and measures of both systolic and diastolic function were compared to hemodynamic response. Early after separation, improvement in cardiac output was positively correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (R2 = 0.97, p < 0.001), ventricle wall thickness (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.002)), and E/e′, a measure of abnormal diastolic ventricular filling velocity (R2 = 0.56, p = 0.04). Similar trends were seen with mean arterial pressure. QRS duration and ejection fraction did not correlate significantly with improvements in hemodynamics. Conclusions There may be an effect of biventricular pacing related to amelioration of abnormal diastolic filling patterns rather than electrical resynchronization in the postoperative state. PMID:25998068

  5. Right ventricular outflow tract high-density endocardial unipolar voltage mapping in patients with Brugada syndrome: evidence for electroanatomical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Letsas, Konstantinos P; Efremidis, Michael; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Georgopoulos, Stamatis; Karamichalakis, Nikolaos; Asvestas, Dimitrios; Valkanas, Kosmas; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Liu, Tong; Sideris, Antonios

    2017-05-02

    Epicardial structural abnormalities at the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) may provide the arrhythmia substrate in Brugada syndrome (BrS). Electroanatomical endocardial unipolar voltage mapping is an emerging tool that accurately identifies epicardial abnormalities in different clinical settings. This study investigated whether endocardial unipolar voltage mapping of the RVOT detects electroanatomical abnormalities in patients with BrS. Ten asymptomatic patients (8 males, 34.5 ± 11.2 years) with spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern of BrS and negative late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-c-MRI) underwent high-density endocardial electroanatomical mapping (>800 points). Using a cut-off of 1 mV and 4 mV for normal bipolar and unipolar voltage, respectively, derived from 20 control patients without structural heart disease established by LGE-c-MRI, the extend of low-voltage areas within the RVOT was estimated using a specific calculation software. The mean RVOT area presenting low-voltage bipolar signals in BrS patients was 3.4 ± 1.7 cm2 (range 1.5-7 cm2). A significantly greater area of abnormal unipolar signals was identified (12.6 ± 4.6 cm2 [range 7-22 cm2], P: 0.001). Both bipolar and unipolar electroanatomical abnormalities were mainly located at the free wall of the RVOT. The mean RVOT activation time was significantly prolonged in BrS patients compared to control population (86.4 ± 16.5 vs. 63.4 ± 9.7 ms, P < 0.001). Isochronal mapping demonstrated lines of conduction slowing within the RVOT in 8/10 BrS patients. Wide areas of endocardial unipolar voltage abnormalities that possibly reflect epicardial structural abnormalities are identified at the RVOT of BrS patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Multivariate Tensor-based Morphometry on Surfaces: Application to Mapping Ventricular Abnormalities in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yalin; Zhang, Jie; Gutman, Boris; Chan, Tony F.; Becker, James T.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Tamburo, Robert J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Here we developed a new method, called multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry (TBM), and applied it to study lateral ventricular surface differences associated with HIV/AIDS. Using concepts from differential geometry and the theory of differential forms, we created mathematical structures known as holomorphic one-forms, to obtain an efficient and accurate conformal parameterization of the lateral ventricular surfaces in the brain. The new meshing approach also provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects, and improves on prior methods as it handles surfaces that branch and join at complex 3D junctions. To analyze anatomical differences, we computed new statistics from the Riemannian surface metrics - these retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. We applied this framework to analyze lateral ventricular surface morphometry in 3D MRI data from 11 subjects with HIV/AIDS and 8 healthy controls. Our method detected a 3D profile of surface abnormalities even in this small sample. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave better effect sizes for detecting group differences, relative to other TBM-based methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest and smallest eigenvalues of the surface metric, and the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The resulting analysis pipeline may improve the power of surface-based morphometry studies of the brain. PMID:19900560

  7. Tbx20 Transcription Factor Is a Downstream Mediator for Bone Morphogenetic Protein-10 in Regulating Cardiac Ventricular Wall Development and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Hanying; Wang, Yong; Yong, Weidong; Zhu, Wuqiang; Liu, Yunlong; Wagner, Gregory R.; Payne, R. Mark; Field, Loren J.; Xin, Hongbo; Cai, Chen-Leng; Shou, Weinian

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) belongs to the TGFβ-superfamily. Previously, we had demonstrated that BMP10 is a key regulator for ventricular chamber formation, growth, and maturation. Ablation of BMP10 leads to hypoplastic ventricular wall formation, and elevated levels of BMP10 are associated with abnormal ventricular trabeculation/compaction and wall maturation. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which BMP10 regulates ventricle wall growth and maturation is still largely unknown. In this study, we sought to identify the specific transcriptional network that is potentially mediated by BMP10. We analyzed and compared the gene expression profiles between α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-BMP10 transgenic hearts and nontransgenic littermate controls using Affymetrix mouse exon arrays. T-box 20 (Tbx20), a cardiac transcription factor, was significantly up-regulated in αMHC-BMP10 transgenic hearts, which was validated by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Ablation of BMP10 reduced Tbx20 expression specifically in the BMP10-expressing region of the developing ventricle. In vitro promoter analysis demonstrated that BMP10 was able to induce Tbx20 promoter activity through a conserved Smad binding site in the Tbx20 promoter proximal region. Furthermore, overexpression of Tbx20 in myocardium led to dilated cardiomyopathy that exhibited ventricular hypertrabeculation and an abnormal muscular septum, which phenocopied genetically modified mice with elevated BMP10 levels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the BMP10-Tbx20 signaling cascade is important for ventricular wall development and maturation. PMID:21890625

  8. Left Ventricular Trabeculations Decrease the Wall Shear Stress and Increase the Intra-Ventricular Pressure Drop in CFD Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Federica; Paun, Bruno; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Iles, Tinen L.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Vázquez, Mariano; Butakoff, Constantine; Aguado-Sierra, Jazmin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize the hemodynamics of left ventricular (LV) geometries to examine the impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles (PMs) on blood flow using high performance computing (HPC). Five pairs of detailed and smoothed LV endocardium models were reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of ex-vivo human hearts. The detailed model of one LV pair is characterized only by the PMs and few big trabeculae, to represent state of art level of endocardial detail. The other four detailed models obtained include instead endocardial structures measuring ≥1 mm2 in cross-sectional area. The geometrical characterizations were done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with rigid walls and both constant and transient flow inputs on the detailed and smoothed models for comparison. These simulations do not represent a clinical or physiological scenario, but a characterization of the interaction of endocardial structures with blood flow. Steady flow simulations were employed to quantify the pressure drop between the inlet and the outlet of the LVs and the wall shear stress (WSS). Coherent structures were analyzed using the Q-criterion for both constant and transient flow inputs. Our results show that trabeculae and PMs increase the intra-ventricular pressure drop, reduce the WSS and disrupt the dominant single vortex, usually present in the smoothed-endocardium models, generating secondary small vortices. Given that obtaining high resolution anatomical detail is challenging in-vivo, we propose that the effect of trabeculations can be incorporated into smoothed ventricular geometries by adding a porous layer along the LV endocardial wall. Results show that a porous layer of a thickness of 1.2·10−2 m with a porosity of 20 kg/m2 on the smoothed-endocardium ventricle models approximates the pressure drops, vorticities and WSS observed in the detailed models. PMID:29760665

  9. Fatigue as Presenting Symptom and a High Burden of Premature Ventricular Contractions Are Independently Associated With Increased Ventricular Wall Stress in Patients With Normal Left Ventricular Function.

    PubMed

    van Huls van Taxis, Carine F B; Piers, Sebastiaan R D; de Riva Silva, Marta; Dekkers, Olaf M; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Schalij, Martin J; Wijnmaalen, Adrianus P; Zeppenfeld, Katja

    2015-12-01

    High idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVC) burden has been associated with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Patients may be symptomatic before left ventricular (LV) dysfunction develops. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) on echocardiography are markers for increased ventricular wall stress. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between presenting symptoms, PVC burden, and increased ventricular wall stress in patients with frequent PVCs and preserved LV function. Eighty-three patients (41 men; 49±15 years) with idiopathic PVCs and normal LV function referred for PVC ablation were included. Type of symptoms (palpitations, fatigue, and [near-]syncope), PVC burden on 24-hour Holter, NT-proBNP levels, and cESS on echocardiography were assessed before and 3 months after ablation. Sustained successful ablation was defined as ≥80% PVC burden reduction during follow-up. Patients were symptomatic for 24 months (Q1-Q3, 16-60); 73% reported palpitations, 47% fatigue, and 30% (near-)syncope. Baseline PVC burden was 23±13%, median NT-proBNP 92 pg/mL (Q1-Q3 50-156), and cESS 143±35 kdyne/cm(2). Fatigue was associated with higher baseline NT-proBNP and cESS (P<0.001, P=0.011, respectively). After sustained successful ablation, achieved in 81%, NT-proBNP and cESS decreased significantly (P<0.001 and P=0.036, respectively). Fatigue was independently associated with a significantly larger reduction in NT-proBNP. In patients with nonsuccessful ablation, NT-proBNP and cESS remained unchanged. In patients with frequent PVCs and preserved LV function, fatigue was associated with higher baseline NT-proBNP and cESS, and with a significantly larger reduction in NT-proBNP after sustained successful ablation. These findings support a link between fatigue and PVC-induced increased ventricular wall stress, despite preserved LV function. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. 2D-speckle tracking right ventricular strain to assess right ventricular systolic function in systolic heart failure. Analysis of the right ventricular free and posterolateral walls.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Stéphanie; Ridon, Héléne; Fertin, Marie; Pentiah, Anju Duva; Goémine, Céline; Petyt, Grégory; Lamblin, Nicolas; Coisne, Augustin; Foucher-Hossein, Claude; Montaigne, David; de Groote, Pascal

    2017-10-15

    Right ventricular (RV) systolic function is a powerful prognostic factor in patients with systolic heart failure. The accurate estimation of RV function remains difficult. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 2D-speckle tracking RV strain in patients with systolic heart failure, analyzing both free and posterolateral walls. Seventy-six patients with dilated cardiopathy (left ventricular end-diastolic volume≥75ml/m 2 ) and left ventricular ejection fraction≤45% had an analysis of the RV strain. Feasibility, reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of RV strain were analyzed and compared to other echocardiographic parameters of RV function. RV dysfunction was defined as a RV ejection fraction≤40% measured by radionuclide angiography. RV strain feasibility was 93.9% for the free-wall and 79.8% for the posterolateral wall. RV strain reproducibility was good (intra-observer and inter-observer bias and limits of agreement of 0.16±1.2% [-2.2-2.5] and 0.84±2.4 [-5.5-3.8], respectively). Patients with left heart failure have a RV systolic dysfunction that can be unmasked by advanced echocardiographic imaging: mean RV strain was -21±5.7% in patients without RV dysfunction and -15.8±5.1% in patients with RV dysfunction (p=0.0001). Mean RV strain showed the highest diagnostic accuracy to predict depressed RVEF (area under the curve (AUC) 0.75) with moderate sensitivity (60.5%) but high specificity (87.5%) using a cutoff value of -16%. RV strain seems to be a promising and more efficient measure than previous RV echocardiographic parameters for the diagnosis of RV systolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Gyu; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang-Young; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities (NSSTTA) on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and LV geometry on echocardiography. A cross-sectional study comprised of 74,976 Koreans who underwent ECG and echocardiography as part of a comprehensive health examination between March 2011 and December 2014. ECG was coded using Minnesota Code criteria. The frequencies of NSSTTA, impaired LV relaxation, and echocardiographic LVH were 1,139 (1.5%), 21,118 (28.2%), and 1,687 (2.3%) patients, respectively. The presence of NSSTTA was positively associated with the prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH on echocardiography. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% CIs) comparing patients with NSSTTA to control patients was 1.55 (1.33-1.80) for impaired LV relaxation and 3.15 (2.51-3.96) for echocardiographic LVH. The association between NSSTTA and impaired LV relaxation was stronger in the intermediate to high cardiovascular disease-risk group than in the low-risk group according to Framingham Risk Score stratification (P for interaction = 0.02). NSSTTA were associated with increased prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH, suggesting NSSTTA as an early indicator of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and geometric abnormalities.

  12. The effect of ethanol vapour exposure on atrial and ventricular walls of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Kiran; Khan, Muhammad Yunus; Minhas, Liaqat Ali

    2016-10-01

    To study the effects of ethanol vapour exposure on atrial and ventricular walls of heart in chick embryo. The study design was experimental, conducted at Islamabad Centre of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan. One hundred and eighty chicken eggs were divided into two groups, experimental and control, of 90 eggs each. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 30 eggs each based on the day of sacrifice. Experimental group was exposed to ethanol vapours and then compared with age matched controls. The thickness of atrial and ventricular walls along with lengths of valvular cusps increased in hearts of day 7 and day 10 chick embryos in experimental group. There was thinning of walls and decreased length of valvular cusps in hearts of experimental chicks on hatching as compared to age matched controls. Ethanol vapour exposure during development causes cardiac and septal wall thickening during initial days of development followed by cardiac and septal wall thinning which is a classical picture of alcohol induced cardiomyopathies.

  13. Time-varying wall stress: an index of ventricular vascular coupling.

    PubMed

    Dell'Italia, L J; Blackwell, G G; Thorn, B T; Pearce, D J; Bishop, S P; Pohost, G M

    1992-08-01

    Previous work in the isolated heart and intact circulation has suggested that the relationship between wall stress and time during left ventricular (LV) ejection is linear and that the slope, which will be referred to as time-varying wall stress, increases in response to augmentation in afterload. However, the etiology of the increase in slope has not been determined in an intact animal. Magnetic resonance imaging coupled with high-fidelity LV pressure measurement using a nonferrous catheter-tip manometer generates a detailed assessment of wall stress in an animal model where the thorax and pericardium have never been disturbed. Accordingly, six anesthetized dogs were studied during autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol during angiotensin infusion, producing three widely disparate left ventricular systolic pressures (87 +/- 7 vs. 124 +/- 13 vs. 152 +/- 10 mmHg, P less than 0.001). Time-varying wall stress did not change from low to medium load (-42.4 +/- 9.5 to -27.3 +/- 22.3 g.cm-2.ms-1) but increased significantly at high load (-21.7 +/- 14.9 g.cm-2.ms-1, P less than 0.05). Analysis of the relative contribution of pressure, chamber radius, wall thickness, and long-axis dimension to the changes in time-varying wall stress demonstrated only the pressure component to change its relative contribution at medium (P less than 0.001) and high load (P less than 0.001). Therefore, we conclude that the increase in time-varying wall stress results from augmentation of pressure in the latter one-half of systole that is incompletely offset by shortening and wall thickening.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Soft J-tipped guide wire-induced cardiac perforation in a patient with right ventricular lipomatosis and wall thinning.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yuki; Tajima, Katsushi; Shiono, Yousuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Kohno, Kei; Kato, Yuichi; Shunji, Kawamura; Kato, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade caused by perforation is a rare but potentially lethal complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. We herein report a case of cardiac perforation associated with the use of a soft J-tipped guide wire. Twenty minutes after the insertion of a CVC, the patient developed unexpected cardiac arrest. An autopsy revealed 400 mL of pericardial blood. The right ventricular wall was 1 mm thick with about 10 myocyte layers, which is one-third that of the normal heart. A histological analysis revealed widespread fatty infiltration of the right ventricular wall (right ventricular lipomatosis).

  15. INCIDENCE OF ABNORMAL POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH UNEXPLAINED CARDIOMYOPATHY AND VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Roderick; Bauer, Brenton; Schelbert, Heinrich; Lynch, Joseph; Auerbach, Martin; Gupta, Pawan; Schiepers, Christiaan; Chan, Samantha; Ferris, Julie; Barrio, Martin; Ajijola, Olujimi; Bradfield, Jason; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of myocardial inflammation in patients with unexplained cardiomyopathy referred for ventricular arrhythmias (VA) is unknown. Objective To report fasting PET scan findings in consecutive patients referred with unexplained cardiomyopathy and VA. Methods 18-FDG PET/CT scans with a >16 hour fasting protocol were prospectively ordered for patients referred for VA and unexplained cardiomyopathy (EF<55%). Patients with focal myocardial FDG uptake were labeled as arrhythmogenic inflammatory cardiomyopathy (AIC) and classified into four groups based on the presence of lymph node uptake (AIC+) and perfusion abnormalities (early vs late stage). Results Over a 3-year period, 103 PET scan were performed with 49% (AIC+=17, AIC=33) exhibiting focal FDG uptake. The mean age was 52±12 years with an EF of 36±16%. Patients with AIC were more likely to have a history of pacemaker (32% vs 6%, p=0.002) compared to those with normal PET. When biopsy was performed, histologic diagnosis revealed non-granulomatous inflammation in 6 patients and sarcoidosis in 18 patients. 90% of patients with AIC/AIC+ were prescribed immunosuppressive therapy and 58% underwent ablation. Correlation between areas of perfusion abnormalities and FDG uptake with electro-anatomic mapping was observed in 79% patients and MRI findings matched in only 33%. Conclusions Nearly 50% of patients referred with unexplained cardiomyopathy and VA demonstrate ongoing focal myocardial inflammation on FDG PET. These data suggests that a significant proportion of patients labeled “idiopathic” may have occult arrhythmogenic inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which may benefit from early detection and immunosuppressive medical therapy. PMID:26272522

  16. Feature tracking CMR reveals abnormal strain in preclinical arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy: a multisoftware feasibility and clinical implementation study.

    PubMed

    Bourfiss, Mimount; Vigneault, Davis M; Aliyari Ghasebeh, Mounes; Murray, Brittney; James, Cynthia A; Tichnell, Crystal; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Kamel, Ihab R; Calkins, Hugh; Tandri, Harikrishna; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Bluemke, David A; Te Riele, Anneline S J M

    2017-09-01

    Regional right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is the hallmark of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), but is currently only qualitatively evaluated in the clinical setting. Feature Tracking Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (FT-CMR) is a novel quantitative method that uses cine CMR to calculate strain values. However, most prior FT-CMR studies in ARVD/C have focused on global RV strain using different software methods, complicating implementation of FT-CMR in clinical practice. We aimed to assess the clinical value of global and regional strain using FT-CMR in ARVD/C and to determine differences between commercially available FT-CMR software packages. We analyzed cine CMR images of 110 subjects (39 overt ARVD/C [mutation+/phenotype+], 40 preclinical ARVD/C [mutation+/phenotype-] and 31 control) for global and regional (subtricuspid, anterior, apical) RV strain in the horizontal longitudinal axis using four FT-CMR software methods (Multimodality Tissue Tracking, TomTec, Medis and Circle Cardiovascular Imaging). Intersoftware agreement was assessed using Bland Altman plots. For global strain, all methods showed reduced strain in overt ARVD/C patients compared to control subjects (p < 0.041), whereas none distinguished preclinical from control subjects (p > 0.275). For regional strain, overt ARVD/C patients showed reduced strain compared to control subjects in all segments which reached statistical significance in the subtricuspid region for all software methods (p < 0.037), in the anterior wall for two methods (p < 0.005) and in the apex for one method (p = 0.012). Preclinical subjects showed abnormal subtricuspid strain compared to control subjects using one of the software methods (p = 0.009). Agreement between software methods for absolute strain values was low (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.373). Despite large intersoftware variability of FT-CMR derived strain values, all four software methods distinguished

  17. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes reveal abnormal TGFβ signaling in left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kodo, Kazuki; Ong, Sang-Ging; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Hirono, Keiichi; InanlooRahatloo, Kolsoum; Ebert, Antje D.; Shukla, Praveen; Abilez, Oscar J.; Churko, Jared M.; Karakikes, Ioannis; Jung, Gwanghyun; Ichida, Fukiko; Wu, Sean M.; Snyder, Michael P.; Bernstein, Daniel; Wu, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is the third most prevalent cardiomyopathy in children and its pathogenesis has been associated with the developmental defect of the embryonic myocardium. We show that patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) generated from LVNC patients carrying a mutation in the cardiac transcription factor TBX20 recapitulate a key aspect of the pathological phenotype at the single-cell level and was associated with perturbed transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. LVNC iPSC-CMs have decreased proliferative capacity due to abnormal activation of TGFβ signaling. TBX20 regulates the expression of TGFβ signaling modifiers including a known genetic cause of LVNC, PRDM16, and genome editing of PRDM16 caused proliferation defects in iPSC-CMs. Inhibition of TGFβ signaling and genome correction of the TBX20 mutation were sufficient to reverse the disease phenotype. Our study demonstrates that iPSC-CMs are a useful tool for the exploration of pathological mechanisms underlying poorly understood cardiomyopathies including LVNC. PMID:27642787

  18. Myocardial effective transverse relaxation time T2* Correlates with left ventricular wall thickness: A 7.0 T MRI study.

    PubMed

    Huelnhagen, Till; Hezel, Fabian; Serradas Duarte, Teresa; Pohlmann, Andreas; Oezerdem, Celal; Flemming, Bert; Seeliger, Erdmann; Prothmann, Marcel; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2017-06-01

    Myocardial effective relaxation time T2* is commonly regarded as a surrogate for myocardial tissue oxygenation. However, it is legitimate to assume that there are multiple factors that influence T2*. To this end, this study investigates the relationship between T2* and cardiac macromorphology given by left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and left ventricular radius, and provides interpretation of the results in the physiological context. High spatio-temporally resolved myocardial CINE T2* mapping was performed in 10 healthy volunteers using a 7.0 Tesla (T) full-body MRI system. Ventricular septal wall thickness, left ventricular inner radius, and T2* were analyzed. Macroscopic magnetic field changes were elucidated using cardiac phase-resolved magnetic field maps. Ventricular septal T2* changes periodically over the cardiac cycle, increasing in systole and decreasing in diastole. Ventricular septal wall thickness and T2* showed a significant positive correlation, whereas the inner LV radius and T2* were negatively correlated. The effect of macroscopic magnetic field gradients on T2* can be considered minor in the ventricular septum. Our findings suggest that myocardial T2* is related to tissue blood volume fraction. Temporally resolved T2* mapping could be beneficial for myocardial tissue characterization and for understanding cardiac (patho)physiology in vivo. Magn Reson Med 77:2381-2389, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Quantification of the relative contribution of the different right ventricular wall motion components to right ventricular ejection fraction: the ReVISION method.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Bálint; Tősér, Zoltán; Tokodi, Márton; Doronina, Alexandra; Kosztin, Annamária; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Kovács, Attila; Merkely, Béla

    2017-03-27

    Three major mechanisms contribute to right ventricular (RV) pump function: (i) shortening of the longitudinal axis with traction of the tricuspid annulus towards the apex; (ii) inward movement of the RV free wall; (iii) bulging of the interventricular septum into the RV and stretching the free wall over the septum. The relative contribution of the aforementioned mechanisms to RV pump function may change in different pathological conditions.Our aim was to develop a custom method to separately assess the extent of longitudinal, radial and anteroposterior displacement of the RV walls and to quantify their relative contribution to global RV ejection fraction using 3D data sets obtained by echocardiography.Accordingly, we decomposed the movement of the exported RV beutel wall in a vertex based manner. The volumes of the beutels accounting for the RV wall motion in only one direction (either longitudinal, radial, or anteroposterior) were calculated at each time frame using the signed tetrahedron method. Then, the relative contribution of the RV wall motion along the three different directions to global RV ejection fraction was calculated either as the ratio of the given direction's ejection fraction to global ejection fraction and as the frame-by-frame RV volume change (∆V/∆t) along the three motion directions.The ReVISION (Right VentrIcular Separate wall motIon quantificatiON) method may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of RV mechanical adaptations to different loading conditions and diseases.

  20. Studying ventricular abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment with hyperbolic Ricci flow and tensor-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Thompson, Paul M; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C; Reiman, Eric M; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. STUDYING VENTRICULAR ABNORMALITIES IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT WITH HYPERBOLIC RICCI FLOW AND TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C.; Reiman, Eric M.; Caselli, Richard J.; Wang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. PMID:25285374

  2. Left ventricular stiffness estimated by diastolic wall strain is associated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in structurally normal hearts.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Shunsuke; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Teppei; Kato, Katsuhito; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Seino, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-12-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction depends on an impaired relaxation and stiffness. Abnormal LV relaxation contributes to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the role of LV stiffness in AF remains unclear. Diastolic wall strain (DWS), a load-independent, noninvasive direct measure of LV stiffness, correlates with prevalent AF. This study included 328 consecutive subjects with structurally normal hearts: 164 paroxysmal AF patients and 164 age- and sex-matched (1:1) controls. We calculated the DWS from the M-mode echocardiographic measurements of the LV posterior wall thickness at end-systole and end-diastole during sinus rhythm. The DWS was lower in the AF patients (0.35 ± 0.07) than in the controls (0.41 ± 0.06; P < 0.001). After adjusting for the risk factors of AF using a conditional logistic regression analysis, a history of hypertension, plasma brain-type natriuretic peptide level, and DWS were independently associated with AF prevalence, whereas body mass index, LV mass index, left atrial volume, and any conventional indices of the diastolic function were not. A low DWS (<0.380) was the strongest indicator of AF (odds ratio: 6.22, 95% confidence interval: 3.08-14.2, P < 0.001). Increased LV stiffness estimated by DWS was a strong determinant of the prevalence of AF. LV stiffness may play a role in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal AF in structurally normal hearts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Measurement of wall thickness alone does not accurately assess the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, David; Planer, David; Ben-Ibgi, Fanny; Rott, David; Weiss, A Teddy; Bursztyn, Michael

    2007-02-01

    Clinical echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is generally performed by measuring wall thickness alone (WT). The objective of this study was to compare the assessment of LVH using the measurement of WT to that using indexed LV mass. Hypertensive patients underwent echocardiography with the measurement of LV WT and LV mass. For each patient, the presence of LVH was assessed by both methods with WT compared to the gold standard of LV mass index. In all, 92 patients (51M/41F) were entered, and in only 55 patients (60%) were the two methods concordant. There was a tendency for WT to underestimate LVH in females (sensitivity 37%, specificity 79%) and overestimate LVH in males (sensitivity 88%, specificity 56%). The measurement of WT alone overestimates LVH in males and underestimates LVH in females and should not be used as a surrogate marker for increased LV mass.

  4. Unique Abnormalities in Right Ventricular Longitudinal Strain in Systemic Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Monica; Chung, Shang-En; Ton, Von Khue; Tedford, Ryan J; Hummers, Laura K; Wigley, Fredrick M; Abraham, Theodore P; Shah, Ami A

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma [SSc]) adversely affects long-term prognosis, often remaining undetectable despite close clinical examination and 2-dimensional echocardiographic monitoring. Speckle-derived strain of the right ventricle (RV) was utilized to detect occult abnormalities in regional and global contractility in SSc patients. A total of 138 SSc patients with technically adequate echocardiograms was studied and compared with 40 age- and sex-matched healthy non-SSc controls. Standard assessment of RV chamber function included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change. RV longitudinal systolic speckle-derived strain was assessed in the basal, mid, and apical free wall. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was not different between groups (P=0.307). Although fractional area change was lower in SSc patients than in controls (mean, 48.9 versus 55; P=0.002), the mean fractional area change was still within the normal range (>35). In contrast, RV longitudinal systolic speckle-derived strain measures were significantly different between groups, both globally (-20.4% versus -17.7%; P=0.005) and regionally: they were decreased in the apex (-8.5% versus -17.1%; P<0.0001) and mid segments (-12.4% versus -20.9%; P<0.0001), and increased in the base (-32.2% versus -23.3%; P=0.0001) for the SSc group. The regional difference in the base compared with the apex was significantly greater for SSc than for controls (P<0.0001 for interaction). The differences observed in regional strain between SSc and control were unchanged after adjusting for RV systolic pressure. Speckle-derived strain reveals a heterogenous pattern of regional heart strain in SSc that is not detected by conventional measures of function, suggestive of occult RV myocardial disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. [Evaluation of echocardiographic left ventricular wall motion analysis supported by internet picture viewing system].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yutaka; Ikuta, Shin-Ichiro; Nakano, Manabu; Akiyama, Seita; Nakamura, Hajime; Nasu, Masataka; Saito, Futoshi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Matsuzaki, Masashi; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of deterioration of regional wall motion by echocardiography is not only subjective but also features difficulties with interobserver agreement. Progress in digital communication technology has made it possible to send video images from a distant location via the Internet. The possibility of evaluating left ventricular wall motion using video images sent via the Internet to distant institutions was evaluated. Twenty-two subjects were randomly selected. Four sets of video images (parasternal long-axis view, parasternal short-axis view, apical four-chamber view, and apical two-chamber view) were taken for one cardiac cycle. The images were sent via the Internet to two institutions (observer C in facility A and observers D and E in facility B) for evaluation. Great care was taken to prevent disclosure of patient information to these observers. Parasternal long-axis images were divided into four segments, and the parasternal short-axis view, apical four-chamber view, and apical two-chamber view were divided into six segments. One of the following assessments, normokinesis, hypokinesis, akinesis, or dyskinesis, was assigned to each segment. The interobserver rates of agreement in judgments between observers C and D, observers C and E, and intraobserver agreement rate (for observer D) were calculated. The rate of interobserver agreement was 85.7% (394/460 segments; Kappa = 0.65) between observers C and D, 76.7% (353/460 segments; Kappa = 0.39) between observers D and E, and 76.3% (351/460 segments; Kappa = 0.36)between observers C and E, and intraobserver agreement was 94.3% (434/460; Kappa = 0.86). Segments of difference judgments between observers C and D were normokinesis-hypokinesis; 62.1%, hypokinesis-akinesis; 33.3%, akinesis-dyskinesis; 3.0%, and normokinesis-akinesis; 1.5%. Wall motion can be evaluated at remote institutions via the Internet.

  6. Relationships of left ventricular strain and strain rate to wall stress and their afterload dependency.

    PubMed

    Murai, Daisuke; Yamada, Satoshi; Hayashi, Taichi; Okada, Kazunori; Nishino, Hisao; Nakabachi, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shinobu; Abe, Ayumu; Ichikawa, Ayako; Ono, Kota; Kaga, Sanae; Iwano, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Taisei; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Whether and how left ventricular (LV) strain and strain rate correlate with wall stress is not known. Furthermore, it is not determined whether strain or strain rate is less dependent on the afterload. In 41 healthy young adults, LV global peak strain and systolic peak strain rate in the longitudinal direction (LS and LSR, respectively) and circumferential direction (CS and CSR, respectively) were measured layer-specifically using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) before and during a handgrip exercise. Among all the points before and during the exercise, all the STE parameters significantly correlated linearly with wall stress (LS: r = -0.53, p < 0.01, LSR: r = -0.28, p < 0.05, CS in the inner layer: r = -0.72, p < 0.01, CSR in the inner layer: r = -0.47, p < 0.01). Strain more strongly correlated with wall stress than strain rate (r = -0.53 for LS vs. r = -0.28 for LSR, p < 0.05; r = -0.72 for CS vs. r = -0.47 for CSR in the inner layer, p < 0.05), whereas the interobserver variability was similar between strain and strain rate (longitudinal 6.2 vs. 5.2 %, inner circumferential 4.8 vs. 4.7 %, mid-circumferential 7.9 vs. 6.9 %, outer circumferential 10.4 vs. 9.7 %), indicating that the differences in correlation coefficients reflect those in afterload dependency. It was thus concluded that LV strain and strain rate linearly and inversely correlated with wall stress in the longitudinal and circumferential directions, and strain more strongly depended on afterload than did strain rate. Myocardial shortening should be evaluated based on the relationships between these parameters and wall stress.

  7. Mitral valve prolapse and electrolyte abnormality: a dangerous combination for ventricular arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Ali Raza; Murugesan, Vagishwari; Baslaib, Fahad Omar; Rafiq, Muhammad Anwer

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman with a history of bileaflet mitral valve prolapse and moderate mitral regurgitation presented to our emergency with untractable polymorphic wide complex tachycardia and unstable haemodynamics. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, return of spontaneous circulation was achieved 30 min later. Her post-resuscitation ECG showed a prolonged QT interval which progressively normalised over the same day. Her laboratory investigations revealed hypocalcaemia while other electrolytes were within normal limits. A diagnosis of ventricular arrhythmia secondary to structural heart disease further precipitated by hypocalcaemia was made. Further hospital stay did not reveal a recurrence of prolonged QT interval or other arrhythmias except for an episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. However, the patient suffered diffuse hypoxic brain encephalopathy secondary to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:24827670

  8. Impact of left ventricular assist device speed adjustment on exercise tolerance and markers of wall stress.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Christopher S; Salamonsen, Robert; Keogh, Anne M; Woodard, John; Ayre, Peter; Prichard, Roslyn; Kotlyar, Eugene; Macdonald, Peter S; Jansz, Paul; Spratt, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    Left ventricular assist devices are crucial in rehabilitation of patients with end-stage heart failure. Whether cardiopulmonary function is enhanced with higher pump output is unknown. 10 patients (aged 39±16 years, mean±SD) underwent monitored adjustment of pump speed to determine minimum safe low speed and maximum safe high speed at rest. Patients were then randomized to these speed settings and underwent three 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) and symptom-limited cardiopulmonary stress tests (CPX) on separate days. Pump speed settings (low, normal and high) resulted in significantly different resting pump flows of 4.43±0.6, 5.03±0.94, and 5.72±1.2 l/min (P<.001). There was a significant enhancement of pump flows (greater at higher speed settings) with exercise (P<0.05). Increased pump speed was associated with a trend to increased 6MWT distance (P=.10); and CPX exercise time (p=.27). Maximum workload achieved and peak oxygen consumption were significantly different comparing low to high pump speed settings only (P<.05). N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide release was significantly reduced at higher pump speed with exercise (P<.01). We have found that alteration of pump speed setting resulted in significant variation in estimated pump flow. The high-speed setting was associated with lower natriuretic hormone release consistent with lower myocardial wall stress. This did not, however, improve exercise tolerance.

  9. Comparison of the Young-Laplace law and finite element based calculation of ventricular wall stress: implications for postinfarct and surgical ventricular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Tendulkar, Amod; Sun, Kay; Saloner, David A; Wallace, Arthur W; Ge, Liang; Guccione, Julius M; Ratcliffe, Mark B

    2011-01-01

    Both the Young-Laplace law and finite element (FE) based methods have been used to calculate left ventricular wall stress. We tested the hypothesis that the Young-Laplace law is able to reproduce results obtained with the FE method. Magnetic resonance imaging scans with noninvasive tags were used to calculate three-dimensional myocardial strain in 5 sheep 16 weeks after anteroapical myocardial infarction, and in 1 of those sheep 6 weeks after a Dor procedure. Animal-specific FE models were created from the remaining 5 animals using magnetic resonance images obtained at early diastolic filling. The FE-based stress in the fiber, cross-fiber, and circumferential directions was calculated and compared to stress calculated with the assumption that wall thickness is very much less than the radius of curvature (Young-Laplace law), and without that assumption (modified Laplace). First, circumferential stress calculated with the modified Laplace law is closer to results obtained with the FE method than stress calculated with the Young-Laplace law. However, there are pronounced regional differences, with the largest difference between modified Laplace and FE occurring in the inner and outer layers of the infarct borderzone. Also, stress calculated with the modified Laplace is very different than stress in the fiber and cross-fiber direction calculated with FE. As a consequence, the modified Laplace law is inaccurate when used to calculate the effect of the Dor procedure on regional ventricular stress. The FE method is necessary to determine stress in the left ventricle with postinfarct and surgical ventricular remodeling. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal regulation of renin angiotensin aldosterone system is associated with right ventricular dysfunction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Mario; Tocci, Giuliano; Giammarioli, Benedetta; Befani, Alberto; Ciavarella, Giuseppino Massimo; Ferrucci, Andrea; Paneni, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is a major predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Inadequate suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) after postural manoeuvres favours alterations of left ventricular (LV) function. The effects of RAAS dysregulation on RV performance remain elusive. The present study investigated RV function in hypertensive patients with or without altered RAAS activation. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were measured in 104 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients after both supine and upright positioning to assess dynamic changes of RAAS induced by antigravitational stress. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiographic evaluation of the right ventricle including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed. Patients were divided as follows: (1) normal PRA and PAC (N group [n = 58]), (2) suppressible RAAS after supine positioning (SR group [n = 24]), and (3), nonsuppressible RAAS (NSR group [n = 22]). RVD was identified by the TDI-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) calculated with a multisegmental approach. Patients in the NSR group had reduced indices of RV function compared with patients in the N and SR groups. MPI of the right ventricle as well as prevalence of RVD were also significantly higher in the NSR group. Regression models showed that inadequate RAAS suppression was independently associated with RVD, regardless of blood pressure values and LV dysfunction (LVD). Patients without supine normalization of RAAS display a significant impairment of RV function. Our findings suggest that a dynamic RAAS evaluation may help to identify hypertensive patients at higher risk of RVD. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dominance of free wall radial motion in global right ventricular function of heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Bálint Károly; Tokodi, Márton; Assabiny, Alexandra; Tősér, Zoltán; Kosztin, Annamária; Doronina, Alexandra; Rácz, Kristóf; Koritsánszky, Kinga Bianka; Berzsenyi, Viktor; Németh, Endre; Sax, Balázs; Kovács, Attila; Merkely, Béla

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function using conventional echocardiography might be inadequate as the radial motion of the RV free wall is often neglected. Our aim was to quantify the longitudinal and the radial components of RV function using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in heart transplant (HTX) recipients. Fifty-one HTX patients in stable cardiovascular condition without history of relevant rejection episode or chronic allograft vasculopathy and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled. RV end-diastolic (EDV) volume and total ejection fraction (TEF) were measured by 3D echocardiography. Furthermore, we quantified longitudinal (LEF) and radial ejection fraction (REF) by decomposing the motion of the RV using the ReVISION method. RV EDV did not differ between groups (HTX vs control; 96 ± 27 vs 97 ± 2 mL). In HTX patients, TEF was lower, however, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) decreased to a greater extent (TEF: 47 ± 7 vs 54 ± 4% [-13%], TAPSE: 11 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4 mm [-48%], P < .0001). In HTX patients, REF/TEF ratio was significantly higher compared to LEF/TEF (REF/TEF vs LEF/TEF: 0.58 ± 0.10 vs 0.27 ± 0.08, P < .0001), while in controls the REF/TEF and LEF/TEF ratio was similar (0.45 ± 0.07 vs 0.47 ± 0.07). Current results confirm the superiority of radial motion in determining RV function in HTX patients. Parameters incorporating the radial motion are recommended to assess RV function in HTX recipients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Presence of reduced regional left ventricular function even in the absence of left ventricular wall scar tissue in the long term after repair of an anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Nordmeyer, Sarah; Schmitt, Boris; Nasseri, Boris; Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir; Kuehne, Titus; Berger, Felix; Nordmeyer, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    We sought to assess left ventricular regional function in patients with and without left ventricular wall scar tissue in the long term after repair of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. A total of 20 patients aged 12.8±7.4 years were assessed 10 (0.5-17) years after the repair of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery; of them, 10 (50%) patients showed left ventricular wall scar tissue on current cardiac MRI. Left ventricular regional function was assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in 10 patients with scar tissue and 10 patients without scar tissue and in 10 age-matched controls. In patients with scar tissue, MRI-derived left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly reduced compared with that in patients without scar tissue (51 versus 61%, p<0.05), and echocardiography-derived longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in five of six left ventricular areas compared with that in healthy controls (average relative reduction, 46%; p<0.05). In patients without scar tissue, longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in two of six left ventricular areas (average relative reduction, 23%; p<0.05) and circumferential strain was reduced in one of six left ventricular areas (relative reduction, 56%; p<0.05) compared with that in healthy controls. Regional left ventricular function is reduced even in patients without left ventricular wall scar tissue late after successful repair of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. This highlights the need for meticulous lifelong follow-up in all patients with a repaired anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

  13. Echocardiographic Manifestations of Glycogen Storage Disease III: Increase in Wall Thickness and Left Ventricular Mass over Time

    PubMed Central

    Vertilus, Shawyntee M.; Austin, Stephanie L.; Foster, Kimberly S.; Boyette, Keri E.; Bali, Deeksha; Li, Jennifer S.; Kishnani, Priya S.; Wechsler, Stephanie Burns

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD) type III, glycogen debranching enzyme deficiency, causes accumulation of glycogen in liver, skeletal, and cardiac muscle. Some patients develop increased left ventricular (LV) thickness by echocardiography, but the rate of increase and its significance remain unclear. Methods We evaluated 33 patients with GSD type III, 23 with IIIa and 10 with IIIb, ages 1 month – 55.5 yrs, by echocardiography for wall thickness, LV mass, shortening and ejection fractions, at 1 time point (n = 33) and at 2 time points in patients with more than 1 echocardiogram (13 of the 33). Results Of 23 cross-sectional patients with type IIIa, 12 had elevated LV mass, 11 had elevated wall thickness. One type IIIb patient had elevated LV mass but 4 had elevated wall thickness. For those with multiple observations, 9 of 10 with type IIIa developed increased LV mass over time, with 3 already increased at first measurement. Shortening and ejection fractions were generally normal. Conclusion Elevated LV mass and wall thickness is more common in patients with type IIIa but develops rarely in type IIIb, though ventricular systolic function is preserved. This suggests serial echocardiograms with attention to LV thickness and mass are important for care of these patients. PMID:20526204

  14. Ranolazine improves abnormal repolarization and contraction in left ventricular myocytes of dogs with heart failure by inhibiting late sodium current

    PubMed Central

    Undrovinas, Albertas I.; Belardinelli, Luiz; Undrovinas, Nidas A.; Sabbah, Hani N.

    2005-01-01

    Background Ventricular repolarization and contractile function are frequently abnormal in ventricular myocytes from human failing hearts as well as canine hearts with experimentally induced heart failure (HF). These abnormalities have been attributed to dysfunction involving various steps of the excitation-contraction coupling process, leading to impaired intracellular sodium and calcium homeostasis. We previously reported that the slow inactivating component of the Na+ current (late INa) is augmented in myocytes from failing hearts, and this appears to play a significant role in abnormal ventricular myocytes repolarization and function. We tested the effect of ranolazine, a novel drug being developed to treat angina, on 1) action potential duration (APD), 2) peak transient and late INa (INaT and INaL respectively), 3) early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and 4) twitch contraction (TC) including aftercontractions and contracture. Methods: Myocytes were isolated from the left ventricle of normal dogs and of dogs with chronic HF caused by multiple sequential intracoronary microembolizations. INaT and INaL were recorded using conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. APs were recorded using the β-escin perforated patch-clamp configuration at frequencies of 0.25 and 0.5 Hz. TCs were recorded using an edge movement detector at stimulation frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 Hz. Results Ranolazine significantly (p < 0.05) and reversibly shortened the APD of myocytes stimulated at either 0.5 or 0.25 Hz in a concentration-dependent manner. At a stimulation frequency of 0.5 Hz, 5, 10 and 20 μM ranolazine shortened the APD90 (APD measured at 90% repolarization) from 516 ± 51 to 304 ± 22, 212 ± 34 and 160 ± 11 ms, respectively, and markedly decreased beat-to-beat variability of APD90, EADs and dispersion of APDs. Ranolazine preferentially blocked INaL relative to INaT in a state-dependent manner; with a ~ 38-fold greater potency against INaL to produce tonic block

  15. Reversion of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and abnormal stress test: by catheter ablation, in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome from Para-Hisian Kent bundle.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chung-Ming; Chu, Kai-Ming; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Mung; Lin, Wei-Shiang

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is typically reserved for patients who experience ventricular pre-excitation and symptoms that are related to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, such as chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness, palpitations, or syncope. Herein, we report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented at our outpatient department because of exercise intolerance. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade 2/6 pansystolic murmur over the left lower sternal border. Twelve-lead electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm at a rate of 76 beats/min, with a significant delta wave. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed abnormal left ventricular systolic function. The results of a thallium stress test were also abnormal. Coronary artery disease was suspected; however, coronary angiography yielded normal results. Electrophysiologic study revealed a para-Hisian Kent bundle and a dual atrioventricular nodal pathway. After radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed, the patient's left ventricular function improved and her symptoms disappeared. In Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony can yield abnormal findings on echocardiography and thallium scanning--even in persons who have no cardiovascular risk factors. Physicians who are armed with this knowledge can avoid performing coronary angiography unnecessarily. Catheter ablation can reverse the dyssynchrony of the ventricle and improve the patient's symptoms.

  16. Abnormalities in arterial-ventricular coupling in older healthy persons are attenuated by sodium nitroprusside

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Paul D.; Nussbacher, Amit; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schulman, Steven P.; Becker, Lewis C.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L.; Najjar, Samer S.

    2011-01-01

    The coupling between arterial elastance (EA; net afterload) and left ventricular elastance (ELV; pump performance), known as EA/ELV, is a key determinant of cardiovascular performance and shifts during exercise due to a greater increase in ELV versus EA. This normal exercise-induced reduction in EA/ELV decreases with advancing age. We hypothesized that sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can acutely ameliorate the age-associated deficits in EA/ELV. At rest and during graded exercise to exhaustion, EA was characterized as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and ELV as end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume. Resting EA/ELV did not differ between old (70 ± 8 yr, n = 15) and young (30 ± 5 yr, n = 17) subjects because of a tandem increase in EA and ELV in older subjects. During peak exercise, a blunted increase in ELV in old (7.8 ± 3.1 mmHg/ml) versus young (11.4 ± 6.5 mmHg/ml) subjects blunted the normal exercise-induced decline in EA/ELV in old (0.25 ± 0.11) versus young (0.16 ± 0.05) subjects. SNP administration to older subjects lowered resting EA/ELV by 31% via a reduction in EA (10%) and an increase in ELV (47%) and lowered peak exercise EA/ELV (36%) via an increase in ELV (68%) without a change in EA. Importantly, SNP attenuated the age-associated deficits in EA/ELV and ELV during exercise, and at peak exercise EA/ELV in older subjects on drug administration did not differ from young subjects without drug administration. In conclusion, some age-associated deficiencies in EA/ELV, EA, and ELV, in older subjects can be acutely abolished by SNP infusion. This is relevant to common conditions in older subjects associated with a significant impairment of exercise performance such as frailty or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. PMID:21378146

  17. Abnormalities in arterial-ventricular coupling in older healthy persons are attenuated by sodium nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Paul D; Nussbacher, Amit; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schulman, Steven P; Becker, Lewis C; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L; Lakatta, Edward G; Najjar, Samer S

    2011-05-01

    The coupling between arterial elastance (E(A); net afterload) and left ventricular elastance (E(LV); pump performance), known as E(A)/E(LV), is a key determinant of cardiovascular performance and shifts during exercise due to a greater increase in E(LV) versus E(A). This normal exercise-induced reduction in E(A)/E(LV) decreases with advancing age. We hypothesized that sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can acutely ameliorate the age-associated deficits in E(A)/E(LV). At rest and during graded exercise to exhaustion, E(A) was characterized as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and E(LV) as end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume. Resting E(A)/E(LV) did not differ between old (70 ± 8 yr, n = 15) and young (30 ± 5 yr, n = 17) subjects because of a tandem increase in E(A) and E(LV) in older subjects. During peak exercise, a blunted increase in E(LV) in old (7.8 ± 3.1 mmHg/ml) versus young (11.4 ± 6.5 mmHg/ml) subjects blunted the normal exercise-induced decline in E(A)/E(LV) in old (0.25 ± 0.11) versus young (0.16 ± 0.05) subjects. SNP administration to older subjects lowered resting E(A)/E(LV) by 31% via a reduction in E(A) (10%) and an increase in E(LV) (47%) and lowered peak exercise E(A)/E(LV) (36%) via an increase in E(LV) (68%) without a change in E(A). Importantly, SNP attenuated the age-associated deficits in E(A)/E(LV) and E(LV) during exercise, and at peak exercise E(A)/E(LV) in older subjects on drug administration did not differ from young subjects without drug administration. In conclusion, some age-associated deficiencies in E(A)/E(LV), E(A), and E(LV), in older subjects can be acutely abolished by SNP infusion. This is relevant to common conditions in older subjects associated with a significant impairment of exercise performance such as frailty or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

  18. Transcatheter device closure of pseudoaneurysms of the left ventricular wall: An emerging therapeutic option.

    PubMed

    Madan, Tarun; Juneja, Manish; Raval, Abhishek; Thakkar, Bhavesh

    2016-02-01

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare but serious complication of acute myocardial infarction and cardiac surgery. While surgical intervention is the conventional therapeutic option, transcatheter closure can be considered in selected patients with suitable morphology of the pseudoaneurysm. We report a case of successful transcatheter closure of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm orifice and isolation of the sac using an Amplatzer septal occluder. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of intramural platelet thrombus in the pathogenesis of wall rupture and intra-ventricular thrombosis following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Leonard; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Kiriazis, Helen; Liu, Yang; Lobo, Abhirup; Head, Geoffrey A; Dart, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) and rupture are important mechanical complications following myocardial infarction (MI) and are believed to be due to unrelated mechanisms. We studied whether, in fact, wall rupture and LVT are closely related in their pathogenesis with intramural platelet thrombus (IMT) playing a pivotal role. Male 129sv and C57Bl/6 mice underwent operation to induce MI, and autopsy was performed to confirm rupture deaths. Haemodynamic features of rupture events were monitored by telemetry in conscious mice. Detailed histological examination was conducted with special attention to the presence of IMT in relation to rupture location and LVT formation. IMT was detected in infarcted hearts of 129sv (82%) and C57Bl/6 (39%) mice with rupture in the form of a narrow streak spanning the wall or an occupying mass dissecting the infarcted myofibers apart. IMT often contained dense inflammatory cells and blood clot, indicating a dynamic process of thrombus formation and destruction. Notably, IMT was found extending into the cavity to form LVT. Haemodynamic monitoring by telemetry revealed that rupture occurred either as a single event or recurrent episodes. Importantly, the anti-platelet drug clopidogrel, but not aspirin, reduced the prevalence of rupture (10% vs. 45%) and IMT, and suppressed the degree of inflammation. Thus, IMT is a key pathological element in the infarcted heart closely associated with the complications of rupture and LVT. IMT could be either triggered by a wall tear or act as initiator of rupture. IMT may propagate towards the ventricular chamber to trigger LVT.

  20. Influence of left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry on diagnostic accuracy of wall motion and perfusion magnetic resonance during dobutamine stress.

    PubMed

    Gebker, Rolf; Mirelis, Jesus G; Jahnke, Cosima; Hucko, Thomas; Manka, Robert; Hamdan, Ashraf; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Fleck, Eckart; Paetsch, Ingo

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and geometry on the diagnostic accuracy of wall motion and additional perfusion imaging during high-dose dobutamine/atropine stress magnetic resonance for the detection of coronary artery disease. Combined dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR)-wall motion and DSMR-perfusion imaging was performed in a single session in 187 patients scheduled for invasive coronary angiography. Patients were classified into 4 categories on the basis of LV mass (normal, ≤ 81 g/m(2) in men and ≤ 62 g/m(2) in women) and relative wall thickness (RWT) (normal, <0.45) as follows: normal geometry (normal mass, normal RWT), concentric remodeling (normal mass, increased RWT), concentric hypertrophy (increased mass, increased RWT), and eccentric hypertrophy (increased mass, normal RWT). Wall motion and perfusion images were interpreted sequentially, with observers blinded to other data. Significant coronary artery disease was defined as ≥ 70% stenosis. In patients with increased LV concentricity (defined by an RWT ≥ 0.45), sensitivity and accuracy of DSMR-wall motion were significantly reduced (63% and 73%, respectively; P<0.05) compared with patients without increased LV concentricity (90% and 88%, respectively; P<0.05). Although accuracy of DSMR-perfusion was higher than that of DSMR-wall motion in patients with concentric hypertrophy (82% versus 71%; P < 0.05), accuracy of DSMR-wall motion was superior to DSMR-perfusion (90% versus 85%; P < 0.05) in patients with eccentric hypertrophy. The accuracy of DSMR-wall motion is influenced by LV geometry. In patients with concentric remodeling and concentric hypertrophy, additional first-pass perfusion imaging during high-dose dobutamine stress improves the diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease.

  1. Right ventricular free-wall longitudinal speckle tracking strain in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension under specific treatment.

    PubMed

    Kemal, Hatice S; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Kultursay, Hakan; Vuran, Ozcan; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Mogulkoc, Nesrin; Can, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a major determinant of outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although the optimal measure of RV function is poorly defined. We evaluated the utility of RV free-wall speckle tracking strain as an assessment tool for RV function in patients with PAH who are already under specific treatment compared with conventional echocardiographic parameters and investigated the relationship of RV free-wall strain with clinical hemodynamic parameters of RV performance. Right ventricular free-wall strain was evaluated in 92 patients (Group-1 and Group-4 pulmonary hypertension) who were on PAH-specific treatment for at least 3 months. Right atrial (RA) area, RV FAC, TAPSE, tricuspid S, functional class, 6-minute walking distance, and NT-proBNP were studied. The mean duration of follow-up was 222±133 days. All patients were under PAH-specific treatment, and mean RV free-wall strain was -13.16±6.3%. RV free-wall strain correlated well with functional class (r=.312, P=.01), NT-proBNP (r=.423, P=.0001), RA area (r=.427, P=.0001), FAC (r=-.637, P=.0001), TAPSE (r=-.524, P=.0001), tricuspid S (r=-.450, P=.0001), 6-minute walking distance (r=-.333, P=.002). RV free-wall strain significantly correlated with all follow-up adverse events, death, and clinical right heart failure (RHF) (P=.04, P=.03, P=.02, respectively). According to the receiver operator characteristic analysis, the cutoff value for RV free-wall strain for the development of clinical RHF was -12.5% (sensitivity: 71%, specificity: 67%) and for all cardiovascular adverse events (death included) was -12.5% (sensitivity: 54%, specificity: 64%). Assessment of RV free-wall strain is a feasible, easy-to-perform method and may be used as a predictor of RHF, clinical deterioration, and mortality in patients already under PAH-specific treatment. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prognostic value of cardiac power output to left ventricular mass in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and dobutamine stress echo negative by wall motion criteria.

    PubMed

    Cortigiani, Lauro; Sorbo, Simone; Miccoli, Mario; Scali, Maria Chiara; Simioniuc, Anca; Morrone, Doralisa; Bovenzi, Francesco; Marzilli, Mario; Dini, Frank Lloyd

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac power output to left ventricular mass (power/mass) is an index of myocardial efficiency reflecting the rate at which cardiac work is delivered with respect to the potential energy stored in the left ventricular mass. In the present study, we sought to investigate the capability of power/mass assessed at peak of dobutamine stress echocardiography to predict mortality in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and no inducible ischaemia. One-hundred eleven patients (95 males; age 68 ± 10 years) with 35 ± 7% mean left ventricular ejection fraction and a dobutamine stress echocardiography (up to 40 µg/kg/min) negative by wall motion criteria formed the study population. Power/mass at peak stress was obtained as the product of a constant (K = 2.22 × 10 -1 ) with cardiac output and the mean arterial pressure divided by left ventricular mass to convert the units to W/100 g. Patients were followed up for a median of 29 months (inter-quartile range 16-72 months). All-cause mortality was the only accepted clinical end point. Mean peak-stress power/mass was 0.70 ± 0.31 W/100 g. During follow-up, 29 deaths (26%) were registered. With a receiver operating characteristic analysis, a peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g [area under curve 0.72 (95% CI 0.63; 0.80), sensitivity 59%, specificity 80%] was the best value for predicting mortality. Univariate prognostic indicators were age, male sex, peak-stress ejection fraction, peak-stress stroke volume, peak-stress cardiac output, peak-stress cardiac power output ≤1.48 W, and peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g. At multivariate analysis, age (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04; 1.14; P = 0.004) and peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g (HR 4.05, 95% CI 1.36; 12.00; P = 0.01) provided independent prognostic information. Three-year mortality was 14% in patients with peak-stress power/mass >0.50 W/100 g and 47% in those with peak-stress power/mass ≤0.50 W/100 g (log-rank 20.4; P < 0.0001). Power/mass assessed at peak of

  3. Right precordial-directed electrocardiographical markers identify arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the absence of conventional depolarization or repolarization abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Daniel; Svensson, Anneli; Carlson, Jonas; Graw, Sharon; Sharma, Nandita; Brun, Francesca; Spezzacatene, Anita; Mestroni, Luisa; Platonov, Pyotr G

    2017-10-13

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) carries a risk of sudden death. We aimed to assess whether vectorcardiographic (VCG) parameters directed toward the right heart and a measured angle of the S-wave would help differentiate ARVD/C with otherwise normal electrocardiograms from controls. Task Force 2010 definite ARVD/C criteria were met for all patients. Those who did not fulfill Task Force depolarization or repolarization criteria (-ECG) were compared with age and gender-matched control subjects. Electrocardiogram measures of a 3-dimentional spatial QRS-T angle, a right-precordial-directed orthogonal QRS-T (RPD) angle, a root mean square of the right sided depolarizing forces (RtRMS-QRS), QRS duration (QRSd) and the corrected QT interval (QTc), and a measured angle including the upslope and downslope of the S-wave (S-wave angle) were assessed. Definite ARVD/C was present in 155 patients by 2010 Task Force criteria (41.7 ± 17.6 years, 65.2% male). -ECG ARVD/C patients (66 patients) were compared to 66 control patients (41.7 ± 17.6 years, 65.2% male). All parameters tested except the QRSd and QTc significantly differentiated -ECG ARVD/C from control patients (p < 0.004 to p < 0.001). The RPD angle and RtRMS-QRS best differentiated the groups. Combined, the 2 novel criteria gave 81.8% sensitivity, 90.9% specificity and odds ratio of 45.0 (95% confidence interval 15.8 to 128.2). ARVD/C disease process may lead to development of subtle ECG abnormalities that can be distinguishable using right-sided VCG or measured angle markers better than the spatial QRS-T angle, the QRSd or QTc, in the absence of Taskforce ECG criteria.

  4. Right ventricular pressure response to exercise in adults with isolated ventricular septal defect closed in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Moller, Thomas; Lindberg, Harald; Lund, May Brit; Holmstrom, Henrik; Dohlen, Gaute; Thaulow, Erik

    2018-06-01

    We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30-45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography. Five of 19 patients (26%) presented an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise ⩾ 52 mmHg. Right ventricular systolic function was mixed, with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change, but abnormal tricuspid annular systolic motion velocity (median 6.7 cm/second) and isovolumetric acceleration (median 0.8 m/second2). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was normal at rest as measured by the peak systolic velocity of the lateral wall and isovolumic acceleration, early diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastolic flow to tissue velocity, except for ejection fraction (median 53%). The myocardial performance index was abnormal for both the left and right ventricle. Peak oxygen uptake was normal (mean z score -0.4, 95% CI -2.8-0.3). There was no association between an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response during exercise and right or left ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. Abnormal right ventricular pressure response is not more frequent in adult patients compared with adolescents. This does not support the theory of progressive pulmonary vascular disease following closure of left-to-right shunts.

  5. Percutaneous closure of a giant left ventricular wall pseudoaneurysm: Anterograde approach with a double snare technique.

    PubMed

    Afonso Nogueira, Marta; Fiarresga, António; de Sousa, Lídia; Agapito, Ana; Galrinho, Ana; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of acute myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, trauma or infection. Since surgical repair is associated with high morbidity and mortality, percutaneous closure has been described as an alternative. In this regard, we present a case in which a symptomatic large left ventricular pseudoaneurysm was treated by percutaneous closure due to the patient's high surgical risk, using a double snare technique. Despite the technical difficulties, this procedure had a good final result followed by clinical success, confirming that this procedure is an effective alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced Sodium Current in the Lateral Ventricular Wall Induces Inferolateral J-Waves.

    PubMed

    Meijborg, Veronique M F; Potse, Mark; Conrath, Chantal E; Belterman, Charly N W; De Bakker, Jacques M T; Coronel, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    J-waves in inferolateral leads are associated with a higher risk for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We aimed to test potential mechanisms (depolarization or repolarization dependent) responsible for inferolateral J-waves. We hypothesized that inferolateral J-waves can be caused by regional delayed activation of myocardium that is activated late during normal conditions. Computer simulations were performed to evaluate how J-point elevation is influenced by reducing sodium current conductivity (GNa), increasing transient outward current conductivity (Gto), or cellular uncoupling in three predefined ventricular regions (lateral, anterior, or septal). Two pig hearts were Langendorff-perfused with selective perfusion with a sodium channel blocker of lateral or anterior/septal regions. Volume-conducted pseudo-electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded to detect the presence of J-waves. Epicardial unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded to obtain activation times (AT). Simulation data showed that conduction slowing, caused by reduced sodium current, in lateral, but not in other regions induced inferolateral J-waves. An increase in transient outward potassium current or cellular uncoupling in the lateral zone elicited slight J-point elevations which did not meet J-wave criteria. Additional conduction slowing in the entire heart attenuated J-waves and J-point elevations on the ECG, because of masking by the QRS. Experimental data confirmed that conduction slowing attributed to sodium channel blockade in the left lateral but not in the anterior/septal ventricular region induced inferolateral J-waves. J-waves coincided with the delayed activation. Reduced sodium current in the left lateral ventricular myocardium can cause inferolateral J-waves on the ECG.

  7. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients: LIFE Study.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J; Palmieri, Vittorio; Boman, Kurt; Gerdts, Eva; Nieminen, Markku S; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Wachtell, Kristian; Hille, Darcy A; Dahlöf, Björn

    2015-11-01

    In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference in myocardial infarction (MI), possibly related to greater reduction in myocardial oxygen demand by atenolol-based treatment. Myocardial oxygen demand was assessed indirectly by the left ventricular mass×wall stress×heart rate (triple product) in 905 LIFE participants. The triple product was included as time-varying covariate in Cox models assessing predictors of the LIFE primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke), its individual components, and all-cause mortality. At baseline, the triple product in both treatment groups was, compared with normal adults, elevated in 70% of patients. During randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P≤0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass more, greater heart rate reduction with atenolol resulted in larger reduction of the triple product. Lower triple product during antihypertensive treatment was strongly, independently associated with lower rates of the LIFE primary composite end point, cardiovascular death, and MI, but not stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Comparative study of diastolic filling under varying left ventricular wall stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekala, Pritam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2014-11-01

    Pathological remodeling of the human cardiac left ventricle (LV) is observed in hypertensive heart failure as a result of pressure overload. Myocardial stiffening occurs in these patients prior to chronic maladaptive changes, resulting in increased LV wall stiffness. The goal of this study was to investigate the change in intraventricular filling fluid dynamics inside a physical model of the LV as a function of wall stiffness. Three LV models of varying wall stiffness were incorporated into an in vitro flow circuit driven by a programmable piston pump. Windkessel elements were used to tune the inflow and systemic pressure in the model with least stiffness to match healthy conditions. Models with stiffer walls were comparatively tested maintaining circuit compliance, resistance and pump amplitude constant. 2D phase-locked PIV measurements along the central plane showed that with increase in wall stiffness, the peak velocity and cardiac output inside the LV decreased. Further, inflow vortex ring propagation toward the LV apex was reduced with increasing stiffness. The above findings indicate the importance of considering LV wall relaxation characteristics in pathological studies of filling fluid dynamics.

  9. Association of segmental wall motion abnormalities occurring during hemodialysis with post-dialysis fatigue.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ruth F; Teerlink, John R; Schiller, Nelson B; Alokozai, Dean; Peralta, Carmen A; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2013-10-01

    Post-dialysis fatigue (PDF) is a common, debilitating symptom that remains poorly understood. Cardiac wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) may worsen during dialysis, but it is unknown whether WMA are associated with PDF. Forty patients were recruited from University of California San Francisco-affiliated dialysis units between January 2010 and February 2011. Participants underwent echocardiograms before and during the last hour of 79 dialysis sessions. Myocardial segments were graded 1-4 by a blinded reviewer, with four representing the worst WMA, and the segmental scores were summed for each echocardiogram. Patients completed questionnaires about their symptoms. Severe PDF (defined as lasting >2 h after dialysis) was analysed using a generalized linear model with candidate predictors including anemia, intradialytic hemodynamics and cardiac function. Forty-four percent of patients with worsened WMA (n=9) had severe PDF, compared with 13% of patients with improved or unchanged WMA (P = 0.04). A one-point increase in the WMA score during dialysis was associated with a 10% higher RR of severe PDF [RR: 1.1, 95% CI (1.1, 1.2), P < 0.001]. After multivariable adjustment, every point increase in the WMA score was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of severe PDF [RR: 1.9, 95% CI (1.4, 2.6), P < 0.001]. History of depression was associated with severe PDF after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities [RR: 3.4, 95% CI (1.3, 9), P = 0.01], but anemia, hemodynamics and other parameters of cardiac function were not. Although cross-sectional, these results suggest that some patients may experience severe PDF as a symptom of cardiac ischemia occurring during dialysis.

  10. Atlas-Based Ventricular Shape Analysis for Understanding Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Genevieve; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Gilbert, Kathleen; Perry, James C; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marsden, Alison; Young, Alistair A; Omens, Jeffrey H; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2016-12-01

    Congenital heart disease is associated with abnormal ventricular shape that can affect wall mechanics and may be predictive of long-term adverse outcomes. Atlas-based parametric shape analysis was used to analyze ventricular geometries of eight adolescent or adult single-ventricle CHD patients with tricuspid atresia and Fontans. These patients were compared with an "atlas" of non-congenital asymptomatic volunteers, resulting in a set of z-scores which quantify deviations from the control population distribution on a patient-by-patient basis. We examined the potential of these scores to: (1) quantify abnormalities of ventricular geometry in single ventricle physiologies relative to the normal population; (2) comprehensively quantify wall motion in CHD patients; and (3) identify possible relationships between ventricular shape and wall motion that may reflect underlying functional defects or remodeling in CHD patients. CHD ventricular geometries at end-diastole and end-systole were individually compared with statistical shape properties of an asymptomatic population from the Cardiac Atlas Project. Shape analysis-derived model properties, and myocardial wall motions between end-diastole and end-systole, were compared with physician observations of clinical functional parameters. Relationships between altered shape and altered function were evaluated via correlations between atlas-based shape and wall motion scores. Atlas-based shape analysis identified a diverse set of specific quantifiable abnormalities in ventricular geometry or myocardial wall motion in all subjects. Moreover, this initial cohort displayed significant relationships between specific shape abnormalities such as increased ventricular sphericity and functional defects in myocardial deformation, such as decreased long-axis wall motion. These findings suggest that atlas-based ventricular shape analysis may be a useful new tool in the management of patients with CHD who are at risk of impaired ventricular

  11. Right ventricular relative wall thickness as a predictor of outcomes and of right ventricular reverse remodeling for patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Motoji, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Yuko; Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Hatani, Yutaka; Matsuzoe, Hiroki; Hatazawa, Keiko; Shimoura, Hiroyuki; Ooka, Junichi; Ryo-Koriyama, Keiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Emoto, Noriaki; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Mid-term right ventricular (RV) reverse remodeling after treatment in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with long-term outcome as well as baseline RV remodeling. However, baseline factors influencing mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment and its prognostic capability remain unclear. We studied 54 PH patients. Mid-term RV remodeling was assessed in terms of the RV area, which was traced planimetrically at the end-systole (RVESA). RV reverse remodeling was defined as a relative decrease in the RVESA of at least 15% at 10.2 ± 9.4 months after treatment. Long-term follow-up was 5 years. Adverse events occurred in ten patients (19%) and mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment was observed in 37 (69%). Patients with mid-term RV reverse remodeling had more favorable long-term outcomes than those without (log-rank: p = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that RV relative wall thickness (RV-RWT), as calculated as RV free-wall thickness/RV basal linear dimension at end-diastole, was an independent predictor of mid-term RV reverse remodeling (OR 1.334; 95% CI, 1.039-1.713; p = 0.03). Moreover, patients with RV-RWT ≥0.21 showed better long-term outcomes than did those without (log-rank p = 0.03), while those with RV-RWT ≥0.21 and mid-term RV reverse remodeling had the best long-term outcomes. Patients with RV-RWT <0.21 and without mid-term RV reverse remodeling, on the other hand, had worse long-term outcomes than other sub-groups. In conclusions, RV-RWT could predict mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment in PH patients, and was associated with long-term outcomes. Our finding may have clinical implications for better management of PH patients.

  12. Effects of increased left ventricular wall thickness on the myocardium in severe aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular ejection fraction: Two- and three-dimensional multilayer speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Ga Yeon; Chang, Sung-A; Choi, Jin-Oh; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the capability of real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and two-dimensional (2D) multilayer speckle tracking echocardiography (MSTE) for evaluation of early myocardial dysfunction triggered by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness in severe aortic stenosis (AS) with normal LV ejection fraction (EF≥55%). Conventional, RT3D STE and 2D MSTE were performed in 45 patients (mean 68.9±9.0 years) with severe AS (aortic valve area <1 cm 2 , aortic velocity Vmax >4 m/s or mean PG >40 mm Hg) and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) without overt coronary artery disease and in 18 age-, sex-matched healthy controls. Global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global area strain (GAS), and global radial strain (GRS) were calculated using RT3DE and MSTE. The severe AS group had lower 3D GLS, GRS, GAS and 2D epicardium, and mid-wall and endocardium GLS compared to healthy controls. In MSTE analysis, 2D LS and CS values decreased from the endocardial layer toward the epicardial layer. Severe AS patients with increased LV wall thickness had lower 3D GLS and 2D epicardium, and mid-wall and endocardium GLS compared with severe AS patients without LV wall thickening. GLS on RT3D STE was correlated with GLS on 2D MSTE, left ventricular mass index, LVEF, left atrial volume index, and lnNT-proBNP. RT3DE and 2D MSTE can be used to identify subtle contractile dysfunction triggered by increased LV wall thickness in severe AS with normal LVEF. Therefore, RT3D STE and 2D MSTE may provide additional information that can facilitate decision-making regarding severe AS patients with increased LV wall thickness and normal LV function. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of Aortic Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in Aortic Stenosis and Its Association With Left Ventricular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Karunaharamoorthy, Achudhan; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Barker, Alex J; Blaszczyk, Edyta; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-03-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of patients with AS and determine their association with remodeling. Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age, 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age, 60±10 years) underwent 4-dimensional-flow magnetic resonance imaging. Helical and vortical flow formations and flow eccentricity were assessed in the ascending aorta. Normalized flow displacement from the vessel center and peak systolic wall shear stress in the ascending aorta were quantified. LV remodeling was assessed based on LV mass index and the ratio of LV mass:end-diastolic volume (relative wall mass). Marked helical and vortical flow formation and eccentricity were more prevalent in patients with AS than in healthy subjects, and patients with AS exhibited an asymmetrical and elevated distribution of peak systolic wall shear stress. In AS, aortic orifice area was strongly negatively associated with vortical flow formation (P=0.0274), eccentricity (P=0.0070), and flow displacement (P=0.0021). Bicuspid aortic valve was associated with more intense helical (P=0.0098) and vortical flow formation (P=0.0536), higher flow displacement (P=0.11), and higher peak systolic wall shear stress (P=0.0926). LV mass index and relative wall mass were significantly associated with aortic orifice area (P=0.0611, P=0.0058) and flow displacement (P=0.0058, P=0.0283). In this pilot study, AS leads to abnormal blood flow pattern and peak systolic wall shear stress in the ascending aorta. In addition to aortic orifice area, normalized flow displacement was significantly associated with LV remodeling. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Familial multiple ventricular extrasystoles, short stature, craniofacial abnormalities and digital hypoplasia: a further case of Stoll syndrome?

    PubMed

    Mercer, Catherine L; Keeton, Barry; Dennis, Nicolas R

    2008-04-01

    We report two brothers, their mother and a maternal cousin who had a distinctive facial phenotype, mild brachydactyly and prominence of the interphalangeal joints. One brother and the mother also had multiple ventricular extrasystoles. Six other relatives in four generations were probably affected on the basis of history and family photographs. We also report a further individual from a different family with a similar facial phenotype, Pierre-Robin sequence, tapering fingers and multiple ventricular extrasystoles. These families have some similarities to those reported by Stoll et al. in a single family, showing dominant inheritance. Our patients would seem to have the same or a related condition.

  15. Intraventricular filling under increasing left ventricular wall stiffness and heart rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaee, Milad; Lai, Hong Kuan; Schovanec, Joseph; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nagueh, Sherif

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in over 50% of heart failure patients. HFNEF patients show increased left ventricle (LV) wall stiffness and clinical diagnosis is difficult using ejection fraction (EF) measurements. We hypothesized that filling vortex circulation strength would decrease with increasing LV stiffness irrespective of heart rate (HR). 2D PIV and hemodynamic measurements were acquired on LV physical models of varying wall stiffness under resting and exercise HRs. The LV models were comparatively tested in an in vitro flow circuit consisting of a two-element Windkessel model driven by a piston pump. The stiffer LV models were tested in comparison with the least stiff baseline model without changing pump amplitude, circuit compliance and resistance. Increasing stiffness at resting HR resulted in diminishing cardiac output without lowering EF below 50% as in HFNEF. Increasing HR to 110 bpm in addition to stiffness resulted in lowering EF to less than 50%. The circulation strength of the intraventricular filling vortex diminished with increasing stiffness and HR. The results suggest that filling vortex circulation strength could be potentially used as a surrogate measure of LV stiffness. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  16. Presence and Implication of Temporal Nonuniformity of Early Diastolic Left Ventricular Wall Expansion in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Daisuke; Fox, Ervin R; Hall, Michael E; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C

    2016-12-01

    Early-diastolic left ventricular (LV) longitudinal expansion is delayed with diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that, in patients with heart failure (HF), regardless of LV ejection fraction (EF), there is diastolic temporal nonuniformity with a delay of longitudinal relative to circumferential expansion. Echocardiography was performed in 143 HF patients-50 with preserved EF (HFpEF) and 93 with reduced EF (HFrEF)-as well as 31 normal control subjects. The delay of early-diastolic mitral annular velocity from the mitral Doppler E (T E-e' ) was measured as a parameter of the longitudinal expansion delay. The delay of the longitudinal early-diastolic global strain rate (SR E ) relative to circumferential SR E (Delay C-L ) was calculated as a parameter of temporal nonuniformity. Intra-LV pressure difference (IVPD) was estimated with the use of color M-mode Doppler data as a parameter of LV diastolic suction. Although normal control subjects had symmetric LV expansion in early diastole, T E-e' and Delay C-L were significantly prolonged in HF regardless of EF (P < .01 vs control for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that Delay C-L was the independent determinant of IVPD among the parameters of LV geometry and contraction (β = -0.21; P < .05). An abnormal temporal nonuniformity of early-diastolic expansion is present in HF regardless of EF, which was associated with reduced LV suction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Differences in Left Ventricular Function Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for First Anterior Wall ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Weissler-Snir, Adaya; Kornowski, Ran; Sagie, Alexander; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Perl, Leor; Porter, Avital; Lev, Eli; Assali, Abid

    2014-11-15

    Little is known regarding gender differences in left ventricular (LV) function after anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), despite it being a major determinant of patients' morbidity and mortality. We therefore sought to investigate the impact of gender on LV function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for first anterior wall STEMI. Seven hundred eighty-nine consecutive patients (625 men) with first anterior STEMI were included in the analysis. All patients underwent an echocardiographic study within 48 hours of PCI. Women were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, chronic renal failure, and a higher Killip score. Women had prolonged ischemic time, which was driven by prolonged symptom-to-presentation time (2.75 [interquartile range 1.5 to 4] vs 2 [interquartile range 1 to 3.5] hours, p = 0.005). A higher percentage of women had moderate or worse LV dysfunction (LV ejection fraction <40%; 61.6% vs 48%, p = 0.002). In a univariable analysis female gender was associated with moderate or worse LV function (p = 0.002). However, after accounting for variable baseline risk profiles between the 2 groups using multivariable and propensity score techniques, ischemic time >3.5 hours, leukocytosis, and pre-PCI Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade <2 were independent predictors of moderate or worse LV dysfunction, whereas female gender was not. Data on LV function recovery at 6 months, which were available for 45% of female and male patients with moderate or worse LV dysfunction early after PCI, showed no significant gender related difference in LV function recovery. In conclusion, women undergoing PCI for the first event of anterior STEMI demonstrate worse LV function than that of men, which might be partially attributed to delay in presentation. Hence greater efforts should be devoted to increasing women's awareness of cardiac symptoms during the prehospital course of STEMI. Copyright © 2014

  18. Characterization of glutamatergic neurons in the rat atrial intrinsic cardiac ganglia that project to the cardiac ventricular wall.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Miller, Kenneth E

    2016-08-04

    The intrinsic cardiac nervous system modulates cardiac function by acting as an integration site for regulating autonomic efferent cardiac output. This intrinsic system is proposed to be composed of a short cardio-cardiac feedback control loop within the cardiac innervation hierarchy. For example, electrophysiological studies have postulated the presence of sensory neurons in intrinsic cardiac ganglia (ICG) for regional cardiac control. There is still a knowledge gap, however, about the anatomical location and neurochemical phenotype of sensory neurons inside ICG. In the present study, rat ICG neurons were characterized neurochemically with immunohistochemistry using glutamatergic markers: vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1; VGLUT2), and glutaminase (GLS), the enzyme essential for glutamate production. Glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT1/VGLUT2/GLS) in the ICG that have axons to the ventricles were identified by retrograde tracing of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injected in the ventricular wall. Co-labeling of VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and GLS with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was used to evaluate the relationship between post-ganglionic autonomic neurons and glutamatergic neurons. Sequential labeling of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in adjacent tissue sections was used to evaluate the co-localization of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in ICG neurons. Our studies yielded the following results: (1) ICG contain glutamatergic neurons with GLS for glutamate production and VGLUT1 and 2 for transport of glutamate into synaptic vesicles; (2) atrial ICG contain neurons that project to ventricle walls and these neurons are glutamatergic; (3) many glutamatergic ICG neurons also were cholinergic, expressing VAChT; (4) VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 co-localization occurred in ICG neurons with variation of their protein expression level. Investigation of both glutamatergic and cholinergic ICG neurons could help in better understanding the function of the intrinsic cardiac

  19. Characterization of Glutamatergic Neurons in the Rat Atrial Intrinsic Cardiac Ganglia that Project to the Cardiac Ventricular Wall

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic cardiac nervous system modulates cardiac function by acting as an integration site for regulating autonomic efferent cardiac output. This intrinsic system is proposed to be composed of a short cardio-cardiac feedback control loop within the cardiac innervation hierarchy. For example, electrophysiological studies have postulated the presence of sensory neurons in intrinsic cardiac ganglia for regional cardiac control. There is still a knowledge gap, however, about the anatomical location and neurochemical phenotype of sensory neurons inside intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the present study, rat intrinsic cardiac ganglia neurons were characterized neurochemically with immunohistochemistry using glutamatergic markers: vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1; VGLUT2), and glutaminase (GLS), the enzyme essential for glutamate production. Glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT1/VGLUT2/GLS) in the ICG that have axons to the ventricles were identified by retrograde tracing of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injected in the ventricular wall. Co-labeling of VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and GLS with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was used to evaluate the relationship between post-ganglionic autonomic neurons and glutamatergic neurons. Sequential labeling of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in adjacent tissue sections was used to evaluate the co-localization of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in ICG neurons. Our studies yielded the following results: (1) intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain glutamatergic neurons with GLS for glutamate production and VGLUT1 and 2 for transport of glutamate into synaptic vesicles; (2) atrial intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain neurons that project to ventricle walls and these neurons are glutamatergic; (3) many glutamatergic ICG neurons also were cholinergic, expressing VAChT. (4) VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 co-localization occurred in ICG neurons with variation of their protein expression level. Investigation of both glutamatergic and cholinergic ICG

  20. Deletion of ETS-1, a gene in the Jacobsen syndrome critical region, causes ventricular septal defects and abnormal ventricular morphology in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Maoqing; Coldren, Chris; Liang, Xingqun; Mattina, Teresa; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Benson, D. Woodrow; Ivy, Dunbar; Perryman, M.B.; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Grossfeld, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart defects comprise the most common form of major birth defects, affecting 0.7% of all newborn infants. Jacobsen syndrome (11q-) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by deletions in distal 11q. We have previously determined that a wide spectrum of the most common congenital heart defects occur in 11q-, including an unprecedented high frequency of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We identified an ∼7 Mb ‘cardiac critical region’ in distal 11q that contains a putative causative gene(s) for congenital heart disease. In this study, we utilized chromosomal microarray mapping to characterize three patients with 11q- and congenital heart defects that carry interstitial deletions overlapping the 7 Mb cardiac critical region. We propose that this 1.2 Mb region of overlap harbors a gene(s) that causes at least a subset of the congenital heart defects that occur in 11q-. We demonstrate that one gene in this region, ETS-1 (a member of the ETS family of transcription factors), is expressed in the endocardium and neural crest during early mouse heart development. Gene-targeted deletion of ETS-1 in mice in a C57/B6 background causes, with high penetrance, large membranous ventricular septal defects and a bifid cardiac apex, and less frequently a non-apex-forming left ventricle (one of the hallmarks of HLHS). Our results implicate an important role for the ETS-1 transcription factor in mammalian heart development and should provide important insights into some of the most common forms of congenital heart disease. PMID:19942620

  1. Integration of Wall Motion, Coronary Flow Velocity, and Left Ventricular Contractile Reserve in a Single Test: Prognostic Value of Vasodilator Stress Echocardiography in Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cortigiani, Lauro; Huqi, Alda; Ciampi, Quirino; Bombardini, Tonino; Bovenzi, Francesco; Picano, Eugenio

    2018-06-01

    Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) and left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR) have demonstrated prognostic importance in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic contribution of combined evaluation of CFVR and LVCR in patients with diabetes with nonischemic stress echocardiography. Three hundred seventy-five patients with diabetes (mean age, 68 ± 9 years) with nonischemic dipyridamole stress echocardiography underwent assessment of CFVR of the left anterior descending coronary artery (prospectively) and LVCR with left ventricular force (retrospectively) in a multicenter study. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, LVCR ≤ 1.1 was the best prognostic predictor and was considered an abnormal value. CFVR was abnormal (≤2) in 139 patients (37%), LVCR in 156 (42%), neither in 157 (42%), and both in 77 (21%). During a median follow-up period of 16 months, 86 major adverse cardiac events occurred: 16 deaths, 13 myocardial infarctions, and 57 revascularizations. Multivariate prognostic indicators were CFVR ≤ 2 (P < .0001), age (P = .03), and LVCR ≤ 1.1 (P = .04). The 3-year rate of major adverse cardiac events was 63% in patients with both abnormal CFVR and LVCR, 42% in those with abnormal CFVR only, 19% in those with abnormal LVCR only, and 10% in patients with both normal CFVR and LVCR. The 3-year hard event rate was 3% in patients with both normal CFVR and LVCR, fivefold higher in patients with abnormal CFVR or LVCR only, and ninefold higher in patients with both abnormal CFVR and LVCR. Patients with diabetes with nonischemic dipyridamole stress echocardiography may still have significant risk in presence of abnormal CFVR and/or LVCR, which assess the underlying, largely unrelated, microvascular and myocardial components of coronary circulation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduction in Left Ventricular Wall Stress and Improvement in Function in Failing Hearts using Algisyl-LVR

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Zhihong, Zhang; Hinson, Andrew; Guccione, Julius M.

    2013-01-01

    Injection of Algisyl-LVR, a treatment under clinical development, is intended to treat patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. This treatment was recently used for the first time in patients who had symptomatic heart failure. In all patients, cardiac function of the left ventricle (LV) improved significantly, as manifested by consistent reduction of the LV volume and wall stress. Here we describe this novel treatment procedure and the methods used to quantify its effects on LV wall stress and function. Algisyl-LVR is a biopolymer gel consisting of Na+-Alginate and Ca2+-Alginate. The treatment procedure was carried out by mixing these two components and then combining them into one syringe for intramyocardial injections. This mixture was injected at 10 to 19 locations mid-way between the base and apex of the LV free wall in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), together with mathematical modeling, was used to quantify the effects of this treatment in patients before treatment and at various time points during recovery. The epicardial and endocardial surfaces were first digitized from the MR images to reconstruct the LV geometry at end-systole and at end-diastole. Left ventricular cavity volumes were then measured from these reconstructed surfaces. Mathematical models of the LV were created from these MRI-reconstructed surfaces to calculate regional myofiber stress. Each LV model was constructed so that 1) it deforms according to a previously validated stress-strain relationship of the myocardium, and 2) the predicted LV cavity volume from these models matches the corresponding MRI-measured volume at end-diastole and end-systole. Diastolic filling was simulated by loading the LV endocardial surface with a prescribed end-diastolic pressure. Systolic contraction was simulated by concurrently loading the endocardial surface with a prescribed end-systolic pressure and adding active contraction in the myofiber direction. Regional myofiber stress at end-diastole and

  3. Delayed recovery of left ventricular function after antithyroid treatment. Further evidence for reversible abnormalities of contractility in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Forfar, J C; Matthews, D M; Toft, A D

    1984-01-01

    Sequential measurements of systolic time intervals, left ventricular dimensions, and the derived indices of contractility were undertaken at rest and during isometric exercise in 15 hyperthyroid patients before, during, and after antithyroid treatment. At rest hyperthyroidism was characterised by a shortened pre-ejection period and increased velocity of circumferential shortening of the left ventricle. During isometric exercise, however, the pre-ejection period increased significantly beyond that predicted for normal subjects, and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening fell by 30%. In contrast, both the pre-ejection period and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening were unchanged during exercise after a stable euthyroid state had been achieved for at least three months. Comparison between exercise responses and thyroid status during antithyroid treatment showed that a biochemical euthyroid state may be achieved many weeks before normalisation of contractile response to exercise. These findings support the hypothesis of reversible depression of left ventricular function in hyperthyroidism. Responses at rest principally reflect the peripheral actions of thyroid hormone excess. PMID:6743439

  4. PLEKHM2 mutation leads to abnormal localization of lysosomes, impaired autophagy flux and associates with recessive dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Emad; Levitas, Aviva; Singh, Sonia R.; Braiman, Alex; Ofir, Rivka; Etzion, Sharon; Sheffield, Val C.; Etzion, Yoram; Carrier, Lucie; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations, mostly segregating with a dominant mode of inheritance, are important causes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a disease characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions, impaired cardiac function, heart failure and high risk of death. Another myocardial abnormality often linked to gene mutations is left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) characterized by a typical diffuse spongy appearance of the left ventricle. Here, we describe a large Bedouin family presenting with a severe recessive DCM and LVNC. Homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a single gene variant that segregated as expected and was neither reported in databases nor in Bedouin population controls. The PLEKHM2 cDNA2156_2157delAG variant causes the frameshift p.Lys645AlafsTer12 and/or the skipping of exon 11 that results in deletion of 30 highly conserved amino acids. PLEKHM2 is known to interact with several Rabs and with kinesin-1, affecting endosomal trafficking. Accordingly, patients' primary fibroblasts exhibited abnormal subcellular distribution of endosomes marked by Rab5, Rab7 and Rab9, as well as the Golgi apparatus. In addition, lysosomes appeared to be concentrated in the perinuclear region, and autophagy flux was impaired. Transfection of wild-type PLEKHM2 cDNA into patient's fibroblasts corrected the subcellular distribution of the lysosomes, supporting the causal effect of PLEKHM2 mutation. PLEKHM2 joins LAMP-2 and BAG3 as a disease gene altering autophagy resulting in an isolated cardiac phenotype. The association of PLEKHM2 mutation with DCM and LVNC supports the importance of autophagy for normal cardiac function. PMID:26464484

  5. PLEKHM2 mutation leads to abnormal localization of lysosomes, impaired autophagy flux and associates with recessive dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Emad; Levitas, Aviva; Singh, Sonia R; Braiman, Alex; Ofir, Rivka; Etzion, Sharon; Sheffield, Val C; Etzion, Yoram; Carrier, Lucie; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-12-20

    Gene mutations, mostly segregating with a dominant mode of inheritance, are important causes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a disease characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions, impaired cardiac function, heart failure and high risk of death. Another myocardial abnormality often linked to gene mutations is left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) characterized by a typical diffuse spongy appearance of the left ventricle. Here, we describe a large Bedouin family presenting with a severe recessive DCM and LVNC. Homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a single gene variant that segregated as expected and was neither reported in databases nor in Bedouin population controls. The PLEKHM2 cDNA2156_2157delAG variant causes the frameshift p.Lys645AlafsTer12 and/or the skipping of exon 11 that results in deletion of 30 highly conserved amino acids. PLEKHM2 is known to interact with several Rabs and with kinesin-1, affecting endosomal trafficking. Accordingly, patients' primary fibroblasts exhibited abnormal subcellular distribution of endosomes marked by Rab5, Rab7 and Rab9, as well as the Golgi apparatus. In addition, lysosomes appeared to be concentrated in the perinuclear region, and autophagy flux was impaired. Transfection of wild-type PLEKHM2 cDNA into patient's fibroblasts corrected the subcellular distribution of the lysosomes, supporting the causal effect of PLEKHM2 mutation. PLEKHM2 joins LAMP-2 and BAG3 as a disease gene altering autophagy resulting in an isolated cardiac phenotype. The association of PLEKHM2 mutation with DCM and LVNC supports the importance of autophagy for normal cardiac function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Association of left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities with aortic and brachial blood pressure variability in hypertensive patients: the SAFAR study.

    PubMed

    Chi, C; Yu, S-K; Auckle, R; Argyris, A A; Nasothimiou, E; Tountas, C; Aissopou, E; Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Sfikakis, P P; Zhang, Y; Protogerou, A D

    2017-10-01

    Both brachial blood pressure (BP) level and its variability (BPV) significantly associate with left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Recent studies indicate that aortic BP is superior to brachial BP in the association with LV abnormalities. However, it remains unknown whether aortic BPV better associate with LV structural and functional abnormalities. We therefore aimed to investigate and compare aortic versus brachial BPV, in terms of the identification of LV abnormalities. Two hundred and three participants who underwent echocardiography were included in this study. Twenty-four-hour aortic and brachial ambulatory BP was measured simultaneously by a validated BP monitor (Mobil-O-Graph, Stolberg, Germany) and BPV was calculated with validated formulae. LV mass and LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) were evaluated by echocardiography. The prevalence of LV hypertrophy (LVH) and LVDD increased significantly with BPV indices (P⩽0.04) in trend tests. After adjustment to potential confounders, only aortic average real variability (ARV), but not brachial ARV or weighted s.d. (wSD, neither aortic nor brachial) significantly associated with LV mass index (P=0.02). Similar results were observed in logistic regression. After adjustment, only aortic ARV significantly associated with LVH (odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.28 (1.08, 4.82)). As for LVDD, neither the brachial nor the aortic 24-hour wSD, but the aortic and brachial ARV, associated with LVDD significantly, with OR=2.28 (95% CI: (1.03, 5.02)) and OR=2.36 (95% CI: (1.10, 5.05)), respectively. In summary, aortic BPV, especially aortic ARV, seems to be superior to brachial BPV in the association of LV structural and functional abnormalities.

  7. Mechanisms of pro-arrhythmic abnormalities in ventricular repolarisation and anti-arrhythmic therapies in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Passini, Elisa; Mincholé, Ana; Coppini, Raffaele; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Rodriguez, Blanca; Severi, Stefano; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cause of sudden arrhythmic death, but the understanding of its pro-arrhythmic mechanisms and an effective pharmacological treatment are lacking. HCM electrophysiological remodelling includes both increased inward and reduced outward currents, but their role in promoting repolarisation abnormalities remains unknown. The goal of this study is to identify key ionic mechanisms driving repolarisation abnormalities in human HCM, and to evaluate anti-arrhythmic effects of single and multichannel inward current blocks. Experimental ionic current, action potential (AP) and Ca(2+)-transient (CaT) recordings were used to construct populations of human non-diseased and HCM AP models (n=9118), accounting for inter-subject variability. Simulations were conducted for several degrees of selective and combined inward current block. Simulated HCM cardiomyocytes exhibited prolonged AP and CaT, diastolic Ca(2+) overload and decreased CaT amplitude, in agreement with experiments. Repolarisation abnormalities in HCM models were consistently driven by L-type Ca(2+) current (ICaL) re-activation, and ICaL block was the most effective intervention to normalise repolarisation and diastolic Ca(2+), but compromised CaT amplitude. Late Na(+) current (INaL) block partially abolished repolarisation abnormalities, with small impact on CaT. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (INCX) block effectively restored repolarisation and CaT amplitude, but increased Ca(2+) overload. Multichannel block increased efficacy in normalising repolarisation, AP biomarkers and CaT amplitude compared to selective block. Experimentally-calibrated populations of human AP models identify ICaL re-activation as the key mechanism for repolarisation abnormalities in HCM, and combined INCX, INaL and ICaL block as effective anti-arrhythmic therapies also able to partially reverse the HCM electrophysiological phenotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Genotype on Structural Atrial Abnormalities and Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bourfiss, Mimount; Te Riele, Anneline S J M; Mast, Thomas P; Cramer, Maarten J; VAN DER Heijden, Jeroen F; VAN Veen, Toon A B; Loh, Peter; Dooijes, Dennis; Hauer, Richard N W; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2016-12-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is associated with desmosomal mutations. Although desmosomal disruption affects both ventricles and atria, little is known about atrial involvement in ARVD/C. To describe the extent and clinical significance of structural atrial involvement and atrial arrhythmias (AA) in ARVD/C stratified by genotype. We included 71 patients who met ARVD/C Task Force Criteria and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and molecular genetic analysis. Indexed atrial end-diastolic volume and area-length-ejection-fraction (ALEF) were evaluated on CMR and compared to controls with idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia (n = 40). The primary outcome was occurrence of AA (atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter) during follow-up, recorded by 12-lead ECG, Holter monitoring or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) interrogation. Patients harbored a desmosomal plakophilin-2 (PKP2) (n = 37) or nondesmosomal phospholamban (PLN) (n = 14) mutation. In 20 subjects, no pathogenic mutation was identified. Compared to controls, right atrial (RA) volumes were reduced in PKP2 (P = 0.002) and comparable in PLN (P = 0.441) mutation carriers. In patients with no mutation identified, RA (P = 0.011) and left atrial (P = 0.034) volumes were increased. Bi-atrial ALEF showed no significant difference between the groups. AA were experienced by 27% of patients and occurred equally among PKP2 (30%) and no mutation identified patients (30%), but less among PLN mutation carriers (14%). Genotype influences atrial volume and occurrence of AA in ARVD/C. While the incidence of AA is similar in PKP2 mutation carriers and patients with no mutation identified, PKP2 mutation carriers have significantly smaller atria. This suggests a different arrhythmogenic mechanism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Evaluation of echocardiography for determining left ventricular function].

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Zhu, W; Xu, J

    1994-02-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by echocardiography and gate blood pool (GBP) in 33 patients including those with coronary heart disease, acute and old myocardiac infarction, cardiomyopathy or mitral prolapse. Fourteen of the 33 had segmental wall motion abnormalities and 19 had non-segmental wall motion abnormalities. The results of comparing echocardiography and GBP showed that the former could substitute for other invasive and expensive examinations to determine LVEF (r = 0.804-0.964 in the 5 echocardiography methods used). Mod-Simpsons method of cross-sectioned echocardiography was the most accurate echocardiographic method (r = 0.964, sensitivity 90.9%) in all patients. The Teich method of M-mode echocardiography was useful in patients who had non-segmental wall motion abnormalities only (r = 0.957, sensitivity 94.7%) but not in patients who had segmental wall motion abnormalities (r = 0.703, sensitivity 42.9%).

  10. Evaluation of Aortic Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in Aortic Stenosis and Its Association With Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Karunaharamoorthy, Achudhan; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Barker, Alex J; Blaszczyk, Edyta; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. Study aim was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of AS patients and determine their association with remodeling. Methods and Results Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age 60±10 years) underwent 4D-flow MRI. Helical and vortical flow formations and flow eccentricity were assessed in the ascending aorta. Normalized flow displacement from the vessel center and peak systolic wall shear stress (WSSpeak) in the ascending aorta were quantified. LV remodeling was assessed based on LV mass index (LVMI-I) and the ratio of LV mass to enddiastolic volume (relative wall mass; RWM). Marked helical and vortical flow formation and eccentricity were more prevalent in patients with AS than in healthy subjects, and AS patients exhibited an asymmetric and elevated distribution of WSSpeak. In AS, aortic orifice area was strongly negatively associated with vortical flow formation (p=0.0274), eccentricity (p=0.0070) and flow displacement (p=0.0021). Bicuspid aortic valve was associated with more intense helical (p=0.0098) and vortical flow formation (p=0.0536), higher flow displacement (p=0.11) and higher WSSpeak (p=0.0926). LVM-I and RWM were significantly associated with aortic orifice area (p=0.0611, p=0.0058) and flow displacement (p=0.0058, p=0.0283). Conclusions In this pilot study, AS leads to abnormal blood flow pattern and WSSpeak in the ascending aorta. In addition to aortic orifice area, normalized flow displacement was significantly associated with LV remodeling. PMID:26917824

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Using Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Intravenous Ventriculography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, Cynthia H.

    Healthy portions of the left ventricle (LV) can often compensate for regional dysfunction, thereby masking regional disease when global indices of LV function are employed. Thus, quantitation of regional function provides a more useful method of assessing LV function, especially in diseases that have regional effects such as coronary artery disease. This dissertation studied the ability of a phase -matched dual-energy digital subtraction angiography (DE -DSA) technique to quantitate changes in regional LV systolic volume. The potential benefits and a theoretical description of the DE imaging technique are detailed. A correlated noise reduction algorithm is also presented which raises the signal-to-noise ratio of DE images by a factor of 2 -4. Ten open-chest dogs were instrumented with transmural ultrasonic crystals to assess regional LV function in terms of systolic normalized-wall-thickening rate (NWTR) and percent-systolic-thickening (PST). A pneumatic occluder was placed on the left-anterior-descending (LAD) coronary artery to temporarily reduce myocardial blood flow, thereby changing regional LV function in the LAD bed. DE-DSA intravenous left ventriculograms were obtained at control and four levels of graded myocardial ischemia, as determined by reductions in PST. Phase-matched images displaying changes in systolic contractile function were created by subtracting an end-systolic (ES) control image from ES images acquired at each level of myocardial ischemia. The resulting wall-motion difference signal (WMD), which represents a change in regional systolic volume between the control and ischemic states, was quantitated by videodensitometry and compared with changes in NWTR and PST. Regression analysis of 56 data points from 10 animals shows a linear relationship between WMD and both NWTR and PST: WMD = -2.46 NWTR + 13.9, r = 0.64, p < 0.001; WMD = -2.11 PST + 18.4, r = 0.54, p < 0.001. Thus, changes in regional ES LV volume between rest and ischemic states, as

  12. Echocardiographic features of impaired left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Combellas, I; Puigbo, J J; Acquatella, H; Tortoledo, F; Gomez, J R

    1985-01-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's disease, simultaneous echocardiograms, phonocardiograms, and apexcardiograms were recorded in 20 asymptomatic patients with positive Chagas's serology and no signs of heart disease (group 1), 12 with Chagas's heart disease and symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia but no heart failure (group 2), 20 normal subjects (group 3), and 12 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (group 4). The recordings were digitised to determine left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time and the rate and duration of left ventricular cavity dimension increase and wall thinning. In groups 1 and 2 (a) aortic valve closure (A2) and mitral valve opening were significantly delayed relative to minimum dimension and were associated with prolonged isovolumic relaxation, (b) left ventricular cavity size was abnormally increased during isovolumic relaxation and abnormally reduced during isovolumic contraction, and (c) peak rate of posterior wall thinning and dimension increase were significantly reduced and duration of posterior wall thinning was significantly prolonged; both of these abnormalities occurred at the onset of diastolic filling. These abnormalities were more pronounced in group 2 and were accompanied by an increase in the height of the apexcardiogram "a" wave, an indication of pronounced atrial systole secondary to end diastolic filling impairment due to reduced left ventricular distensibility. Group 4, which had an established pattern of diastolic abnormalities, showed changes similar to those in group 2; however, the delay in aortic valve closure (A2) and in mitral valve opening and the degree of dimension change were greater in the latter group. Thus early isovolumic relaxation and left ventricular abnormalities were pronounced in the patients with Chagas's heart disease and may precede systolic compromise, which may become apparent in later stages of the disease. The digitised method is valuable in the early detection of

  13. Enhanced pulmonary vasodilator reserve and abnormal right ventricular: pulmonary artery coupling in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads J; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Kane, Garvan C; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Olson, Thomas P; Fetterly, Kenneth; Borlaug, Barry A

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are common in patients with advanced heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), yet their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We sought to examine RV-pulmonary artery (PA) functional reserve responses and RV-PA coupling at rest and during β-adrenergic stimulation in subjects with earlier stage HFpEF. In a prospective trial, subjects with HFpEF (n=39) and controls (n=18) underwent comprehensive invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic assessment using high fidelity micromanometer catheters, echocardiography, and expired gas analysis at rest and during dobutamine infusion. HFpEF subjects displayed similar RV structure but significantly impaired RV systolic (lower RV dP/dtmax/IP and s') and diastolic function (higher RV τ) coupled with more severe pulmonary vascular disease, manifest by higher PA pressures, higher PA resistance, and lower PA compliance compared with controls. Dobutamine infusion caused greater pulmonary vasodilation in HFpEF compared with controls, with enhanced reductions in PA resistance, greater increase in PA compliance, and a more negative slope in the PA pressure-flow relationship when compared with controls (all P<0.001). RV-PA coupling analysis revealed that dobutamine improved RV ejection in HFpEF subjects through afterload reduction alone, rather than through enhanced contractility, indicating RV systolic reserve dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension in early stage HFpEF is related to partially reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction coupled with RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction, even in the absence of RV structural remodeling. Pulmonary vascular tone is more favorably responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation in HFpEF than controls, suggesting a potential role for β-agonists in the treatment of patients with HFpEF and pulmonary hypertension. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01418248. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Is Associated With Further Left Ventricular Abnormalities in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 3-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Wenyan; Xia, Jizhu

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to detect left ventricular (LV) structure and function abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) using 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Eighty patients with type 2 diabetes and a normal LV ejection fraction (≥55%), including 40 with coexistent NAFL, and 40 age- and sex-matched control participants were recruited. Conventional echocardiography and 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography were performed, and global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, global area strain, and global radial strain values were measured. Significant differences in 2-dimensional LV functional patterns were found among the 3 groups (P = .031), and LV hypertrophy was the most prevalent in patients with diabetes and NAFL. The patients with diabetes only had significantly lower global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, and global radial strain than the controls (all P < .05). The patients with diabetes and NAFL had severely lower global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain, global area strain, and global radial strain than the controls (all P < .001), and they also had severely lower global longitudinal strain, global area strain, and global radial strain than the patients with diabetes only (all P < 0.001). The hemoglobin A 1c level and NAFL were independently associated with strain values in all patients with diabetes. The strain values in multiple directions (≥2 of global longitudinal, global circumferential, global area, and global radial strain) decreased significantly in the patients with diabetes and moderate and severe NAFL compared to those with mild NAFL (all P < .05). Nonalcoholic fatty liver could aggravate LV hypertrophy and dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. The combined application of conventional and 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography could detect these asymptomatic

  15. Insulin resistance and subclinical abnormalities of global and regional left ventricular function in patients with aortic valve sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kunita, Eiji; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2014-04-27

    Insulin resistance, as a key mediator of metabolic syndrome, is thought to be associated with pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease and altered left ventricular (LV) function and structure. However, in patients with aortic valve sclerosis (AVS), the association between insulin resistance and subclinical impairment of LV function is not fully elucidated. We studied 57 patients (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 22 women) with asymptomatic AVS but normal LV ejection fraction in echocardiography. LV longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate was analyzed using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and concomitant coronary artery disease were excluded. They were divided into the insulin-resistant group (AVS+IR; N = 28) and no insulin-resistant group (AVS-IR; N = 29) according to the median value of homeostatic model assessment index. Computed tomography scans were also performed to measure the aortic valve calcium score and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. In addition, age- and sex- adjusted 28 control subjects were recruited for the comparison. There were no significant differences in LV ejection fraction or mass index among the groups. The AVS+IR group had a higher aortic valve calcium score (median 94 versus 21, P = 0.022) and a larger VAT area (113 ± 42 cm2 versus 77 ± 38 cm2, P = 0.001) than the AVS-IR group. Notably, LV global longitudinal strain, strain rate (SR), and early diastolic SR were significantly lower in the AVS+IR group than in the AVS-IR group and in control subjects (strain: -16.2 ± 1.6% versus -17.2 ± 1.2% and -18.9 ± 0.8%; SR: -1.18 ± 0.26 s(-1) versus -1.32 ± 0.21 s(-1) and -1.52 ± 0.08 s(-1); early diastolic SR: -1.09 ± 0.23 s(-1) versus -1.23 ± 0.18 s(-1) and -1.35 ± 0.12 s(-1); P < 0.05 for all comparison), whereas circumferential function were not

  16. Insulin resistance and subclinical abnormalities of global and regional left ventricular function in patients with aortic valve sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance, as a key mediator of metabolic syndrome, is thought to be associated with pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease and altered left ventricular (LV) function and structure. However, in patients with aortic valve sclerosis (AVS), the association between insulin resistance and subclinical impairment of LV function is not fully elucidated. Methods We studied 57 patients (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 22 women) with asymptomatic AVS but normal LV ejection fraction in echocardiography. LV longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate was analyzed using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and concomitant coronary artery disease were excluded. They were divided into the insulin-resistant group (AVS+IR; N = 28) and no insulin-resistant group (AVS-IR; N = 29) according to the median value of homeostatic model assessment index. Computed tomography scans were also performed to measure the aortic valve calcium score and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. In addition, age- and sex- adjusted 28 control subjects were recruited for the comparison. Results There were no significant differences in LV ejection fraction or mass index among the groups. The AVS+IR group had a higher aortic valve calcium score (median 94 versus 21, P = 0.022) and a larger VAT area (113 ± 42 cm2 versus 77 ± 38 cm2, P = 0.001) than the AVS-IR group. Notably, LV global longitudinal strain, strain rate (SR), and early diastolic SR were significantly lower in the AVS+IR group than in the AVS-IR group and in control subjects (strain: -16.2 ± 1.6% versus -17.2 ± 1.2% and -18.9 ± 0.8%; SR: -1.18 ± 0.26 s-1 versus -1.32 ± 0.21 s-1 and -1.52 ± 0.08 s-1; early diastolic SR: -1.09 ± 0.23 s-1 versus -1.23 ± 0.18 s-1 and -1.35 ± 0.12 s-1; P < 0.05 for all comparison), whereas

  17. Models of ventricular structure and function reviewed for clinical cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Lunkenheimer, Paul P; Niederer, Peter; Sanchez-Quintana, Damian; Murillo, Margarita; Smerup, Morten

    2013-04-01

    The architectural arrangement of cardiomyocytes aggregated together within the ventricular walls remains controversial. Two models currently attract clinical attention, with neither model standing rigorous anatomical scrutiny. The first is based on the notion that ventricular mass can be unraveled consistently to produce a unique myocardial band. The second model was initially based on the notion that cardiomyocytes were bundled together in uniform fashion, with fibrous shelves interposed in transmural fashion. This concept was subsequently modified to accept the fact that the fibrous matrix supporting the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls does not form transmural sheets. Current observations demonstrate that not all cardiomyocytes are aggregated together in tangential fashion. A significant netting component is aligned in obliquely intruding and transversal fashion. The interaction between the tangential and transversal chains of cardiomyocytes with the fibrous matrix produces antagonistic forces, with both unloading and auxotonic forces necessary to explain normal and abnormal cardiodynamics. This article is part of a JCTR special issue on Cardiac Anatomy.

  18. Tachycardia-dependent augmentation of "notched J waves" in a general patient population without ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest: not a repolarization but a depolarization abnormality?

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Sato, Masahito; Kitazawa, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Takatsuki, Seiji; Oda, Eiji; Okabe, Masaaki; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    J waves can be observed in individuals of the general population, but electrocardiographic characteristics are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the J-wave dynamicity in a general patient population. The responses of J waves (>0.1 mV above the isoelectric line in 2 contiguous leads) to varying RR intervals were analyzed. Patients with aborted sudden cardiac death, documented ventricular fibrillation, or a family history of sudden cardiac death were excluded. The J-wave amplitude was measured at baseline, in beats with short RR intervals in conducted atrial premature beats (APBs) or atrial stimulation during the electrophysiology study, and in the beats next to APBs with prolonged RR intervals. Mainly notched J waves were identified in 94 of 701 (24.5%) general patients (13.4%), and APBs were present in 23 of 94 (24.5%) patients. The mean baseline amplitude of J waves was 0.20 ± 0.06 mV at the baseline RR interval of 853 ± 152 ms, 0.25 ± 0.11 mV at the RR interval in the conducted APB of 545 ± 133 ms (P = .0018), and 0.19 ± 0.08 mV at the RR interval of 1146 ± 314 ms (P = .3102). The clinical characteristics were not different between patients with and without tachycardia-dependent augmentation of J waves. Augmentation of J waves was confirmed by the electrophysiology study: 0.28 ± 0.12 mV vs 0.42 ± 0.11 mV at baseline and in the beats of atrial stimulation, respectively (P = .0001). However, no bradycardia-dependent augmentation (>0.05 mV) was observed. Such tachycardia-dependent augmentation can represent depolarization abnormality rather than repolarization abnormality. J waves in a general patient population were augmented at shorter RR intervals, but not at prolonged RR intervals. Mechanistically, conduction delay is most likely responsible for this. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular wall motion and function in patients with previous myocardial infarction by three-dimensional 99mTc-HSAD multigated cardiac pool imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, J; Naitou, K; Ishida, S; Uno, N; Saisho, K; Munakata, T; Morishita, T; Takano, M; Yabe, Y

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate left ventricular (LV) wall motion stereoscopically from all directions and to calculate the LV volume by three-dimensional (3D) imaging. 99mTc-DTPA human serum albumin-multigated cardiac pool-single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-MUGA-SPECT) was performed. A new data processing program was developed with the Application Visualization System-Medical Viewer (AVS-MV) based on images obtained from 99mTc-MUGA-SPECT. In patients with previous myocardial infarction, LV function and LV wall motion were evaluated by 3D-99mTc-MUGA imaging. The LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and end-systolic volume (LVESV) were obtained from 3D-99mTc-MUGA images by the surface rendering method, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated at thresholds of 35% (T1), 40% (T2), 45% (T3), and 50% (T4). There was a strong correlation between the LV volume calculated by 3D-99mTc-MUGA imaging at a threshold of 40% and that determined by contrast left ventriculography (LVEDV: 194.7 +/- 36.0 ml vs. 198.7 +/- 39.1 ml, r = 0.791, p < 0.001; LVESV: 91.6 +/- 44.5 ml vs. 93.3 +/- 41.3 ml, r = 0.953, p < 0.001), respectively. When compared with the LVEF data obtained by left ventriculography, significant correlations were found for 3D images reconstructed at each threshold (T1: r = 0.966; T2: r = 0.962; T3: r = 0.958; and T4: r = 0.955). In addition, when LV wall motion obtained by 3D-99mTc-MUGA imaging (LAT and LAO views) was compared with the results obtained by left ventriculography (RAO and LAO views), there was good agreement. 3D-99mTc-MUGA imaging was superior in allowing evaluation of LV wall motion in all directions and in assessment of LV function, since data acquisition and image reconstruction could be done within a short time with the three-detector imaging system and AVS-MV. This method appears to be very useful for the observation of both LV wall motion and LV function in patients with ischemic heart disease, because it is a noninvasive examination.

  20. Algisyl-LVR™ with coronary artery bypass grafting reduces left ventricular wall stress and improves function in the failing human heart☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Wall, Samuel T.; Klepach, Doron; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Zhihong; Lee, Randall J.; Hinson, Andy; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Guccione, Julius M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) wall stress reduction is a cornerstone in treating heart failure. Large animal models and computer simulations indicate that adding non-contractile material to the damaged LV wall can potentially reduce myofiber stress. We sought to quantify the effects of a novel implantable hydrogel (Algisyl-LVR™) treatment in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting (i.e. Algisyl-LVR™+CABG) on both LV function and wall stress in heart failure patients. Methods and results Magnetic resonance images obtained before treatment (n=3), and at 3 months (n=3) and 6 months (n=2) afterwards were used to reconstruct the LV geometry. Cardiac function was quantified using end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), regional wall thickness, sphericity index and regional myofiber stress computed using validated mathematical modeling. The LV became more ellipsoidal after treatment, and both EDV and ESV decreased substantially 3 months after treatment in all patients; EDV decreased from 264±91 ml to 146±86 ml and ESV decreased from 184±85 ml to 86±76 ml. Ejection fraction increased from 32±8% to 47±18% during that period. Volumetric-averaged wall thickness increased in all patients, from 1.06±0.21 cm (baseline) to 1.3±0.26 cm (3 months). These changes were accompanied by about a 35% decrease in myofiber stress at end-of-diastole and at end-of-systole. Post-treatment myofiber stress became more uniform in the LV. Conclusions These results support the novel concept that Algisyl-LVR™+CABG treatment leads to decreased myofiber stress, restored LV geometry and improved function. PMID:23394895

  1. Intraprocedural left ventricular free wall rupture diagnosed by left ventriculogram in a patient with infero-posterior myocardial infarction and severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Takao; Funayama, Naohiro; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hotta, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Yokoyama, Hideo; Ohori, Katsumi

    2016-06-06

    Left ventricular wall rupture remains a major lethal complication of acute myocardial infarction and hypertension is a well-known predisposing factor of cardiac rupture after myocardial infarction. An 87-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, diagnosed as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The echocardiogram showed 0.67-cm(2) aortic valve, consistent with severe aortic stenosis (AS). A coronary angiography showed a chronic occlusion of the proximal left circumflex artery and a 99 % stenosis and thrombus in the mid right coronary artery. During percutaneous angioplasty of the latter, transient hypotension and bradycardia developed at the time of balloon inflation, and low doses of noradrenaline and etilefrine were intravenously administered as needed. The patient suddenly lost consciousness and developed electro-mechanical dissociation. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation followed by insertion of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support were initiated. The echocardiogram revealed moderate pericardial effusion, though the site of free wall rupture was not distinctly visible. A left ventriculogram clearly showed an infero-posterior apical wall rupture. Surgical treatment was withheld because of the interim development of brain death. In this patient, who presented with severe AS, the administration of catecholamine to stabilize the blood pressure probably increased the intraventricular pressures considerably despite apparently normal measurements of the central aortic pressure. IABP, temporary pacemaker, or both are recommended instead of intravenous catecholamines for patients with AMI complicated with significant AS to stabilize hemodynamic function during angioplasty.

  2. Reconstruction of the pulmonary posterior wall using in situ autologous tissue for the treatment of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chengming; Yang, Yifeng; Xiong, Lian; Yin, Ni; Wu, Qin; Tang, Mi; Yang, Jinfu

    2017-02-23

    To evaluate the early and mid-term results of pulmonary trunk reconstruction using a technique in which autogenous tissue is preserved in situ in pulmonary atresia patients with a ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD). The pulmonary artery was reconstructed using autogenous tissue that had been preserved in situ and a bovine jugular venous patch in 24 patients who were diagnosed with PA-VSD (the observation group). The traditional operation using a bovine jugular venous conduit was performed in 40 other cases of PA-VSD (the control group). In the observation group, all patients survived and recovered successfully without complications. Follow-up echocardiography 2-10 years after the procedure showed that the reconstructed right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and pulmonary artery were patent, showing no evidence of flow obstruction. Only mild regurgitation of the bovine jugular vein valve was observed. In the control group, early postoperative death occurred in two cases. Another two patients had obstruction of the anastomotic stoma and underwent conduit replacement surgery within 2 weeks of the initial procedure. During the 2-10 years of follow-up care, six patients presented with valvular stenosis of the BJVC, with a pressure gradient of more than 50 mmHg. The technique for preserving autogenous tissue to reconstruct the pulmonary posterior wall is a satisfactory method for treating PA-VSD.

  3. Late Presentation of Recurrent Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia following Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair due to Epicardial Injury.

    PubMed

    South, Harry L; Osoro, Moses; Overly, Tjuan

    2014-01-01

    We report a 73-year-old male with late onset monomorphic ventricular tachycardia following mitral valve repair (MVR). Typically, injury to epicardial arteries following mitral valve repair/replacement presents immediately as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, worsening ECG changes, increasing cardiac biomarkers, or new wall motion abnormalities. Our case illustrates a "late complication" of a distorted circumflex artery following mitral valve repair and the importance of early diagnostic angiography and percutaneous intervention.

  4. Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Infants and Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in the Absence of Tachyarrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are rarely attributable to sustained or incessant tachyarrhythmias in infants and children with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. However, several recent reports suggested that significant LV dysfunction may develop in WPW syndrome in the absence of tachyarrhythmias. It is assumed that an asynchronous ventricular activation over the accessory pathway, especially right-sided, induces septal wall motion abnormalities, ventricular remodeling and ventricular dysfunction. The prognosis of DCM associated with asymptomatic WPW is excellent. Loss of ventricular pre-excitation results in mechanical resynchronization and reverse remodeling where LV function recovers completely. The reversible nature of LV dysfunction after loss of ventricular pre-excitation supports the causal relationship between LV dysfunction and ventricular pre-excitation. This review summarizes recent clinical and electrophysiological evidence for development of LV dysfunction or DCM in asymptomatic WPW syndrome, and discusses the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:23323117

  5. Low-dose dobutamine gated-SPECT analysis of left ventricular segmental wall thickening in ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Candell-Riera, Jaume; Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Milá, Marta; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to use low-dose dobutamine (LDD) gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate segmental thickening of the left ventricle (LV) and its relationship with changes in ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular volumes in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. This prospective multicenter study involved 89 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (i.e., EF < or =40%) who underwent LDD gated-SPECT at rest. The LV was divided into 17 segments and systolic thickening was assessed in a total of 1513 segments during LDD infusion. RESULTS; A significant increase in LVEF (33.2% vs. 30.8%; P< .001) was observed during LDD infusion and occurred at the expense of a reduction in end-systolic volume (130.5 mL vs. 136.4 mL; P=.005). The increase in EF was > or =5% in 33.7% of patients, while the EF decreased by > or =5% in 5.6% of patients. With LDD infusion, both an improvement in > or =3 segments with severely decreased baseline thickening (odds ratio [OR] = 18.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3-63) and an improvement in > or =10 segments with mild-to-moderate alterations in baseline thickening (OR = 4.53; 95% CI, 1.26-16.16) were associated with a > or =5% increase in LVEF. During the assessment of global left ventricular contractile reserve by LDD gated-SPECT, attention should be paid not only to the behavior of segments with severely decreased baseline thickening, which are generally regarded as indicating viability, but also to segments with mild-to-moderate alterations and to those in which thickening decreases.

  6. Minimally invasive surgical implantation of left ventricular epicardial leads for ventricular resynchronization using video-assisted thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Angel L; García-Bengochea, José B; Ledo, Ramiro; Vega, Marino; Amaro, Antonio; Alvarez, Julián; Rubio, José; Sierra, Juan; Sánchez, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization via left ventricular or biventricular pacing is an option for selected patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction and widened QRS complex. Stimulation through a coronary vein is the technique of choice for left ventricular pacing, but this approach results in a failure rate of approximately 8%. We describe our initial experience with minimally invasive surgical implantation of left ventricular epicardial leads using video-assisted thoracoscopy. A total of 14 patients with congestive heart failure, NYHA functional class 3.2 (0.6) and mean ejection fraction 22.9 (6.8)% were included in this study. Left bundle branch block, QRS complex >140 ms and abnormal septal motion were observed in all cases. Epicardial leads were implanted on the left ventricular free wall under general anesthesia using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Lead implantation was successful in 13 patients. Conversion to a small thoracotomy was necessary in one patient. All patients were extubated in the operating room. None of the patients died during their hospital stay. Follow-up showed reversal of ventricular asynchrony and significant improvement in ejection fraction and functional class. Minimally invasive surgery for ventricular resynchronization using video-assisted thoracoscopy in selected patients is a safe procedure that makes it possible to choose the best site for lead implantation and provides adequate short- and medium-term stimulation.

  7. Histological evidence of inflammatory reaction associated with fibrosis in the atrial and ventricular walls in a case-control study of patients with history of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B; Orshanskaya, Victoria; Ho, Siew Yen; Platonov, Pyotr G

    2016-12-01

    Chronic inflammation in the atrial myocardium was shown to play an important role in the development of atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is not clear to what extent atrial inflammatory reaction associated with AF extends on the ventricular myocardium. Our aim was to assess the extent of fibrosis and lymphomononuclear infiltration in human ventricular myocardium and explore its association with AF. Medical records from consecutive autopsies were checked for presence of AF. Heart specimens from 30 patients died from cardiovascular causes (64 ± 12 years, 17 men) were collected in three equal groups: no AF, paroxysmal AF, and permanent AF. Tissue samples were taken from the Bachmann's bundle, crista terminalis, posterior left atrium, left ventricle and right ventricle free walls and stained with Masson's trichrome for analysis of fibrosis extent. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against CD3- and CD45-antigens and quantified as number of antigen-positive cells per 1 mm 2 . Fibrosis extent, CD3+ and CD45+ cell counts were elevated in AF patients at all sites (P < 0.001 for all). Fibrosis extent demonstrated correlation with both CD3+ and CD45+ cell counts in the right (r = 0.781, P < 0.001 for CD45+ and r = 0.720, P < 0.001 for CD3+) and the left (r = 0.515, P = 0.004 for CD45+ and r = 0.573, P = 0.001 for CD3+) ventricles. Neither fibrosis nor inflammatory cell count showed association with either age or comorbidities. Histological signs of chronic inflammation affecting ventricular myocardium are strongly associated with AF and demonstrate significant correlation with fibrosis extent that cannot be explained by cardiovascular comorbidities otherwise. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Where is the exact origin of narrow premature ventricular contractions manifesting qR in inferior wall leads?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Jin; Lin, Jia-Xuan; Wang, Lu-Ping; Lin, Jia-Feng

    2016-04-04

    In recent years, radiofrequency catheter ablation(RFCA) has been established as an effective therapy for idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), however, its effect on the narrow PVCs (QRS duration < 130 msec) with qR pattern in inferior leads, may not been fully concluded. Characteristics of 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and electrophysiologic recordings were analyzed in 40 patients with symptomatic PVCs manifesting narrow QRS complex with qR pattern in inferior leads. The procedure of RFCA was performed based on pace mapping and activation mapping. Among the 40 patients with narrow PVCs, complete elimination of PVCs was achieved by RFCA in 35 patients during a median follow-up period of 23 months. Successful ablation was achieved on 19 patients at the sites where earliest Purkinje potentials were recorded in left ventricular anterosuperior septum, thus PVCs arising from left anterior fascicle (LAF) were confirmed, for these PVCs, the QRS morphology were right bundle branch and left posterior fascicle block (RBBB + LPFB) with rightward axis, the average QRS duration 116.07 ± 7.96 ms, R or rsR'in lead V1,with transition zone ahead of lead V1 in precordial leads. Another 16 successful RFCA were achieved by energy delivery at interleaflet triangle(ILT) between right coronary cusp(RCC) and left coronary cusp(LCC) where no Purkinje potentials were recorded, for narrow PVCs arising from the L-RCC ILT, the QRS morphology were similar to the PVCs arising from LAF but much narrower in QRS duration (100.44 ± 3.49 vs. 116.07 ± 7.96 ms, p < 0.05), they were also R or Rs in lead V1 with the transition zone ahead of lead V1. For 5 symptomatic narrow PVCs failed to the procedure of RFCA, their electrocardiographic characteristics showed that the narrowest QRS duration (91.80 ± 6.94 vs. 100.44 ± 3.49, 116.07 ± 7.96 ms, p < 0.05), rs or rS (r/s or r/S≦1) morphology in lead V1 with the precordial transition zone behind lead V3. Most of idiopathic PVCs of

  9. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4%more » (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.« less

  10. Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: an entity in search of an identity

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Congenital left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum are rare cardiac malformations described in 809 cases since the first description in 1816, being associated with other cardiac, vascular or thoraco-abdominal abnormalities in about 70%. It appears to be a developmental anomaly, starting in the 4th embryonic week. In an experimental study, targeted knockdown of cardiac troponin T in the chick was performed at day 3, after the heart tube has formed. Morpholino treatment of gene TNNT2 at this stage led to the development of left ventricular diverticula (LVD) in the primitive left ventricular wall. Diagnosis of left ventricular aneurysms (LVA)/LVD can be made after exclusion of coronary artery disease, local or systemic inflammation or traumatic causes as well as cardiomyopathies. Clinically, most of LVA and LVD are asymptomatic or may cause systemic embolization, congestive heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular wall rupture, ventricular tachycardia or sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is established by imaging studies (echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging or left ventricular angiography) visualizing the structural changes and accompanying abnormalities. Mode of treatment has to be individually tailored and depends on clinical presentation, accompanying abnormalities and possible complications, options include surgical resection (especially in symptomatic patients), anticoagulation after systemic embolization, radiofrequency ablation or implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in case of symptomatic ventricular tachycardias, and occasionally combined with class I- or III-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac death occurs usually in childhood, is significantly more frequent in LVA patients and caused by congestive heart failure in most of the cases, whereas patients diagnosed with LVD died more frequently from rupture of the LVD. PMID:29581714

  11. Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: an entity in search of an identity.

    PubMed

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Congenital left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum are rare cardiac malformations described in 809 cases since the first description in 1816, being associated with other cardiac, vascular or thoraco-abdominal abnormalities in about 70%. It appears to be a developmental anomaly, starting in the 4 th embryonic week. In an experimental study, targeted knockdown of cardiac troponin T in the chick was performed at day 3, after the heart tube has formed. Morpholino treatment of gene TNNT2 at this stage led to the development of left ventricular diverticula (LVD) in the primitive left ventricular wall. Diagnosis of left ventricular aneurysms (LVA)/LVD can be made after exclusion of coronary artery disease, local or systemic inflammation or traumatic causes as well as cardiomyopathies. Clinically, most of LVA and LVD are asymptomatic or may cause systemic embolization, congestive heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular wall rupture, ventricular tachycardia or sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is established by imaging studies (echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging or left ventricular angiography) visualizing the structural changes and accompanying abnormalities. Mode of treatment has to be individually tailored and depends on clinical presentation, accompanying abnormalities and possible complications, options include surgical resection (especially in symptomatic patients), anticoagulation after systemic embolization, radiofrequency ablation or implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in case of symptomatic ventricular tachycardias, and occasionally combined with class I- or III-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac death occurs usually in childhood, is significantly more frequent in LVA patients and caused by congestive heart failure in most of the cases, whereas patients diagnosed with LVD died more frequently from rupture of the LVD.

  12. Tunnel Propagation Following Defibrillation with ICD Shocks: Hidden Postshock Activations in the Left Ventricular Wall Underlie Isoelectric Window

    PubMed Central

    Constantino, Jason; Long, Yun; Ashihara, Takashi; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Following near-defibrillation threshold (DFT) shocks from an ICD, the first postshock activation that leads to defibrillation failure arises focally after an isolelectric window (IW). The mechanisms underlying the IW remain incompletely understood. Objective The goal of this study was to provide mechanistic insight into the origins of postshock activations and IW following ICD shocks, and to link shock outcome to the preshock state of the ventricles. We hypothesized that the non-uniform ICD field results in the formation of an intramural excitable area (tunnel) only in the LV free wall, through which both pre-existing and new shock-induced wavefronts propagate during the IW. Methods Simulations were conducted using a realistic 3-D model of defibrillation in the rabbit ventricles. Biphasic ICD shocks of varying strengths were delivered to 27 different fibrillatory states. Results Following near-DFT shocks, regardless of preshock state, the main postshock excitable area was always located within LV free wall, creating an intramural tunnel. Either preexisting fibrillatory or shock-induced wavefronts propagated during the IW (duration of up to 74ms) in this tunnel and emerged as breakthroughs on LV epicardium. Preshock activity within the LV played a significant role in shock outcome: large number of preshock filaments resulted in an IW associated with tunnel propagation of preexisting rather than shock-induced wavefronts. Furthermore, shocks were more likely to succeed if LV excitable area was smaller. Conclusions The LV intramural excitable area is the primary reason for near-DFT failure. Any intervention that decreases the extent of this area will improve the likelihood of defibrillation success. PMID:20348028

  13. Left ventricular function in Friedreich's ataxia. An echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, M G; Olukotun, A Y; Tajik, A J; Lovett, J L; Giuliani, E R

    1980-01-01

    Left ventricular function was assessed in seven patients with Friedreich's ataxia using computer-assisted analysis of the left ventricular echocardiograms and compared with those of 45 normal children matched for age and sex. The left ventricle in Friedreich's ataxia was symmetrically hypertrophied, cavity dimension was normal or small, and septal motion and peak velocity of circumferential shortening were normal in all patients. In diastole the duration of rapid filling was normal, peak rate of increase in left ventricular dimension was reduced in two patients, mitral valve opening was delayed with respect to minimum cavity dimension in seven, and there were significantly greater than normal increases in left ventricular dimension during the isovolumic period to mitral valve opening in seven, indicating abnormal and incoordinate relaxation. Peak rates of posterior wall systolic thickening and diastolic thinning were reduced in four and six patients, respectively, whereas peak rates of septal systolic thickening and diastolic thinning were reduced in one and four, respectively, suggesting a disproportionately greater impairment of the posterior wall than of septal function. The absence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and mid-systolic closure of the aortic valve, the presence of normal septal motion, and the greater reduction in posterior wall than in septal dynamics are inconsistent with previous ideas that the heart disease of Friedreich's ataxia is identical to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Computer-assisted analysis of echocardiograms permits recognition of heart disease in Friedreich's ataxia before the onset of cardiac symptoms or development of clinical signs of heart disease. Images PMID:7426188

  14. Assessment of left ventricular myocardial deformation by cardiac MRI strain imaging reveals myocardial dysfunction in patients with primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hua-Yan; Shi, Ke; Guo, Ying-Kun

    2018-02-15

    To assess left ventricular myocardial deformation in patients with primary cardiac tumors. MRI was retrospectively performed in 61 patients, including 31 patients with primary cardiac tumors and 30 matched normal controls. Left ventricular strain and function parameters were then assessed by MRI-tissue tracking. Differences between the tumor group and controls, left and right heart tumor groups, left ventricular wall tumor and non-left ventricular wall tumor groups, and tumors with and without LV enlargement groups were assessed. Finally, the correlations among tumor diameter, myocardial strain, and LV function were analyzed. Left ventricular myocardial strain was milder for tumor group than for normal group. Peak circumferential strain (PCS) and its diastolic strain rate, longitudinal strains (PLS) and its diastolic strain rates, and peak radial systolic and diastolic velocities of the right heart tumor group were lower than those of the left heart tumor group (all p<0.050), but the peak radial systolic strain rate of the former was higher than that of the latter (p=0.017). The corresponding strains were lower in the left ventricular wall tumor groups than in the non-left ventricular wall tumor group (p<0.050). Peak radial systolic velocities were generally higher for tumors with LV enlargement than for tumors without LV enlargement (p<0.050). Peak radial strain, PCS, and PLS showed important correlations with the left ventricular ejection fraction (all p<0.050). MRI-tissue tracking is capable of quantitatively assessing left ventricular myocardial strain to reveal sub-clinical abnormalities of myocardial contractile function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Myocardial imaging with 99mTc-Tetrofosmin: Influence of post-stress acquisition time, regional radiotracer uptake, and wall motion abnormalities on the clinical result.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette; Casagranda, Mirta; Tagliavia, Irene D'Aragona; Marzullo, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that early (15', T1) post-stress myocardial imaging with Tetrofosmin could be more accurate than standard acquisitions (45', T2) in identifying coronary artery disease. To clarify this phenomenon, 120 subjects (age 61 +/- 10 years) with both T1 and T2 scans were divided into Group 1 (53/120 pts) with more ischemia at T1 vs T2 imaging (T1-T2SDS > or = 3); Group 2 (67/120 pts) with similar results (T1-T2SDS < or = 2). Myocardial areas were categorized as control nonischemic, ischemic, and scarred on the basis of perfusion/contraction properties and coronary anatomy. In each area, regional myocardial count statistic and semiquantitative wall motion/thickening values were obtained. Analysis of T1 and T2 post-stress myocardial counts demonstrated a significant Tetrofosmin wash-out rate that was higher in Group 1 control nonischemic regions (15 +/- 8% vs 13.6 +/- 9.6%, P < .02), significantly lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (7 +/- 10% vs 12.2 +/- 9.5%, P < .0001), and comparable between scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). Delta post-stress wall thickening (T1-T2) was lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (-4.5 +/- 9.15% vs -1.90 +/- 7.0%, P < .001) and comparable in both control nonischemic and scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). The clinical result of Tetrofosmin gated-SPECT can be influenced by the post-stress acquisition time because of ischemic-induced regional wall thickening abnormalities and the existence of a differential radiotracer myocardial wash-out.

  16. Calcific Aortic Valve Disease: Part 2—Morphomechanical Abnormalities, Gene Reexpression, and Gender Effects on Ventricular Hypertrophy and Its Reversibility

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In part 1, we considered cytomolecular mechanisms underlying calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), hemodynamics, and adaptive feedbacks controlling pathological left ventricular hypertrophy provoked by ensuing aortic valvular stenosis (AVS). In part 2, we survey diverse signal transduction pathways that precede cellular/molecular mechanisms controlling hypertrophic gene expression by activation of specific transcription factors that induce sarcomere replication in-parallel. Such signaling pathways represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention and prevention of decompensation/failure. Hypertrophy provoking signals, in the form of dynamic stresses and ligand/effector molecules that bind to specific receptors to initiate the hypertrophy, are transcribed across the sarcolemma by several second messengers. They comprise intricate feedback mechanisms involving gene network cascades, specific signaling molecules encompassing G protein-coupled receptors and mechanotransducers, and myocardial stresses. Future multidisciplinary studies will characterize the adaptive/maladaptive nature of the AVS-induced hypertrophy, its gender- and individual patient-dependent peculiarities, and its response to surgical/medical interventions. They will herald more effective, precision medicine treatments. PMID:27184804

  17. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Clinical characteristics and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts in women with transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Prasad, Abhiram; Barsness, Greg W; Lerman, Amir; Jaffe, Allan S; Murphy, Joseph G; Wright, R Scott; Rihal, Charanjit S

    2004-08-01

    The characteristics of 16 women with transient left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning syndrome in a United States population are presented. Additionally, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts were evaluated during the acute period. Patients generally presented with anterior ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome in the absence of obstructive coronary disease. All patients had LV apical wall motion abnormalities. An acute emotional or physiologic stressor preceded most cases. TIMI frame counts were abnormal in all patients and often abnormal in all 3 major coronary vessels, suggesting that the diffuse impairment of coronary microcirculatory function may play a role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  19. Abnormal left ventricular longitudinal functional reserve in patients with diabetes mellitus: implication for detecting subclinical myocardial dysfunction using exercise tissue Doppler echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jong‐Won; Lee, Hyun‐Chul; Kang, Eun‐Seok; Ahn, Chul‐Min; Kim, Jin‐Mi; Ahn, Jeong‐Ah; Lee, Se‐Wha; Choi, Eui‐Young; Rim, Se‐Joong; Oh, Jae K; Chung, Namsik

    2007-01-01

    Background Sublinical myocardial dysfunction occurs in a significant number of patients with type 2 diabetes. Assessment of ventricular long‐axis function by measuring mitral annular velocities using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) is thought to provide a more sensitive index of systolic and diastolic function. We hypothesised that augmentation of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal contraction and relaxation during exercise would be blunted in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Mitral annular systolic (S′) and early diastolic (E′) velocities were measured at rest and during supine bicycle exercise (25 W, 3 min increments) in 53 patients (27 male, mean age 53±14 years) with type 2 diabetes and 53 subjects with age and gender‐matched control. None had echocardiographic evidence of resting or inducible myocardial ischaemia. Results There were no significant differences in mitral inflow velocities at rest between the two groups. E′ and S′ at rest were also similar between the groups. However, S′ (7.1±1.3 vs 8.3±1.8 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.0021; 8.1±1.5 vs 9.1±2.0 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.026) and E′ (8.5±2.3 vs 9.9±3.1 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.054; 9.1±2.1 vs 10.9±2.5 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.0093) during exercise were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Longitudinal systolic and diastolic function reserve indices were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with that of controls (systolic index, 0.6±0.70 vs 1.2±1.5 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.029; 1.2±1.2 vs 2.1±1.6 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.009; diastolic index, 1.9±1.2 vs 2.5±2.2 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.07; 2.3±1.3 vs 3.2±2.2 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.031). Conclusion In conclusion, unlike resting mitral inflow and annular velocities, changes of systolic and diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus during exercise were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with the

  20. Abnormal end-tidal PO(2) and PCO(2) at the anaerobic threshold correlate well with impaired exercise gas exchange in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kano, Hiroto; Koike, Akira; Hoshimoto-Iwamoto, Masayo; Nagayama, Osamu; Sakurada, Koji; Suzuki, Takeya; Tsuneoka, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Wasserman, Karlman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the end-tidal O(2) pressure (PETO(2)) to end-tidal CO(2) pressure (PETCO(2)) in cardiac patients during rest and during 2 states of exercise: at anaerobic threshold (AT) and at peak. The purpose was to see which metabolic state, PETO(2) or PETCO(2), best correlated with exercise limitation. Thirty-eight patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <40% underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). PETO(2) and PETCO(2) were measured during CPX, along with peak O(2) uptake (VO(2)), AT, slope of the increase in ventilation (VE) relative to the increase in CO(2) output (VCO(2)) (VE vs. VCO(2) slope), and the ratio of the increase in VO(2) to the increase in work rate (ΔVO(2)/ΔWR). Both PETO(2) and PETCO(2) measured at AT were best correlated with peakVO(2), AT, ΔVO(2)/ΔWR and VE vs. VCO(2) slope. PETO(2) at AT correlated with reduced peak VO(2) (r=-0.60), reduced AT (r=-0.52), reduced ΔVO(2)/ΔWR (r=-0.55) and increased VE vs. VCO(2) slope (r=0.74). PETCO(2) at AT correlated with reduced peak VO(2) (r=0.67), reduced AT (r=0.61), reduced ΔVO(2)/ΔWR (r=0.58) and increased VE vs. VCO(2) slope (r=-0.80). PETCO(2) and PETO(2) at AT correlated with peak VO(2), AT and ΔVO(2)/ΔWR, but best correlated with increased VE vs. VCO(2) slope. PETO(2) and PETCO(2) at AT can be used as a prime index of impaired cardiopulmonary function during exercise in patients with LV failure.

  1. Flecainide-induced proarrhythmia is attributed to abnormal changes in repolarization and refractoriness in perfused guinea-pig heart.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2012-11-01

    Flecainide is nonselective Na(+) channel blocker which may also inhibit I(Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier. This study was designed to explore if proarrhythmic responses to flecainide noted in cardiac patients may be partly attributed to abnormal changes in repolarization and refractoriness. Monophasic action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed at distinct epicardial and endocardial sites along with volume-conducted ECG recordings in isolated perfused guinea-pig heart preparations. Flecainide was found to prolong ventricular repolarization, with effect being greater at the left ventricular compared with the right ventricular epicardium. This change translated to reversal of the normal right ventricular-to-left ventricular transepicardial APD difference determined before drug infusion. An inverse correlation between local epicardial APD and corresponding activation time values seen at baseline was eliminated in flecainide-treated hearts, indicating the activation-to-repolarization uncoupling. Over transmural plane, flecainide produced a greater ERP lengthening at endocardium than epicardium, thus markedly increasing ERP dispersion across ventricular wall. Spontaneous short-lasting episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 45% of heart preparations upon flecainide infusion. In conclusion, in nonischemic guinea-pig heart, flecainide-induced proarrhythmia may be partly attributed to abnormal spatial gradients in repolarization and refractoriness and impaired transepicardial activation-to-repolarization coupling.

  2. The overloaded right heart and ventricular interdependence.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  3. Vortex Formation Time is Not an Index of Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Little, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The diastolic intraventricular ring vortex formation and pinch-off process may provide clinically useful insights into diastolic function in health and disease. The vortex ring formation time (FT) concept, based on hydrodynamic experiments dealing with unconfined (large tank) flow, has attracted considerable attention and popularity. Dynamic conditions evolving within the very confined space of a filling, expansible ventricular chamber with relaxing and rebounding viscoelastic muscular boundaries, diverge from unconfined (large tank) flow and encompass rebounding walls’ suction and myocardial relaxation. Indeed, clinical/physiological findings seeking validation in vivo failed to support the notion that FT is an index of normal/abnormal diastolic ventricular function. Therefore, FT as originally proposed cannot and should not be utilized as such an index. Evidently, physiologically accurate models accounting for coupled hydrodynamic and (patho)physiological myocardial wall interactions with the intraventricular flow are still needed to enhance our understanding and yield diastolic function indices useful and reliable in the clinical setting. PMID:25609509

  4. Histopathological Correlates of Global and Segmental Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Experimental Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Cabeza, Jorge Mejia; Salgado, Hélio Cesar; Fazan Júnior, Rubens; Costa, Renata Sesti; da Silva, João Santana; Higuchi, Maria de Lourdes; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Marin-Neto, José Antônio; Simões, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-21

    Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in humans is characterized by segmental left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (WMA), mainly in the early stages of disease. This study aimed at investigating the detection of WMA and its correlation with the underlying histopathological changes in a chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy model in hamsters. Female Syrian hamsters (n=34) infected with 3.5×10(4) or 10(5) blood trypomastigote Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) forms and an uninfected control group (n=7) were investigated. After 6 or 10 months after the infection, the animals were submitted to in vivo evaluation of global and segmental left ventricular systolic function by echocardiography, followed by euthanasia and histological analysis for quantitative assessment of fibrosis and inflammation with tissue sampling in locations coinciding with the left ventricular wall segmentation employed at the in vivo echocardiographic evaluation. Ten of the 34 infected animals (29%) showed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (<73%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was more negatively correlated with the intensity of inflammation (r=-0.63; P<0.0001) than with the extent of fibrosis (r=-0.36; P=0.036). Among the 24 animals with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (82.9±5.5%), 8 (33%) showed segmental WMA predominating in the apical, inferior, and posterolateral segments. The segments exhibiting WMA, in comparison to those with normal wall motion, showed a greater extent of fibrosis (9.3±5.7% and 7±6.3%, P<0.0001) and an even greater intensity of inflammation (218.0±111.6 and 124.5±84.8 nuclei/mm², P<0.0001). Isolated WMA with preserved global systolic left ventricular function is frequently found in Syrian hamsters with experimental chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy whose underlying histopathological features are mainly inflammatory. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. [Evaluation of left ventricular perfusion and regional wall motion in myocardial infarction: using 201Tl myocardial SPECT and 99mTc-HSAD multigated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Nanjyo, S

    1994-09-01

    In order to evaluate left ventricular regional wall motion and regional myocardial perfusion, 99mTc-HSAD multigated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography (cardiac pool SPECT) and 201Tl myocardial SPECT (Tl) were performed on 12 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 6 patients had treated with only thrombolysis in group I and 6 patients had treated with thrombolysis and selective PTCA in group II, 17 patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) in group III and 5 normal volunteers (controls). The relationship between left ventricular regional wall motion and regional myocardial perfusion was estimated. The relationship between % length shortening (%LS) by cardiac pool SPECT and %Tl uptake (%TU) was good (r = 0.820) in group III. The value for %TU in the segments of akinesia was low (35%) and in the those of severe hypokinesia was higher (48%). In all phases, two groups showed significant relationships between %LS and %TU in group I and II. The %TU was unchanged in the akinetic segment, the %LS changed 30% in group I and the %LS changed to 49% in group II. If the %TU is more than 50% (AMI) or 40% (OMI), we would observe viable muscle. The combination of Tl and cardiac pool SPECT are useful for evaluating myocardial viability in the patients with AMI.

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements of carotid vessel wall and plaque thickness and their relationship with pulmonary abnormalities in ex-smokers without airflow limitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jieyu; Pike, Damien; Chow, Tommy W S; Kirby, Miranda; Parraga, Grace; Chiu, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between carotid disease and modestly abnormal airflow in ex-smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well-understood. We generated 3D ultrasound measurements of carotid vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) and vessel wall volume (VWV) to quantify and evaluate such carotid ultrasound measurements in ex- and never-smokers without airflow limitation. These patients did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for COPD. We also investigated the relationship of carotid atherosclerosis with pulmonary phenotypes of COPD. We evaluated 61 subjects without a clinical diagnosis of pulmonary or vascular diseases including 34 never-smokers (72 ± 6 year) and 27 ex-smokers (73 ± 9 year). We measured mean VWT ([Formula: see text]) and mean VWT specific to carotid regions-of-interest ([Formula: see text]) and evaluated potential differences between ex- and never-smokers. Carotid ultrasound and pulmonary disease measurement relationships were also evaluated using correlation coefficients (r) and multivariate regression analyses. Ex-smokers had a significantly greater [Formula: see text] (p = 0.003) and [Formula: see text] (p < 0.00001) than never-smokers, whereas a significant difference between the two groups was not detected by VWV (p = 1.0). There were significant correlations between the ventilation defect percent (VDP) measured by MRI with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.42, p = 0.001) and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.56, p = 0.00001). Multivariate regression models showed that VDP significantly predicted [Formula: see text] (β = 0.38, p = 0.004) and [Formula: see text] (β = 0.50, p = 0.00001). VWT-based measurements detected differences in vessel-wall-plus-plaque burden in ex- and never-smokers, which were not revealed using VWV. There were significant correlations between cardiovascular and pulmonary disease biomarkers in these ex-smokers who did not have a clinical diagnosis of

  7. A Methodology to Detect Abnormal Relative Wall Shear Stress on the Full Surface of the Thoracic Aorta Using 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Allen, Bradley D.; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compute cohort-averaged wall shear stress (WSS) maps in the thoracic aorta of patients with aortic dilatation or valvular stenosis and to detect abnormal regional WSS. Methods Systolic WSS vectors, estimated from 4D flow MRI data, were calculated along the thoracic aorta lumen in 10 controls, 10 patients with dilated aortas and 10 patients with aortic valve stenosis. 3D segmentations of each aorta were co-registered by group and used to create a cohort-specific aortic geometry. The WSS vectors of each subject were interpolated onto the corresponding cohort-specific geometry to create cohort-averaged WSS maps. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to generate aortic P-value maps (P<0.05) representing regional relative WSS differences between groups. Results Cohort-averaged systolic WSS maps and P-value maps were successfully created for all cohorts and comparisons. The dilation cohort showed significantly lower WSS on 7% of the ascending aorta surface, whereas the stenosis cohort showed significantly higher WSS aorta on 34% the ascending aorta surface. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrated the feasibility of generating cohort-averaged WSS maps for the visualization and identification of regionally altered WSS in the presence of disease, as compared to healthy controls. PMID:24753241

  8. Systolic ventricular filling.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    involved in this action. This contraction occurs during the last part of classical systole and the first part of diastole. Therefore, the most important part of ventricular diastole (i.e. the rapid filling phase), in which it receives >70% of the stroke volume, belongs to the active muscular contraction of the ascendent segment. We hope that these facts will give rise to new understanding of the principal mechanisms involved in normal and abnormal diastolic heart function.

  9. Abnormal stress echocardiography findings in cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin C; Askew, J Wells; Dispenzieri, Angela; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Klarich, Kyle W; Anavekar, Nandan S; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Grogan, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac involvement in immunoglobulin light chain (amyloid light chain, AL) amyloidosis is characterized by myocardial interstitial deposition but can also cause obstructive deposits in the coronary microvasculature. We retrospectively identified 20 patients who underwent stress echocardiography within 1 year prior to the histologic diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. Only patients with cardiac amyloidosis and no known obstructive coronary disease were included. Stress echocardiograms (13 exercise; 7 dobutamine) were performed for evaluation of dyspnea and/or chest pain. Stress-induced wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) occurred in 11 patients (55%), 4 of whom had normal left ventricular wall thickness. Coronary angiogram was performed in 9 of 11 patients and demonstrated no or mild epicardial coronary artery disease. Seven (54%) patients had an abnormal exercise blood pressure which occurred with similar likelihood between those with and without stress-induced WMAs. Stress-induced WMAs and abnormal exercise blood pressure may occur in patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis despite the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease. This finding should raise the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis even in the absence of significant myocardial thickening.

  10. Arrhythmogenic substrate at the interventricular septum as a target site for radiofrequency catheter ablation of recurrent ventricular tachycardia in left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Havranek, Stepan; Palecek, Tomas; Kovarnik, Tomas; Vitkova, Ivana; Psenicka, Miroslav; Linhart, Ales; Wichterle, Dan

    2015-03-10

    Left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (LDAC) is a rare condition characterised by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium of the left ventricle (LV) in combination with ventricular arrhythmias of LV origin. A thirty-five-year-old male was referred for evaluation of recurrent sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) of 200 bpm and right bundle branch block (RBBB) morphology. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed late gadolinium enhancement distributed circumferentially in the epicardial layer of the LV free wall myocardium including the rightward portion of the interventricular septum (IVS). The clinical RBBB VT was reproduced during the EP study. Ablation at an LV septum site with absence of abnormal electrograms and a suboptimum pacemap rendered the VT of clinical morphology noninducible. Three other VTs, all of left bundle branch block (LBBB) pattern, were induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The regions corresponding to abnormal electrograms were identified and ablated at the mid-to-apical RV septum and the anteroseptal portion of the right ventricular outflow tract. No abnormalities were found at the RV free wall including the inferolateral peritricuspid annulus region. Histological examination confirmed the presence of abnormal fibrous and adipose tissue with myocyte reduction in endomyocardial samples taken from both the left and right aspects of the IVS. LDAC rarely manifests with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. In this case, several VTs of both RBBB and LBBB morphology were amenable to endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation.

  11. Interstudy reproducibility of dimensional and functional measurements between cine magnetic resonance studies in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Semelka, R C; Tomei, E; Wagner, S; Mayo, J; Caputo, G; O'Sullivan, M; Parmley, W W; Chatterjee, K; Wolfe, C; Higgins, C B

    1990-06-01

    The validity of geometric formulas to derive mass and volumes in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle is problematic. Imaging techniques that are tomographic and therefore inherently three-dimensional should be more reliable and reproducible between studies in such ventricles. Determination of reproducibility between studies is essential to define the limits of an imaging technique for evaluating the response to therapy. Sequential cine magnetic resonance (MR) studies were performed on patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 11) and left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 8) within a short interval in order to assess interstudy reproducibility. Left ventricular mass, volumes, ejection fraction, and end-systolic wall stress were determined by two independent observers. Between studies, left ventricular mass was highly reproducible for hypertrophied and dilated ventricles, with percent variability less than 6%. Ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume showed close reproducibility between studies, with percent variability less than 5% End-systolic volume varied by 4.3% and 4.5% in dilated cardiomyopathy and 8.4% and 7.2% in left ventricular hypertrophy for the two observers. End-systolic wall stress, which is derived from multiple measurements, varied the greatest, with percent variability of 17.2% and 15.7% in dilated cardiomyopathy and 14.8% and 13% in left ventricular hypertrophy, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that mass, volume, and functional measurements are reproducible in morphologically abnormal ventricles.

  12. Increase in cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) alpha protein isoform in hibernating ground squirrels, with echocardiographic visualization of ventricular wall hypertrophy and prolonged contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, O. Lynne; Rourke, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Deep hibernators such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis) have multiple challenges to cardiac function during low temperature torpor and subsequent arousals. As heart rates fall from over 300 beats min−1 to less than 10, chamber dilation and reduced cardiac output could lead to congestive myopathy. We performed echocardiography on a cohort of individuals prior to and after several months of hibernation. The left ventricular chamber exhibited eccentric and concentric hypertrophy during hibernation and thus calculated ventricular mass was ~30% greater. Ventricular ejection fraction was mildly reduced during hibernation but stroke volumes were greater due to the eccentric hypertrophy and dramatically increased diastolic filling volumes. Globally, the systolic phase in hibernation was ~9.5 times longer, and the diastolic phase was 28× longer. Left atrial ejection generally was not observed during hibernation. Atrial ejection returned weakly during early arousal. Strain echocardiography assessed the velocity and total movement distance of contraction and relaxation for regional ventricular segments in active and early arousal states. Myocardial systolic strain during early arousal was significantly greater than the active state, indicating greater total contractile movement. This mirrored the increased ventricular ejection fraction noted with early arousal. However, strain rates were slower during early arousal than during the active period, particularly systolic strain, which was 33% of active, compared with the rate of diastolic strain, which was 67% of active. As heart rate rose during the arousal period, myocardial velocities and strain rates also increased; this was matched closely by cardiac output. Curiously, though heart rates were only 26% of active heart rates during early arousal, the cardiac output was nearly 40% of the active state, suggesting an efficient pumping system. We further analyzed proportions of cardiac

  13. Noninvasive assessment of T-wave abnormalities on precordial electrocardiograms in middle-aged professional bicyclists

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Kambara, H.; Chen, C.H.

    Six middle-aged, active, professional bicyclists with T-wave abnormalities on precordial ECGs were studied noninvasively. Twenty-five aged-matched bicyclists without T-wave abnormalities served as the control subjects. Increased voltage of SV1 + RV5 was demonstrated in all subjects. A 5-year follow-up study revealed that these abnormalities of T-wave inversion became more pronounced with age, except in one case. VCGs showed enlargement of anterior QRS loop and discordant T loop, in all cases. On echocardiography, thickness of both the interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall, and left ventricular mass were significantly increased compared with the control group. 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy atmore » rest and during exercise revealed no regional perfusion defects of the tracer in either case. We conclude that: (1) T-wave abnormalities of precordial ECGs in six middle-aged athletes were progressive in nature; and (2) these electrocardiographic abnormalities seem to be related to left ventricular hypertrophy induced by steady and strenuous training rather than to coronary artery disease.« less

  14. Ventricular tachycardia

    MedlinePlus

    ... called ablation ) may be done. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be used. It is a device ... V tach; Tachycardia - ventricular Patient Instructions Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge Images Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator References Garan H. ...

  15. Regional and global right ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with congenitally corrected transposition.

    PubMed

    Tulevski, Igor I; Zijta, Frank M; Smeijers, Anika S; Dodge-Khatami, Ali; van der Wall, Ernst E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2004-04-01

    Patients with congenitally corrected transposition are at risk of right ventricular dysfunction and failure. With this in mind, we examined 13 patients with congenitally corrected transposition, 7 not having undergone surgery, and 6 after physiological repair, comparing them with 6 healthy subjects matched for age and sex, using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, at rest and during dobutamine stress, in order to determine regional and global right ventricular response to stress. At rest, the patients had significantly decreased overall wall motion compared to their healthy peers (7.2 +/- 0.5, versus 9.8 +/- 0.4 mm). During infusion of dobutamine, overall wall motion increased to 12.8 +/- 0.4 mm in the healthy subjects, versus 8.8 +/- 1.0 mm in patients. At the regional level, significant differences in mural motion were found between patients and controls in the anterior (9.5 +/- 1.1, versus 13.2 +/- 0.6 mm), posterior (10.2 +/- 1.6, versus 13.2 +/- 0.8 mm), and septal segments (5.0 +/- 0.8, versus 11.2 +/- 0.6 mm). At rest, overall mural thickening in patients was similar to that of controls, but significantly less in patients during stress. During dobutamine stress, patients showed significantly less regional wall thickening than controls, particularly in the septal (2.7 +/- 0.6, versus 6.0 +/- 0.4 mm, respectively) and in the anterior segments (4.2 +/- 0.6, versus 7.8 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively). Right ventricular ejection fraction strongly correlated with mural motion and thickening, both at rest and during stress. Abnormal regional function in the systemic morphologically right ventricle may occur in patients with congenitally corrected transposition, which strongly correlates with right ventricular ejection fraction. Our findings support the hypothesis that, in patients with congenitally corrected transposition, ischemia of the right ventricular myocardium contributes to the development of right ventricular dysfunction.

  16. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  17. Myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function indices assessed by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Dadpour, Bita; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid R; Afshari, Reza; Dorri-Giv, Masoumeh; Mohajeri, Seyed A R; Ghahremani, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is associated with alterations of cardiac structure and function, although it is less known. In this study, we assessed possible abnormality in myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Fifteen patients with MA abuse, on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) MA dependency determined by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, underwent 2-day dipyridamole stress/rest Tc-sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. An average daily dose of MA use was 0.91±1.1 (0.2-4) g. The duration of MA use was 3.4±2.1 (1-7) years. In visual and semiquantitative analyses, all patients had normal gated myocardial perfusion SPECT, with no perfusion defects. In all gated SPECT images, there was no abnormality in left ventricular wall motion and thickening. All summed stress scores and summed rest scores were below 3. Calculated left ventricular functional indices including the end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction were normal. Many cardiac findings because of MA mentioned in previous reports are less likely because of significant epicardial coronary artery stenosis.

  18. Detection of premature ventricular contractions on a ventricular electrocardiogram for patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Min; Lee, Jin Hong; Choi, Seong Wook

    2014-12-01

    The ventricular electrocardiogram (v-ECG) was developed for long-term monitoring of heartbeats in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and does not normally have the functionality necessary to detect additional heart irregularities that can progress to critical arrhythmias. Although the v-ECG has the benefits of physiological optimization and counterpulsation control, when abnormal heartbeats occur, the v-ECG does not show the distinct abnormal waveform that enables easy detection of an abnormal heartbeat among normal heartbeats on the conventional ECG. In this study, the v-ECGs of normal and abnormal heartbeats are compared with each other with respect to peak-to-peak voltage, area, and maximal slopes, and a new method to detect abnormal heartbeats is suggested. In a series of animal experiments with three porcine models (Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-40 kg), a v-ECG and conventional ECG were taken simultaneously during LVAD perfusion. Clinical experts found 104 abnormal heartbeats from the saved conventional ECG data and confirmed that the other 3159 heartbeats were normal. Almost all of the abnormal heartbeats were premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and there was short-term tachycardia for 3 s. A personal computer was used to automatically detect abnormal heartbeats with the v-ECG according to the new method, and its results were compared with the clinicians' results. The new method found abnormal heartbeats with 90% accuracy, and less than 15% of the total PVCs were missed. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Left ventricular wall stress and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase gene expression in renal hypertensive rats: dose-dependent effects of ACE inhibition and AT1-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Zierhut, W; Studer, R; Laurent, D; Kästner, S; Allegrini, P; Whitebread, S; Cumin, F; Baum, H P; de Gasparo, M; Drexler, H

    1996-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with altered Ca2+ handling and may predispose to the development of LV dysfunction and cardiac failure. At the cellular level, the re-expression of ANF represents a well-established marker of myocyte hypertrophy while the decreased expression of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase is thought o play a crucial role in the alterations of Ca2+ handling and LV function. We assessed the dose-dependent effect of chronic ACE inhibition or AT1 receptor blockade on cardiac function in relation to the cardiac expression of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and ANF. Renal hypertensive rats (2K-1C) were treated for 12 weeks with three different doses of the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the AT1-receptor antagonist valsartan (each drug 0.3, 3, and 10 mg/kg per day i.p.) or placebo. LV dimensions, hypertrophy and wall stress were determined in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging and the gene expressions of ANF and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were quantified by Northern blot. Low doses of both drugs did not affect blood pressure, hypertrophy, systolic wall stress and the ANF and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase gene expression. High doses of each drug reduced systolic blood pressure, wall stress, and LV hypertrophy to a similar extent and to values comparable to normotensive, age-matched rats. In addition, high dose treatment reduced LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volume as compared to untreated 2K-1C animals and normalized the mRNA levels of both ANF and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (as compared to normotensive animals). We conclude that in this model, high doses of ACE inhibition and AT1-receptor blockade are necessary to normalize systolic blood pressure, LV hypertrophy and systolic LV wall stress which, in turn, is associated with restoration of a normal cardiac phenotype with respect to SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and ANF and normalization of cardiac function.

  20. Age, Gender and Load-Related Influences on Left Ventricular Geometric Remodeling, Systolic Mid-Wall Function, and NT-ProBNP in Asymptomatic Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi; Sung, Kuo-Tzu; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with left ventricle (LV) remodeling and impaired cardiac function that may increase the risk of heart failure. Even so, studies regarding age-related cardiac remodeling in a large, asymptomatic Asian population remain limited. We studied 8,410 asymptomatic participants (49.7 ±11.7 y, 38.9% women) in a health evaluation cohort (2004-2012) at a tertiary center in Northern Taiwan. We analyzed age-related alterations for all echocardiography-derived cardiac structures/functions and the associations with circulating N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We also explored sex-related differences in these measures. In our cohort of 8,410 participants, advanced age was associated with greater LV wall thickness, larger LV total mass (+5.08 g/decade), and greater LV mass index (4.41 g/m2/decade), as well as increased serum NT-proBNP level (+18.89 pg/mL/decade). An accompanying reduction of stress-corrected midwall fractional shortening (-0.1%/decade) with aging was apparent in women after multi-variate adjustment (-0.09%/decade, p = 0.001). Furthermore, women demonstrated greater overall increase in LV wall thickness, LV mass index, and NT-proBNP compared to men (p for interaction: <0.001). All blood pressure components, including systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures were independently associated with greater wall thickness and LV mass index after adjustment for confounders (all p <0.001). The associations between age and cardiac remodeling or mid-wall functions were further confirmed in a subset of study subjects with repeated follow up by GEE model. Significant associations of unfavorable LV remodeling and advanced age in our asymptomatic Asian population were observed, along with sex differences. These data may help explain the incidence of some diverse gender-related cardiovascular diseases, especially heart failure.

  1. Dyssynchronous Ventricular Activation in Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A Risk Factor for Development of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Udink ten Cate, Floris EA; Wiesner, Nathalie; Trieschmann, Uwe; Khalil, Markus; Sreeram, Narayanswami

    2010-01-01

    A subset of children and adults with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome develop dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although DCM may occur in symptomatic WPW patients with sustained tachyarrhythmias, emerging evidence suggests that significant left ventricular dysfunction may arise in WPW in the absence of incessant tachyarrhythmias. An invariable electrophysiological feature in this non-tachyarrhythmia type of DCM is the presence of a right-sided septal or paraseptal accessory pathway. It is thought that premature ventricular activation over these accessory pathways induces septal wall motion abnormalities and ventricular dyssynchrony. LV dyssynchrony induces cellular and structural ventricular remodelling, which may have detrimental effects on cardiac performance. This review summarizes recent evidence for development of DCM in asymptomatic patients with WPW, discusses its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management and treatment. The prognosis of accessory pathway-induced DCM is excellent. LV dysfunction reverses following catheter ablation of the accessory pathway, suggesting an association between DCM and ventricular preexcitation. Accessory pathway-induced DCM should be suspected in all patients presenting with heart failure and overt ventricular preexcitation, in whom no cause for their DCM can be found. PMID:20552060

  2. Temporal analysis of regional wall motion from cine cardiac MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Didier, Dominique; Chretien, Anne; Rosset, Antoine; Magnin, Isabelle E.; Ligier, Yves

    1996-04-01

    views was calculated and used to identify regions with asynchronous wall motion in patients with coronary artery disease. Results suggest that this technique is more sensitive than global functional parameters such as ejection fraction for the detection of ventricular dysfunction. Color coded parametric display offers a more convenient way for the identification and localization of regional wall motion asynchrony. Data obtained from endocardial wall motion analysis were not significantly different from wall thickening measurements. The innovative approach of evaluating the temporal behavior of regional wall motion anomalies is expected to provide clinically relevant data about subtle alteration that cannot be detected through simple analysis of the extent (amplitude) of wall motion or myocardial thickening. Temporal analysis of regional WM abnormality from cine MRI offers an innovative and promising means for objective quantitative evaluation of subtle regional abnormalities. Color coded parametric maps allowed a better identification and localization of regional WM asynchrony.

  3. Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography and Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Silverton, Natalie A; Patel, Ravi; Zimmerman, Josh; Ma, Jianing; Stoddard, Greg; Selzman, Craig; Morrissey, Candice K

    2018-02-15

    To determine whether intraoperative measures of right ventricular (RV) function using transesophageal echocardiography are associated with subsequent RV failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Single tertiary-level, university-affiliated hospital. The study comprised 100 patients with systolic heart failure undergoing elective LVAD implantation. Transesophageal echocardiographic images before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed to quantify RV function using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S'), fractional area change (FAC), RV global longitudinal strain, and RV free wall strain. A chart review was performed to determine which patients subsequently developed RV failure (right ventricular assist device placement or prolonged inotrope requirement ≥14 days). Nineteen patients (19%) subsequently developed RV failure. Postbypass FAC was the only measure of RV function that distinguished between the RV failure and non-RV failure groups (21.2% v 26.5%; p = 0.04). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of an abnormal RV FAC (<35%) for RV failure after LVAD implantation were 84%, 20%, and 0.52, respectively. No other intraoperative measure of RV function was associated with subsequent RV failure. RV failure increased ventilator time, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Intraoperative measures of RV function such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular systolic velocity, and RV strain were not associated with RV failure after LVAD implantation. Decreased postbypass FAC was significantly associated with RV failure but showed poor discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of treadmill exercise stress cardiac MRI to stress echocardiography in healthy volunteers for adequacy of left ventricular endocardial wall visualization: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Dickerson, Jennifer A.; Scandling, Debbie; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Pennell, Michael L.; Hinton, Alice; Raman, Subha V.; Simonetti, Orlando P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare exercise stress cardiac magnetic resonance (cardiac MR) to echocardiography in healthy volunteers with respect to adequacy of endocardial visualization and confidence of stress study interpretation. Materials and Methods 28 healthy volunteers (aged 28 ± 11 years, 15 males) underwent exercise stress echo and cardiac MR one week apart assigned randomly to one test first. Stress cardiac MR was performed using an MRI-compatible treadmill; stress echo was performed as per routine protocol. Cardiac MR and echo images were independently reviewed and scored for adequacy of endocardial visualization and confidence in interpretation of the stress study. Results Heart rate at the time of imaging was similar between the studies. Average time from cessation of exercise to start of imaging (21 vs. 31 seconds, p<0.001) and time to acquire stress images (20 vs. 51 seconds, p<0.001) was shorter for cardiac MR. The number of myocardial segments adequately visualized was significantly higher by cardiac MR at rest (99.8% versus 96.4%, p=0.002) and stress (99.8% versus 94.1%, p=0.001). The proportion of subjects in whom there was high confidence in the interpretation was higher for cardiac MR than echo (96% vs 60%, p=0.005). Conclusion Exercise stress cardiac MR to assess peak exercise wall motion is feasible and can be performed at least as rapidly as stress echo. PMID:24123562

  5. Nonischemic left ventricular scar and cardiac sudden death in the young.

    PubMed

    di Gioia, Cira R T; Giordano, Carla; Cerbelli, Bruna; Pisano, Annalinda; Perli, Elena; De Dominicis, Enrico; Poscolieri, Barbara; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Ciallella, Costantino; Zeppilli, Paolo; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    Nonischemic left ventricular scar (NLVS) is a pattern of myocardial injury characterized by midventricular and/or subepicardial gadolinium hyperenhancement at cardiac magnetic resonance, in absence of significant coronary artery disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of NLVS in juvenile sudden cardiac death and to ascertain its etiology at autopsy. We examined 281 consecutive cases of sudden death of subjects aged 1 to 35 years. NLVS was defined as a thin, gray rim of subepicardial and/or midmyocardial scar in the left ventricular free wall and/or the septum, in absence of significant stenosis of coronary arteries. NLVS was the most frequent finding (25%) in sudden deaths occurring during sports. Myocardial scar was localized most frequently within the left ventricular posterior wall and affected the subepicardial myocardium, often extending to the midventricular layer. On histology, it consisted of fibrous or fibroadipose tissue. Right ventricular involvement was always present. Patchy lymphocytic infiltrates were frequent. Genetic and molecular analyses clarified the etiology of NLVS in a subset of cases. Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings were available in more than half of subjects. The most frequent abnormality was the presence of low QRS voltages (<0.5 mV) in limb leads. In serial ECG tracings, the decrease in QRS voltages appeared, in some way, progressive. NLVS is the most frequent morphologic substrate of juvenile cardiac sudden death in sports. It can be suspected based on ECG findings. Autopsy study and clinical screening of family members are required to differentiate between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and chronic acquired myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Systematic review: transient left ventricular apical ballooning: a syndrome that mimics ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Kara, Tomas; Prasad, Abhiram; Lerman, Amir; Barsness, Greg W; Wright, R Scott; Rihal, Charanjit S

    2004-12-07

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient wall-motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. In this paper, we review case series that report on patients with the transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome to better characterize patients presenting with the syndrome. We identified 7 case series that reported on at least 5 consecutive patients with the transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. The syndrome more often affects postmenopausal women (82% to 100%) (mean age, 62 to 75 years). Patients commonly present with ST-segment elevation in the precordial leads, chest pain, relatively minor elevation of cardiac enzyme and biomarker levels, and transient apical systolic left ventricular dysfunction despite the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. An episode of emotional or physiologic stress frequently precedes presentation with the syndrome. The in-hospital mortality rate seems to be low, as does the risk for recurrence.

  7. Association between hippuric acid and left ventricular hypertrophy in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Teng-Hung; Tang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yung-Chuan; Wang, Chao-Ping; Hung, Wei-Chin; Wu, Cheng-Ching; Tsai, I-Ting; Chung, Fu-Mei; Houng, Jer-Yiing; Lan, Wen-Chun; Lee, Yau-Jiunn

    2018-05-22

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the most common cardiac abnormalities in patients with end-stage renal disease. Hippuric acid (HA), a harmful uremic toxin, is known to be elevated in patients with uremia, and serum HA levels are associated with neurological symptoms, metabolic acidosis, and accelerated renal damage associated with chronic kidney disease. However, the pathophysiological role of HA in patients with uremia remains unclear. We investigated the association between serum HA levels and echocardiographic measurements in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) treatment. Eighty consecutive patients treated at a single HD center (44 males, 36 females; mean age 66 y, mean HD duration 6 y) were included in this study. Comprehensive echocardiography was performed after HD. Blood samples were obtained before HD. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that serum HA levels were positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, left ventricular mass index, end diastolic interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, end systolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and left atrium diameter, and negatively correlated with age. Furthermore, the HD patients with LVH had higher median serum HA levels than those without LVH (34.2 vs. 18.1 μg/ml, p = 0.003). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that HA was independently associated with LVH even after adjusting for known biomarkers. Moreover, the receiver operator characteristics curve of HA showed that a HA level of >26.9 μg/ml was associated with LVH. HA was significantly associated with LVH. HA could be a novel biomarker of left ventricular overload, which is closely associated with an increased risk of death in HD patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular dissection, and tricuspid chordae rupture--A rare complication after inferior and right ventricular infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Ying; Dong, Jianzeng; He, Yihua; Liu, Wenxu; Han, Jiancheng

    2015-10-01

    A 76-year-old man under stable hemodynamic condition was admitted to our hospital for delayed percutaneous coronary intervention following a diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction. Bedside echocardiography revealed ventricular septal rupture at the basal posteroinferior wall with a large left-to-right shunt. Right ventricular free-wall intramyocardial dissection and tricuspid chordae rupture were noted. Coronary angiography demonstrated occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery, which was treated by balloon angioplasty and stenting. While preparing for surgical repair, the patient's overall cardiac and renal function deteriorated and surgery was contraindicated. The patient died 16 days after discharge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Detecting Regional Myocardial Abnormalities in Patients With Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome With the Use of ECG-Gated Cardiac MDCT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Joung, Boyoung; Hong, Yoo Jin; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Young Jin

    2016-04-01

    Myocardial dyskinesia caused by the accessory pathway and related reversible heart failure have been well documented in echocardiographic studies of pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. However, the long-term effects of dyskinesia on the myocardium of adult patients have not been studied in depth. The goal of the present study was to evaluate regional myocardial abnormalities on cardiac CT examinations of adult patients with WPW syndrome. Of 74 patients with WPW syndrome who underwent cardiac CT from January 2006 through December 2013, 58 patients (mean [± SD] age, 52.2 ± 12.7 years), 36 (62.1%) of whom were men, were included in the study after the presence of combined cardiac disease was excluded. Two observers blindly evaluated myocardial thickness and attenuation on cardiac CT scans. On the basis of CT findings, patients were classified as having either normal or abnormal findings. We compared the two groups for other clinical findings, including observations from ECG, echocardiography, and electrophysiologic study. Of the 58 patients studied, 16 patients (27.6%) were found to have myocardial abnormalities (i.e., abnormal wall thinning with or without low attenuation). All abnormal findings corresponded with the location of the accessory pathway. Patients with abnormal findings had statistically significantly decreased left ventricular function, compared with patients with normal findings (p < 0.001). The frequency of regional wall motion abnormality was statistically significantly higher in patients with abnormal findings (p = 0.043). However, echocardiography documented structurally normal hearts in all patients. A relatively high frequency (27.6%) of regional myocardial abnormalities was observed on the cardiac CT examinations of adult patients with WPW syndrome. These abnormal findings might reflect the long-term effects of dyskinesia, suggesting irreversible myocardial injury that ultimately causes left ventricular dysfunction.

  10. Tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography for the assessment of left and right systolic ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, D; Sharma, R; Elliott, P; Veyrat, C

    2003-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TDE), strain, and strain rate echocardiography are emerging real time ultrasound techniques that provide a measure of wall motion. They offer an objective means to quantify global and regional left and right ventricular function and to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of conventional echocardiography studies. Radial and longitudinal ventricular function can be assessed by the analysis of myocardial wall velocity and displacement indices, or by the analysis of wall deformation using the rate of deformation of a myocardial segment (strain rate) and its deformation over time (strain). A quick and easy assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction is obtained by mitral annular velocity measurement during a routine study, especially in patients with poor endocardial definition or abnormal septal motion. Strain rate and strain are less affected by passive myocardial motion and tend to be uniform throughout the left ventricle in normal subjects. This paper reviews the underlying principles of TDE, strain, and strain rate echocardiography and discusses currently available quantification tools and clinical applications. PMID:14594870

  11. Detection of ventricular fibrillation with a ventricular monopolar catheter electrode.

    PubMed

    Voelz, M B; Wessale, J L; Geddes, L A; Patel, U H

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the use of right ventricular impedance (RVZ) sensing with a monopolar electrode to identify the cessation of pumping with the onset of ventricular fibrillation. RVZ, ECG (lead II), and femoral artery pressure were monitored in seven anesthetized dogs. An impedance recorder (10-kHz, 100-microA peak-to-peak current) was used to measure RVZ between a monopolar, catheter-mounted electrode placed in the right ventricle and an indifferent electrode (8.5-cm diameter plate) sutured to the right chest wall. The catheter electrode was either 0.4 cm or 1.2 cm long and had a surface area of 0.50 cm2 or 1.50 cm2, respectively. A monopolar electrode was positioned at the apex of the right ventricle or midway between the apex and the tricuspid valve. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulsatile cardiac-induced impedance change was measured prior to and throughout an episode of ventricular fibrillation lasting up to 1 minute. On the average, the amplitude of the pulsatile RVZ signal after 10 seconds of fibrillation decreased by 79% of the prefibrillation amplitude. The 1.2-cm electrode located at the middle of the ventricle showed the largest reduction in pulsatile impedance, the amplitude being very small at 10 seconds. It is concluded that sensing RVZ by a monopolar electrode located on a catheter in the mid-ventricle can provide the mechanical information needed to identify the onset of ventricular fibrillation.

  12. Sequential Notch activation regulates ventricular chamber development

    PubMed Central

    D'Amato, Gaetano; Luxán, Guillermo; del Monte-Nieto, Gonzalo; Martínez-Poveda, Beatriz; Torroja, Carlos; Walter, Wencke; Bochter, Matthew S.; Benedito, Rui; Cole, Susan; Martinez, Fernando; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J.; de la Pompa, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular chambers are essential for the rhythmic contraction and relaxation occurring in every heartbeat throughout life. Congenital abnormalities in ventricular chamber formation cause severe human heart defects. How the early trabecular meshwork of myocardial fibres forms and subsequently develops into mature chambers is poorly understood. We show that Notch signalling first connects chamber endocardium and myocardium to sustain trabeculation, and later coordinates ventricular patterning and compaction with coronary vessel development to generate the mature chamber, through a temporal sequence of ligand signalling determined by the glycosyltransferase manic fringe (MFng). Early endocardial expression of MFng promotes Dll4–Notch1 signalling, which induces trabeculation in the developing ventricle. Ventricular maturation and compaction require MFng and Dll4 downregulation in the endocardium, which allows myocardial Jag1 and Jag2 signalling to Notch1 in this tissue. Perturbation of this signalling equilibrium severely disrupts heart chamber formation. Our results open a new research avenue into the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies. PMID:26641715

  13. Right Ventricular Perfusion: Physiology and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Crystal, George J; Pagel, Paul S

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of blood flow to the right ventricle differs significantly from that to the left ventricle. The right ventricle develops a lower systolic pressure than the left ventricle, resulting in reduced extravascular compressive forces and myocardial oxygen demand. Right ventricular perfusion has eight major characteristics that distinguish it from left ventricular perfusion: (1) appreciable perfusion throughout the entire cardiac cycle; (2) reduced myocardial oxygen uptake, blood flow, and oxygen extraction; (3) an oxygen extraction reserve that can be recruited to at least partially offset a reduction in coronary blood flow; (4) less effective pressure-flow autoregulation; (5) the ability to downregulate its metabolic demand during coronary hypoperfusion and thereby maintain contractile function and energy stores; (6) a transmurally uniform reduction in myocardial perfusion in the presence of a hemodynamically significant epicardial coronary stenosis; (7) extensive collateral connections from the left coronary circulation; and (8) possible retrograde perfusion from the right ventricular cavity through the Thebesian veins. These differences promote the maintenance of right ventricular oxygen supply-demand balance and provide relative resistance to ischemia-induced contractile dysfunction and infarction, but they may be compromised during acute or chronic increases in right ventricle afterload resulting from pulmonary arterial hypertension. Contractile function of the thin-walled right ventricle is exquisitely sensitive to afterload. Acute increases in pulmonary arterial pressure reduce right ventricular stroke volume and, if sufficiently large and prolonged, result in right ventricular failure. Right ventricular ischemia plays a prominent role in these effects. The risk of right ventricular ischemia is also heightened during chronic elevations in right ventricular afterload because microvascular growth fails to match myocyte hypertrophy and because microvascular

  14. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Rho-Kinase Inhibition During Early Cardiac Development Causes Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ellawindy, Alia; Satoh, Kimio; Sunamura, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Kota; Minami, Tatsuro; Ikeda, Shohei; Tanaka, Shinichi; Shimizu, Toru; Enkhjargal, Budbazar; Miyata, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yuhto; Handoh, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Kenta; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Nakayama, Keiko; Miura, Masahito; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by fibrofatty changes of the right ventricle, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Though ARVC is currently regarded as a disease of the desmosome, desmosomal gene mutations have been identified only in half of ARVC patients, suggesting the involvement of other associated mechanisms. Rho-kinase signaling is involved in the regulation of intracellular transport and organizes cytoskeletal filaments, which supports desmosomal protein complex at the myocardial cell-cell junctions. Here, we explored whether inhibition of Rho-kinase signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of ARVC. Using 2 novel mouse models with SM22α- or αMHC-restricted overexpression of dominant-negative Rho-kinase, we show that mice with Rho-kinase inhibition in the developing heart (SM22α-restricted) spontaneously develop cardiac dilatation and dysfunction, myocardial fibrofatty changes, and ventricular arrhythmias, resulting in premature sudden death, phenotypes fulfilling the criteria of ARVC in humans. Rho-kinase inhibition in the developing heart results in the development of ARVC phenotypes in dominant-negative Rho-kinase mice through 3 mechanisms: (1) reduction of cardiac cell proliferation and ventricular wall thickness, (2) stimulation of the expression of the proadipogenic noncanonical Wnt ligand, Wnt5b, and the major adipogenic transcription factor, PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ), and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and (3) development of desmosomal abnormalities. These mechanisms lead to the development of cardiac dilatation and dysfunction, myocardial fibrofatty changes, and ventricular arrhythmias, ultimately resulting in sudden premature death in this ARVC mouse model. This study demonstrates a novel crucial role of Rho-kinase inhibition during cardiac development in the pathogenesis of ARVC in mice. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Ventricular diverticula formation in captive parakeet auklets (Aethia psittacula) secondary to foreign body ingestion.

    PubMed

    Degernes, Laurel A; Wolf, Karen N; Zombeck, Debbie J; MacLean, Robert A; De Voe, Ryan S

    2012-12-01

    A captive parakeet auklet at the North Carolina Zoo evaluated for weight loss, lethargy, and dyspnea had radiographic evidence of a distended, stone-filled ventriculus (bird 1). Multiple stones (n = 76) were removed surgically, but the bird died and a large ventricular diverticulum was diagnosed at necropsy. This bird and seven other parakeet auklets had been transferred 3 yr earlier from a zoo in Ohio. Radiographic investigation revealed that 6 of 7 Ohio birds had stones in their ventriculus (n= 2-26), but only 1 of 7 radiographed North Carolina Zoo auklets had one small stone. Further diagnostic imaging (survey and contrast radiographs, fluoroscopy, CT scans [n = 2]) of six Ohio and two North Carolina birds was conducted to determine if other birds had ventricular abnormalities (birds 2-9). No ventricular diverticula were diagnosed using imaging techniques, although two Ohio birds (birds 6 and 7) required surgical intervention to remove 12-26 stones. A small ventricular diverticulum was identified in bird 6 during surgery. That bird died of unrelated causes 11 mo after surgery, but bird 7 remains clinically normal more than 4 yr later, along with four other auklets with stones (n = 2-15; birds 2-5). It is possible that without surgical intervention, these birds may develop ventricular disease, presumably due to chronic mechanical trauma to the thin-walled ventriculus. It was hypothesized that the Ohio birds ingested stones in their previous exhibit, with a loose stone substrate, and retained them for at least 3 yr. Possible causes for stone ingestion include trituration (for grinding, mixing coarse ingesta), gastric parasite reduction, hunger suppression, accidental ingestion while feeding, or behavioral causes, but the underlying cause in these birds was not determined. Based on these results, parakeet auklets and other alcids should not be housed, or at least fed, on a loose stone substrate.

  17. Left ventricular morphology and diastolic function in uraemia: echocardiographic evidence of a specific cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, L.; Vescovo, G.; Levedianos, G.; Zannini, L.; Nordio, M.; Lorenzi, S.; Caturelli, G.; Ambrosio, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether cardiac morphological and functional abnormalities in uraemic patients are determined by high blood pressure or if they are an expression of a specific cardiomyopathy. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--City general hospital in Italy. SUBJECTS--35 uraemic patients receiving haemodialysis (17 men, 18 women; mean age 60.3 (11.2); mean duration of dialysis 52 months) were selected from the 64 patients in Venice who were receiving dialysis; subjects with diabetes, haemochromatosis, valvar dysfunction, regional dyskinesias, and pericarditis were excluded. 19 control normotensive subjects (6 men and 13 women), matched for age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Echocardiographic measurements of left atrium, left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volume, aortic root diameter, posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, left ventricle mass index, and ejection fraction in controls and in patients according to whether they were normotensive (five men, eight women) or hypertensive (12 men, 10 women) on 48 hour ambulatory monitoring; left ventricular diastolic function by Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS--Mean systolic and diastolic pressures, daytime systolic and diastolic pressures, and night time systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients than in the normotensive patients. The normotensive patients had similar blood pressures to the controls. Left ventricular mass correlated significantly with the mean diastolic pressure and mean night time systolic and diastolic pressures. Parathyroid hormone concentrations were similar in the two groups of patients. Diastolic relaxation was impaired to the same degree in the two groups of patients. Parameters of diastolic function showed no relation to left ventricular mass, which was significantly higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive patients. CONCLUSIONS--Uraemia is likely to induce specific changes in the relaxation properties of the

  18. A porcine model for acute ischaemic right ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, Pernille; Lindstedt, Sandra; Metzsch, Carsten; Algotsson, Lars; Ingemansson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish an experimental model for acute ischaemic isolated right ventricular dysfunction and the subsequent haemodynamic changes. An open-chest porcine model with ischaemic dysfunction of the right ventricle induced by ligation of the three main branches supporting the right ventricular free wall. Invasive monitoring of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), left atrial pressure (LAP) and right ventricular pressure (RVP); ultrasonic measurement of cardiac output (CO) and calculation of haemodynamic parameters such as stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and right ventricular stroke work (RVSW) using standard formulae. The ischaemic challenge to the right ventricle resulted in a significant (≥30%) reduction in RVSW associated with an increase (6-25%) in CVP and reduction (8-18%) in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) despite unchanged PVR, all reflecting the failing right ventricle. There was also a significant drop in CO (14-22%) despite unchanged LAP indicating lessened transpulmonary delivery of left ventricular preload due to the failing right ventricle causing the haemodynamic compromise rather than left ventricular failure. Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias occurred in three and two out of seven pigs, respectively-all of which except one were successfully resuscitated with cardioversion and/or defibrillation. This novel open-chest porcine model of induced ischaemia of the right ventricular free wall resulted in significant haemodynamic compromise confirmed using standard haemodynamic measurements making it useful for further research on acute, ischaemic isolated right ventricular failure.

  19. Impact of hypertension with or without diabetes on left ventricular remodeling in rural Chinese population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Tan; Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yang, Jun; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of hypertension with or without diabetes on left ventricular (LV) remodeling in rural Chinese population. A total of 10,270 participants were classified into control group, hypertension without diabetes (HT) group, and hypertension with diabetes (HT + DM) group. We compared clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters, and used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the associations of interest. HT + DM group had higher interventricular septal thickness (IVSd), posterior wall thickness (PWTd), left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), left atrial diameter (LAD), A wave and lower E wave than HT group (all P < 0.05). The prevalence rates of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and abnormal geometry were statistically different among three groups (P < 0.001) and eccentric hypertrophy was the highest proportion of geometry abnormality. Logistic regression analysis suggested that subjects in HT and HT + DM groups had odds ratio (OR) values of 2.81, 4.41, 2.24 and 3.94, 7.20, 2.38 for LVH, concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy in the total population, respectively, compared to control group. When compared with HT group, those in HT + DM group had approximately 1.40-, 1.61- and 1.38-, 1.71-fold increased risk for LVH and concentric hypertrophy in the total and female population separately, but no association of HT + DM with LVH and abnormal geometrical patterns was found in men. This study demonstrated that, to varying degrees, hypertension was associated with LV remodeling in rural Chinese population, and this risk association was obviously increased for LVH and concentric hypertrophy when accompanied by diabetes, especially for women.

  20. Thallium myocardial perfusion scans for the assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy in patients with cystic fibrosis. A comparison with other noninvasive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Newth, C.J.; Corey, M.L.; Fowler, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of right ventricular hypertrophy in 32 patients with cystic fibrosis was studied using thallium 201 (TI-201) myocardial perfusion scans, and compared with other noninvasive techniques including electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, and M-mode echocardiography. The patients (mean age, 17.3 yr; range, 7 to 33) had a wide range of clinical and pulmonary abnormalities (mean Shwachman-Kulczycki score, 66.6). In the total study group, TI-201 scans, like the vectorcardiograms and the M-mode echocardiograms, gave a surprisingly high proportion of positive predictions for right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) (44%). The correlations with all other noninvasive methods were uniformly poor, so caution must be exercised inmore » using this technique to predict early RVH in order to follow the natural history of cor pulmonale in cystic fibrosis. At the time of the study, 6 patients had clinical evidence of right ventricular failure, and in this disease setting must have had RVH. In 3 patients, RVH was confirmed at autopsy, and it was successfully predicted by TI-201 scans in 5 of the 6 patients. The false negative scan may have been due to regional myocardial ischemia secondary to severe right ventricular failure. In contrast, the vectorcardiogram, using Fowler's new criteria, made a successful prediction of RVH in all 6 patients, and the electro cardiogram in only 3. Although the M-mode echocardiogram was abnormal in all patients, it would have predicted RVH (with increased right ventricular anterior wall thickness) in only 1 patient. We concluded that TI-201 myocardial perfusion cans are good at confirming RVH in cases with established right ventricular failure, but have no advantage over vectorcardiographic assessments, which are logistically easier to perform and carry no radiation risks.« less

  1. [Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Case report and a brief literature review].

    PubMed

    Izurieta, Carlos; Curotto-Grasiosi, Jorge; Rocchinotti, Mónica; Torres, María J; Moranchel, Manuel; Cañas, Sebastián; Cardús, Marta E; Alasia, Diego; Cordero, Diego J; Angel, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted to this hospital because of palpitations and a feeling of dizziness for a period of 2h. The electrocardiogram revealed a regular wide-QRS complex tachycardia at a rate of 250 beats per minute, with superior axis and left bundle branch block morphology without hemodynamically decompensation, the patient was cardioverted to sinus rhythm after the administration of a loading and maintenance dose of amiodarone. The elechtrophysiological study showed the ventricular origin of the arrhythmia. In order to diagnose the etiology of the ventricular tachycardia we performed a coronary arteriography that showed normal epicardial vessels, thus ruling out coronary disease. Doppler echocardiography revealed systolic and diastolic functions of both left and right ventricles within normal parameters, and normal diameters as well. A cardiac magnetic resonance with late enhancement was done, showing structural abnormalities of the right ventricle wall with moderate impairment of the ejection fraction, and a mild dysfunction of the left ventricle. The diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was performed as 2 major Task Force criteria were met. We implanted an automatic cardioverter defibrillator as a prophylactic measure. The patient was discharged without complications. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraventricular flow alterations due to dyssynchronous wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Audrey M.; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    Roughly 30% of patients with systolic heart failure suffer from left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD), in which mechanical discoordination of the ventricle walls leads to poor hemodynamics and suboptimal cardiac function. There is currently no clear mechanistic understanding of how abnormalities in septal-lateral (SL) wall motion affects left ventricle (LV) function, which is needed to improve the treatment of LVD using cardiac resynchronization therapy. We use an experimental flow phantom with an LV physical model to study mechanistic effects of SL wall motion delay on LV function. To simulate mechanical LVD, two rigid shafts were coupled to two segments (apical and mid sections) along the septal wall of the LV model. Flow through the LV model was driven using a piston pump, and stepper motors coupled to the above shafts were used to locally perturb the septal wall segments relative to the pump motion. 2D PIV was used to examine the intraventricular flow through the LV physical model. Alterations to SL delay results in a reduction in the kinetic energy (KE) of the flow field compared to synchronous SL motion. The effect of varying SL motion delay from 0% (synchronous) to 100% (out-of-phase) on KE and viscous dissipation will be presented. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  4. Left ventricular function by echocardiogram in children with sickle cell anaemia in Mumbai, Western India.

    PubMed

    Tidake, Abhay; Gangurde, Pranil; Taksande, Anup; Mahajan, Ajay; Nathani, Pratap

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular events and complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with sickle cell disease. Cardiac abnormalities occur frequently and at an early stage in sickle cell anaemia patients, despite being more evident in adulthood. Sickle cell anaemia patients are increasingly able to reach adulthood owing to improved healthcare, and may, therefore, suffer the consequences of chronic cardiac injury. Thus, the study of cardiac abnormalities is essential in children The aim of this study was to determine the echocardiographic changes in left ventricular function in children suffering from sickle cell disease in Mumbai, Western India. The study comprised of 48 cases of sickle cell anaemia and 30 non-anaemic controls with normal haemoglobin and electrophoresis pattern. M-mode, two-dimensional, and Doppler echocardiographic measurements of patients and controls were performed according to the criteria of the American Echocardiography Society. On Doppler study, the A wave height was increased and the E/A ratio was decreased, whereas the deceleration and isovolumetric relaxation times were prolonged, which is typically seen in slowed or impaired myocardial relaxation (p<0.001). Although chamber dilatations were present, echocardiographic parameters showed no statistically significant correlation with severity of anaemia and age among the sickle cell patients. We conclude that the increased left ventricular stiffness, compared with controls, might be due to fibrosis related to ischaemia caused by SS disease in addition to wall hypertrophy.

  5. Heart monitoring using left ventricle impedance and ventricular electrocardiography in left ventricular assist device patients.

    PubMed

    Her, Keun; Ahn, Chi Bum; Park, Sung Min; Choi, Seong Wook

    2015-03-21

    Patients who develop critical arrhythmia during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) perfusion have a low survival rate. For diagnosis of unexpected heart abnormalities, new heart-monitoring methods are required for patients supported by LVAD perfusion. Ventricular electrocardiography using electrodes implanted in the ventricle to detect heart contractions is unsuitable if the heart is abnormal. Left ventricular impedance (LVI) is useful for monitoring heart movement but does not show abnormal action potential in the heart muscle. To detect detailed abnormal heart conditions, we obtained ventricular electrocardiograms (v-ECGs) and LVI simultaneously in porcine models connected to LVADs. In the porcine models, electrodes were set on the heart apex and ascending aorta for real-time measurements of v-ECGs and LVI. As the carrier current frequency of the LVI was adjusted to 30 kHz, it was easily derived from the original v-ECG signal by using a high-pass filter (cutoff: 10 kHz). In addition, v-ECGs with a frequency band of 0.1 - 120 Hz were easily derived using a low-pass filter. Simultaneous v-ECG and LVI data were compared to detect heart volume changes during the Q-T period when the heart contracted. A new real-time algorithm for comparison of v-ECGs and LVI determined whether the porcine heartbeats were normal or abnormal. Several abnormal heartbeats were detected using the LVADs operating in asynchronous mode, most of which were premature ventricle contractions (PVCs). To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the results obtained were compared to normal ECG data and cardiac output measured simultaneously using commercial devices. The new method provided more accurate detection of abnormal heart movements. This method can be used for various heart diseases, even those in which the cardiac output is heavily affected by LVAD operation.

  6. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in monozygotic twin sisters, and persistent left superior vena cava in one complicating implantation of ICD.

    PubMed

    Astarcıoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Yaymacı, Mehmet; Şen, Taner; Kilit, Celal; Amasyalı, Basri

    2015-10-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized histologically by fibro-fatty replacement of heart muscle, and clinically by ventricular arrhythmias and right ventricular dysfunction. This report presents monozygotic twins with ARVC, suggesting a genetic abnormality as the most probable cause.

  7. Clinical determinants and consequences of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Messerli, F H

    1983-09-26

    The left ventricle adapts to an increased afterload such as that produced by arterial hypertension with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. However, this adaptive process can be modified by a variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Progressive aging, black race, and perhaps disorders with an increased sympathetic outflow seem to accelerate left ventricular hypertrophy. Obesity and other high cardiac output states predominantly produce dilatation of the left ventricle, and their combination with arterial hypertension results in eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Similarly, endurance exercise increases left ventricular volume more than wall thickness, whereas isometric exercise produces an increase in wall thickness only. The presence or absence of some physiologic and pathogenetic factors has direct implication on the assessment of what constitutes a "normal" left ventricular structure and function. Left ventricular hypertrophy has been shown to increase ventricular ectopic impulse generation and to put patients at a high risk of sudden death. Moreover, the increase in myocardial mass lowers coronary reserve and enhances cardiac oxygen requirements. Thus, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy has to be considered as an ominous sign rather than as a benign adaptive process.

  8. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis <50%) and thirty gender- and age-matched patients (control group) without coronary artery stenosis according to the coronary angiogram results were prospectively enrolled. All the patients had no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormality in two-dimensional echocardiography at rest and exercise stress. There was no significant difference in the 16 segmental systolic peak AS at rest between two groups. After exercise stress, the peak systolic AS rest-stress at mid anterior wall (-7.00%±10.90% vs 2.80%±23.69%) and mid anterolateral wall (-4.40%±18.81% vs 8.80%±19.16%) were decreased, while increased at basal inferolateral wall (14.00%±19.27% vs -5.60%±15.94%) in case group compared with control group (P<.05). In patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, the area strain was decreased at involved segments, while compensatory increased at noninvolved segments after exercise stress. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cytoskeletal role in the transition from compensated to decompensated hypertrophy during adult canine left ventricular pressure overloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagawa, H.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Zile, M. R.; Carabello, B. A.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1998-01-01

    Increased microtubule density causes cardiocyte contractile dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy, and these linked phenotypic and contractile abnormalities persist and progress during the transition to failure. Although more severe in cells from failing than hypertrophied RVs, the mechanical defects are normalized in each case by microtubule depolymerization. To define the role of increased microtubule density in left ventricular (LV) pressure-overload hypertrophy and failure, in a given LV we examined ventricular mechanics, sarcomere mechanics, and free tubulin and microtubule levels in control dogs and in dogs with aortic stenosis both with LV hypertrophy alone and with initially compensated hypertrophy that had progressed to LV muscle failure. In comparing initial values with those at study 8 weeks later, dogs with hypertrophy alone had a very substantial increase in LV mass but preservation of a normal ejection fraction and mean systolic wall stress. Dogs with hypertrophy and associated failure had a substantial but lesser increase in LV mass and a reduction in ejection fraction, as well as a marked increase in mean systolic wall stress. Cardiocyte contractile function was equivalent, and unaffected by microtubule depolymerization, in cells from control LVs and those with compensated hypertrophy. In contrast, cardiocyte contractile function in cells from failing LVs was quite depressed but was normalized by microtubule depolymerization. Microtubules were increased only in failing LVs. These contractile and cytoskeletal changes, when assayed longitudinally in a given dog by biopsy, appeared in failing ventricles only when wall stress began to increase and function began to decrease. Thus, the microtubule-based cardiocyte contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-hypertrophied myocardium, originally described in the RV, obtains equally in the LV but is shown here to have a specific association with increased wall stress.

  10. Maturational Patterns of Systolic Ventricular Deformation Mechanics by Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Preterm Infants over the First Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Levy, Philip T; El-Khuffash, Afif; Patel, Meghna D; Breatnach, Colm R; James, Adam T; Sanchez, Aura A; Abuchabe, Cristina; Rogal, Sarah R; Holland, Mark R; McNamara, Patrick J; Jain, Amish; Franklin, Orla; Mertens, Luc; Hamvas, Aaron; Singh, Gautam K

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the maturational changes in systolic ventricular strain mechanics by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely preterm neonates from birth to 1 year of age and discern the impact of common cardiopulmonary abnormalities on the deformation measures. In a prospective multicenter study of 239 extremely preterm infants (<29 weeks gestation at birth), left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSRs), interventricular septal wall (IVS) GLS and GLSRs, right ventricular (RV) free wall longitudinal strain and strain rate, and segmental longitudinal strain in the RV free wall, LV free wall, and IVS were serially measured on days 1, 2, and 5 to 7, at 32 and 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and at 1 year corrected age (CA). Premature infants who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia or had echocardiographic findings of pulmonary hypertension were analyzed separately. In uncomplicated preterm infants (n = 103 [48%]), LV GLS and GLSRs remained unchanged from days 5 to 7 to 1 year CA (P = .60 and P = .59). RV free wall longitudinal strain, RV free wall longitudinal strain rate, and IVS GLS and GLSRs significantly increased over the same time period (P < .01 for all measures). A significant base-to-apex (highest to lowest) segmental longitudinal strain gradient (P < .01) was seen in the RV free wall and a reverse apex-to-base gradient (P < .01) in the LV free wall. In infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (n = 119 [51%]), RV free wall longitudinal strain and IVS GLS were significantly lower (P < .01), LV GLS and GLSRs were similar (P = .56), and IVS segmental longitudinal strain persisted as an RV-dominant base-to-apex gradient from 32 weeks postmenstrual age to 1 year CA. This study tracks the maturational patterns of global and regional deformation by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely

  11. Right ventricular involvement in cardiac sarcoidosis demonstrated with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Smedema, Jan-Peter; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Ainslie, Gillian; Ector, Joris; Heidbuchel, Hein; Crijns, Harry J G M

    2017-11-01

    Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is reported in up to 30% of patients. Left ventricular involvement demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance has been well validated. We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement in patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. We prospectively evaluated 87 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis with contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance for right ventricular involvement. Pulmonary artery pressures were non-invasively evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Patient characteristics were compared between the groups with and without right ventricular involvement, and right ventricular enhancement was correlated with pulmonary hypertension, ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement was demonstrated in 30 patients (34%). Fourteen patients (16%) had right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement, with sole right ventricular enhancement in only two patients. The pattern of right ventricular enhancement consisted of right ventricular outflow tract enhancement in 1 patient, free wall enhancement in 8 patients, ventricular insertion point enhancement in 10 patients, and enhancement of the right side of the interventricular septum in 11 patients. Pulmonary arterial hypertension correlated with the presence of right ventricular enhancement (P < 0.001). Right ventricular enhancement correlated with systolic ventricular dysfunction (P < 0.001), hypertrophy (P = 0.001), and dilation (P < 0.001). Right ventricular enhancement was present in 16% of patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 48% of patients with left ventricular enhancement. The presence of right ventricular enhancement correlated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, and dilation. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  12. Right ventricular involvement in cardiac sarcoidosis demonstrated with cardiac magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    van Geuns, Robert‐Jan; Ainslie, Gillian; Ector, Joris; Heidbuchel, Hein; Crijns, Harry J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is reported in up to 30% of patients. Left ventricular involvement demonstrated by contrast‐enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance has been well validated. We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement in patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Methods and results We prospectively evaluated 87 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis with contrast‐enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance for right ventricular involvement. Pulmonary artery pressures were non‐invasively evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Patient characteristics were compared between the groups with and without right ventricular involvement, and right ventricular enhancement was correlated with pulmonary hypertension, ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement was demonstrated in 30 patients (34%). Fourteen patients (16%) had right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement, with sole right ventricular enhancement in only two patients. The pattern of right ventricular enhancement consisted of right ventricular outflow tract enhancement in 1 patient, free wall enhancement in 8 patients, ventricular insertion point enhancement in 10 patients, and enhancement of the right side of the interventricular septum in 11 patients. Pulmonary arterial hypertension correlated with the presence of right ventricular enhancement (P < 0.001). Right ventricular enhancement correlated with systolic ventricular dysfunction (P < 0.001), hypertrophy (P = 0.001), and dilation (P < 0.001). Conclusions Right ventricular enhancement was present in 16% of patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 48% of patients with left ventricular enhancement. The presence of right ventricular enhancement correlated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, and dilation. PMID:29154434

  13. Phase mapping of radionuclide gated biventriculograms in patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Le Guludec, D.; Bourguignon, M.; Sebag, C.

    1987-01-01

    Accuracy of Fourier phase mapping of radionuclide gated biventriculograms in detecting the origin of abnormal ventricular activation was studied during ventricular tachycardia or preexcitation. Group I included six patients suffering from clinical recurrent VT; 3 gated blood pool studies were acquired for each patient: during sinus rhythm, right ventricular pacing, and induced sustained VT-Group II included seven patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and recurrent paroxysmal tachycardia; 3 gated blood pool studies were acquired for each patient: during sinus rhythm, right atrial pacing and orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia. Each acquisition lasted 5 min, in 30 degrees-40 degrees left anterior oblique projection. In Groupmore » I, the Fourier phase mapping was consistent with QRS morphology and axis during VT (5/6), except in one patient with LV aneurysm and LBBB electrical pattern during VT. Origin of VT on phase mapping was located in the right ventricle (n = 2) or in left ventricle (n = 4), at the border of wall motion abnormalities each time they existed (5/6). In Group II, the phase advance correlated with the location of the accessory pathway determined by ECG and endocardial mapping (n = 6) and per-operative epicardial mapping (n = 1). Discrimination between anterior and posterior localization of paraseptal pathways and location of intermittent preexcitation was not possible. We conclude that Fourier phase mapping is an accurate method for locating the origin of VT and determining its etiology. It can help locate the site of ventricular preexcitation in patients with only one accessory pathway; its accuracy in locating multiple accessory pathways remains unknown.« less

  14. Influence of the hole geometry on the flow distribution in ventricular catheters for hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Ángel; Galarza, Marcelo; Pellicer, Olga; Valero, José; Amigó, José M

    2016-07-15

    Hydrocephalus is a medical condition consisting of an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain. A catheter is inserted in one of the brain ventricles and then connected to an external valve to drain the excess of cerebrospinal fluid. The main drawback of this technique is that, over time, the ventricular catheter ends up getting blocked by the cells and macromolecules present in the cerebrospinal fluid. A crucial factor influencing this obstruction is a non-uniform flow pattern through the catheter, since it facilitates adhesion of suspended particles to the walls. In this paper we focus on the effects that tilted holes as well as conical holes have on the flow distribution and shear stress. We have carried out 3D computational simulations to study the effect of the hole geometry on the cerebrospinal fluid flow through ventricular catheters. All the simulations were done with the OpenFOAM® toolbox. In particular, three different groups of models were investigated by varying (i) the tilt angles of the holes, (ii) the inner and outer diameters of the holes, and (iii) the distances between the so-called hole segments. The replacement of cylindrical holes by conical holes was found to have a strong influence on the flow distribution and to lower slightly the shear stress. Tilted holes did not involve flow distribution changes when the hole segments are sufficiently separated, but the mean shear stress was certainly reduced. The authors present new results about the behavior of the fluid flow through ventricular catheters. These results complete earlier work on this topic by adding the influence of the hole geometry. The overall objective pursued by this research is to provide guidelines to improve existing commercially available ventricular catheters.

  15. Left ventricular geometric patterns in newly presenting nigerian hypertensives: An echocardiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Aje, Akinyemi; Adebiyi, Adewole A; Oladapo, Olulola O; Dada, Adekola; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ojji, Dike B; Falase, Ayodele O

    2006-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a global problem and it is prevalent in Nigeria. Left ventricular hypertrophy is a major complication of hypertension with risk of sudden death and arrhythmias among others. Abnormal left ventricular geometric patterns also increase the burden of morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to know the different left ventricular geometric patterns in Nigerian hypertensives because of their prognostic significance. Methods One hundred (100) newly presenting hypertensives (53 males and 47 females) and 100 controls (53 males and 47 females) were recruited for the study. All were subjected to clinical evaluation and full echocardiographic examination was performed according to the ASE recommendation. The relative wall thickness and the presence or absence of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy were used to determine the various geometric patterns Results The mean age of the hypertensive subjects was 56.06 (± 7.68) years while that of the control subjects was 56.10 (± 7.68) years. There was no significant difference in the mean ages of the two groups. In the hypertensive subjects 28% had normal geometry, 26% had concentric remodeling, 28% had concentric hypertrophy and 18% had eccentric hypertrophy. In the control group, 86% had normal geometry, 11% had concentric remodeling, 3% had eccentric hypertrophy and none had concentric hypertrophy. There was statistical significance when the geometric patterns of the hypertensive and controls were compared (χ2 = 74.30, p value < 0.0001). Conclusion The study showed that only 28% of the hypertensive subjects had normal LV geometric pattern while 86% of the normal subjects had normal geometry. There is need for longitudinal studies in order to prognosticate the various geometric patterns. PMID:16426452

  16. Ventricular myoarchitecture in tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Quintana, D.; Anderson, R. H.; Ho, S. Y.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the architecture of the muscle fibres of the ventricular walls in congenitally malformed hearts. In this study the gross pattern of myocardial fibres in normal hearts was compared with that in cases of tetralogy of Fallot. METHODS AND RESULTS: After morphological examination nine specimens with tetralogy were dissected to study the ventricular myoarchitecture. Changes were found in the shape of the malformed ventricles. The ventricular walls were arranged in layers in all hearts. Superficial and deep layers were present in both ventricles, with the superficial layer showing a more oblique orientation in the specimens with tetralogy than in normal hearts. Modifications of muscle fibre that were related to the type of malformation were seen in the deep layer. A middle layer was present in the left ventricles of normal hearts and specimens with tetralogy: this showed a horizontal orientation in both groups. In contrast, a middle layer was found in the right ventricle only in specimens showing tetralogy. CONCLUSIONS: The malformed hearts showed modifications in ventricular shape, in the arrangement of muscle in the right ventricle, and in the overall myoarchitecture. These changes could well be the consequence of the same agent (or agents) that caused the structural defect. Images PMID:8868990

  17. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M; Willun, Steffen; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2017-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I 2 statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. • CT helps to assess patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). • MRI is the reference standard for evaluation of left ventricular function. • CT provides accurate assessment of global left ventricular function.

  18. Radionuclide evaluation of left-ventricular function in chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Arreaza, N.; Puigbo, J.J.; Acquatella, H. Casal, H.

    1983-07-01

    Left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and abnormalities of regional wall motion (WMA) were studied by means of radionuclide ventriculography in 41 patients prospectively diagnosed as having chronic Chagas' disease. Thirteen patients were asymptomatic (ASY), 16 were arrhythmic (ARR), and 12 had congestive heart failure (CHF). Mean LVEF was normal in ASY but markedly depressed in CHF. Regional WMAs were minimal in ASY and their severity increased in ARR. Most CHFs (75%) had diffuse hypokinesia of the left ventricle. Seven patients had a distinct apical aneurysm. Correlation between radionuclide and contrast ventriculography data was good in 17 patients. Selective coronary arteriography showedmore » normal arteries in all patients. Therefore, chronic Chagas' heart disease joins ischemic heart disease as a cause of regional WMA.« less

  19. Left ventricular rotation and torsion in patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yan; Yong, Yong-hong; Yao, Jing; Ji, Ling; Xu, Di

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) rotation has become an important approach for quantifying LV function. In this study, we sought to analyze LV rotation and twist using speckle tracking imaging (STI) in adult patients with isolated ventricular septal defects. Using STI, the peak rotation and time to peak rotation of 6 segments in basal and apical short-axis were measured, respectively, in 32 patients with ventricular septal defect and 30 healthy subjects as controls. The global rotation of the 6 segments in basal and apical and LV twist versus time profile were drawn, the peak rotation and twist of LV were calculated. All the time to peak rotation/twist were expressed as a percentage of end-systole (end-systole = 100%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured by biplane Simpson method. In patients group, the peak rotation of posterior, inferior, and postsept wall in basal was higher(P ≤ 0.05) and LV twist was also higher (P ≤ 0.05) than healthy controls. There were no significant differences between 2 groups in the peak rotation of the other 9 segments and left ventricular ejection fraction. Different from the control group, the time to peak rotation of the 6 segments in basal were delayed and the global rotation of the base was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) in ventricular septal defect group. Left ventricular volume overload due to ventricular septal defect has significant effect on LV rotation and twist, and LV rotation and twist may be a new index predicting LV systolic function. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessment of Impact of Weight Loss on Left and Right Ventricular Functions and Value of Tissue Doppler Echocardiography in Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Isa Oner; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Koklu, Erkan; Ureyen, Cagin Mustafa; Kucukseymen, Selcuk; Arslan, Sakir; Bozkurt, Engin

    2016-06-01

    In our study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of weight loss on left and right ventricular functions in obese patients. Thirty patients with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m(2) and without any exclusion criteria were included in the study. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed with conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). At the end of 3 months, echocardiographic examination was repeated in patients with weight loss for cardiac function evaluation and it was compared to the baseline echocardiographic parameters. At the end of 3 months of weight loss period, conventional Doppler echocardiography revealed an improvement in diastolic functions with an increase in mitral E-wave, a decrease in mitral A-wave and an increase in E/A ratio. Deceleration time and isovolumetric relaxation time were ascertained shortened and Tei index decreased. TDE showed an increase in left ventricular lateral wall systolic wave (Sm) and E-wave velocity (Em). Mitral septal annular isovolumetric acceleration time (IVA), Sm and Em, were found to be increased, whereas Tei index was ascertained reduced. Right ventricular tissue Doppler examination following weight loss revealed an increase in RV- IVA, RV-Sm, and RV-Em, and a decrease in Tei index. We disclosed that left ventricular structural changes and diastolic dysfunction occur in obese patients, and by weight loss, these abnormalities may be reversible which we demonstrated both by conventional and TDE. In addition, obesity might impair RV function as well, and we observed an enhancement in right ventricular functions by weight loss. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Inappropriate left ventricular mass and poor outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Tao; Peng, Yong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Huang, Fang-Yang; Wang, Peng-Ju; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chai, Hua; Li, Qiao; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Ren, Xin; Huang, Kai-Sen; Meng, Qing-Tao; Chen, Chi; Huang, De-Jia; Chen, Mao

    2015-03-01

    Although inappropriate left ventricular mass has been associated with clustered cardiac geometric and functional abnormalities, its predictive value in patients with coronary artery disease is still unknown. This study examined the association of inappropriate left ventricular mass with clinical outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction. Consecutive patients diagnosed with angina pectoris whose ejection fraction was normal were recruited from 2008 to 2012. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was determined when the ratio of actual left ventricular mass to the predicted one exceeded 150%. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Clinical outcomes between the inappropriate and appropriate left ventricular mass group were compared before and after propensity matching. Of the total of 1515 participants, 18.3% had inappropriate left ventricular mass. Patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass had a higher composite event rate compared with those with appropriate left ventricular mass (11.2 vs. 6.6%, P=0.010). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that inappropriate left ventricular mass was an independent risk factor for adverse events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.45; P=0.035). The worse outcome in patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass was further validated in a propensity matching cohort and patients with the traditional definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was associated with an increased risk of adverse events in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

  2. Pulmonary embolism due to right ventricular thrombus in a case of Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Yasuo, M; Nagano, S; Yazaki, Y; Koizumi, T; Kitabayashi, H; Imamura, H; Amano, J; Isobe, M

    1999-11-01

    Right ventricular thrombus is a very rare manifestation of cardiovascular Behcet's disease. A 25-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to cough and fever of unknown origin. He experienced repetitive pulmonary embolism due to a right ventricular thrombus, which was surgically removed. A diagnosis of Behcet's disease was made based on his clinical course and the histological findings of the right ventricular wall and the skin lesion. He was quickly relieved of his symptoms after warfarinization and cyclosporine therapy.

  3. Aortic Wave Dynamics and Its Influence on Left Ventricular Workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2010-11-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that hypertension plays a key role in development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and ultimately heart failure mostly due to increased LV workload. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose and treat abnormal high LV workload at early stages. The pumping mechanism of the heart is pulsatile, thus it sends pressure and flow wave into the compliant aorta. The wave dynamics in the aorta is dominated by interplay of heart rate (HR), aortic rigidity, and location of reflection sites. We hypothesized that for a fixed cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (PR), interplay of HR and aortic compliance can create conditions that minimize LV power requirement. We used a computational approach to test our hypothesis. Finite element method with direct coupling method of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) was used. Blood was assumed to be incompressible Newtonian fluid and aortic wall was considered elastic isotropic. Simulations were performed for various heart rates and aortic rigidities while inflow wave, CO, and PR were kept constant. For any aortic compliance, LV power requirement becomes minimal at a specific heart rate. The minimum shifts to higher heart rates as aortic rigidity increases.

  4. Pneumatic Distension of Ventricular Mural Architecture Validated Histologically.

    PubMed

    Burg, M C; Lunkenheimer, P; Niederer, P; Brune, C; Redmann, K; Smerup, M; Spiegel, U; Becker, F; Maintz, D; Heindel, W; Anderson, R H

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. Methods: We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Results: Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Conclusion: Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion. Key Points: • Pneumographic computed tomography reveals an organized structure of the ventricular walls.• Aggregated cardiomyocytes form a structured continuum, with marked regional heterogeneity

  5. Abnormal cardiac response to exercise in a murine model of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lan; Chung, Jessica; Lam, Lien; Tsoutsman, Tatiana; Semsarian, Christopher

    2007-07-10

    Clinical outcome in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) may be influenced by modifying factors such as exercise. Transgenic mice which overexpress the human disease-causing cTnI gene mutation, Gly203Ser (designated cTnI-G203S), develop all the characteristic phenotypic features of FHC. To study the modifying effect of exercise in early disease, mice underwent swimming exercise at an early age prior to the development of the FHC phenotype. In non-transgenic and cTnI-wt mice, swimming resulted in a significant increase in left ventricular wall thickness and contractility on echocardiography, consistent with a physiological hypertrophic response to exercise. In contrast, cTnI-G203S mice showed no increase in these parameters, indicating an abnormal response to exercise. The lack of a physiological response to exercise may indicate an important novel mechanistic insight into the role of exercise in triggering adverse events in FHC.

  6. Arterial wave reflection and subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Takei, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takuya; Koshaka, Shun; Palmieri, Vittorio; Elkind, Mitchell Sv; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2011-03-01

    Increased arterial wave reflection is a predictor of cardiovascular events and has been hypothesized to be a cofactor in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Whether increased wave reflection is inversely associated with left-ventricular (LV) systolic function in individuals without heart failure is not clear. Arterial wave reflection and LV systolic function were assessed in 301 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using two-dimensional echocardiography and applanation tonometry of the radial artery to derive central arterial waveform by a validated transfer function. Aortic augmentation index (AIx) and wasted energy index (WEi) were used as indices of wave reflection. LV systolic function was measured by LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annulus peak systolic velocity (Sm), peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Participants with history of coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, LVEF less than 50% or wall motion abnormalities were excluded. Mean age of the study population was 68.3 ± 10.2 years (64.1% women, 65% hypertensive). LV systolic function by TDI was lower with increasing wave reflection, whereas LVEF was not. In multivariate analysis, TDI parameters of LV longitudinal systolic function were significantly and inversely correlated to AIx and WEi (P values from 0.05 to 0.002). In a community cohort without heart failure and with normal LVEF, an increased arterial wave reflection was associated with subclinical reduction in LV systolic function assessed by novel TDI techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate the prognostic implications of this relationship.

  7. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  8. A mutation in Ccdc39 causes neonatal hydrocephalus with abnormal motile cilia development in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamed, Zakia; Vuong, Shawn M; Hill, Lauren; Shula, Crystal; Timms, Andrew; Beier, David; Campbell, Kenneth; Mangano, Francesco T; Stottmann, Rolf W; Goto, June

    2018-01-09

    Pediatric hydrocephalus is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is one of the most common congenital brain abnormalities. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating CSF flow in the developing brain. Through whole-genome sequencing analysis, we report that a homozygous splice site mutation in coiled-coil domain containing 39 ( Ccdc39 ) is responsible for early postnatal hydrocephalus in the progressive hydrocephal us ( prh ) mouse mutant. Ccdc39 is selectively expressed in embryonic choroid plexus and ependymal cells on the medial wall of the forebrain ventricle, and the protein is localized to the axoneme of motile cilia. The Ccdc39 prh/prh ependymal cells develop shorter cilia with disorganized microtubules lacking the axonemal inner arm dynein. Using high-speed video microscopy, we show that an orchestrated ependymal ciliary beating pattern controls unidirectional CSF flow on the ventricular surface, which generates bulk CSF flow in the developing brain. Collectively, our data provide the first evidence for involvement of Ccdc39 in hydrocephalus and suggest that the proper development of medial wall ependymal cilia is crucial for normal mouse brain development. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium.

    PubMed

    Moon, James C C; Sachdev, Bhavesh; Elkington, Andrew G; McKenna, William J; Mehta, Atul; Pennell, Dudley J; Leed, Philip J; Elliott, Perry M

    2003-12-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD), an X-linked disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, is a cause of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy but the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can detect focal myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesised that hyperenhancement would be present in AFD. Eighteen males (mean 43+/-14 years) and eight female heterozygotes (mean 48+/-12 years) with AFD underwent cine and late gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Nine male (50%) had myocardial hyperenhancement ranging from 3.4% to 20.6% (mean 7.7+/-5.7%) of total myocardium; in males, percentage hyperenhancement related to LV mass index (r=0.78, P=0.0002) but not to ejection fraction or left ventricular volumes. Lesser hyperenhancement was also found in four (50%) heterozygous females (mean 4.6%). In 12 (92%) patients with abnormal gadolinium uptake, hyperenhancement occurred in the basal infero-lateral wall where, unlike myocardial infarction, it was not sub-endocardial. In two male patients with severe LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and systolic impairment there was additional hyperenhancement in other myocardial segments. These observations suggests that myocardial fibrosis occurs in AFD and may contribute to the hypertrophy and the natural history of the disease.

  10. Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, A C; Filho, A S; Esteves, J P; Abreu, W N; Vinhaes, L A; de Almeida Souza, J A; Machado, A

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of left ventricular aneurysm, a 16-year-old black boy and a 23-year-old white girl, from Bahia, Brazil, are presented. In both patients there was enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and a prominent bulge of the left inferior border. On the right oblique view a ring of calcium at the ventricular opening of the aneurysms was visualized. A left ventriculogram showed a huge aneurysm in the first case and a bulge on the lateral wall of the left ventricle in the other. Cardiac catheterization showed a rise in left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures and in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. In the first case the contour of the right ventricular pressure curve showed a restrictive pattern. The similarities of these aneurysms with the annular submitral type described in young black Africans are stressed. Images PMID:973882

  11. Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A C; Filho, A S; Esteves, J P; Abreu, W N; Vinhaes, L A; de Almeida Souza, J A; Machado, A

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of left ventricular aneurysm, a 16-year-old black boy and a 23-year-old white girl, from Bahia, Brazil, are presented. In both patients there was enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and a prominent bulge of the left inferior border. On the right oblique view a ring of calcium at the ventricular opening of the aneurysms was visualized. A left ventriculogram showed a huge aneurysm in the first case and a bulge on the lateral wall of the left ventricle in the other. Cardiac catheterization showed a rise in left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures and in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. In the first case the contour of the right ventricular pressure curve showed a restrictive pattern. The similarities of these aneurysms with the annular submitral type described in young black Africans are stressed.

  12. Enhanced washout of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: quantitative comparisons with regional 123I-BMIPP uptake and wall thickness determined by MRI.

    PubMed

    Thet-Thet-Lwin; Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Fumikura, Yuko; Iida, Keiji; Kawano, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Iwao; Itai, Yuji

    2003-07-01

    The diagnostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin (TF) washout in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was examined by investigating its relation to the metabolic abnormality depicted by iodine-123 beta-methyl- p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) uptake and the left ventricular (LV) myocardial wall thickness as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). TF washout was evaluated in 31 patients with HCM and 23 normal control subjects using 30-min (early) and 3-h (delayed) TF single-photon emission tomography images. The LV myocardial wall was divided into 19 segments and the percentage TF washout, regional BMIPP uptake and LV wall thickness were measured in each segment. Mean TF washout in the patients with HCM was significantly faster than that in normal control subjects (23.7+/-5.7 vs 13.4+/-4.1, P<0.0001). In the patients with HCM, TF washout showed an excellent correlation with MRI wall thickness ( r=0.82, P<0.0001) and a good inverse correlation with regional BMIPP uptake ( r=-0.72, P<0.0001). In addition, a good linear correlation was observed between TF uptake and MRI wall thickness in the 19 regional segments. In conclusion, the degree of TF washout corresponds well with the severity of myocardial wall thickness and the degree of metabolic abnormality in patients with HCM. These results suggest that enhanced TF washout might provide additional clinical information regarding metabolic alterations in HCM.

  13. Adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions in right ventricular pressure load: Insights from pediatric pulmonary hypertension versus pulmonary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Hui, Wei; Bijnens, Bart H; Dragulescu, Andreea; Mertens, Luc; Meijboom, Folkert J; Friedberg, Mark K

    2016-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) pressure overload has a vastly different clinical course in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) than in children with pulmonary stenosis (PS). While RV function is well recognized as a key prognostic factor in iPAH, adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions and LV dysfunction are less well characterized and the pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We compared ventricular-ventricular interactions as hypothesized drivers of biventricular dysfunction in pediatric iPAH versus PS Eighteen iPAH, 16 PS patients and 18 age- and size-matched controls were retrospectively studied. Cardiac cycle events were measured by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Measurements were compared between groups using ANOVA with post hoc Dunnet's or ANCOVA including RV systolic pressure (RVSP; iPAH 96.8 ± 25.4 mmHg vs. PS 75.4 ± 18.9 mmHg; P = 0.011) as a covariate. RV-free wall thickening was prolonged in iPAH versus PS, extending beyond pulmonary valve closure (638 ± 76 msec vs. 562 ± 76 msec vs. 473 ± 59 msec controls). LV and RV isovolumetric relaxation were prolonged in iPAH (P < 0.001; LV 102.8 ± 24.1 msec vs. 63.1 ± 13.7 msec; RV 95 [61-165] vs. 28 [0-43]), associated with adverse septal kinetics; characterized by rightward displacement in early systole and leftward displacement in late RV systole (i.e., early LV diastole). Early LV diastolic filling was decreased in iPAH (73 ± 15.9 vs. PS 87.4 ± 14.4 vs. controls 95.8 ± 12.5 cm/sec; P = 0.004). Prolonged RVFW thickening, prolonged RVFW isovolumetric times, and profound septal dyskinesia are associated with interventricular mechanical discoordination and decreased early LV filling in pediatric iPAH much more than PS These adverse mechanics affect systolic and diastolic biventricular efficiency in iPAH and may form the basis for worse clinical outcomes. We used clinically derived data to study the pathophysiology of ventricular-ventricular

  14. Do we overestimate left ventricular ejection fraction by two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with left bundle branch block?

    PubMed

    Cabuk, Ali K; Cabuk, Gizem; Sayin, Ahmet; Karamanlioglu, Murat; Kilicaslan, Barış; Ekmekci, Cenk; Solmaz, Hatice; Aslanturk, Omer F; Ozdogan, Oner

    2018-02-01

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) causes a dyssynchronized contraction of left ventricle. This is a kind of regional wall-motion abnormality and measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography could be less reliable in this particular condition. Our aim was to evaluate the role of dyssynchrony index (SDI), measured by three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, in assessment of LVEF and left ventricular volumes accurately in patients with LBBB. In this case-control study, we included 52 of 64 enrolled participants (twelve participants with poor image quality were excluded) with LBBB and normal LVEF or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular volumes were assessed by 2D (modified Simpson's rule) and 3D (four beats full volume analysis) echocardiography and the impact of SDI on results were evaluated. In patients with SDI ≥6%, LVEF measurements were significantly different (46.00% [29.50-52.50] vs 37.60% [24.70-45.15], P < .001) between 2D and 3D echocardiography, respectively. In patients with SDI < 6%, there were no significant differences between two modalities in terms of LVEF measurements (54.50% [49.00-59.00] vs 54.25% [40.00-58.25], P = .193). LV diastolic volumes were not significantly different while systolic volumes were underestimated by 2D echocardiography, and this finding was more pronounced when SDI ≥ 6%. In patients with LBBB and high SDI (≥6%), LVEF values were overestimated and systolic volumes were underestimated by 2D echocardiography compared to 3D echocardiography. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse, Michiel J.

    1998-03-01

    One of the factors that favors the development of ventricular fibrillation is an increase in the dispersion of refractoriness. Experiments will be described in which an increase in dispersion in the recovery of excitability was determined during brief episodes of enhanced sympathetic nerve activity, known to increase the risk of fibrillation. Whereas in the normal heart ventricular fibrillation can be induced by a strong electrical shock, a premature stimulus of moderate intensity only induces fibrillation in the presence of regional ischemia, which greatly increases the dispersion of refractoriness. One factor that is of importance for the transition of reentrant ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation during acute regional ischemia is the subendocardial Purkinje system. After selective destruction of the Purkinje network by lugol, reentrant tachycardias still develop in the ischemic region, but they do not degenerate into fibrillation. Finally, attempts were made to determine the minimal mass of thin ventricular myocardium required to sustain fibrillation induced by burst pacing. This was done by freezing of subendocardial and midmural layers. The rim of surviving epicardial muscle had to be larger than 20 g. Extracellular electrograms during fibrillation in both the intact and the "frozen" left ventricle were indistinguishable, but activation patterns were markedly different. In the intact ventricle epicardial activation was compatible with multiple wavelet reentry, in the "frozen" heart a single, or at most two wandering reentrant waves were seen.

  16. Gated blood pool tomography for the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function in comparison to planar techniques and echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Canclini, S; Terzi, A; Rossini, P; Vignati, A; La Canna, G; Magri, G C; Pizzocaro, C; Giubbini, R

    2001-01-01

    Multigated radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) is a simple and reliable tool for the assessment of global systolic and diastolic function and in several studies it is still considered a standard for the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction. However the evaluation of regional wall motion by MUGA is critical due to two-dimensional imaging and its clinical use is progressively declining in favor of echocardiography. Tomographic MUGA (T-MUGA) is not widely adopted in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare T-MUGA to planar MUGA (P-MUGA) for the assessment of global ejection fraction and to transthoracic echocardiography for the evaluation of regional wall motion. A 16-segment model was adopted for the comparison with echo regional wall motion. For each one of the 16 segments the normal range of T-MUGA ejection fraction was quantified and a normal data file was defined; the average value -2.5 SD was used as the lower threshold to identify abnormal segments. In addition, amplitude images from Fourier analysis were quantified and considered abnormal according to three different thresholds (25, 50 and 75% of the maximum). In a study group of 33 consecutive patients the ejection fraction values of T-MUGA highly correlated with those of P-MUGA (r = 0.93). The regional ejection fraction (according to the normal database) and the amplitude analysis (50% threshold) allowed for the correct identification of 203/226 and 167/226 asynergic segments by echocardiography, and of 269/302 and 244/302 normal segments, respectively. Therefore sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy to detect regional wall motion abnormalities were 90, 89, 89% and 74, 81, 79% for regional ejection fraction and amplitude analysis, respectively. T-MUGA is a reliable tool for regional wall motion evaluation, well correlated with echocardiography, less subjective and able to provide quantitative data.

  17. Dependence of Intramyocardial Pressure and Coronary Flow on Ventricular Loading and Contractility: A Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Borsje, Petra; Arts, Theo; van De Vosse, Frans N.

    2006-01-01

    The phasic coronary arterial inflow during the normal cardiac cycle has been explained with simple (waterfall, intramyocardial pump) models, emphasizing the role of ventricular pressure. To explain changes in isovolumic and low afterload beats, these models were extended with the effect of three-dimensional wall stress, nonlinear characteristics of the coronary bed, and extravascular fluid exchange. With the associated increase in the number of model parameters, a detailed parameter sensitivity analysis has become difficult. Therefore we investigated the primary relations between ventricular pressure and volume, wall stress, intramyocardial pressure and coronary blood flow, with a mathematical model with a limited number of parameters. The model replicates several experimental observations: the phasic character of coronary inflow is virtually independent of maximum ventricular pressure, the amplitude of the coronary flow signal varies about proportionally with cardiac contractility, and intramyocardial pressure in the ventricular wall may exceed ventricular pressure. A parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the normalized amplitude of coronary inflow is mainly determined by contractility, reflected in ventricular pressure and, at low ventricular volumes, radial wall stress. Normalized flow amplitude is less sensitive to myocardial coronary compliance and resistance, and to the relation between active fiber stress, time, and sarcomere shortening velocity. PMID:17048105

  18. Dependence of intramyocardial pressure and coronary flow on ventricular loading and contractility: a model study.

    PubMed

    Bovendeerd, Peter H M; Borsje, Petra; Arts, Theo; van De Vosse, Frans N

    2006-12-01

    The phasic coronary arterial inflow during the normal cardiac cycle has been explained with simple (waterfall, intramyocardial pump) models, emphasizing the role of ventricular pressure. To explain changes in isovolumic and low afterload beats, these models were extended with the effect of three-dimensional wall stress, nonlinear characteristics of the coronary bed, and extravascular fluid exchange. With the associated increase in the number of model parameters, a detailed parameter sensitivity analysis has become difficult. Therefore we investigated the primary relations between ventricular pressure and volume, wall stress, intramyocardial pressure and coronary blood flow, with a mathematical model with a limited number of parameters. The model replicates several experimental observations: the phasic character of coronary inflow is virtually independent of maximum ventricular pressure, the amplitude of the coronary flow signal varies about proportionally with cardiac contractility, and intramyocardial pressure in the ventricular wall may exceed ventricular pressure. A parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the normalized amplitude of coronary inflow is mainly determined by contractility, reflected in ventricular pressure and, at low ventricular volumes, radial wall stress. Normalized flow amplitude is less sensitive to myocardial coronary compliance and resistance, and to the relation between active fiber stress, time, and sarcomere shortening velocity.

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  1. Patterns of left ventricular remodeling among patients with essential and secondary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Dan; Stoicescu, Laurentiu; Buzdugan, Elena; Donca, Valer

    2013-12-01

    High blood pressure causes left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a negative prognostic factor among hypertensive patients. To assess left ventricular geometric remodeling patterns in patients with essential hypertension or with hypertension secondary to parenchymal renal disease. We analyzed data from echocardiograms performed in 250 patients with essential hypertension (150 females) and 100 patients with secondary hypertension (60 females). The interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall thickness were measured in the parasternal long-axis. Left ventricular mass was calculated using the Devereaux formula. The most common remodeling type in females and males with essential hypertension were eccentric and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH), respectively. Among patients with secondary arterial hypertension, cLVH was most commonly observed in both genders. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was higher among patients with secondary hypertension. The left ventricular mass index and the relative left ventricular wall thickness were higher in males and also in the secondary hypertension group. Age, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension, influenced remodeling patterns. We documented a higher prevalence of LVH among patients with secondary hypertension. The type of ventricular remodeling depends on gender, age, type of hypertension, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension.

  2. Right ventricular myocardial infarction: presentation and acute outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Anand; Gnanavelu, G; Subramaniam, T; Dorairajan, Smrita; Chockalingam, V

    2005-01-01

    Acute inferior wall myocardial infarction can be complicated by right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI), and the excess mortality cannot be fully explained by mechanical reasons. The authors try to systematically assess the incidence, clinical presentation and early outcomes of right ventricular infarction in a tertiary-care setup. Their study was a prospective observational series of consecutive patients with RVMI. All patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction (n=135) were enlisted. RVMI was diagnosed by > or = 1 mm ST elevation in lead V(4R) in a right-sided electrocardiogram. Right ventricular (RV) infarction occurred in 37% (n=50) of patients with acute inferior infarctions. Patients with isolated inferior infarction served as controls (n=85). Echocardiography was performed within 24 hours of admission. From both groups, 66% qualified for thrombolysis. The incidence of hypotension-bradycardia and heart blocks requiring pacing support was much higher in right ventricular infarction (n=21) than in inferior infarction (n=13). Clinically manifest RV dysfunction (raised jugular venous pulse [JVP], hypotension, tricuspid regurgitation) and right ventricular dilation detected by echocardiography were seen in only 13 patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher (n=8, 16%) in right ventricular infarction group than in inferior infarction group (n=3, 3.5%). Right ventricular infarction was seen in a third of inferior myocardial infarctions (IMIs), but hemodynamically evident right ventricular dysfunction occurred in only a tenth of acute IMIs. Nevertheless, the acute in-hospital mortality rate of patients with right ventricular infarction was much higher than in those with inferior infarction owing to arrhythmic and mechanical complications.

  3. Right ventricular dysfunction affects survival after surgical left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P < .01), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.96; P = .02), and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P < .01) were independently associated with 30-day mortality, after adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction and aortic crossclamping time. Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was

  4. Value of gated SPECT in the analysis of regional wall motion of the interventricular septum after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Giubbini, Raffaele; Rossini, Pierluigi; Bertagna, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Paghera, Barbara; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Canclini, Silvana; Terzi, Arturo; Germano, Guido

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of septal wall motion, perfusion and wall thickening after CABG in two groups of consecutive patients, one with grafted left anterior coronary artery and no history of myocardial infarction, and the other with previous anteroseptal myocardial infarction and impaired septal motion before surgery. The issue addressed was the ability of gated SPECT to differentiate between true paradoxical septal motion, characterised by paradoxical wall motion, depressed ejection fraction (EF), poor viability and compromised wall thickening, and pseudo-paradoxical motion, characterised by abnormal wall motion and regional EF but preserved perfusion and wall thickening. One hundred and thirty-two patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction, 82 patients with left anterior descending coronary disease and no history of myocardial infarction and 27 normal subjects underwent rest gated SPECT after 99mTc-sestamibi injection, according to the standard QGS protocol. Quantitative regional EF, regional perfusion, regional wall motion and regional wall thickening were determined using a 20-segment model. Despite the presence of similar regional wall motion impairment in patients with and patients without septal infarction, in terms of regional EF (2.5%+/-3% vs 1.9%+/-4.9% p=NS) and inward septal motion (3+/-4.9 mm vs 2.3+/-6.1 mm p=NS), significant differences were observed in both perfusion (74.7%+/-6.2% vs 63.3%+/-13%, p>0.0001) and regional wall thickening (17.2%+/-7.4% vs 12.6%+/-7.2%, p>0.0001). Gated SPECT with perfusion tracers can reliably differentiate pseudo-paradoxical from true paradoxical septal motion in patients with previous CABG, and it may be the method of choice for evaluating left ventricular performance in this patient population.

  5. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using implantable ventricular assist devices in the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. In the period of 1994 to 1997, 38,702 individuals in Ontario had a first hospital admission for heart failure. Despite reported improvement in survival, the five-year mortality rate for heart failure is about 50%. For patients with end-stage heart failure that does not respond to medical therapy, surgical treatment or traditional circulatory assist devices, heart transplantation (in appropriate patients) is the only treatment that provides significant patient benefit. Heart Transplant in Ontario With a shortage in the supply of donor hearts, patients are waiting longer for a heart transplant and may die before a donor heart is available. From 1999 to 2003, 55 to 74 people received a heart transplant in Ontario each year. Another 12 to 21 people died while waiting for a suitable donor heart. Of these, 1 to 5 deaths occurred in people under 18 years old. The rate-limiting factor in heart transplant is the supply of donor hearts. Without an increase in available donor hearts, attempts at prolonging the life of some patients on the transplant wait list could have a harmful effect on other patients that are being pushed down the waiting list (knock on effect). LVAD Technology Ventricular assist devices [VADs] have been developed to provide circulatory assistance to patients with end-stage heart failure. These are small pumps that usually assist the damaged left ventricle [LVADs] and may be situated within the body (intracorporeal] or outside the body [extracorporeal). Some of these devices were designed for use in the right ventricle [RVAD] or both

  6. Ventricular arrhythmias in the absence of structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, Eric N; Padanilam, Benzy J; Joshi, Sandeep; Fogel, Richard I

    2012-05-15

    Ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in structurally normal hearts can be broadly considered under non-life-threatening monomorphic and life-threatening polymorphic rhythms. Monomorphic VA is classified on the basis of site of origin in the heart, and the most common areas are the ventricular outflow tracts and left ventricular fascicles. The morphology of the QRS complexes on electrocardiogram is an excellent tool to identify the site of origin of the rhythm. Although these arrhythmias are common and generally carry an excellent prognosis, rare sudden death events have been reported. Very frequent ventricular ectopy may also result in a cardiomyopathy in a minority of patients. Suppression of VA may be achieved using calcium-channel blockers, beta-adrenergic blockers, and class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs. Radiofrequency ablation has emerged as an excellent option to eliminate these arrhythmias, although certain foci including aortic cusps and epicardium may be technically challenging. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is rare and generally occurs in patients with genetic ion channel disorders including long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic VT, and short QT syndrome. Unlike monomorphic VT, these arrhythmic syndromes are associated with sudden death. While the cardiac gross morphology is normal, suggesting a structurally normal heart, abnormalities exist at the molecular level and predispose them to arrhythmias. Another fascinating area, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and early repolarization syndrome, are undergoing research for a genetic basis. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered left ventricular vortex ring formation by 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging after repair of atrioventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Calkoen, Emmeline E; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Westenberg, Jos J M; Kroft, Lucia J M; Hazekamp, Mark G; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J

    2015-11-01

    During normal left ventricular (LV) filling, a vortex ring structure is formed distal to the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV). Vortex structures contribute to efficient flow organization. We aimed to investigate whether LAVV abnormality in patients with a corrected atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) has an impact on vortex ring formation. Whole-heart 4D flow MRI was performed in 32 patients (age: 26 ± 12 years), and 30 healthy subjects (age: 25 ± 14 years). Vortex ring cores were detected at peak early (E-peak) and peak late filling (A-peak). When present, the 3-dimensional position and orientation of the vortex ring was defined, and the circularity index was calculated. Through-plane flow over the LAVV, and the vortex formation time (VFT), were quantified to analyze the relationship of vortex flow with the inflow jet. Absence of a vortex ring during E-peak (healthy subjects 0%, vs patients 19%; P = .015), and A-peak (healthy subjects 10% vs patients 44%; P = .008) was more frequent in patients. In 4 patients, this was accompanied by a high VFT (5.1-7.8 vs 2.4 ± 0.6 in healthy subjects), and in another 2 patients with abnormal valve anatomy. In patients compared with controls, the vortex cores had a more-anterior and apical position, closer to the ventricular wall, with a more-elliptical shape and oblique orientation. The shape of the vortex core closely resembled the valve shape, and its orientation was related to the LV inflow direction. This study quantitatively shows the influence of abnormal LAVV and LV inflow on 3D vortex ring formation during LV inflow in patients with corrected AVSD, compared with healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Perinatal outcomes associated with abnormal cardiac remodeling in women with treated chronic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ambia, Anne M; Morgan, Jamie L; Wells, C Edward; Roberts, Scott W; Sanghavi, Monika; Nelson, David B; Cunningham, F Gary

    2018-05-01

    Adverse maternal outcomes associated with chronic hypertension include accelerated hypertension and resultant target organ damage. One example is long-standing hypertension leading to maternal cardiac dysfunction. Our group has previously identified that features of such injury manifest as cardiac remodeling with left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, these features of cardiac remodeling identified in women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Recent definitions of maternal cardiac remodeling using echocardiography have been expanded to include measurements of wall thickness. We hypothesized that these new features characterizing cardiac remodeling in women with chronic hypertension may also be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. There were 3 aims in this study of women with treated chronic hypertension during pregnancy: to (1) apply the updated definitions of maternal cardiac remodeling; (2) elucidate whether these features of cardiac remodeling were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes; and (3) determine which, if any, of the newly defined cardiac remodeling strata were most damaging when compared to women with normal cardiac geometry. This was a retrospective study of women with treated chronic hypertension during pregnancy delivered from January 2009 through January 2016. Cardiac remodeling was categorized by left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness into 4 groups determined using the 2015 American Society of Echocardiography guidelines: normal geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. Perinatal outcomes were analyzed according to each category of cardiac remodeling compared with outcomes in women with normal geometry. A total of 314 women with treated chronic hypertension underwent echocardiography at a mean gestational age of 17.9 weeks. There were no differences between maternal age (P = .896), habitus (P = .36), or duration of

  9. The helical ventricular myocardial band of Torrent-Guasp.

    PubMed

    Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio F; Lackovic, Vesna; Kanjuh, Vladimir I

    2007-01-01

    We live in an era of substantial progress in understanding myocardial structure and function at genetic, molecular, and microscopic levels. Yet, ventricular myocardium has proven remarkably resistant to macroscopic analyses of functional anatomy. Pronounced and practically indefinite global and local structural anisotropy of its fibers and other ventricular wall constituents produces electrical and mechanical properties that are nonlinear, anisotropic, time varying, and spatially inhomogeneous. The helical ventricular myocardial band of Torrent-Guasp is a revolutionary new concept in understanding global, 3-dimensional, functional architecture of the ventricular myocardium. This concept defines the principal, cumulative vectors, integrating the tissue architecture (ie, form) and net forces developed (ie, function) within the ventricular mass. The primary purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of this concept, in the light of collaborative efforts to establish an integrative approach, defining ventricular form and function by linking across multiple scales of biological organization, as explained in the ongoing Physiome project. Because one of the most important scientific missions in this century is integration of basic research with clinical medicine, we believe that this knowledge is not of merely academic importance, but is also the essential prerequisite in clinical evaluation and treatment of different heart diseases.

  10. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; P<0.0001) and mid (-17.5 [-15.5 to -19.0]% versus -21.1 [-19.1 to -23.0]%; P<0.0001) septal strain. Basal global circumferential strain was reduced (-18.7 [-15.7 to -22.1]% versus -20.6 [-19.0 to -22.5]%; P=0.0098), as were septal and free-wall segments. Mid circumferential strain was reduced within the free-wall. Strain rates were reduced in similar patterns. Basal septum LS, the combined average LS of basal and mid interventricular septal segments, correlated strongly with degree of PH (r=0.66; P<0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=0.60; P<0.0001), and right ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; P<0.0001). Brain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias represent one of leading causes for sudden cardiac death, a significant problem in public health. Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electric activities associated with ventricular arrhythmias plays an important role in better our understanding of the mechanisms and optimizing the treatment options. The present study aims to rigorously validate a novel three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping during paced rhythm and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous norepinephrine (NE). The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and a relative error of 0.30 averaged over all paced beats and NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to measured site determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ∼5mm. These promising results suggest that 3-DCEI is feasible to non-invasively localize the origins and image activation sequence of focal ventricular arrhythmias.

  12. Computational Analysis of Intra-Ventricular Flow Pattern Under Partial and Full Support of BJUT-II VAD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu

    2017-02-27

    BACKGROUND Partial support, as a novel support mode, has been widely applied in clinical practice and widely studied. However, the precise mechanism of partial support of LVAD in the intra-ventricular flow pattern is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a patient-specific left ventricular geometric model was reconstructed based on CT data. The intra-ventricular flow pattern under 3 simulated conditions - "heart failure", "partial support", and "full support" - were simulated by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The blood flow pattern, wall shear stress (WSS), time-average wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and relative residence time (RRT) were calculated to evaluate the hemodynamic effects. RESULTS The results demonstrate that the intra-ventricular flow pattern is significantly changed by the support level of BJUT-II VAD. The intra-ventricular vortex was enhanced under partial support and was eliminated under full support, and the high OSI and RRT regions changed from the septum wall to the cardiac apex. CONCLUSIONS In brief, the support level of the BJUT-II VAD has significant effects on the intra-ventricular flow pattern. The partial support mode of BJUT-II VAD can enhance the intra-ventricular vortex, while the distribution of high OSI and RRT moved from the septum wall to the cardiac apex. Hence, the partial support mode of BJUT-II VAD can provide more benefit for intra-ventricular flow pattern.

  13. A left ventricular epicardial to right ventricular endocardial dominant frequency gradient exists in human ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jose Luis; Shah, Bindi K; Greenberg, Richard M; Deger, Florin Titus; Gerstenfeld, Edward P

    2010-10-01

    We hypothesized that in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing implant of a biventricular ICD, the local dominant frequency during early induced ventricular fibrillation would be higher at an epicardial left ventricular position compared to an endocardial right ventricular position. Patients undergoing implant of a biventricular ICD were studied. During ventricular fibrillation induction, bipolar electrograms were recorded from leads at an epicardial left ventricular position and an endocardial right ventricular position. Overlapping 2-s fast Fourier transforms were obtained for 6 s of ventricular fibrillation. The dominant frequency and organizational index were compared. Thirty-four patients (20 men, age 64 ± 11 years) underwent 57 inductions of ventricular fibrillation. Eighteen patients had non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and 16 had ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. The dominant frequency was higher at a lateral epicardial left ventricular position than an apical endocardial right ventricular position in 18 patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (LV epicardial 5.34 ± 0.37 Hz, RV endocardial 5.09 ± 0.41 Hz, p < 0.001), but not in 16 patients with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (LV epicardial 4.99 ± 0.57 Hz, RV epicardial 4.87 ± 0.65 Hz, p = 0.094). In patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, there is a dominant frequency gradient during early ventricular fibrillation induced at ICD testing from the lateral left ventricular epicardium to the apical right ventricular endocardium.

  14. Coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LDB3 mutation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shengshuai; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Lin; Wang, Min; Liu, Chengyun

    2017-08-19

    The coexistence of congenital left ventricular aneurysm and abnormal cardiac trabeculation with gene mutation has not been reported previously. Here, we report a case of coexisting congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation in a patient with LIM domain binding 3 gene mutation. A 30-year-old Asian man showed paroxysmal sinus tachycardia and Q waves in an electrocardiogram health check. There were no specific findings in physical examinations and serological tests. A coronary-computed tomography angiography check showed normal coronary artery and no coronary stenosis. Both left ventricle contrast echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance showed rare patterns of a combination of an apical aneurysm-like out-pouching structure with a wide connection to the left ventricle and prominent left ventricular trabecular meshwork. High-throughput sequencing examinations showed a novel mutation in the LDB3 gene (c.C793>T; p.Arg265Cys). Our finding indicates that the phenotypic expression of two heart conditions, congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation, although rare, can occur simultaneously with LDB3 gene mutation. Congenital left ventricular aneurysm and prominent left ventricular trabeculation may share the same genetic background.

  15. Significance of postshunt ventricular asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Linder, M; Diehl, J T; Sklar, F H

    1981-08-01

    Ventricular asymmetries after shunt surgery were studied. Right and left ventricular areas from pre-and postoperative computerized tomography scans were measured with a computer digitizing technique, and the respective areas were expressed as a ratio. Measurements were made from the scans of 15 hydrocephalic children selected at random. Ages at surgery ranged from 1 to 101 weeks. The results indicate a significantly greater decrease in ventricular size on the side of the ventricular shunt catheter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between the magnitude of change in ventricular size and either the patients' age orn the time intervals between surgery and follow-up scans. Possible mechanisms for these postshunt ventricular asymmetries are discussed.

  16. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  17. Risk Stratification in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Hugh; Corrado, Domenico; Marcus, Frank

    2017-11-21

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although structural abnormalities of the right ventricle predominate, it is well recognized that left ventricular involvement is common, particularly in advanced disease, and that left-dominant forms occur. The pathological characteristic of ARVC is myocyte loss with fibrofatty replacement. Since the first detailed clinical description of the disorder in 1982, significant advances have been made in understanding this disease. Once the diagnosis of ARVC is established, the single most important clinical decision is whether a particular patient's sudden cardiac death risk is sufficient to justify placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The importance of this decision reflects the fact that ARVC is a common cause of sudden death in young people and that sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. This decision is particularly important because these are often young patients who are expected to live for many years. Although an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator can save lives in individuals with this disease, it is also well recognized that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is associated with both short- and long-term complications. Decisions about the placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator are based on an estimate of a patient's risk of sudden cardiac death, as well as their preferences and values. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature that concerns risk stratification in patients with ARVC and to place this literature in the framework of the 3 authors' considerable lifetime experiences in caring for patients with ARVC. The most important parameters to consider when determining arrhythmic risk include electric instability, including the frequency of premature ventricular contractions and

  18. Importance of the mitral apparatus for left ventricular function: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Gams, E; Hagl, S; Schad, H; Heimisch, W; Mendler, N; Sebening, F

    1992-01-01

    In an experimental study of 31 anesthetized dogs the importance of the mitral apparatus for the left ventricular function was investigated. During extracorporeal circulation bileaflet mitral valve prostheses were implanted preserving the mitral subvalvular apparatus. Flexible wires were slung around the chordae tendineae and exteriorized through the left ventricular wall to cut the chordae by electrocautery from the outside when the heart was beating again. External and internal left ventricular dimensions were measured by sonomicrometry, left ventricular stroke volume by electromagnetic flowmeters around the ascending aorta, left ventricular end-diastolic volume by dye dilution technique, and left ventricular pressure by catheter tip manometers. Different preload levels were achieved by volume loading with blood transfusion before and after cutting the chordae tendineae. When the chordae had been divided peak systolic left ventricular pressure did not change. Heart rate only increased at the lowest left ventricular end-diastolic pressures of 3-4 mmHg, but remained unchanged at higher preload levels. Cardiac output decreased significantly up to -9% at left ventricular end-diastolic pressures of 5-10 mmHg, while left ventricular dp/dtmax showed a consistent reduction of up to -15% at any preload level. Significant reductions were also seen in systolic shortening in the left ventricular major axis (by external measurements -27%, by internal recording -43%). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions increased in the major axis by +2% when recorded externally, by +10% when measured internally. Systolic and diastolic changes in the minor axis were not consistent and different in the external and internal recordings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. [The complex origin of ventricular tachycardia after the total correction of tetralogy of Fallot].

    PubMed

    Ressia, L; Graffigna, A; Salerno-Uriarte, J A; Viganò, M

    1993-09-01

    Two patients underwent surgical treatment of ventricular tachycardia after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Both patients had right bundle branch block, moderate pulmonary valve incompetence and right ventricular dilatation, and were refractory to electrophysiologically guided drug therapy. Both patients underwent intraoperative epicardial mapping, which located the arrhythmogenic focus on the right ventricular outflow tract, on the border of the previous ventriculotomy. In one patient removal of the previous scar and endocardial cryoablation was successful in ablating the arrhythmia. In the other, the same procedure was only temporarily effective. VT recurred and was subsequently identified at the superior border of the closed ventricular septal defect. It was ablated by means of transcatheter radiofrequency. While VT from foci located on the right ventricular free wall can be easily detected and ablated, septal origin of VT requires extensive preoperative and intraoperative electrophysiological evaluation and may necessitate combined surgical and transcatheter procedures.

  20. Sevoflurane anesthesia during acute right ventricular ischemia in pigs preserves cardiac function better than propofol anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, Pernille; Metzsch, Carsten; Lindstedt, Sandra; Algotsson, Lars; Ingemansson, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The intention of the present study was to evaluate possible cardioprotective properties of inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane. A porcine, open-chest model of right ventricular ischemia was used in 7 pigs receiving inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane. The model was earlier developed and published by our group, using pigs receiving intravenous anesthesia with propofol. They served as controls. The animals were observed for three hours after the induction of right ventricular ischemia by ligation of the main branches supplying the right ventricular free wall. In the sevoflurane group, the cardiac output recovered 2 hours after the induction of ischemia and intact right ventricular stroke work was observed. In the propofol group, no such recovery occurred. The release of troponin T was significantly lower than in the sevoflurane group. Inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane seems superior to intravenous anesthesia with propofol in acute right ventricular ischemic dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma.

    PubMed

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Non-Compact Cardiomyopathy or Ventricular Non-Compact Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular myocardial non-compaction has been recognized and defined as a genetic cardiomyopathy by American Heart Association since 2006. The argument on the nomenclature and pathogenesis of this kind of ventricular myocardial non-compaction characterized by regional ventricular wall thickening and deep trabecular recesses often complicated with chronic heart failure, arrhythmia and thromboembolism and usually overlap the genetics and phenotypes of other kind of genetic or mixed cardiomyopathy still exist. The proper classification and correct nomenclature of the non-compact ventricles will contribute to the precisely and completely understanding of etiology and its related patho-physiological mechanism for a better risk stratification and more personalized therapy of the disease individually. All of the genetic heterogeneity and phenotypical overlap and the variety in histopathological, electromechanical and clinical presentation indicates that some of the cardiomyopathies might just be the different consequence of myocardial development variations related to gene mutation and phenotype of one or group genes induced by the interacted and disturbed process of gene modulation at different links of gene function expression and some other etiologies. This review aims to establish a new concept of "ventricular non-compaction syndrome" based on the demonstration of the current findings of etiology, epidemiology, histopathology and echocardiography related to the disorder of ventricular myocardial compaction and myocardial electromechanical function development. PMID:25580189

  3. Triggers of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia differ among patients with varying etiologies of left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Jonathan; Hanon, Sam; Shapiro, Michael; Evans, Steven J; Schweitzer, Paul

    2006-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the initiation of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) have not been fully elucidated. The extent to which reentry, abnormal automaticity, and triggered activity play a role in VT differs depending on the etiology of left ventricular dysfunction. By analyzing electrograms from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), we sought to determine whether there were differences in VT initiation patterns between patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We analyzed ICD electrograms in patients with ejection fractions < 40% who had sustained VT over a 27-month period. The trigger for VT onset was classified as a ventricular premature beat (VPB), supraventricular tachycardia, or of "sudden onset." The baseline cycle length, VT cycle length, coupling interval, and prematurity ratio were recorded for each event. The prematurity ratio was calculated as the coupling interval of the VT initiator divided by the baseline cycle length. Sixty-three VT events in 14 patients met the inclusion criteria. A VPB initiated the VT in 58 episodes (92%), 1 episode (2%) was initiated by a supraventricular tachycardia, and 4 episodes (6%) were sudden onset. The prematurity ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (0.751 +/- 0.068) as compared to patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (0.604 +/- 0.139). VPBs initiated most sustained VT episodes. A significantly higher prematurity ratio was observed in the ischemic heart disease group. This may represent different mechanisms of VT initiation in patients with ischemic versus nonischemic heart disease.

  4. An interesting case of cryptogenic stroke in a young man due to left ventricular non-compaction: role of cardiac MRI in the accurate diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Arun; Das, Anindita; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-06-24

    A 28-year-old man arrived for an outpatient cardiac MRI (CMR) study to evaluate cardiac structure. At the age of 24 the patient presented with acute onset expressive aphasia and was diagnosed with ischaemic stroke. Echocardiography at that time was reported as 'apical wall thickening consistent with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy'. CMR revealed a moderately dilated left ventricle with abnormal appearance of the left ventricular (LV) apical segments. Further evaluation was consistent with a diagnosis of LV non-compaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy with a ratio of non-compacted to compacted myocardium measuring 3. There was extensive delayed hyperenhancement signal involving multiple segments representing a significant myocardial scar which is shown to have a prognostic role. Our patient, with no significant cerebrovascular risk factors, would likely have had an embolic stroke. This case demonstrates the role of CMR in accurately diagnosing LVNC in a patient with young stroke where prior echocardiography was non-diagnostic. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  6. Relationship between central and peripheral atherosclerosis and left ventricular dysfunction in a community population.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Gona, Philimon; Salton, Carol; Murabito, Joanne M; Oyama, Noriko; Danias, Peter G; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Yeon, Susan B

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to determine the relationships between resting left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities (WMAs), aortic plaque, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) in a community cohort. A total of 1726 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants (806 males, 65 ± 9 years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance with quantification of aortic plaque volume and assessment of regional left ventricular systolic function. Claudication, lower extremity revascularization, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were recorded at the most contemporaneous examination visit. WMAs were associated with greater aortic plaque burden, decreased ABI, and claudication in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (all p < 0.001), which were not significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, both the presence (p < 0.001) and volume of aortic plaque were associated with decreased ABI (p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, an ABI ≤ 0.9 or prior revascularization was associated with a threefold odds of aortic plaque (p = 0.0083). Plaque volume significantly increased with decreasing ABI in multivariable-adjusted analyses (p < 0.0001). In this free-living population, associations of WMAs with aortic plaque burden and clinical measures of PAD were attenuated after adjustment for coronary heart disease risk factors. Aortic plaque volume and ABI remained strongly negatively correlated after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the association between coronary heart disease and non-coronary atherosclerosis is explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Aortic atherosclerosis and PAD remain strongly associated after multivariable adjustment, suggesting shared mechanisms beyond those captured by traditional risk factors.

  7. Morphology and Classification of Right Ventricular Bands in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cope, L A

    2017-10-01

    Ventricular bands, also designated as 'false tendons', are described as single or multiple strands that cross the ventricles and have no connection to valvular cusps. Previous work indicates these strands are present in the ventricles of humans and some animal hearts and not always associated with cardiac pathologies. Despite these previous studies, the published literature is limited in documenting the morphology of these strands and incidence in animals. In this study, examination of 89 hearts showed six types of ventricular bands in the right ventricle of the domestic dog. These bands were classified according to their prevalence and points of attachment. Type I extended from the interventricular septum to the ventricular free wall, type II connected a musculus papillaris parvus to the ventricular free wall and type III connected trabeculae carneae on the interventricular septum. Type IV connected the trabeculae carneae on the ventricular free wall, type V interconnected papillary muscles and type VI connected the interventricular septum to a papillary muscle. While the study of these ventricular bands provided additional information on the cardiac anatomy of the domestic dog, it also showed their clinical importance. Several studies have proposed that their position in the ventricle may interfere with cardiac catheterization and pacemaker lead placement or be misinterpreted during echocardiography. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Case report: paradoxical ventricular septal motion in the setting of primary right ventricular myocardial failure.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew; Schwartz, Carl; Mahmood, Feroze; Singh, Arun; Heerdt, Paul M

    2009-07-01

    In this report, a case of right ventricular (RV) failure, hemodynamic instability, and systemic organ failure is described to highlight how paradoxical ventricular systolic septal motion (PVSM), or a rightward systolic displacement of the interventricular septum, may contribute to RV ejection. Multiple inotropic medications and vasopressors were administered to treat right heart failure and systemic hypotension in a patient following combined aortic and mitral valve replacement. In the early postoperative period, echocardiographic evaluation revealed adequate left ventricular systolic function, akinesis of the RV myocardial tissues, and PVSM. In the presence of PVSM, RV fractional area of contraction was > or =35% despite akinesis of the primary RV myocardial walls. The PVSM appeared to contribute toward RV ejection. As a result, the need for multiple inotropes was re-evaluated, in considering that end-organ dysfunction was the result of systemic hypotension and prolonged vasopressor administration. After discontinuation of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, native vascular tone returned and the need for vasopressors declined. This was followed by recovery of systemic organ function. Echocardiographic re-evaluation two years later, revealed persistent akinesis of the RV myocardial tissues and PVSM, the latter appearing to contribute toward RV ejection. This case highlights the importance of left to RV interactions, and how PVSM may mediate these hemodynamic interactions.

  9. A large left ventricular thrombus.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2009-06-26

    The discovery of a left ventricular mass obliges the clinician to perform a differential diagnosis including tumour or lipoma versus thrombus and its assessment presents important clinical implications. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been associated with left ventricular thrombosis which leads to substantial morbidity and mortality as a site for peripheral emboli. There are some studies on patients with dilated cardiomyopathy showing altered hemostasis and platelet behavior despite sinus rhythm. An increased incidence of thromboembolism is also well recognized in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction complicating history of myocardial infarction. Clinical dilemmas in treating left ventricular thrombus have been described too. We present a case of a large mobile left ventricular thrombus in a 71-year-old Italian man with dilated cardiomyopathy and history of myocardial infarction.

  10. Biventricular myocardial strain analysis in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking.

    PubMed

    Heermann, Philipp; Hedderich, Dennis M; Paul, Matthias; Schülke, Christoph; Kroeger, Jan Robert; Baeßler, Bettina; Wichter, Thomas; Maintz, David; Waltenberger, Johannes; Heindel, Walter; Bunck, Alexander C

    2014-10-07

    Fibrofatty degeneration of myocardium in ARVC is associated with wall motion abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) based strain analysis using feature tracking (FT) can serve as a quantifiable measure to confirm global and regional ventricular dysfunction in ARVC patients and support the early detection of ARVC. We enrolled 20 patients with ARVC, 30 with borderline ARVC and 22 subjects with a positive family history but no clinical signs of a manifest ARVC. 10 healthy volunteers (HV) served as controls. 15 ARVC patients received genotyping for Plakophilin-2 mutation (PKP-2), of which 7 were found to be positive. Cine MR datasets of all subjects were assessed for myocardial strain using FT (TomTec Diogenes Software). Global strain and strain rate in radial, circumferential and longitudinal mode were assessed for the right and left ventricle. In addition strain analysis at a segmental level was performed for the right ventricular free wall. RV global longitudinal strain rates in ARVC (-0.68 ± 0.36 sec⁻¹) and borderline ARVC (-0.85 ± 0.36 sec⁻¹) were significantly reduced in comparison with HV (-1.38 ± 0.52 sec⁻¹, p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, in ARVC patients RV global circumferential strain and strain rates at the basal level were significantly reduced compared with HV (strain: -5.1 ± 2.7 vs. -9.2 ± 3.6%; strain rate: -0.31 ± 0.13 sec(-1) vs. -0.61 ± 0.21 sec⁻¹). Even for patients with ARVC or borderline ARVC and normal RV ejection fraction (n=30) global longitudinal strain rate proved to be significantly reduced compared with HV (-0.9 ± 0.3 vs. -1.4 ± 0.5 sec(-1); p < 0.005). In ARVC patients with PKP-2 mutation there was a clear trend towards a more pronounced impairment in RV global longitudinal strain rate. On ROC analysis RV global longitudinal strain rate and circumferential strain rate at the basal level proved to be the best discriminators between ARVC patients and HV (AUC: 0

  11. Measurement of left ventricular mass in vivo using gated nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Florentine, M S; Grosskreutz, C L; Chang, W; Hartnett, J A; Dunn, V D; Ehrhardt, J C; Fleagle, S R; Collins, S M; Marcus, M L; Skorton, D J

    1986-07-01

    Alterations of left ventricular mass occur in a variety of congenital and acquired heart diseases. In vivo determination of left ventricular mass, using several different techniques, has been previously reported. Problems inherent in some previous methods include the use of ionizing radiation, complicated geometric assumptions and invasive techniques. We tested the ability of gated nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to determine in vivo left ventricular mass in animals. By studying both dogs (n = 9) and cats (n = 2) of various sizes, a broad range of left ventricular mass (7 to 133 g) was examined. With a 0.5 tesla superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system the left ventricle was imaged in the transaxial plane and multiple adjacent 10 mm thick slices were obtained. Endocardial and epicardial edges were manually traced in each computer-displayed image. The wall area of each image was determined by computer and the areas were summed and multiplied by the slice thickness and the specific gravity of muscle, providing calculated left ventricular mass. Calculated left ventricular mass was compared with actual postmortem left ventricular mass using linear regression analysis. An excellent relation between calculated and actual mass was found (r = 0.95; SEE = 13.1 g; regression equation: magnetic resonance mass = 0.95 X actual mass + 14.8 g). Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were also excellent (r = 0.99). Thus, gated nuclear magnetic resonance imaging can accurately determine in vivo left ventricular mass in anesthetized animals.

  12. 123I-IPPA SPECT for the prediction of enhanced left ventricular function after coronary bypass graft surgery. Multicenter IPPA Viability Trial Investigators. 123I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Verani, M S; Taillefer, R; Iskandrian, A E; Mahmarian, J J; He, Z X; Orlandi, C

    2000-08-01

    Fatty acids are the prime metabolic substrate for myocardial energy production. Hence, fatty acid imaging may be useful in the assessment of myocardial hibernation. The goal of this prospective, multicenter trial was to assess the use of a fatty acid, 123I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA), to identify viable, hibernating myocardium. Patients (n = 119) with abnormal left ventricular wall motion and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% who were already scheduled to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) underwent IPPA tomography (rest and 30-min redistribution) and blood-pool radionuclide angiography within 3 d of the scheduled operation. Radionuclide angiography was repeated 6-8 wk after CABG. The study endpoint was a > or =10% increase in LVEF after CABG. The number of IPPA-viable abnormally contracting segments necessary to predict a positive LVEF outcome was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and was included in a logistic regression analysis, together with selected clinical variables. Before CABG, abnormal IPPA tomography findings were seen in 113 of 119 patients (95%), of whom 71 (60%) had redistribution in the 30-min images. The LVEF increased modestly after CABG (from 32% +/- 12% to 36% +/- 8%, P< 0.001).A > or =10% increase in LVEF after CABG occurred in 27 of 119 patients (23%). By ROC curves, the best predictor of a > or =10% increase in LVEF was the presence of > or =7 IPPA-viable segments (accuracy, 72%; confidence interval, 64%-80%). Among clinical and scintigraphic variables, the single most important predictor also was the number of IPPA-viable segments (P = 0.008). The number of IPPA-viable segments added significant incremental value to the best clinical predictor model. Asubstantial increase in LVEF occurs after CABG in only a minority of patients (23%) with depressed preoperative function. The number of IPPA-viable segments is useful in predicting a clinically meaningful increase in LVEF.

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  14. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  15. Characterization of the Left-Sided Substrate in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Berte, Benjamin; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Yamashita, Seigo; Komatsu, Yuki; Pillois, Xavier; Sacher, Frédéric; Mahida, Saagar; Wielandts, Jean-Yves; Sellal, Jean-Marc; Frontera, Antonio; Al Jefairi, Nora; Derval, Nicolas; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, François; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Cochet, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    The correlates of left ventricular (LV) substrate in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are largely unknown. Thirty-two patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (47±14 years; 6 women) were included. RV and LV dysplasia were defined from multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Arrhythmias were characterized as right-sided or left-sided on 12-lead ECG recordings at baseline and during isoproterenol testing. In 14 patients, the imaging substrate was compared with voltage mapping and local abnormal ventricular activity. Imaging abnormalities were found in 32 (100%) and 21 (66%) patients on the RV and LV, respectively, intramyocardial fat on multidetector computed tomography being the most sensitive feature. LV involvement related to none of the Task Force criteria. Right-sided arrhythmias were more frequent than left-sided arrhythmias (P=0.003) although the latter were more frequent in case of LV involvement (P=0.02). The agreement between low voltage and fat on multidetector computed tomography was high on the RV when using either endocardial unipolar or epicardial bipolar data (κ=0.82 and κ=0.78, respectively) but lower on the LV (κ=0.54 for epicardial bipolar). LV local abnormal ventricular activity was found in all patients with LV involvement, and none of the others. The density of local abnormal ventricular activity within fat areas was similar between the RV and LV (P=0.57). LV substrate is frequent in arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy, but poorly identified by current diagnostic strategies. Left-sided arrhythmias are more frequent in case of LV involvement. LV fat hosts the same density of local abnormal ventricular activity as RV fat, but is less efficiently detected by voltage mapping. These results support the need for alternative diagnostic strategies to identify LV dysplasia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Epilepsy is associated with ventricular alterations following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wail; Bubolz, Beth A; Nguyen, Linh; Castro, Danny; Coss-Bu, Jorge; Quach, Michael M; Kennedy, Curtis E; Anderson, Anne E; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2017-12-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus can exert profound cardiovascular effects in adults including ventricular depolarization-repolarization abnormalities. Whether status epilepticus adversely affects ventricular electrical properties in children is less understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize ventricular alterations and the associated clinical factors in children following convulsive status epilepticus. We conducted a 2-year retrospective, case-control study. Children between 1 month and 21 years of age were included if they were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with primary diagnosis of convulsive status epilepticus and had 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) within 24 hours of admission. Children with heart disease, ion channelopathy, or on vasoactive medications were excluded. Age-matched control subjects had no history of seizures or epilepsy. The primary outcome was ventricular abnormalities represented by ST segment changes, abnormal T wave, QRS axis deviation, and corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. The secondary outcomes included QT/RR relationship, beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, ECG interval measurement between groups, and clinical factors associated with ECG abnormalities. Of 317 eligible children, 59 met the inclusion criteria. History of epilepsy was present in 31 children (epileptic) and absent in 28 children (non-epileptic). Compared with the control subjects (n = 31), the status epilepticus groups were more likely to have an abnormal ECG with overall odds ratio of 3.8 and 7.0 for the non-epileptic and the epileptic groups respectively. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated that children with epilepsy exhibited impaired dependence and adaptation of the QT interval on heart rate. Beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, a marker of ventricular repolarization instability, was increased in children with epilepsy. Convulsive status epilepticus can adversely affect ventricular electrical properties and stability in children

  17. Arrhythmias in left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Christina Y; Kim, Jeffrey J

    2015-06-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a newly recognized form of cardiomyopathy that has been associated with heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and sudden death. Both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias are now well described as prominent clinical components of LVNC. Throughout the spectrum of age, these arrhythmias have been associated with prognosis and outcome, and their clinical management is therefore an important aspect of patient care. The risk of sudden death seems to be associated with ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction, and the presence of arrhythmias. Proposed management strategies shown to have efficacy include antiarrhythmic therapy, ablation techniques, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship Between Central and Peripheral Atherosclerosis and Left Ventricular Dysfunction in a Community Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Connie W.; Gona, Philimon; Salton, Carol; Murabito, Joanne M.; Oyama, Noriko; Danias, Peter G.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Manning, Warren J.; Yeon, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine the relationships between resting left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities (WMAs), aortic plaque, and PAD in a community cohort. 1726 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants (806 males, 65±9 years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance with quantification of aortic plaque volume and assessment of regional LV systolic function. Claudication, lower extremity revascularization, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were recorded at Examination 7. WMAs were associated with greater aortic plaque burden, decreased ABI, and claudication in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (all p<0.001), which were not significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, both the presence (p<0.001) and volume of aortic plaque were associated with decreased ABI (p<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, ABI≤0.9 or prior revascularization was associated with a three-fold odds of aortic plaque (p=0.0083). Plaque volume significantly increased with decreasing ABI in multivariable-adjusted analyses (p<0.0001). In this free-living population, associations of WMAs with aortic plaque burden and clinical measures of PAD were attenuated after adjustment for coronary heart disease risk factors. Aortic plaque volume and ABI remained strongly negatively correlated after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the association between coronary heart disease and non-coronary atherosclerosis is explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Aortic atherosclerosis and PAD remain strongly associated after multivariable adjustment suggesting shared mechanisms beyond those captured by traditional risk factors. PMID:21708875

  19. Normal and Abnormal Development of the Intrapericardial Arterial Trunks in Man and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J.; Bamforth, Simon D.; Hoyland, Darren; Phillips, Helen M.; Webb, Sandra; Moorman, Antoon F.J.; Brown, Nigel A.; Henderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The definitive cardiac outflow channels have three components: the intrapericardial arterial trunks; the arterial roots with valves; and the ventricular outflow tracts. We studied the normal and abnormal development of the most distal of these, the arterial trunks, comparing findings in mouse and man. Methods and Results Using lineage tracing and three-dimensional visualization by episcopic reconstruction and scanning electron microscopy, we studied embryonic day 9.5 to 12.5 mouse hearts, clarifying the development of the outflow tracts distal to the primordia of the arterial valves. We characterize a transient aortopulmonary foramen, located between the leading edge of a protrusion from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac and the distal margins of the two outflow cushions. The foramen is closed by fusion of the protrusion, with its cap of neural crest cells, with the neural crest cell-filled cushions; the resulting structure then functioning transiently as an aortopulmonary septum. Only subsequent to this closure is it possible to recognize, more proximally, the previously described aortopulmonary septal complex. The adjacent walls of the intrapericardial trunks are derived from the protrusion and distal parts of the outflow cushions, while the lateral walls are formed from intrapericardial extensions of pharyngeal mesenchyme derived from the second heart field. Conclusions We provide, for the first time, objective evidence of the mechanisms of closure of an aortopulmonary foramen that exists distally between the lumens of the developing intrapericardial arterial trunks. Our findings provide insights into the formation of aortopulmonary windows and the variants of common arterial trunk. PMID:22499773

  20. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  1. Tei index correlates with tissue Doppler parameters and reflects neurohormonal activation in patients with an abnormal transmitral flow pattern.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stefania; Troisi, Federica; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Di Biase, Matteo

    2009-10-01

    Tei index (TI) is a Doppler parameter which reflects combined systolic and diastolic function. We aimed to study the relationship between TI, both traditional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographic parameters and neurohormonal profile in outpatients with diastolic dysfunction expressed by an abnormal transmitral flow pattern. A total of 67 consecutive outpatients with diastolic dysfunction (abnormal transmitral flow pattern) were studied; all patients underwent clinical evaluation, blood sampling for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plasma assaying, echocardiography for the determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), dP/dt, left atrium (LA) dimensions, longitudinal systolic (S) and diastolic wall velocities (E'and A'), TI measured with Doppler echocardiography, and mitral regurgitation (MR) quantified on a semicontinuous scale. TI values were significantly correlated with BNP levels (r = 0.33; P < 0.01), LVEF (r =-0.56; P < 0.001), dP/dt (r =-0.52; P < 0.01), S (r =-0.45; P < 0.001), E'(r =-0.36; P < 0.01), A'(r =-0.27; P < 0.05), LA volume (r = 0.35; P < 0.01), and MR (P for trend < 0.05). In a multivariate regression analysis, TI was an independent predictor of increased BNP levels (beta= 0.32; P < 0.05), even after correction for potential confounders. ROC analysis showed as values of TI >0.59 identified subjects with combined systolic and diastolic dysfunction with a sensitivity of 73.8% and a specificity of 71.4%. In outpatients with diastolic dysfunction, TI, an easy to perform parameter for global ventricular performance assessment, might be useful in identifying subjects with concomitant systolic impairment and neurohormonal activation.

  2. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, B; Viskin, S

    1993-06-01

    Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.

  3. Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect Language: ...

  4. Right Ventricular Myocardial Ischemia with Arrhythmia in an Asphyxiated Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Schmölzer, Georg M.; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant and neonatal myocardial infarction (MI) has been described in association with congenital heart disease, coronary artery abnormalities, myocarditis, and tumors. MI in the perinatal period in a structurally normal heart and with ventricular arrhythmia as a presenting feature has not been thoroughly described. Published case reports describe treatment methods extrapolated from adult MI. However, due to the rare occurrence, the most appropriate acute treatment for both MI and ventricular arrhythmia in newborn infants remains unknown. Case A male term infant with perinatal asphyxia and need for extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation at birth had ventricular tachyarrhythmia and ST-elevations on electrocardiogram. Four hours after birth, he died from cardiogenic failure. A thrombus at the right coronary artery was found on autopsy. Conclusion MI in the perinatal period in a structurally normal heart is very rare and mortality is high. Although acute treatments extrapolated from adult MI has been described to result in favorable outcomes in newborn infants, guidelines are lacking on how to manage acute MI and associated ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:27280062

  5. Hypertensive heart disease versus hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance discriminators when end-diastolic wall thickness ≥ 15 mm.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jonathan C L; Rohan, Stephen; Ghosh Dastidar, Amardeep; Harries, Iwan; Lawton, Christopher B; Ratcliffe, Laura E; Burchell, Amy E; Hart, Emma C; Hamilton, Mark C K; Paton, Julian F R; Nightingale, Angus K; Manghat, Nathan E

    2017-03-01

    European guidelines state left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) ≥15mm suggests hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but distinguishing from hypertensive heart disease (HHD) is challenging. We identify cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) predictors of HHD over HCM when EDWT ≥15mm. 2481 consecutive clinical CMRs between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. 464 segments from 29 HCM subjects with EDWT ≥15mm but without other cardiac abnormality, hypertension or renal impairment were analyzed. 432 segments from 27 HHD subjects with EDWT ≥15mm but without concomitant cardiac pathology were analyzed. Magnitude and location of maximal EDWT, presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV asymmetry (>1.5-fold opposing segment) and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) were measured. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Significance was defined as p<0.05. HHD and HCM cohorts were age-/gender-matched. HHD had significantly increased indexed LV mass (110±27g/m 2 vs. 91±31g/m 2 , p=0.016) but no difference in site or magnitude of maximal EDWT. Mid-wall LGE was significantly more prevalent in HCM. Elevated indexed LVM, mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM were significant multivariate predictors of HHD, but LV asymmetry was not. Increased indexed LV mass, absence of mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM are better CMR discriminators of HHD from HCM than EDWT ≥15mm. • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often diagnosed with end-diastolic wall thickness ≥15mm. • Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) can be difficult to distinguish from HCM. • Retrospective case-control study showed that location and magnitude of EDWT are poor discriminators. • Increased left ventricular mass and midwall fibrosis are independent predictors of HHD. • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance parameters facilitate a better discrimination between HHD and HCM.

  6. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  7. Ventricular assist devices in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, A; Netz, H

    2001-01-01

    The implantation of a mechanical circulatory device for end-stage ventricular failure is a possible therapeutic approach in adult and pediatric cardiac surgery and cardiology. The aim of this article is to present mechanical circulatory assist devices used in infants and children with special emphasis on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Berlin Heart assist device, centrifugal pump and Medos assist device. The success of long-term support with implantable ventricular assist devices in adults and children has led to their increasing use as a bridge to transplantation in patients with otherwise non-treatable left ventricular failure, by transforming a terminal phase heart condition into a treatable cardiopathy. Such therapy allows rehabilitation of patients before elective cardiac transplantation (by removing contraindications to transplantation mainly represented by organ impairment) or acting as a bridge to recovery of the native left ventricular function (depending on underlying cardiac disease). Treatment may also involve permanent device implantation when cardiac transplantation is contraindicated. Indications for the implantation of assisted circulation include all states of cardiac failure that are reversible within a variable period of time or that require heart transplantation. This article will address the current status of ventricular assist devices by examining historical aspects of its development, current technical issues and clinical features of pediatric ventricular assist devices, including indications and contraindications for support. PMID:22368605

  8. Prevention of ventricular arrhythmia and calcium dysregulation in a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mouse model carrying calsequestrin-2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Alcalai, Ronny; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Arad, Michael; Planer, David; Konno, Tetsuo; Wang, Libin; Seidman, Jon G; Seidman, Christine E; Berul, Charles I

    2011-03-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmic syndrome caused by mutations in genes encoding the calcium-regulation proteins cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2). Mechanistic studies indicate that CPVT is mediated by diastolic Ca(2+) overload and increased Ca(2+) leak through the RyR2 channel, implying that treatment targeting these defects might be efficacious in CPVT. CPVT mouse models that lack CASQ2 were treated with Ca(2+) -channel inhibitors, β-adrenergic inhibitors, or Mg(2+) . Treatment effects on ventricular arrhythmia, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein expression and Ca(2+) transients of isolated myocytes were assessed. Each study agent reduced the frequency of stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia in mutant mice. The Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil was most efficacious and completely prevented arrhythmia in 85% of mice. Verapamil significantly increased the SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes, diminished diastolic Ca(2+) overload, increased systolic Ca(2+) amplitude, and prevented Ca(2+) oscillations in stressed mutant myocytes. Ca(2+) channel inhibition by verapamil rectified abnormal calcium handling in CPVT myocytes and prevented ventricular arrhythmias. Verapamil-induced partial normalization of SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes implicates CASQ2 as modulator of RyR2 activity, rather than or in addition to, Ca(2+) buffer protein. Agents such as verapamil that attenuate cardiomyocyte calcium overload are appropriate for assessing clinical efficacy in human CPVT. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prevention of Ventricular Arrhythmia and Calcium Dysregulation in a Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Mouse Model Carrying Calsequestrin-2 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Alcalai, Ronny; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Arad, Michael; Planer, David; Konno, Tetsuo; Wang, Libin; Seidman, Jon G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Berul, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmic syndrome caused by mutations in genes encoding the calcium-regulation proteins cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2). Mechanistic studies indicate that CPVT is mediated by diastolic Ca2+ overload and increased Ca2+ leak through the RyR2 channel, implying that treatment targeting these defects might be efficacious in CPVT. Method and results CPVT mouse models that lack CASQ2 were treated with Ca2+-channel inhibitors, β-adrenergic inhibitors, or Mg2+. Treatment effects on ventricular arrhythmia, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein expression and Ca2+ transients of isolated myocytes were assessed. Each study agent reduced the frequency of stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia in mutant mice. The Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil was most efficacious and completely prevented arrhythmia in 85% of mice. Verapamil significantly increased the SR Ca2+ content in mutant myocytes, diminished diastolic Ca2+ overload, increased systolic Ca2+ amplitude, and prevented Ca2+ oscillations in stressed mutant myocytes. Conclusions Ca2+ channel inhibition by verapamil rectified abnormal calcium handling in CPVT myocytes and prevented ventricular arrhythmias. Verapamil-induced partial normalization of SR Ca2+ content in mutant myocytes implicates CASQ2 as modulator of RyR2 activity, rather than or in addition to, Ca2+ buffer protein. Agents such as verapamil that attenuate cardiomyocyte calcium overload are appropriate for assessing clinical efficacy in human CPVT. PMID:20807279

  10. A novel method of placing right ventricular leads in patients with persistent left superior vena cava using a conventional j stylet.

    PubMed

    Mora, Guillermo

    2014-03-01

    Locating pacemaker electrodes can become complicated by congenital abnormalities such as persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC). To evaluate a technique for the implanting of ventricular electrode in patients with persistent LSVC. The study was carried out from June 2001 to June 2010 involving all patients who were admitted to the Hospital Universitario Mayor, Instituto de Corazon de Bogota and Hospital Universitario Clinica San Rafael (Bogota-Colombia) for implanting pacemakers or cardiac defibrillators. LSVC was diagnosed by fluoroscopic observation (anterior-posterior view) of the course of the stylet. Four steps were followed: 1) Move the electrode with a straight stylet to the right atrium. 2) Change the straight stylet by a conventional J stylet and push the electrode to the lateral or anterolateral wall of the right atrium. 3) Remove the guide 3-5 cm and 4) Push the electrode which crosses the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and finally deploy the active fixation mechanism. A total of 1198 patients were admitted for pacemaker or cardiac defibrillator implant during the 9-year study period, 1114 received a left subclavian venous approach. There were 573 males and 541 females. Persistent LSVC was found in five patients (0.45%) Fluoroscopy time for implanting the ventricular electrode ranged from 60 to 250 seconds, 40 to 92 minutes being taken to complete the whole procedure. We present a simple and rapid technique for electrode placement in patients with LSVC using usual J guide and active fixation electrodes with high success.

  11. Effects of Obesity on Cardiovascular Hemodynamics, Cardiac Morphology, and Ventricular Function.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Martin A; Omran, Jad; Bostick, Brian P

    2016-12-01

    Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy). In normotensive obese patients, cardiac involvement is commonly characterized by elevated cardiac output, low peripheral vascular resistance, and increased left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure. Sleep-disordered breathing may lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension and, in association with left heart failure, may contribute to elevation of right heart pressures. These alterations, in association with various neurohormonal and metabolic abnormalities, may produce LV hypertrophy; impaired LV diastolic function; and less commonly, LV systolic dysfunction. Many of these alterations are reversible with substantial voluntary weight loss.

  12. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  13. Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Di Tullio, Marco R.; Zwas, Donna R.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sciacca, Robert R.; Homma, Shunichi

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a risk factor for cardiovascular events, but its effect on ischemic stroke risk is established mainly in whites. The effect of LV geometry on stroke risk has not been defined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether LVH and LV geometry are independently associated with increased ischemic stroke risk in a multiethnic population. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted on 394 patients with first ischemic stroke and 413 age-, sex-, and race-ethnicity–matched community control subjects. LV mass was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. LV geometric patterns (normal, concentric remodeling, concentric or eccentric hypertrophy) were identified. Stroke risk associated with LVH and different LV geometric patterns was assessed by conditional logistic regression analysis in the overall group and age, sex, and race-ethnic strata, with adjustment for established stroke risk factors. Results Concentric hypertrophy carried the greatest stroke risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 6.2), followed by eccentric hypertrophy (adjusted OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.0 to 4.3). Concentric remodeling carried slightly increased stroke risk (adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.9). Increased LV relative wall thickness was independently associated with stroke after adjustment for LV mass (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.3). Conclusions LVH and abnormal LV geometry are independently associated with increased stroke risk. LVH is strongly associated with ischemic stroke in all age, sex, and race-ethnic subgroups. Increased LV relative wall thickness imparts an increased stroke risk after adjustment for LV mass and is of additional value in stroke risk prediction. PMID:12958319

  14. [Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute olanzapine poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for many years in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Poisonings with this medicine can results with cardiotoxic effects in the form of ECG abnormalities. To evaluate the nature and incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with acute olanzapine poisoning. 23 adult (mean age 38.4 +/- 15.5 years) patients with acute olanzapine poisoning, including 10 men (30.4 +/- 8.1 years) and 11 women (45.7 +/- 17.2 years), where 1 man and 1 woman were poisoned twice. The toxic serum level of olanzapine (above 100 ng/mL) was confirmed in each patient. Evaluation of electrocardiograms performed in patients in the first day of hospitalization with automatic measurement of durations of PQ, QRS and QTc and the identification of arrhythmias and conduction disorders on the basis of visual analysis of the ECG waveforms. Statistical analysis of the results using the methods of descriptive statistics. The mean durations of PQ, QRS and QTc in the study group were as follows: 135 +/- 23 ms, 91 +/- 12 ms, and 453 +/- 48 ms, respectively. The most common ECG abnormalities were prolonged QTc and supraventricular tachycardia (including sinus tachycardia) - each 22%; less common were ST-T changes (17%) and supraventricular premature complexes (9%), and only in individual cases (4%) ventricular premature complexes, bundle branch block, sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation were present. In the course of acute olanzapine poisonings: (1) prolonged QTc interval is quite common, but rarely leads to torsade de pointes tachycardia; (2) fast supraventricular rhythms are also common, but rarely cause irregular tachyarrhythmias, eg. atrial fibrillation; (3) conduction disorders (atrioventricular blocks, bundle branch blocks) are not typical abnormalities; (4) the observed ECG abnormalities emphasize the need of continuous ECG monitoring in these patients.

  15. Left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in term neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Bahar; Sert, Ahmet; Gokmen, Zeynel; Aypar, Ebru; Aslan, Eyup; Odabas, Dursun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated structural changes in the heart and cardiac dysfunction in foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. There are no available data that evaluated left ventricular dimensions and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. We also assessed associated maternal risk factors, and compared results with healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates. In all, 62 asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, 39 symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, and 50 healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. The asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters and posterior wall diameter in systole and diastole than the control group. The symmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-diastolic diameter than the control group. All left ventricular dimensions were lower in the asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates compared with symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates (p>0.05), but not statistically significant except left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole (3.08±0.83 mm versus 3.54 ±0.72 mm) (p<0.05). Both symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction groups had significantly lower relative posterior wall thickness (0.54±0.19 versus 0.48±0.13 versus 0.8±0.12), left ventricular mass (9.8±4.3 g versus 8.9±3.4 g versus 22.2±5.7 g), and left ventricular mass index (63.6±29.1 g/m2 versus 54.5±24.4 g/m2 versus 109±28.8 g/m2) when compared with the control group. Our study has demonstrated that although neonates with both symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction had lower left

  16. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  17. Left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy: a morbid association of ventricular arrhythmias and unexplained infero-lateral T-wave inversion.

    PubMed

    Protonotarios, Alexandros; Patrianakos, Alexandros; Spanoudaki, Elpida; Kochiadakis, Georgios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanouel; Vardas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is a subtype of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy characterized by early predominant left ventricular involvement. Α 34-year-old man presented with palpitations and a history of frequent ventricular extrasystoles of both LBBB and RBBB configuration. Cardiac workup revealed repolarization abnormalities at infero-lateral leads in the absence of diagnostic structural/functional alterations or obstructive coronary artery disease. Six months later he died suddenly. Histopathology was diagnostic for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy affecting predominantly the left ventricle at subepicardial/midwall myocardial layers. Thus, ventricular arrhythmias accompanied by unexplained infero-lateral T-wave inversion should warn of a possible morbid association underlying left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural history of echocardiographic abnormalities in mucopolysaccharidosis III.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Carolyn M; Truxal, Kristen V; McBride, Kim L; Kovalchin, John P; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2018-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type III, Sanfilippo Syndrome, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. MPS I and II patients often develop cardiac involvement leading to early mortality, however there are limited data in MPS III. The objective of this study is to describe cardiac abnormalities in a large group of MPS III patients followed in a longitudinal natural history study designed to determine outcome measures for gene transfer trials. A single center study of MPS III patients who were enrolled in the Nationwide Children's Hospital natural history study in 2014. Two cardiologists reviewed all patient echocardiograms for anatomic, valvular, and functional abnormalities. Valve abnormalities were defined as abnormal morphology, trivial mitral regurgitation (MR) with abnormal morphology or at least mild MR, and any aortic regurgitation (AR). Abnormal left ventricular (LV) function was defined as ejection fraction < 50%. Group comparisons were assessed using two-sample t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables. Twenty-five patients, 15 Type A and 10 Type B MPS III, underwent 45 echocardiograms. Fifteen patients (60%) demonstrated an abnormal echocardiographic finding with age at first abnormal echocardiogram within the study being 6.8 ± 2.8 years. Left-sided valve abnormalities were common over time: 7 mitral valve thickening, 2 mitral valve prolapse, 16 MR (8 mild, 8 trivial), 3 aortic valve thickening, and 9 AR (7 mild, 2 trivial). Two patients had asymmetric LV septal hypertrophy. No valvular stenosis or ventricular function abnormalities were noted. Incidental findings included: mild aortic root dilation (2), bicommissural aortic valve (1), and mild tricuspid regurgitation (3). Individuals with Sanfilippo A and B demonstrate a natural history of cardiac involvement with valvular abnormalities most common. In short-term follow up, patients demonstrated only

  19. Ductal stenting retrains the left ventricle in transposition of great arteries with intact ventricular septum.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kothandam; Francis, Edwin; Krishnan, Prasad; Shahani, Jagdish

    2006-11-01

    In late presenters with transposition of the great arteries, intact ventricular septum, and regressing left ventricle, left ventricular retraining by pulmonary artery banding and aortopulmonary shunt is characterized by a stormy postoperative course and high costs. Ductal stenting in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is conceptualized to retrain the left ventricle with less morbidity. Recanalization and transcatheter stenting of patent ductus arteriosus was performed in patients with transposition to induce pressure and volume overload to the regressing left ventricle. Serial echocardiographic monitoring of left ventricular shape, mass, free wall thickness, and volumes was done, and once the left ventricle was adequately prepared, an arterial switch was performed. The ductal stent was removed and the remaining surgical steps were similar to a 1-stage arterial switch operation. Postoperative course, need for inotropic agents, and left ventricular function were monitored. Ductal stenting in 2 patients aged 3 months resulted in improvement of indexed left ventricular mass from 18.9 to 108.5 g/m2, left ventricular free wall thickness from 2.5 to 4.8 mm, and indexed left ventricular volumes from 7.6 to 29.5 mL/m2 within 3 weeks. Both patients underwent arterial switch (bypass times 125 and 158 minutes) uneventfully, needed inotropic agents and ventilatory support for 3 days, and were discharged in 8 and 10 days. Ductal stenting is a less morbid method of left ventricular retraining in transposition of the great arteries with regressed left ventricle. Its major advantages lie in avoiding pulmonary artery distortion and neoaortic valve regurgitation resulting from banding and also in avoiding thoracotomy.

  20. Ventricular Tacyhcardia in A Patient with A Previous History of Endocarditis and Ankylosan Spondylitis: A Challenging Case.

    PubMed

    Koza, Yavuzer; Taş, Muhammed Hakan; Şimşek, Ziya; Gündoğdu, Fuat

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac conduction defects are commonly observed in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, infective endocarditis, and aortic valve replacement. Each of these clinical situations can also present with ventricular tacyhcardia by different mechanisms. Here we report the case of a 53-year-old man with a medical history of untreated ankylosing spondylitis and aortic valve replacement who presented with ventricular tachycardia and underwent successful catheter ablation. Most ventricular tachycardia episodes were intermittent and drug resistant, which could have been caused by abnormal automaticity rather than re-entry.

  1. Cardiovascular abnormalities with normal blood pressure in tissue kallikrein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneton, Pierre; Bloch-Faure, May; Hagege, Albert A.; Ruetten, Hartmut; Huang, Wei; Bergaya, Sonia; Ceiler, Debbie; Gehring, Doris; Martins, Isabelle; Salmon, Georges; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Nussberger, Jürg; Crozatier, Bertrand; Gasc, Jean-Marie; Heudes, Didier; Bruneval, Patrick; Doetschman, Tom; Ménard, Joël; Alhenc-Gelas, François

    2001-02-01

    Tissue kallikrein is a serine protease thought to be involved in the generation of bioactive peptide kinins in many organs like the kidneys, colon, salivary glands, pancreas, and blood vessels. Low renal synthesis and urinary excretion of tissue kallikrein have been repeatedly linked to hypertension in animals and humans, but the exact role of the protease in cardiovascular function has not been established largely because of the lack of specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates that mice lacking tissue kallikrein are unable to generate significant levels of kinins in most tissues and develop cardiovascular abnormalities early in adulthood despite normal blood pressure. The heart exhibits septum and posterior wall thinning and a tendency to dilatation resulting in reduced left ventricular mass. Cardiac function estimated in vivo and in vitro is decreased both under basal conditions and in response to βadrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, flow-induced vasodilatation is impaired in isolated perfused carotid arteries, which express, like the heart, low levels of the protease. These data show that tissue kallikrein is the main kinin-generating enzyme in vivo and that a functional kallikrein-kinin system is necessary for normal cardiac and arterial function in the mouse. They suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system could be involved in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Diagnosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: T-wave inversion and relative but not absolute apical left ventricular hypertrophy☆

    PubMed Central

    Flett, Andrew S.; Maestrini, Viviana; Milliken, Don; Fontana, Mariana; Treibel, Thomas A.; Harb, Rami; Sado, Daniel M.; Quarta, Giovanni; Herrey, Anna; Sneddon, James; Elliott, Perry; McKenna, William; Moon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of apical HCM utilizes conventional wall thickness criteria. The normal left ventricular wall thins towards the apex such that normal values are lower in the apical versus the basal segments. The impact of this on the diagnosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been evaluated. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 2662 consecutive CMR referrals, of which 75 patients were identified in whom there was abnormal T-wave inversion on ECG and a clinical suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These were retrospectively analyzed for imaging features consistent with cardiomyopathy, specifically: relative apical hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation, scar, apical cavity obliteration or apical aneurysm. For comparison, the same evaluation was performed in 60 healthy volunteers and 50 hypertensive patients. Results Of the 75 patients, 48 met conventional HCM diagnostic criteria and went on to act as another comparator group. Twenty-seven did not meet criteria for HCM and of these 5 had no relative apical hypertrophy and were not analyzed further. The remaining 22 patients had relative apical thickening with an apical:basal wall thickness ratio > 1 and a higher prevalence of features consistent with a cardiomyopathy than in the control groups with 54% having 2 or more of the 4 features. No individual in the healthy volunteer group had more than one feature and no hypertension patient had more than 2. Conclusion A cohort of individuals exist with T wave inversion, relative apical hypertrophy and additional imaging features of HCM suggesting an apical HCM phenotype not captured by existing diagnostic criteria. PMID:25666123

  3. Long-Term Outcome With Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Pasquale; Zado, Erica S; Supple, Gregory E; Haqqani, Haris M; Garcia, Fermin C; Tschabrunn, Cory M; Callans, David J; Lin, David; Dixit, Sanjay; Hutchinson, Mathew D; Riley, Michael P; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2015-12-01

    Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy improves short-term VT-free survival. We sought to determine the long-term outcomes of VT control and need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy after endocardial (ENDO) and adjuvant epicardial (EPI) substrate modification in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We examined 62 consecutive patients with Task Force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy referred for VT ablation with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Catheter ablation was guided by activation/entrainment mapping for tolerated VT and pacemapping/targeting of abnormal substrate for unmappable VT. Adjuvant EPI ablation was performed when recurrent VT or persistent inducibility after ENDO-only ablation. Endocardial plus adjuvant EPI ablation was performed in 39 (63%) patients, including 13 who crossed over to ENDO-EPI after VT recurrence during follow-up, after ENDO-only ablation. Before ablation, 54 of 62 patients failed a mean of 2.4 antiarrhythmic drugs, including amiodarone in 29 (47%) patients. During follow-up of 56±44 months after the last ablation, VT-free survival was 71% with only a single VT episode in additional 9 patients (15%). At last follow-up, 39 (64%) patients were only on β-blockers or no treatment, 21 were on class 1 or 3 antiarrhythmic drugs (11 for atrial arrhythmias), and 2 were on amiodarone as a bridge to heart transplantation. The long-term outcome after ENDO and adjuvant EPI substrate ablation of VT in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is good. Most patients have complete VT control without amiodarone therapy and limited need for antiarrhythmic drugs. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Anatomy of the ventricular septal defect in outflow tract defects: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Mostefa-Kara, Meriem; Bonnet, Damien; Belli, Emre; Fadel, Elie; Houyel, Lucile

    2015-03-01

    The study objective was to analyze the anatomy of the ventricular septal defect found in various phenotypes of outflow tract defects. We reviewed 277 heart specimens with isolated outlet ventricular septal defect without subpulmonary stenosis (isolated outlet ventricular septal defect, 19); tetralogy of Fallot (71); tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (51); common arterial trunk (54); double outlet right ventricle (65) with subaortic, doubly committed, or subpulmonary ventricular septal defect; and interrupted aortic arch type B (17). Special attention was paid to the rims of the ventricular septal defect viewed from the right ventricular side and the relationships between the tricuspid and aortic valves. The ventricular septal defect was always located in the outlet of the right ventricle, between the 2 limbs of the septal band. There was a fibrous continuity between the tricuspid and aortic valves in 74% of specimens with isolated outlet ventricular septal defect, 66% of specimens with tetralogy of Fallot, 39% of specimens with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, 4.6% of specimens with double outlet right ventricle, 1.8% of specimens with common arterial trunk, and zero of specimens with interrupted aortic arch type B (P < .005). When present, this continuity always involved the anterior tricuspid leaflet. The ventricular septal defect in outflow tract defects is always an outlet ventricular septal defect, cradled between the 2 limbs of the septal band. However, there are some differences regarding the posteroinferior and superior rims of the ventricular septal defect. These differences suggest an anatomic continuum from the isolated outlet ventricular septal defect to the interrupted aortic arch type B rather than distinct physiologic phenotypes, related to various degrees of abnormal rotation of the outflow tract during heart development: minimal in isolated outlet ventricular septal defect; incomplete in tetralogy of Fallot, tetralogy of Fallot

  5. Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Following Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pita; Santos; Manteiga; Rodriguez; Beiras

    1996-03-01

    Ventricular perforation is an unusual complication after endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplanted patients. We report a case of asymptomatic right ventricular perforation and pseudoaneurysm formation, secondary to endomyocardial biopsy, diagnosed by angiography. The spontaneous obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm was observed.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions ARVC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ( ARVC ) is a form of heart ...

  7. Independent influences of excessive body weight and elevated blood pressure from childhood on left ventricular geometric remodeling in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yinkun; Liu, Junting; Wang, Liang; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Mi, Jie

    2017-09-15

    Obesity and hypertension are two risk factors of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in adults. We aimed to examine the impacts of body weight and blood pressure (BP) from childhood on adult LV geometric remodeling. The study cohort consisted of 1256 adults aged 27-42years who had 2-10 measurements of body mass index (BMI) and BP from childhood in 1987 to adulthood in 2010. We calculated the cumulative and incremental values of BMI and BP from childhood to adulthood. In adulthood, four LV geometric patterns were defined based on the values of left ventricular mass index (g/m 2.7 ) and relative wall thickness: normal geometry, concentric remodeling (CR), eccentric hypertrophy (EH) and concentric hypertrophy (CH). The prevalence of abnormal LV geometric patterns in adults was 26.4% for CR, 2.0% for EH and 2.5% for CH. For childhood values, systolic BP (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.08-1.47) but not BMI (OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.93-1.18) was associated with adult CR, whereas BMI (OR=3.53, 95%CI=2.09-5.98) but not systolic BP (OR=1.04, 95%CI=0.65-1.66) was associated with adult EH. Both childhood BMI (OR=2.69, 95%CI=1.77-4.09) and systolic BP (OR=1.64, 95%CI=1.07-2.51) were independently associated with adult CH. For adulthood, cumulative and incremental values, BMI and systolic BP were independently associated with adult CR, EH and CH. Excessive body weight and elevated BP from childhood have independent influences on the development of adult LV geometric remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc Levels in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Teng, Tianming; Bian, Bo; Yao, Wei; Yu, Xuefang; Wang, Zhuoqun; Xu, Zhelong; Sun, Yuemin

    2017-03-01

    Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in maintaining cellular structure and function. Zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between zinc and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A total of 519 patients was enrolled and their serum zinc levels were measured in this study. We performed analyses on the relationship between zinc levels and LVH and the four LV geometry pattern patients: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH. We performed further linear and multiple regression analyses to confirm the relationship between zinc and left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and relative wall thickness (RWT). Our data showed that zinc levels were 710.2 ± 243.0 μg/L in the control group and were 641.9 ± 215.2 μg/L in LVH patients. We observed that zinc levels were 715 ± 243.5 μg/L, 694.2 ± 242.7 μg/L, 643.7 ± 225.0 μg/L, and 638.7 ± 197.0 μg/L in normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH patients, respectively. We further found that there was a significant inverse linear relationship between zinc and LVM (p = 0.001) and LVMI (p = 0.000) but did not show a significant relationship with RWT (p = 0.561). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that the linear relationship between zinc and LVM and LVMI remained inversely significant. The present study revealed that serum zinc levels were significantly decreased in the LVH patients, especially in the eccentric LVH and concentric LVH patients. Furthermore, zinc levels were significantly inversely correlated with LVM and LVMI.

  9. Diabetes Mellitus Associates with Increased Right Ventricular Afterload and Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Morgan E; Nair, Vineet; Sinari, Shripad; Dherange, Parinita A; Natarajan, Balaji; Trutter, Lindsey; Brittain, Evan L; Hemnes, Anna R; Austin, Eric D; Patel, Kumar; Black, Stephen M; Garcia, Joe G N; Yuan Md PhD, Jason X; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Rischard, Franz; Makino, Ayako; Bedrick, Edward J; Desai, Ankit A

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction. Parallel studies have also reported associations between diabetes mellitus and right ventricular dysfunction and reduced survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the impact of diabetes mellitus on the pulmonary vasculature has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia could specifically influence right ventricular afterload and remodeling in patients with Group I pulmonary arterial hypertension, providing a link to their known susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction. Using an adjusted model for age, sex, pulmonary vascular resistance, and medication use, associations of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and the presence of diabetes mellitus were evaluated with markers of disease severity in 162 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. A surrogate measure of increased pulmonary artery stiffness, elevated pulmonary arterial elastance (P = .012), along with reduced log(pulmonary artery capacitance) (P = .006) were significantly associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in a fully adjusted model. Similar associations between pulmonary arterial elastance and capacitance were noted with both fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, right ventricular wall thickness on echocardiography was greater in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with diabetes, supporting the link between right ventricular remodeling and diabetes. Cumulatively, these data demonstrate that an increase in right ventricular afterload, beyond pulmonary vascular resistance alone, may influence right ventricular remodeling and provide a mechanistic link between the susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction in patients with both diabetes mellitus and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrocardiogram abnormalities and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1). Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  11. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Background: An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. Methods: The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4–10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0–4.1). Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities. PMID:23074563

  12. Effect of phenylephrine bolus administration on left ventricular function during postural hypotension in anesthetized patients.

    PubMed

    Goertz, A W; Schmidt, M; Lindner, K H; Seefelder, C; Georgieff, M

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intravenous (IV) phenylephrine (PHE) bolus administration on left ventricular function in patients who developed postural hypotension during isoflurane anesthesia in the head-up tilt (reverse Trendelenburg) position. Prospective "before-after" trial. Operation theater of a university medical center. 15 ASA physical status I and II patients without cardiovascular disorders. The anesthetized patients were tilted from a supine horizontal to a 30-degree reverse-Trendelenburg position. Once a steady state was achieved, PHE 3 micrograms/kg was administered as an IV bolus dose. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular function. We measured blood pressure (BP); heart rate; left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic area, diameter, and wall thickness; and ejection time at baseline and after tilt, immediately before and for a period of 3 minutes after PHE injection. We calculated fractional area change (FAC), mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (mVcf), and end-systolic wall stress. Head-up tilt caused a reduction of mean arterial pressure [from 68 to 54 mmHg (mean)], end-systolic and end-diastolic left ventricular area (from 9.7 to 6.5 cm2 and from 19.2 to 13.1 cm2, respectively) and end-systolic wall stress (from 56 to 33 10(3).dyne/cm2). FAC and mVcf remained unaltered. PHE administration restored baseline values or overcompensated the changes caused by tilt. FAC slightly decreased in response to PHE (from 0.51 to 0.43), end-systolic wall stress increased to 83 10(3).dyne/cm2, and mVcf remained unchanged. PHE bolus administration effectively restored BP and cardiac filling, which were reduced after head-up tilt, without causing a relevant impairment of left ventricular function or an increase in end-systolic wall stress above the upper normal limit.

  13. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy and lactation leads to impaired right ventricular function in young adult baboons.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Anderson H; Li, Cun; Huber, Hillary F; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Clarke, Geoffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and leads to heightened cardiovascular risks later in life. We report right ventricular (RV) filling and ejection abnormalities in IUGR young adult baboons using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Both functional and morphological indicators of poor RV function were seen, many of which were similar to effects of ageing, but also with a few key differences. We observed more pronounced RV changes compared to our previous report of the left ventricle, suggesting there is likely to be a component of isolated RV abnormality in addition to expected haemodynamic sequelae from left ventricular dysfunction. In particular, our findings raise the suspicion of pulmonary hypertension after IUGR. This study establishes that IUGR also leads to impairment of the right ventricle in addition to the left ventricle classically studied. Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), increasing later life chronic disease including cardiovascular dysfunction. Our left ventricular (LV) CMRI studies in IUGR baboons (8 M, 8 F, 5.7 years - human equivalent approximately 25 years), control offspring (8 M, 8 F, 5.6 years), and normal elderly (OLD) baboons (6 M, 6 F, mean 15.9 years) revealed long-term LV abnormalities in IUGR offspring. Although it is known that right ventricular (RV) function is dependent on LV health, the IUGR right ventricle remains poorly studied. We examined the right ventricle with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the same cohorts. We observed decreased ejection fraction (49 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 3%, P < 0.001), cardiac index (2.73 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.20 l min -1 m -2 , P < 0.05), early filling rate/body surface area (BSA) (109.2 ± 7.8 vs. 44.6 ± 7.3 ml s -1  m -2 , P < 0.001), wall thickening (61 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 5%, P < 0.05), and longitudinal shortening (26 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2%, P < 0.01) in IUGR animals with increased

  14. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X(2) test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max. interval was found in 33% of patients, indiabetic group

  15. Right ventricular longitudinal strain and right ventricular stroke work index in patients with severe heart failure: left ventricular assist device suitability for transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Cameli, M; Bernazzali, S; Lisi, M; Tsioulpas, C; Croccia, M G; Lisi, G; Maccherini, M; Mondillo, S

    2012-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) systolic function has a critical role in determining the clinical outcome and the success of using left ventricular assist devices in patients with refractory heart failure. RV deformation analysis by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has recently allowed the analysis of RV longitudinal function. Using cardiac catheterization as the reference standard, this study aimed to explore the correlation between RV longitudinal function by STE and RV stroke work index (RVSWI) among patients referred for cardiac transplantation. Right heart catheterization and transthoracic echo-Doppler were simultaneously performed in 47 patients referred for cardiac transplant assessment due to refractory heart failure (ejection fraction 25.1 ± 4.5%). Thermodilution RV stroke volume and invasive pulmonary pressures were used to obtain RVSWI. RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) by STE was assessed averaging RV free-wall segments (free-wall RVLS). We also calculated. Tricuspid S' and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). No significant correlation was observed for TAPSE on tricuspid S' with RV stroke volume (r = 0.14 and r = 0.06, respectively). A close negative correlation between free-wall RVLS and RVSWI was found (r = -0.82; P < .0001). Furthermore, free-wall RVLS showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve of 0.90) with good sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 91%, respectively, to predict depressed RVSWI using a cutoff value less than -11.8%. Among patients referred for heart transplantation, TAPSE and tricuspid S' did not correlate with invasively obtained RVSWI. RV longitudinal deformation analysis by STE correlated with RVSWI, providing a better estimate of RV systolic performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Three-dimensional changes in left and right ventricular geometry in chronic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Young, A A; Orr, R; Smaill, B H; Dell'Italia, L J

    1996-12-01

    Regional three-dimensional (3-D) right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) geometry was studied in eight dogs before and 5-6 mo after induction of mitral regurgitation (MR). Ventricular shape changes were quantified with a 3-D finite-element model fitted to chamber contours traced on cardiac magnetic resonance images. MR increased LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV; 99 vs. 57 ml; P < 0.001) and LV stroke volume (LVSV; 55 vs. 26 ml; P < 0.001). In contrast, RVEDV decreased (45 vs. 55 ml; P < 0.01), whereas SV was maintained. LV mass (free wall plus septum) increased (115 vs. 94 g; P < 0.05), whereas RV free-wall mass was relatively unchanged. Shape changes due to MR were characterized by a marked (7.4-mm) rightward shift of the septum relative to the lateral LV free wall at end diastole. In contrast, the distance from the RV free wall to the lateral LV free wall was relatively unchanged (2.7 mm). The distance between the LV lateral free wall and septum increased more than the distance between the anterior and posterior LV walls (22 vs. 15%; P = 0.04). During systole, the displacement of the septum into the LV increased significantly (7.3 vs. 2.9 mm; P < 0.01). Consistent with the end-diastolic dimension changes, LV endocardial circumferential curvature was decreased at end diastole to a greater extent in the anterior and posterior walls than in the septal and lateral walls (P < 0.01). Thus chronic MR produced an asymmetric LV dilatation with regional variation in geometry. The septum increased its contribution to the LVSV at the expense of RVEDV. RVSV was maintained, possibly by ventricular interaction.

  18. Inadvertent transarterial insertion of atrial and ventricular defibrillator leads.

    PubMed

    Issa, Ziad F; Rumman, Syeda S; Mullin, James C

    2009-01-01

    Inadvertent placement of pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads in the left ventricle (LV) is a rare but well-recognized complication of device implantation [1]. We report a case of inadvertent transarterial implantation of dual-chamber ICD leads; the ventricular lead positioned in the LV and the atrial lead positioned in the aortic root. The tip of the atrial lead migrated across the aortic wall and captured the epicardial surface of the left atrium. The diagnosis was made 5 years after the implantation procedure with no apparent adverse events directly related to left heart lead placement.

  19. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  20. Lung function and left ventricular hypertrophy in morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Paulo de Tarso; Domingos, Hamilton; Patusco, Luiz Armando Pereira; Rapello, Gabriel Victor Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look for correlations between lung function and cardiac dimension variables in morbidly obese patients, in order to test the hypothesis that the relative size of the small airways is independently correlated with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 192 medical records containing a clinical protocol employed in candidates for bariatric surgery between January of 2006 and December of 2010. Results: Of the 192 patients evaluated, 39 (10 males and 29 females) met the inclusion criteria. The mean BMI of the patients was 49.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2, and the mean age was 35.5 ± 7.7 years. The FEF25-75/FVC, % correlated significantly with left ventricular posterior wall thickness and relative left ventricular posterior wall thickness, those correlations remaining statistically significant (r = −0.355 and r = −0.349, respectively) after adjustment for weight, gender, and history of systemic arterial hypertension. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that FVC and FEV1 were the major determinants of left ventricular mass (in grams or indexed to body surface area). Conclusions: A reduction in the relative size of the small airways appears to be independently correlated with obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy, regardless of factors affecting respiratory mechanics (BMI and weight), gender, or history of systemic arterial hypertension. However, FEV1 and FVC might be important predictors of left ventricular mass in morbidly obese individuals. PMID:26578134

  1. Acute Heart Failure Triggered by Coronary Spasm With Transient Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yusuke; Sakakura, Kenichi; Ibe, Tatsuro; Yoshida, Nanae; Wada, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideo; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2017-04-06

    Coronary spasm is abnormal contraction of an epicardial coronary artery resulting in myocardial ischemia. Coronary spasm induces not only depressed myocardial contractility, but also incomplete myocardial relaxation, which leads to elevated ventricular filling pressure. We herein report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had repeated acute heart failure caused by coronary spasm. Acetylcholine provocation test with simultaneous right heart catheterization was useful for the diagnosis of elevated ventricular filling pressure as well as coronary artery spasm. We should add coronary spasm to a differential diagnosis for repeated acute heart failure.

  2. Alternative right ventricular pacing sites.

    PubMed

    Łuciuk, Dariusz; Łuciuk, Marek; Gajek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The main adverse effect of chronic stimulation is stimulation-induced heart failure in case of ventricular contraction dyssynchrony. Because of this fact, new techniques of stimulation should be considered to optimize electrotherapy. One of these methods is pacing from alternative right ventricular sites. The purpose of this article is to review currently accumulated data about alternative sites of cardiac pacing. Medline and PubMed bases were used to search English and Polish reports published recently. Recent studies report a deleterious effect of long term apical pacing. It is suggested that permanent apical stimulation, by omitting physiological conduction pattern with His-Purkinie network, may lead to electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony of heart muscle contraction. In the long term this pathological situation can lead to severe heart failure and death. Because of this, scientists began to search for some alternative sites of cardiac pacing to reduce the deleterious effect of stimulation. Based on current accumulated data, it is suggested that the right ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular septum, direct His-bundle or biventricular pacing are better alternatives due to more physiological electrical impulse propagation within the heart and the reduction of the dyssynchrony effect. These methods should preserve a better left ventricular function and prevent the development of heart failure in permanent paced patients. As there is still not enough, long-term, randomized, prospective, cross-over and multicenter studies, further research is required to validate the benefits of using this kind of therapy. The article should pay attention to new sites of cardiac stimulation as a better and safer method of treatment.

  3. [Meningoencephalitis and ventricular arrhythmia caused by yersiniosis].

    PubMed

    Pehlke, J R; Geipel, U; von Müller, L; Spiegel, J

    2012-09-01

    We report on a 19-year-old patient without any immunodeficiency and without a history of significant diseases in whom two seizure attacks as symptoms of meningoencephalitis occurred after he had suffered from abdominal symptoms for a week. Later, we could observe frequent polymorphic ventricular extrasystoles. A massive production of anti-Yersinia IgM, IgG and IgA as a sign of an acute infection could be found, although we were not able to detect the microbe itself with culturing methods. After targetted antibiotic treatment, the patient fully recovered within two weeks and could be discharged from hospital without clinical abnormalities and an almost normalised cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid. Possible ways of infection are mice which the patient kept as pets and his work in the sewer system. The present case reminds us to think of uncommon infectious agents even in young patients without a predisposition but unusual symptoms and/or potentially relevant anamnestic data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Left ventricular structural and functional characteristics in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Lupia, Mario; Salvetti, Massimo; Grigoletto, Consuelo; Sonino, Nicoletta; Boscaro, Marco; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Mantero, Franco; Fallo, Francesco

    2003-06-18

    This study was designed to evaluate left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in patients with Cushing's syndrome. A high prevalence of LV hypertrophy and concentric remodeling has been reported in Cushing's syndrome, although no data have been reported on LV systolic and diastolic function. Forty-two consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome and 42 control subjects, matched for age, gender, and blood pressure, were studied. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were measured by echocardiography, endocardial and midwall fractional shortening (FS) were assessed, and diastolic filling was measured by Doppler transmitral flow. The RWT was significantly greater in Cushing patients than in controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy and concentric remodeling were observed in 10 and 26 patients with Cushing's syndrome, respectively. In Cushing patients, midwall FS was significantly reduced compared with controls (16.2 +/- 3% vs. 21 +/- 4.5%, p = 0.01). The ratio of transmitral E and A flow velocities was reduced and E deceleration time was prolonged in Cushing patients compared with controls (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). In patients with Cushing's syndrome, cardiac structural changes are associated with reduced midwall systolic performance and with diastolic dysfunction that may contribute to the high risk of cardiovascular events observed in these patients.

  5. Left ventricular remodeling in preclinical experimental mitral regurgitation of dogs.

    PubMed

    Dillon, A Ray; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Tillson, Michael; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Denney, Thomas; Hathcock, John; Botzman, Logan

    2012-03-01

    Dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation (MR) provide insights into the left ventricular remodeling in preclinical MR. The early preclinical left ventricular (LV) changes after mitral regurgitation represent progressive dysfunctional remodeling, in that no compensatory response returns the functional stroke volume (SV) to normal even as total SV increases. The gradual disease progression leads to mitral annulus stretch and enlargement of the regurgitant orifice, further increasing the regurgitant volume. Remodeling with loss of collagen weave and extracellular matrix (ECM) is accompanied by stretching and hypertrophy of the cross-sectional area and length of the cardiomyocyte. Isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes demonstrate dysfunction based on decreased cell shortening and reduced intracellular calcium transients before chamber enlargement or decreases in contractility in the whole heart can be clinically appreciated. The genetic response to increased end-diastolic pressure is down-regulation of genes associated with support of the collagen and ECM and up-regulation of genes associated with matrix remodeling. Experiments have not demonstrated any beneficial effects on remodeling from treatments that decrease afterload via blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Beta-1 receptor blockade and chymase inhibition have altered the progression of the LV remodeling and have supported cardiomyocyte function. The geometry of the LV during the remodeling provides insight into the importance of regional differences in responses to wall stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CMR reference values for left ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction using computer-aided analysis: the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Michael L; Gona, Philimon; Hautvast, Gilion L T F; Salton, Carol J; Breeuwer, Marcel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J

    2014-04-01

    To determine sex-specific reference values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (EF) in healthy adults using computer-aided analysis and to examine the effect of age on LV parameters. We examined data from 1494 members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, obtained using short-axis stack cine SSFP CMR, identified a healthy reference group (without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or LV wall motion abnormality) and determined sex-specific upper 95th percentile thresholds for LV volumes and mass, and lower 5th percentile thresholds for EF using computer-assisted border detection. In secondary analyses, we stratified participants by age-decade and tested for linear trend across age groups. The reference group comprised 685 adults (423F; 61 ± 9 years). Men had greater LV volumes and mass, before and after indexation to common measures of body size (all P = 0.001). Women had greater EF (73 ± 6 versus 71 ± 6%; P = 0.0002). LV volumes decreased with greater age in both sexes, even after indexation. Indexed LV mass did not vary with age. LV EF and concentricity increased with greater age in both sexes. We present CMR-derived LV reference values. There are significant age and sex differences in LV volumes, EF, and geometry, whereas mass differs between sexes but not age groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. CMR Reference Values for Left Ventricular Volumes, Mass and Ejection Fraction Using Computer-Aided Analysis: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Michael L.; Gona, Philimon; Hautvast, Gilion L.T.F.; Salton, Carol J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Manning, Warren J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine sex-specific reference values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass and ejection fraction (EF) in healthy adults using computer-aided analysis and to examine the effect of age on LV parameters. Methods and Methods We examined data from 1494 members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, obtained using short-axis stack cine SSFP CMR, identified a healthy reference group (without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or LV wall motion abnormality) and determined sex-specific upper 95th percentile thresholds for LV volumes and mass, and lower 5th percentile thresholds for EF using computer-assisted border detection. In secondary analyses we stratified participants by age-decade and tested for linear trend across age groups. Results The reference group comprised 685 adults (423F; 61±9 years). Men had greater LV volumes and mass, before and after indexation to common measures of body size (all p<0.001). Women had greater EF (73±6 vs. 71±6%, p=0.0002). LV volumes decreased with greater age in both sexes, even after indexation. Indexed LV mass did not vary with age. LV EF and concentricity increased with greater age in both sexes. Conclusion We present CMR-derived LV reference values. There are significant age and sex differences in LV volumes, EF and geometry, while mass differs between sexes but not age groups. PMID:24123369

  8. A young patient with atypical type-B Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome accompanied by left ventricular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Takahiro; Tomita, Takeshi; Kasai, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Daisuke; Yoshie, Koji; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Oguchi, Yasutaka; Kozuka, Ayako; Gautam, Milan; Motoki, Hirohiko; Okada, Ayako; Shiba, Yuji; Aizawa, Kazunori; Izawa, Atsushi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Koyama, Jun; Hongo, Minoru; Ikeda, Uichi

    2014-01-01

    A 15-year-old asymptomatic male patient presented with an electrocardiographic abnormality and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (left ventricle ejection fraction of 40%) in a physical examination performed 2 years previously. LV dysfunction did not improve despite optimal medical therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy. Twelve-lead electrocardiography revealed a normal PR interval (138 ms) with a small delta-like wave in V2, but not a typical diagnostic wave that could be diagnosed as Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome by an electrocardiogram auto-analysis. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a remarkable asynchronous septal motion. An electrophysiological study was performed to exclude WPW syndrome. An accessory pathway (AP) was revealed on the lateral wall of the right ventricle, and radiofrequency catheter ablation was successfully performed to disconnect the AP. Thereafter, the dyssynchrony disappeared, and LV function improved. The intrinsic atrioventricular nodal conduction was very slow (A-H, 237 ms). The results of electrocardiogram auto-analysis could not be used to confirm the diagnosis of WPW syndrome because of the atypical delta wave. Conduction via the right lateral AP caused electrical dyssynchrony in the LV. This case suggests that atypical delta waves should be evaluated without depending on electrocardiographic auto-analyses in patients with LV dysfunction accompanied by dyssynchrony. PMID:26336525

  9. Patient-specific assessment of left ventricular thrombogenesis risk after acute myocardial infarction: a pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, L.; Khan, A.; Del Alamo, J. C.; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Pérez Del Villar, C.; Benito, Y.; Yotti, R.; Barrio, A.; Delgado-Montero, A.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Fernandez-Avilés, F.; Bermejo, J.

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular thrombosis (LVT) is a major complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In these patients, the benefits of chronic anticoagulation therapy need to be balanced with its pro-hemorrhagic effects. Blood stasis in the cardiac chambers, a risk factor for LVT, is not addressed in current clinical practice. We recently developed a method to quantitatively assess the blood residence time (RT) inside the left ventricle (LV) based on 2D color-Doppler velocimetry (echo-CDV). Using time-resolved blood velocity fields acquired non-invasively, we integrate a modified advection equation to map intraventricular stasis regions. Here, we present how this tool can be used to estimate the risk of LVT in patients with AMI. 73 patients with a first anterior-AMI were studied by echo-CDV and RT analysis within 72h from admission and at a 5-month follow-up. Patients who eventually develop LVT showed early abnormalities of intraventricular RT: the apical region with RT>2s was significantly larger, had a higher RT and a longer wall contact length. Thus, quantitative analysis of intraventricular flow based on echocardiography may provide subclinical markers of LV thrombosis risk to guide clinical decision making.

  10. CARDIAC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES IN FEMALES WITH UNTREATED HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO SHEEHAN SYNDROME: RESPONSE TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Data on cardiac abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism are limited. We investigated echocardiographic abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism and their response to treatment. Twenty-three females with treatment-naïve hypopituitarism and 30 matched healthy controls were evaluated for cardiac structure and function. Echocardiographic evaluation was done at presentation and after achieving a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Fourteen (61%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and 11 (48%) had pericardial effusion as against none among controls. Indices of left ventricular (LV) size like LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD; 44.5 ± 3.5 mm in cases vs. 47.6 ± 3.8 mm in controls, P = .004), and LV diastolic volume (LVEDV; 91.8 ± 18.0 mL versus 106.5 ± 20.4 mL, P = .009) were significantly lower in the SS group compared with controls. LV mass (LVM) was 70.8 ± 19.2 g in cases and 108.0 ± 33.2 g in controls (P = .02). Similarly, indices of LV systolic function like stroke volume (SV; 59.1 ± 12.0 mL in cases and 74.4 ± 15.8 mL in controls; P = .000), ejection fraction (EF; 64.3 ± 6.2 % in cases against 69.9 ± 9.2 % in controls; P = .03), and fractional shortening (FS; 34.9 ± 4.7% versus 40.1 ± 4.4%, P = .000) were significantly decreased in patients compared with controls. Cardiac abnormalities normalized with restoration of a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Pericardial effusion, mitral regurgitation, and diminished LVM are common in females with untreated hypopituitarism. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone BMI = body mass index DT = deceleration time EDV = end-diastolic volume EF = ejection fraction FS = fractional shortening GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1 ITT = insulin tolerance test IVSd = interventricular septal diameter LH = luteinizing hormone LV = left ventricular LVEDD = LV end diastolic dimension LVEDV = LV end diastolic volume LVM = LV mass MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MVP = mitral value prolapse PPH

  11. Diagnosis of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Progress and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Ad W G J; Semsarian, Christopher; Puranik, Rajesh; Sy, Raymond W

    2018-04-04

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the right ventricle. With a prevalence in the range of 1:5000 to 1:2000 persons, ARVC is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and in athletes. Although early detection and treatment is important, the diagnosis of ARVC remains challenging. There is no single pathognomonic diagnostic finding in ARVC; rather, current international task force criteria specify diagnostic major and minor criteria in six categories: right ventricular imaging (including echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), histology, repolarisation abnormalities, depolarisation and conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and family history (including genetic testing). Combining findings from differing diagnostic modalities can establish a "definite", "borderline" or "possible" diagnosis of ARVC. However, there are limitations inherent in the current task force criteria, including the lack of specificity for ARVC; future iterations may be improved, for example, by enhanced imaging protocols able to detect subtle changes in the structure and function of the right ventricle, incorporation of electro-anatomical data, response to adrenergic challenge, and validated criteria for interpreting genetic variants. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging during untreated ventricular fibrillation reveals prompt right ventricular overdistention without left ventricular volume loss.

    PubMed

    Berg, Robert A; Sorrell, Vincent L; Kern, Karl B; Hilwig, Ronald W; Altbach, Maria I; Hayes, Melinda M; Bates, Kathryn A; Ewy, Gordon A

    2005-03-08

    Most out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) is prolonged (>5 minutes), and defibrillation from prolonged VF typically results in asystole or pulseless electrical activity. Recent visual epicardial observations in an open-chest, open-pericardium model of swine VF indicate that blood flows from the high-pressure arterial system to the lower-pressure venous system during untreated VF, thereby overdistending the right ventricle and apparently decreasing left ventricular size. Therefore, inadequate left ventricular stroke volume after defibrillation from prolonged VF has been postulated as a major contributor to the development of pulseless rhythms. Ventricular dimensions were determined by MRI for 30 minutes of untreated VF in a closed-chest, closed-pericardium model in 6 swine. Within 1 minute of untreated VF, mean right ventricular volume increased by 29% but did not increase thereafter. During the first 5 minutes of untreated VF, mean left ventricular volume increased by 34%. Between 20 and 30 minutes of VF, stone heart occurred as manifested by dramatic thickening of the myocardium and concomitant substantial decreases in left ventricular volume. In this closed-chest swine model of VF, substantial right ventricular volume changes occurred early and did not result in smaller left ventricular volumes. The changes in ventricular volumes before the late development of stone heart do not explain why defibrillation from brief duration VF (<5 minutes) typically results in a pulsatile rhythm with return of spontaneous circulation, whereas defibrillation from prolonged VF (5 to 15 minutes) does not.

  13. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation between aortic knob width and subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Gürbak, İsmail; Yıldız, İbrahim; Panç, Cafer

    2018-01-29

    The assessment of left ventricular (LV) structure and function is important in the evaluation of hypertensive heart disease, as it provides information on the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aortic knob width (AKW) is a measurement of radiographic structure formed by the foreshortened aortic arch and a portion of the descending aorta. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relation between AKW on the routine chest radiography and subclinical LV dysfunction in hypertensive patients. A total of 144 patients with hypertension admitted to the cardiology outpatients clinic were enrolled consecutively. The patients were divided into two groups according to tissue Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI): subclinical LV dysfunction group (abnormal MPI ≥ 0.5, n = 85) and absence of subclinical LV dysfunction group (normal MPI< 0.5, n = 59). Patients with subclinical LV dysfunction were older (60 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 8, p = 0.001). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (96 ± 27 vs. 74 ± 24, p < 0.001) and prevalence of LV hypertrophy (28 vs. 8%, p = 0.011) were significantly different between two groups. Patients with subclinical LV dysfunction had higher AKW (42 ± 6 vs. 34 ± 5, p < 0.001) compared with patients without subclinical LV dysfunction. There was a significant correlation between MPI and AKW (r = 0.7, p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that AKW (β = 0.617, p = 0.001) and posterior wall thickness (PWth) (β = 1.189, p = 0.021) were independently associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve has demonstrated that aortic knob of 37 mm constitutes the cutoff value for the presence of subclinical LV dysfunction with 85.9% sensitivity and 86.4% specificity (The Area under the Curve ± Standard Error (AUC±SE) = 0.916 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). AKW may provide important predictive information on subclinical LV dysfunction

  15. Dofetilide promotes repolarization abnormalities in perfused Guinea-pig heart.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2012-12-01

    Dofetilide is class III antiarrhythmic agent which prolongs cardiac action potential duration because of selective inhibition of I (Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current. Although clinical studies reported on proarrhythmic risk associated with dofetilide treatment, the contributing electrophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study was designed to determine if dofetilide-induced proarrhythmia may be attributed to abnormalities in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness. The monophasic action potential duration and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed at distinct epicardial and endocardial sites along with volume-conducted ECG recordings in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations. Dofetilide was found to produce the reverse rate-dependent prolongation of ventricular repolarization, increased the steepness of action potential duration rate adaptation, and amplified transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics. Dofetilide also prolonged the T peak-to-end interval on ECG, and elicited a greater prolongation of endocardial than epicardial ERP, thereby increasing transmural dispersion of refractoriness. At epicardium, dofetilide prolonged action potential duration to a greater extent than ERP, thus extending the critical interval for ventricular re-excitation. This change was associated with triangulation of epicardial action potential because of greater dofetilide-induced prolonging effect at 90 % than 30 % repolarization. Premature ectopic beats and spontaneous short-lasting episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 44 % of dofetilide-treated heart preparations. Proarrhythmic potential of dofetilide in guinea-pig heart is attributed to steepened electrical restitution, increased transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics, amplified transmural dispersion of refractoriness, increased critical interval for ventricular re-excitation, and

  16. Normal reference ranges for left ventricular dimensions in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Abushaban, Lulu; Vel, Mariappa Thinakar; Rathinasamy, Jebaraj; Sharma, Prem N

    2014-09-01

    To establish normal reference ranges for the left ventricular dimensions in preterm infants and their correlation with gestational age, body weight and chronological age. In a prospective study, 268 preterm babies, who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion, were examined in Kuwait during the years (2008-2010). Echocardiograms were performed to measure the left ventricular dimensions on 0-6 day(s) of life and at weekly intervals until they reached 36 weeks. The gestational age was grouped into three: 24-27, 28-31 and 32-35 weeks, and body weight into five: ⩽999, 1,000-1,499, 1,500-1,999, 2,000-2,499 and ≥2,500 grams. The overall group differences were compared for each period of life: 0-6 days, 1-2, 3-4 and ≥5 weeks. The mean gestational age was 29.8 (± 2.38 SD) weeks, ranging between 24 and 35, and the mean body weight 1,479 (± 413 SD) grams, ranging between 588 and 3380. At the first scan (0-6 days of life), all the left ventricular measurements correlated well (P < 0.001) with body weight, and the same was observed with gestational age, except for left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole and end-diastole. A significant gradual increase was noticed in all the dimensions with body weight during each period of life. However, with respect to gestational age, an increase was observed in all the dimensions during first four weeks, but the rate of increase became less after 5 weeks of life. Overall, a progressive and significant increase in all left ventricle measurements was observed during the first nine weeks of life. The left ventricular dimension measurements were found to have significant correlation with both gestational age and body weight. The study also provides reference data, which can be used as normal reference tool for left ventricular dimensions for preterm infants against the gestational age, body weight and chronological age.

  17. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  18. Evolution and Development of Ventricular Septation in the Amniote Heart

    PubMed Central

    Poelmann, Robert E.; Groot, Adriana C. Gittenberger-de; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; Wisse, Lambertus J.; Bartelings, Margot M.; Everts, Sonja; Hoppenbrouwers, Tamara; Kruithof, Boudewijn P. T.; Jensen, Bjarke; de Bruin, Paul W.; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Kuratani, Shigeru; Vonk, Freek; van de Put, Jeanne M. M. S.; de Bakker, Merijn A.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    During cardiogenesis the epicardium, covering the surface of the myocardial tube, has been ascribed several functions essential for normal heart development of vertebrates from lampreys to mammals. We investigated a novel function of the epicardium in ventricular development in species with partial and complete septation. These species include reptiles, birds and mammals. Adult turtles, lizards and snakes have a complex ventricle with three cava, partially separated by the horizontal and vertical septa. The crocodilians, birds and mammals with origins some 100 million years apart, however, have a left and right ventricle that are completely separated, being a clear example of convergent evolution. In specific embryonic stages these species show similarities in development, prompting us to investigate the mechanisms underlying epicardial involvement. The primitive ventricle of early embryos becomes septated by folding and fusion of the anterior ventricular wall, trapping epicardium in its core. This folding septum develops as the horizontal septum in reptiles and the anterior part of the interventricular septum in the other taxa. The mechanism of folding is confirmed using DiI tattoos of the ventricular surface. Trapping of epicardium-derived cells is studied by transplanting embryonic quail pro-epicardial organ into chicken hosts. The effect of decreased epicardium involvement is studied in knock-out mice, and pro-epicardium ablated chicken, resulting in diminished and even absent septum formation. Proper folding followed by diminished ventricular fusion may explain the deep interventricular cleft observed in elephants. The vertical septum, although indistinct in most reptiles except in crocodilians and pythonidsis apparently homologous to the inlet septum. Eventually the various septal components merge to form the completely septated heart. In our attempt to discover homologies between the various septum components we aim to elucidate the evolution and development

  19. Aerodynamic and acoustic effects of ventricular gap.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fariborz; Karnell, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Supraglottic compression is frequently observed in individuals with dysphonia. It is commonly interpreted as an indication of excessive circumlaryngeal muscular tension and ventricular medialization. The purpose of this study was to describe the aerodynamic and acoustic impact of varying ventricular medialization in a canine model. Subglottal air pressure, glottal airflow, electroglottograph, acoustic signals, and high-speed video images were recorded in seven excised canine larynges mounted in vitro for laryngeal vibratory experimentation. The degree of gap between the ventricular folds was adjusted and measured using sutures and weights. Data were recorded during phonation when the ventricular gap was narrow, neutral, and large. Glottal resistance was estimated by measures of subglottal pressure and glottal flow. Glottal resistance increased systematically as ventricular gap became smaller. Wide ventricular gaps were associated with increases in fundamental frequency and decreases in glottal resistance. Sound pressure level did not appear to be impacted by the adjustments in ventricular gap used in this research. Increases in supraglottic compression and associated reduced ventricular width may be observed in a variety of disorders that affect voice quality. Ventricular compression may interact with true vocal fold posture and vibration resulting in predictable changes in aerodynamic, physiological, acoustic, and perceptual measures of phonation. The data from this report supports the theory that narrow ventricular gaps may be associated with disordered phonation. In vitro and in vivo human data are needed to further test this association. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The challenges in the management of right ventricular infarction.

    PubMed

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Fukuda, Keiichi; Menon, Venu

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, right ventricular (RV) infarction seems to be underdiagnosed in most cases of acute myocardial ischaemia despite its frequent association with inferior-wall and, occasionally, anterior-wall myocardial infarction (MI). However, its initial management is drastically different from that of left ventricular MI, and studies have indicated that RV infarction remains associated with significant morbidity and mortality, even in the mechanical reperfusion era. The pathophysiology of RV infarction involves the interaction between the right and left ventricle (LV), and the mechanism has been clarified with the advent of diagnostic non-invasive modalities, such as echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the treatment of RV infarction; early revascularization remains the cornerstone of the management, and fluid resuscitation, with appropriate target selection, is necessary to maintain appropriate preload. Early recognition in intensive care with clear understanding of the pathophysiology is essential to improve its prognosis. In terms of management, the support strategy for RV dysfunction is different from that for LV dysfunction since the former may often be temporary. Along with early reperfusion, maintenance of an adequate heart rate and atrioventricular synchrony are essential to sustain a sufficient cardiac output in patients with RV infarction. In refractory cases, more intensive mechanical support is required, and new therapeutic options, such as Tandem-Heart or percutaneous cardiopulmonary support systems, are being developed.

  1. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  2. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  3. Right ventricular speckle tracking assessment for differentiation of pressure- versus volume-overloaded right ventricle.

    PubMed

    Werther Evaldsson, Anna; Ingvarsson, Annika; Waktare, Johan; Smith, Gustav J; Thilén, Ulf; Stagmo, Martin; Roijer, Anders; Rådegran, Goran; Meurling, Carl

    2017-10-26

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction may be caused by either pressure or volume overload. RV function is conventionally assessed with echocardiography using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV fractional area change (RVFAC), tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (S') and RV index of myocardial performance (RIMP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether RV global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) and RV-free wall strain (RV-free) could add additional information to differentiate these two causes of RV overload. The study enrolled 89 patients with an echocardiographic trans-tricuspid gradient >30 mmHg. Forty-five patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (pressure overload) were compared with 44 patients with an atrial septum defect (volume overload). RV size was larger in the volume group (P<0·05). TAPSE and S' were lower in the pressure group (P<0·05, P<0·01). RVFAC was lower in the pressure group (P<0·001) as well as RVGLS (-12·1 ± 3·3% versus -20·2 ± 3·4%, P<0·001) and RV-free (-12·9 ± 3·3% versus -19·4 ± 3·4%, P<0·001). In this study, RVGLS and RV-free could more accurately discriminate RV pressure from volume overload than conventional measures. The reason could be that TAPSE and S' are unable to differentiate active deformation from passive entrainment caused by the left ventricle. The pressure group had evidence of marked RV hypertrophy despite standard functional parameters (TAPSE and S) within normal range. This would enhance the value of strain to more sensitively detect abnormal function. A cut-off value of below -16% for RVGLS and RV-free predicts RV pressure overload with high accuracy. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Correlation between right ventricular T1 mapping and right ventricular dysfunction in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Jellis, Christine L; Yingchoncharoen, Teerapat; Gai, Neville; Kusunose, Kenya; Popović, Zoran B; Flamm, Scott; Kwon, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) fibrosis is increasingly recognized as the underlying pathological substrate in a variety of clinical conditions. We sought to employ cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques of strain imaging and longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) mapping to better examine the relationship between RV function and structure. Our aim was to initially evaluate the feasibility of these techniques to evaluate the right ventricle. We then sought to explore the relationship between RV function and underlying fibrosis, along with examining the evolution of RV remodeling according to the amount of baseline fibrosis. Echocardiography was performed in 102 subjects with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Right ventricular parameters were assessed including: fractional area change (FAC) and longitudinal strain. The same cohort underwent CMR. Post-contrast T 1 mapping was performed as a marker of fibrosis with a Look-Locker technique using inversion recovery imaging. Mid-ventricular post-contrast T 1 values of the RV free wall, RV septum and lateral LV were calculated using prototype analysis software. Biventricular volumetric data including ejection fraction was measured by CMR using a cine short axis stack. CMR strain analysis was also performed to assess 2D RV longitudinal and radial strain. Simultaneous biochemical and anthropometric data were recorded. Subjects were followed over a median time of 29 months (IQR 20-37 months) with echocardiography to evaluate temporal change in RV FAC according to baseline post-contrast T 1 values. Longitudinal data analysis was performed to adjust for patient loss during follow-up. Subjects (62% men, 51 ± 15 years) had mild to moderately impaired global RV systolic function (RVEF = 39 ± 15%; RVEDV = 187 ± 69 ml; RVESV = 119 ± 68 ml) and moderate left ventricular dysfunction at baseline (LVEF 30 ± 17%). Good correlation was observed between mean LV and RV post-contrast T 1 values (r = 0.652, p

  5. Office blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and echocardiographic abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: role of obesity and androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Martí, David; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2014-03-01

    Whether or not blood pressure (BP) and heart function of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are altered remains unclear, albeit subtle abnormalities in the regulation of BP observed in these women might suggest a mild masculinization of their cardiovascular system. To study the influence of obesity and androgen excess on BP and echocardiographic profiles of women with the syndrome, we conducted a cross-sectional case-control study comparing office and ambulatory BP monitoring, as well as echocardiographic assessments, in 63 premenopausal women with the classic phenotype, 33 nonhyperandrogenic women with regular menses, and 25 young men. Forty-nine subjects were lean and 72 had weight excess (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Participants had no previous history of hypertension and were nonsmokers. Men showed the highest BP readings, and the lowest readings were observed in control women, whereas women with PCOS had intermediate values. Undiagnosed hypertension was more common in subjects with weight excess irrespective of sex and hyperandrogenism. Women with PCOS and weight excess showed frequencies of previously undiagnosed hypertension that were similar to those of men with weight excess and higher than those observed in nonhyperandrogenic women. Lastly, male sex, weight excess and hypertension, the latter in men as well as in women with PCOS, increased left ventricular wall thickness. In summary, our results show that patients with classic PCOS and weight excess frequently have undiagnosed BP abnormalities, leading to target organ damage.

  6. Interdependence of right ventricular systolic function and left ventricular filling and its association with outcome for patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Motoji, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Yuko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ryo, Keiko; Imanishi, Junichi; Miyoshi, Tatsuya; Sawa, Takuma; Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Emoto, Noriaki; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Although impaired right ventricular (RV) performance has been associated with adverse outcomes for pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, the relationship between bi-ventricular interdependence and outcomes is not yet fully understood. We studied 96 PH patients. RV systolic function was assessed by means of RV free-wall longitudinal speckle-tracking strain (RV-free), and left ventricular (LV) filling as early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (TMF-E). RV-free ≤19 % and TMF-E <60 cm/s were adopted as pre-defined cut-offs for RV systolic dysfunction and LV under-filling, respectively, associated with worse outcomes. Long-term outcome was tracked over 2.2 years. RV-free correlated significantly with TMF-E (r = 0.57, p < 0.001).TMF-E and RV-free were significantly lower in patients with than in those without cardiac events. RV systolic dysfunction and LV under-filling was observed in 35 patients. These features were associated with worse long-term survival compared to other sub-groups (log-rank p = 0.012). A sequential Cox model based on clinical variables including world health organization functional class IV and brain natriuretic peptide >150 pg/dl (χ(2) = 1.2) was improved by the addition of RV-free (χ(2) = 5.5, p = 0.04) as well as of TMF-E (χ(2) = 11.5, p = 0.01). In conclusions, RV systolic function was shown to correlate significantly with LV filling in PH patients. In addition, not only assessment of RV systolic function, but also of a combined bi-ventricular parameter comprising RV systolic function and LV filling may well have clinical implications for more successful management of PH patients.

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  8. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in an Endurance Athlete Presenting with Ventricular Tachycardia and Normal Right Ventricular Function.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Jeffrey S; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Alikhani, Zoubin; Pernetz, Maria A; Kim, Jonathan H

    2017-08-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetically inherited disease that results in fibrofatty replacement of normal cardiac myocytes, has been associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes. Long-term participation in endurance exercise hastens the development of both the arrhythmic and structural arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy phenotypes. We describe the unusual case of a 34-year-old, symptomatic, female endurance athlete who had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the presence of a structurally normal right ventricle. Clinicians should be aware of this infrequent presentation when evaluating athletic patients who have ventricular arrhythmias and normal findings on cardiac imaging studies.

  9. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Sildenafil ameliorates right ventricular early molecular derangement during left ventricular pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yousuke; Kariya, Taro; Iwakiri, Masaki; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Takimoto, Eiki

    2018-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction following left ventricular (LV) failure is associated with poor prognosis. RV remodeling is thought initiated by the increase in the afterload of RV due to secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH) to impaired LV function; however, RV molecular changes might occur in earlier stages of the disease. cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate)-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, widely used to treat PH through their pulmonary vasorelaxation properties, have shown direct cardiac benefits, but their impacts on the RV in LV diseases are not fully determined. Here we show that RV molecular alterations occur early in the absence of RV hemodynamic changes during LV pressure-overload and are ameliorated by PDE5 inhibition. Two-day moderate LV pressure-overload (transverse aortic constriction) neither altered RV pressure/ function nor RV weight in mice, while it induced only mild LV hypertrophy. Importantly, pathological molecular features were already induced in the RV free wall myocardium, including up-regulation of gene markers for hypertrophy and inflammation, and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and calcineurin. Concomitant PDE5 inhibition (sildenafil) prevented induction of such pathological genes and activation of ERK and calcineurin in the RV as well as in the LV. Importantly, dexamethasone also prevented these RV molecular changes, similarly to sildenafil treatment. These results suggest the contributory role of inflammation to the early pathological interventricular interaction between RV and LV. The current study provides the first evidence for the novel early molecular cross-talk between RV and LV, preceding RV hemodynamic changes in LV disease, and supports the therapeutic strategy of enhancing cGMP signaling pathway to treat heart diseases.

  12. Detection of ventricular fibrillation from multiple sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsley, Stephanie A.; Ludeman, Lonnie C.

    1992-07-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is a potentially fatal medical condition in which the flow of blood through the body is terminated due to the lack of an organized electric potential in the heart. Automatic implantable defibrillators are becoming common as a means for helping patients confronted with repeated episodes of ventricular fibrillation. Defibrillators must first accurately detect ventricular fibrillation and then provide an electric shock to the heart to allow a normal sinus rhythm to resume. The detection of ventricular fibrillation by using an array of multiple sensors to distinguish between signals recorded from single (normal sinus rhythm) or multiple (ventricular fibrillation) sources is presented. An idealistic model is presented and the analysis of data generated by this model suggests that the method is promising as a method for accurately and quickly detecting ventricular fibrillation from signals recorded from sensors placed on the epicardium.

  13. Surgical ablation of ventricular tachycardia secondary to congenital ventricular septal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Graffigna, A; Minzioni, G; Ressia, L; Vigano, M

    1994-04-01

    Three patients underwent surgical ablation for ventricular tachycardia resulting from an aneurysm of the membranous portion of the ventricular septum. Two patients had a definite history of cardiac murmur during infancy, and one of them was found at the time of operation to have a left-to-right shunt through the apex of the aneurysm. The earliest ventricular activation sites were located around the neck of the aneurysm and were ablated in 1 patient by encircling the endocardial ventriculotomy and by cryoablation in the remaining 2. After focus resection had been completed, aneurysm resection and ventricular septal reconstruction were performed. All patients were alive and free of ventricular tachycardia and did not need medication as of 61, 66, and 88 months postoperatively. Spontaneous closure of a ventricular septal defect may lead to the formation of an aneurysm in the ventricular septum that may sustain ventricular tachycardias. Such arrhythmias can be effectively treated using electrically guided surgical techniques.

  14. Left Ventricular Aneurysm: Sudden Unexpected Deaths in a 29-Year-Old Man.

    PubMed

    Srettabunjong, Supawon

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) is an abnormal dilated heart structure, either congenital or acquired. LVA is a rare cardiac condition with no symptoms in most cases, thus occasionally diagnosed during investigations of other diseases. Its association with certain cardiac complications and sudden cardiac deaths has been reported. However, its role as a cause of sudden unexpected death is rare. The author reported a sudden cardiac death in a 29-year-old man with LVA. Without a significant coronary artery disease and known etiologies of LVA, such an abnormal heart structure in the present case was considered congenital LVA. As no other possible mechanisms of death could be identified other than LVA with its associated pathologic lesions, mural thrombi, and dilated cardiomegaly, his death was attributable to fatal cardiac arrhythmia (most commonly ventricular tachycardia) secondary to LVA. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. The association between left ventricular twisting motion and mechanical dyssynchrony: a three-dimensional speckle tracking study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shohei; Komamura, Kazuo; Nakabo, Ayumi; Masaki, Mitsuru; Fukui, Miho; Sugahara, Masataka; Itohara, Kanako; Soyama, Yuko; Goda, Akiko; Hirotani, Shinichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is a causal factor in LV dysfunction and thought to be associated with LV twisting motion. We tested whether three-dimensional speckle tracking (3DT) can be used to evaluate the relationship between LV twisting motion and dyssynchrony. We examined 25 patients with sick sinus syndrome who had received dual chamber pacemakers. The acute effects of ventricular pacing on LV wall motion after the switch from atrial to ventricular pacing were assessed. LV twisting motion and dyssynchrony during each pacing mode were measured using 3DT. LV dyssynchrony was calculated from the time to the minimum peak systolic area strain of 16 LV imaging segments. Ventricular pacing increased LV dyssynchrony and decreased twist and torsion. A significant correlation was observed between changes in LV dyssynchrony and changes in torsion (r = -0.65, p < 0.01). Evaluation of LV twisting motion can potentially be used for diagnosing LV dyssynchrony.

  16. Value of right ventricular mapping in patients with postinfarction ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Miki; Good, Eric; Crawford, Thomas; Chugh, Aman; Pelosi, Frank; Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Oral, Hakan; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2012-06-01

    Postinfarction ventricular tachycardia (VT) typically involves the left ventricular endocardium. Right ventricular involvement in the arrhythmogenic substrate of postinfarction VT is considered unusual. To assess the role of right ventricular mapping and ablation in patients with prior septal myocardial infarction. From among 37 consecutive patients with recurrent postinfarction VT, 18 patients with evidence of left ventricular septal involvement of myocardial infarction were identified; these patients were the subjects of this report. In these 18 patients, 166 VTs (cycle length 372 ± 117 ms) were induced. Right ventricular voltage mapping was performed in all 18 patients with left ventricular septal myocardial infarction. Right ventricular voltage mapping showed areas of low voltage in 11 patients; pace mapping from these areas revealed matching pace maps for 17 VTs, and radiofrequency ablation from the right ventricular endocardium but not the left ventricular endocardium eliminated 14 of 17 VTs. VTs with critical components in the right ventricle had a left bundle branch block morphology that had similar characteristics as left bundle branch block VTs with critical areas involving the left ventricular septum. Patients with right ventricular VT breakthrough sites had a lower ejection fraction than did patients without VT breaking out on the right ventricular septum (18% ± 5% vs 33% ± 15%; P = .01). Right ventricular mapping and ablation may be necessary in order to eliminate all inducible VTs in patients with postinfarction VT. More than half the patients with septal myocardial infarction have right ventricular septal areas that are critical for postinfarction VT and that cannot be eliminated by left ventricular ablation alone. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Mohammad; Anbiaei, Robabeh; Zamani, Hanie; Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Ameri, Ahmad; Emami-Ardekani, Alireza; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Seid Ratki, Kazem Razavi; Roknabadi, Alireza Momen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right-sided cancer. To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring) were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT) to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions) over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol) was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed) and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls)] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46). In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03) and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049) walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS) of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%), while in five of the controls (13.9%),(Odds ratio=1.3). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. The risk of radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormality in patients treated with CRT on the

  18. [Experimental studies on the diffusion of excitation on the right ventricular surface in the dog, during normal and stimulated beats].

    PubMed

    Arisi, G; Macchi, E; Baruffi, S; Musso, E; Spaggiari, S; Stilli, D; Taccardi, B

    1982-01-01

    Previous work on the spread of excitation on the dog's ventricular surface enabled us to locate up to 30 breakthrough points (BKTPs) where excitation reaches the ventricular surface. In particular the equipotential contour maps enabled us to detect 3 to 5 BKTPs on the anterior right ventricular surface, near the a-v groove when a large part of ventricular surface was still at rest. With a view to investigating the mechanism underlying the early excitation of these basal regions, we stimulated the heart at several right ventricular BKTPs and in other points located at a distance from the BKTPs. The instantaneous equipotential maps showed that after stimulation most right ventricular BKTPs remained in the same position as observed the normal beats. The early appearance of epicardial wavefronts in the basal region and generally in other areas of the right ventricle was attributed to the rapid propagation of excitation waves through the Purkinje network, probably associated to a short transmural crossing time, due to a local thinness of the ventricular wall.

  19. Is the epicardial left ventricular lead implantation an alternative approach to percutaneous attempt in patients with Steinert disease? A case report

    PubMed Central

    PAPA, ANDREA ANTONIO; RAGO, ANNA; PETILLO, ROBERTA; D’AMBROSIO, PAOLA; SCUTIFERO, MARIANNA; FEO, MARISA DE; MAIELLO, CIRO; PALLADINO, ALBERTO

    2017-01-01

    Steinert’s disease or Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder characterized by myotonia, muscle and facial weakness, cataracts, cognitive, endocrine and gastrointestinal involvement, and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Although mild myocardial dysfunction may be detected in this syndrome with age, overt myocardial dysfunction with heart failure is not frequent. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective treatment to improve morbidity and reduce mortality in patients with DM1 showing intra-ventricular conduction delay and/or congestive heart failure. We report the case of a patient with Steinert disease showing an early onset ventricular dysfunction due to chronic right ventricular apical pacing, in which an epicardial left ventricular lead implantation was performed following the failure of the percutaneous attempt. As no relief in symptoms of heart failure, nor an improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction and reverse remodelling was observed six months later, the patient was addressed to the heart transplantation.

  20. Noninvasive imaging of three-dimensional cardiac activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-08-01

    Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. This study sought to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of 3D intracardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE)-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in 13 healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computed tomography images were obtained to construct geometry models. The noninvasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterpart, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.04, and a relative error of 0.30 ± 0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from the imaged site of initial activation to the pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intracardiac mapping was ∼5 mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. 3DCEI can noninvasively delineate important features of focal or multifocal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequences of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Noninvasive Imaging of Three-dimensional Cardiac Activation Sequence during Pacing and Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. Objective This study aims to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE) induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Methods Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computer tomography images were obtained to construct geometry model. Results The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72±0.04, and a relative error of 0.30±0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ~5mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. Conclusion 3-DCEI can non-invasively delineate important features of focal or multi-focal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequence of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. PMID:21397046

  2. The effect of acute mechanical left ventricular unloading on ovine tricuspid annular size and geometry.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Marcin; Wilton, Penny; Khaghani, Asghar; Brown, Michael; Langholz, David; Hooker, Victoria; Eberhart, Lenora; Hooker, Robert L; Timek, Tomasz A

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation may alter right ventricular shape and function and lead to tricuspid regurgitation. This in turn has been reported to be a determinant of right ventricular (RV) failure after LVAD implantation, but the effect of mechanical left ventricular (LV) unloading on the tricuspid annulus is unknown. The aim of the study was to provide insight into the effect of LVAD support on tricuspid annular geometry and dynamics that may help to optimize LV unloading with the least deleterious effect on the right-sided geometry. In seven open-chest anaesthetized sheep, nine sonomicrometry crystals were implanted on the right ventricle. Additional nine crystals were implanted around the tricuspid annulus, with one crystal at each commissure defining three separate annular regions: anterior, posterior and septal. Left ventricular unloading was achieved by connecting a cannula in the left atrium and the aorta to a continuous-flow pump. The pump was used for 15 min at a full flow of 3.8 ± 0.3 l/min. Epicardial echocardiography was used to assess the degree of tricuspid insufficiency. Haemodynamic, echocardiographic and sonomicrometry data were collected before and during full unloading. Tricuspid annular area, and the regional and total perimeter were calculated from crystal coordinates, while 3D annular geometry was expressed as the orthogonal distance of each annular crystal to the least squares plane of all annular crystals. There was no significant tricuspid regurgitation observed either before or during LV unloading. Right ventricular free wall to septum diameter increased significantly at end-diastole during unloading from 23.6 ± 5.8 to 26.3 ± 6.5 mm (P = 0.009), but the right ventricular volume, tricuspid annular area and total perimeter did not change from baseline. However, the septal part of the annulus significantly decreased its maximal length (38.6 ± 8.1 to 37.9 ± 8.2 mm, P = 0.03). Annular contraction was not altered. The

  3. Effects of suture position on left ventricular fluid mechanics under mitral valve edge-to-edge repair.

    PubMed

    Du, Dongxing; Jiang, Song; Wang, Ze; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve (MV) edge-to-edge repair (ETER) is a surgical procedure for the correction of mitral valve regurgitation by suturing the free edge of the leaflets. The leaflets are often sutured at three different positions: central, lateral and commissural portions. To study the effects of position of suture on left ventricular (LV) fluid mechanics under mitral valve ETER, a parametric model of MV-LV system during diastole was developed. The distribution and development of vortex and atrio-ventricular pressure under different suture position were investigated. Results show that the MV sutured at central and lateral in ETER creates two vortex rings around two jets, compared with single vortex ring around one jet of the MV sutured at commissure. Smaller total orifices lead to a higher pressure difference across the atrio-ventricular leaflets in diastole. The central suture generates smaller wall shear stresses than the lateral suture, while the commissural suture generated the minimum wall shear stresses in ETER.

  4. Device Management and Flow Optimization on Left Ventricular Assist Device Support.

    PubMed

    Tchoukina, Inna; Smallfield, Melissa C; Shah, Keyur B

    2018-07-01

    The authors discuss principles of continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) operation, basic differences between the axial and centrifugal flow designs and hemodynamic performance, normal LVAD physiology, and device interaction with the heart. Systematic interpretation of LVAD parameters and recognition of abnormal patterns of flow and pulsatility on the device interrogation are necessary for clinical assessment of the patient. Optimization of pump flow using LVAD parameters and echocardiographic and hemodynamics guidance are reviewed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Severe right ventricular hypertrophy in a patient with extracardiac and intracardiac shunt.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Mohit; Abidov, Aiden

    2018-06-10

    Cardiac MRI is a complementary and confirmatory modality to a clinical echocardiography in diagnosing patients with complex adult congenital heart disease, especially in presence of great vessel abnormalities. We present a unique case of a patient with pulmonary hypertension (PH), severe right ventricular hypertrophy, Gerbode defect, and a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The diagnosis of PDA was not visualized on prior serial echocardiograms and discovered on a comprehensive cardiac MRI/Chest MR angiogram. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ventriculostomy Simulation Using Patient-Specific Ventricular Anatomy, 3D Printing, and Hydrogel Casting.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Justin R; Chen, Tsinsue; Nakaji, Peter; Frakes, David H; Gonzalez, L Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Educational simulators provide a means for students and experts to learn and refine surgical skills. Educators can leverage the strengths of medical simulators to effectively teach complex and high-risk surgical procedures, such as placement of an external ventricular drain. Our objective was to develop a cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum for cerebral lateral ventriculostomy. A cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum was developed for placement of an external lateral ventriculostomy. Elastomeric and gel casting techniques were used to achieve realistic brain geometry and material properties. 3D printing technology was leveraged to develop accurate cranial properties and dimensions. An economical, gravity-driven pump was developed to provide normal and abnormal ventricular pressures. A small pilot study was performed to gauge simulation efficacy using a technology acceptance model. An accurate geometric representation of the brain was developed with independent lateral cerebral ventricular chambers. A gravity-driven pump pressurized the ventricular cavities to physiologic values. A qualitative study illustrated that the simulation has potential as an educational tool to train medical professionals in the ventriculostomy procedure. The ventricular simulacrum can improve learning in a medical education environment. Rapid prototyping and multi-material casting techniques can produce patient-derived models for cost-effective and realistic surgical training scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy: A paradigm shift from right to biventricular disease

    PubMed Central

    Saguner, Ardan M; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Duru, Firat

    2014-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy (AVC) is generally referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and constitutes an inherited cardiomyopathy. Affected patients may succumb to sudden cardiac death (SCD), ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and heart failure. Genetic studies have identified causative mutations in genes encoding proteins of the intercalated disk that lead to reduced myocardial electro-mechanical stability. The term arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy is somewhat misleading as biventricular involvement or isolated left ventricular (LV) involvement may be present and thus a broader term such as AVC should be preferred. The diagnosis is established on a point score basis according to the revised 2010 task force criteria utilizing imaging modalities, demonstrating fibrous replacement through biopsy, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias and a positive family history including identification of genetic mutations. Although several risk factors for SCD such as previous cardiac arrest, syncope, documented VTA, severe RV/LV dysfunction and young age at manifestation have been identified, risk stratification still needs improvement, especially in asymptomatic family members. Particularly, the role of genetic testing and environmental factors has to be further elucidated. Therapeutic interventions include restriction from physical exercise, beta-blockers, sotalol, amiodarone, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and catheter ablation. Life-long follow-up is warranted in symptomatic patients, but also asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic mutations. PMID:24772256

  8. Right ventricular stress-induced perfusion defects and late gadolinium enhancement in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Milks, Michael Wesley; Upadhya, Bharathi; Hall, Michael E; Vasu, Sujethra; Hundley, William Gregory; Stacey, Richard Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of right ventricular (RV) perfusion defects has remained challenging during vasodilator stress perfusion with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The significance of RV signal abnormalities during vasodilator stress perfusion and late gadolinium-enhanced CMR is yet uncertain. Among 61 individuals who underwent adenosine CMR stress testing before cardiac catheterization, we assessed the severity of coronary artery stenoses, mortality, the presence of stress and rest perfusion defects, as well as the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Right ventricular stress-induced perfusion defects were positively associated with left anterior descending artery and proximal right coronary artery stenoses but were negatively associated with left circumflex artery stenoses. The presence of RVLGE was associated with mortality, but 77% of those with RVLGE also had left ventricular LGE. Proximal right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery stenoses are positively associated, whereas left circumflex artery stenoses are negatively associated with RV stress-induced perfusion defects. Right ventricular LGE was associated with mortality, but further study is needed to determine whether this is independent of left ventricular LGE.

  9. Epinephrine and left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function decrease in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, Abdel J; Solórzano, Moisés I; Gómez, Luisangelly

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the effect of epinephrine over left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function in subjects without structural heart disease. Twenty-seven, 34.6±17.2year-old patients without structural heart disease were included. Intravenous epinephrine (50 to 100ng/kg/min) was infused. Left atrial and ventricular functions were evaluated by means of echocardiography before and during the epinephrine infusion. No complications were observed. Significant increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded. Both left atrial (minimal and maximal) volumes increased but increase in the minimal volume was more pronounced, and the ejection fraction diminished. Left atrial expansion index decreased and the fraction of left ventricular inflow volume resulting from atrial contraction increased. Two patients displayed abnormal left ventricular diastolic function. During epinephrine infusion, E/A and e' decreased, and isovolumetric relaxation time increased. In this group of young adults without structural heart disease, epinephrine infusion was safe, did not produce any complications, and induced a small but significant decrease in left atrial function and left ventricular diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sites of Successful Ventricular Fibrillation Ablation in Bileaflet Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Syed, Faisal F; Ackerman, Michael J; McLeod, Christopher J; Kapa, Suraj; Mulpuru, Siva K; Sriram, Chenni S; Cannon, Bryan C; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Noseworthy, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Although the vast majority of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is benign, a small subset of patients, predominantly women, with bileaflet prolapse, complex ventricular ectopy (VE), and abnormal T waves comprise the recently described bileaflet MVP syndrome. We compared findings on electrophysiological study in bileaflet MVP syndrome patients with and without cardiac arrest to identify factors that may predispose to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. Fourteen consecutive bileaflet MVP syndrome patients (n=13 women; median [limits], age at index ablation, 33.8 [21.0-58.7] years; ejection fraction, 60% [45%-67%]; all ≤ moderate mitral regurgitation; n=6 with previous cardiac arrest and implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks for ventricular fibrillation; and n=8 without implantable cardioverter defibrillator although with symptomatic complex VE) were included. The 2 groups had similar baseline echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics. All patients had at least 1 left ventricular papillary or fascicular VE focus. Purkinje origin VE was identified as the ventricular fibrillation trigger in 6 of 6 cardiac arrest patients (4 from papillary muscle) and Purkinje origin of dominant VE was seen in 5 of 8 (3 from papillary muscle) nonarrest patients. Acute success was seen in 17 of 19 procedures, and a ventricular fibrillation storm occurred within 24 hours of ablation in a single patient. Repeat ablation for recurrent symptomatic arrhythmia was performed in 6 patients. At 478 (39-2099) days of follow-up, 2 cardiac arrest patients received appropriate shocks. Symptoms from VE were reduced in 12 of 14. Bileaflet MVP syndrome is characterized by fascicular and papillary muscle VE that triggers ventricular fibrillation. Ablation of clinically dominant VE foci improves symptoms and reduces appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Effects of Frequent Hemodialysis on Ventricular Volumes and Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Tom; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kliger, Alan S.; Stokes, John B.; Beck, Gerald J.; Daugirdas, John T.; Kotanko, Peter; Larive, Brett; Levin, Nathan W.; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Rocco, Michael; Sanz, Javier; Yang, Phillip C.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher left ventricular volume is associated with death in patients with ESRD. This work investigated the effects of frequent hemodialysis on ventricular volumes and left ventricular remodeling. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Frequent Hemodialysis Network daily trial randomized 245 patients to 12 months of six times per week versus three times per week in-center hemodialysis; the Frequent Hemodialysis Network nocturnal trial randomized 87 patients to 12 months of six times per week nocturnal hemodialysis versus three times per week predominantly home-based hemodialysis. Left and right ventricular end systolic and diastolic volumes, left ventricular mass, and ejection fraction at baseline and end of the study were ascertained by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The ratio of left ventricular mass/left ventricular end diastolic volume was used as a surrogate marker of left ventricular remodeling. In each trial, the effect of frequent dialysis on left or right ventricular end diastolic volume was tested between predefined subgroups. Results In the daily trial, frequent hemodialysis resulted in significant reductions in left ventricular end diastolic volume (−11.0% [95% confidence interval, −16.1% to −5.5%]), left ventricular end systolic volume (−14.8% [−22.7% to −6.2%]), right ventricular end diastolic volume (−11.6% [−19.0% to −3.6%]), and a trend for right ventricular end systolic volume (−11.3% [−21.4% to 0.1%]) compared with conventional therapy. The magnitude of reduction in left and right ventricular end diastolic volumes with frequent hemodialysis was accentuated among patients with residual urine output<100 ml/d (P value [interaction]=0.02). In the nocturnal trial, there were no significant changes in left or right ventricular volumes. The frequent dialysis interventions had no substantial effect on the ratio of left ventricular mass/left ventricular end diastolic volume in either

  12. Left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease. An echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Bayauli, M P; Lepira, F B; Kayembe, P K; M'buyamba-Kabangu, J R

    2012-03-01

    We assessed left ventricular structural alterations associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Congolese patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study of a case series. We obtained anthropometric, clinical, biological and echocardiographic measurements in 60 consecutive type 2 diabetes patients (37 females, 62% ) aged 20 years or older from the diabetes outpatient clinic, University of Kinshasa Hospital, DRC. We computed creatinine clearance rate according to the MDRD equation and categorised patients into mild (CrCl > 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), moderate (CrCl 30-60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and severe CKD (< 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was indicated by a LV mass index (LVMI) > 51 g/m(2.7) and LV geometry was defined as normal, or with concentric remodelling, eccentric or concentric hypertrophy, using relative wall thickness (RWT) and LVMI. Compared to patients with normal kidney function, CKD patients had higher uric acid levels (450 ± 166 vs 306 ± 107 µmol/l; p ≤ 0.001), a greater proportion of LVH (37 vs 14%; p ≤ 0.05) and longstanding diabetes (13 ± 8 vs 8 ± 6 years; p ≤ 0.001). Their left ventricular internal diameter, diastolic (LVIDD) was (47.00 ± 6.00 vs 43.00 ± 7.00 mm; p ≤ 0.001), LVMI was (47 ± 19 vs 36.00 ± 15 g/m2.7; p ≤ 0.05) and proportions of concentric (22 vs 11%; p ≤ 0.05) or eccentric (15 vs 3%; p ≤ 0.05) LVH were also greater. Severe CKD was associated with increased interventricular septum, diastolic (IVSD) (12.30 ± 3.08 vs 9.45 ± 1.94 mm; p ≤ 0.05), posterior wall thickness, diastolic (PWTD) (11.61 ± 2.78 vs 9.52 ± 1.77 mm; p ≤ 0.01), relative wall thickness (RWT) (0.52 ± 0.17 vs 0.40 ± 0.07; p ≤ 0.01) rate of LVH (50 vs 30%; p ≤ 0.05), and elevated proportions of concentric remodelling (25 vs 15%; p ≤ 0.05) and concentric LVH (42 vs 10%; p ≤ 0.05) in comparison with patients with moderate CKD. In multivariable adjusted analysis, hyperuricaemia emerged

  13. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  14. Does the study of anaerobic metabolism give quantitative information on left ventricular dysfunction during exercise?

    PubMed

    Opasich, C; Cobelli, F; Riccardi, G; La Rovere, M T; Calsamiglia, G; Specchia, G

    1988-04-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) has been proposed as an index to assess the functional status of patients with chronic heart failure. The focus of this report was to evaluate in post-myocardial infarction patients the utility of the AT for (a) assessing the severity of exercise-induced left ventricular impairment, (b) determining the responses obtained from different treatments and (c) prescribing exercise training. We found that the AT level was lower in patients with abnormal haemodynamic patterns during exercise. The AT was correlated to different degrees of exercise-induced left ventricular impairment. The nitrate and calcium-antagonist effects have been evaluated in patients with abnormal exercise haemodynamics. The resting and exertional results were in agreement with the vasodilator effects. Moreover, the time from onset of exercise to the appearance of the AT was significantly increased by the treatments. Thus, AT during pharmacological treatments may be a non-invasive useful parameter for assessing their haemodynamic effects. Finally, a 4-week intermittent training programme based on AT level was evaluated in patients with abnormal resting and exertional haemodynamics. The results showed an improvement of the exercise cardiovascular tolerance without negative effects on left ventricular function. Therefore, the AT seems to be useful when prescribing a rational and individualized training programme.

  15. Pacing from the right ventricular septum: is there a danger to the coronary arteries?

    PubMed

    Teh, Andrew W; Medi, Caroline; Rosso, Raphael; Lee, Geoffrey; Gurvitch, Ronen; Mond, Harry G

    2009-07-01

    Pacing from right ventricular (RV) septal sites has been suggested as an alternative to RV apical pacing in an attempt to avoid long-term adverse consequences on left ventricular function. Concern has been raised as to the relationship of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to pacing leads in these positions. We retrospectively analyzed three cases in which patients with RV active-fixation leads in situ also had coronary angiography. Multiple fluoroscopic views were used to determine the relationship of the lead tip at various pacing sites to the coronary arteries. A lead placed on the anterior wall was in close proximity to the LAD, whereas septal and free wall positioning was not. Placement of RV active-fixation leads on the septum avoids potential coronary artery compromise.

  16. Dilation and Hypertrophy: A Cell-Based Continuum Mechanics Approach Towards Ventricular Growth and Remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulerich, J.; Göktepe, S.; Kuhl, E.

    This manuscript presents a continuum approach towards cardiac growth and remodeling that is capable to predict chronic maladaptation of the heart in response to changes in mechanical loading. It is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into and elastic and a growth part. Motivated by morphological changes in cardiomyocyte geometry, we introduce an anisotropic growth tensor that can capture both hypertrophic wall thickening and ventricular dilation within one generic concept. In agreement with clinical observations, we propose wall thickening to be a stress-driven phenomenon whereas dilation is introduced as a strain-driven process. The features of the proposed approach are illustrated in terms of the adaptation of thin heart slices and in terms overload-induced dilation in a generic bi-ventricular heart model.

  17. High Serum Phosphorus Level Is Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Tian, Na; Liu, Yanqiu; Li, Wei; Lin, Hong; Fan, Rui; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Donghong; Yao, Fengjuan

    We initiated this study to explore the relationships of serum phosphorus level with left ventricular ultrasound features and diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. 174 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving PD were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Conventional echocardiography examination and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed in each patient. Clinical information and laboratory data were also collected. Analyses of echocardiographic features were performed according to phosphorus quartiles groups. And multivariate regression models were used to determine the association between serum phosphorus and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). With the increase of serum phosphorus levels, patients on PD showed an increased tissue Doppler-derived E/e' ratio of lateral wall (P < 0.001), indicating a deterioration of left ventricular diastolic function. Steady growths of left atrium and left ventricular diameters as well as increase of left ventricular muscle mass were also observed across the increasing quartiles of phosphorus, while left ventricular ejection fraction remained normal. In a multivariate analysis, the regression coefficient for E/e' ratio in the highest phosphorus quartile was almost threefold higher relative to those in the lowest quartile group. And compared with patients in the lowest phosphorus quartile (<1.34 mmol/L) those in the highest phosphorus quartile (>1.95 mmol/L) had a more than fivefold increased odds of E/e' ratio >15. Our study showed an early impairment of left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients. High serum phosphorus level was independently associated with greater risk of LVDD in these patients. Whether serum phosphorus will be a useful target for prevention or improvement of LVDD remains to be proved by further studies.

  18. Doppler echocardiographic analysis of left ventricular filling in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R A; Coplan, N L; Krakoff, L R; Yeager, K; Ross, R S; Gorlin, R; Goldman, M E

    1987-02-01

    Early detection and prevention of cardiac dysfunction is an important goal in the management of hypertensive patients. In this study, Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate the pattern of left ventricular diastolic filling in 38 subjects: 18 treated hypertensive patients (blood pressure 141 +/- 17/83 +/- 10 mm Hg, mean +/- SD) without other coronary risk factors and 20 risk-free normotensive subjects of similar age (47 +/- 10 and 49 +/- 13 years, respectively). Peak velocity of late left ventricular filling due to the atrial contraction was greater in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects (69 +/- 14 versus 52 +/- 13 cm/s; p less than 0.001). Peak velocity of late filling was significantly greater in hypertensive versus normotensive subjects in those aged 50 years or younger and those older than age 50 (65 +/- 12 versus 50 +/- 11; p less than 0.01 and 75 +/- 15 versus 56 +/- 15 cm/s; p less than 0.05, respectively). In hypertensive subjects, peak velocity of late filling did not correlate with routine indexes of hypertensive heart disease (including posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass), systolic and diastolic blood pressure or duration of hypertension. These results indicate that increased velocity of late left ventricular filling may be independent of left ventricular hypertrophy and persist despite effective blood pressure control.

  19. Left ventricular early diastolic inflow velocity and atrial ventricular plane downward velocity: useful parameters to test diastolic function in clinical practice? Diastolic parameters tested in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Winter, R; Gudmundsson, P; Ericsson, G; Willenheimer, R

    2001-06-01

    To study the clinical value of the colour-M-mode slope of the early diastolic left ventricular filling phase (Vp) and the early diastolic downward M-mode slope of the left atrioventricular plane displacement (EDS), compared with diastolic function assessed by traditional Doppler evaluation. In 65 consecutive patients EDS and Vp were compared with a four-degree traditional diastolic function classification, based on pulsed Doppler assessment of the early to atrial transmitral flow ratio (E/A), the E-wave deceleration time (Edt), and the systolic to diastolic (S/D) pulmonary venous inflow ratio. Vp (P=0.006) and EDS (P=0.045) were related to traditional diastolic function (Kruskal--Wallis analysis). EDS showed a trend brake between the moderate and severe diastolic dysfunction groups by traditional Doppler evaluation. Vp and EDS correlated weakly in simple linear regression analysis (r=0.33). Vp and EDS discriminated poorly between normal and highly abnormal diastolic function. Vp and EDS were significantly related to diastolic function by traditional Doppler evaluation. They were, however, not useful as single parameters of left ventricular diastolic function due to a small difference between normal and highly abnormal values, allowing for little between-measurement variability. Consequently, these methods for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function do not add significantly to traditional Doppler evaluation.

  20. 21 CFR 882.4060 - Ventricular cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4060 Ventricular cannula. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4060 - Ventricular cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4060 Ventricular cannula. (a...

  2. Ventricular-Fold Dynamics in Human Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailly, Lucie; Bernardoni, Nathalie Henrich; Müller, Frank; Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Hess, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed (a) to provide a classification of the ventricular-fold dynamics during voicing, (b) to study the aerodynamic impact of these motions on vocal-fold vibrations, and (c) to assess whether ventricular-fold oscillations could be sustained by aerodynamic coupling with the vocal folds. Method: A 72-sample…

  3. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Barratt, Michael R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Martin, David S.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) registers movement of a given sample of cardiac tissue throughout the cardiac cycle. TD spectra of the right ventricle (RV) were obtained from a long-duration ISS crewmember as a portion of an ongoing experiment ("Braslet" test objective). To our knowledge, this is the first report of RV TD conducted in space flight, and the data represent reproducibility and fidelity of this application in space and serve as the first "space normal" data set. Methods RV TD was performed by astronaut scientists remotely guided by an ultrasound expert from Mission Control Center, Houston, TX. In four of the subjects, RV TD was acquired from the free wall near the tricuspid annulus in two separate sessions 4 to 7 days apart. A fifth subject had only one session. All digital DICOM frames were exported for off-line analysis. Systolic (S ), early diastolic (E ) and late diastolic (A ) velocities were measured. RV Tei-index was calculated using diastolic and systolic time intervals as a combined measure of myocardial performance. Results and Discussion The mean values from the first 4 subjects (8 sessions) were used as the on-orbit reference data, and subject 5 was considered as a hypothetical patient for comparison (see Table). The greatest difference was in the early diastolic A (31 %) yet the standard deviation (a) for A amongst the reference subjects was 2.25 (mean = 16.02). Of interest is the Tei index, a simple and feasible indicator of overall ventricular function; it was similar amongst all the subjects. The late diastolic A seems to compensate for the variance in E . Normal Tei index for the RV is < 0.3, yet our data show all but one subject consistently above this level, notwithstanding their nominal responses to daily exercise in microgravity. These data remind us that the physiology of RV preload in altered gravity environments is still not completely understood.

  4. Pulmonary Hyperinflation and Left Ventricular Mass

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin M; Kawut, Steven M.; Bluemke, David A; Basner, Robert C; Gomes, Antoinette S; Hoffman, Eric; Kalhan, Ravi; Lima, João AC; Liu, Chia-Ying; Michos, Erin D; Prince, Martin R; Rabbani, LeRoy; Rabinowitz, Daniel; Shimbo, Daichi; Shea, Steven; Barr, R Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) mass is an important predictor of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality, yet determinants of LV mass are incompletely understood. Pulmonary hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may contribute to changes in intrathoracic pressure that increase LV wall stress. We therefore hypothesized that residual lung volume in COPD would be associated with greater LV mass. Methods and results The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) COPD Study recruited smokers aged 50–79 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. LV mass was measured by cardiac magnetic resonance. Pulmonary function testing was performed according to guidelines. Regression models were used to adjust for age, sex, body size, blood pressure and other cardiac risk factors. Among 119 MESA COPD Study participants, mean age was 69±6 years, 55% were male and 65% had COPD, mostly of mild or moderate severity. Mean LV mass was 128±34 grams. Residual lung volume was independently associated with greater LV mass (7.2 grams per standard deviation increase in residual volume; 95% CI 2.2 to 12; P=0.004), and was similar in magnitude to that of systolic blood pressure (7.6 grams per standard deviation increase in systolic blood pressure, 95% CI 4.3 to 11 grams; p<0.001). Similar results were observed for LV mass to end-diastolic volume ratio (p=0.02) and with hyperinflation measured as residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (P=0.009). Conclusions Pulmonary hyperinflation, as measured by residual lung volume or residual lung volume to total lung capacity ratio, is associated with greater LV mass. PMID:23493320

  5. Investigation of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation in ventricular septal defect occlusion

    PubMed Central

    LIU, SHU-PING; LI, LI; YAO, KE-CHUN; WANG, NA; WANG, JIAN-CHANG

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the mechanism of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation and the significance of ventricular septal defect occlusion by echocardiography. A total of 43 patients with membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation were observed by echocardiography and the changes in length, area and volume of tricuspid regurgitation prior to and following ventricular septal defect occlusion were measured. There were four different mechanisms of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation. The various indices of tricuspid regurgitation volume were significantly reduced following occlusion. Ventricular septal defect occlusion significantly reduces tricuspid regurgitation volume complicated with membranous ventricular septal defect and echocardiography is an ideal method to detect these changes. PMID:23404058

  6. Continuous on-line monitoring of left ventricular function with a new nonimaging detector:validation and clinical use in the evaluation of patients post angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Breisblatt, W M; Schulman, D S; Follansbee, W P

    1991-06-01

    A new miniaturized nonimaging radionuclide detector (Cardioscint, Oxford, England) was evaluated for the continuous on-line assessment of left ventricular function. This cesium iodide probe can be placed on the patient's chest and can be interfaced to an IBM compatible personal computer conveniently placed at the patient's bedside. This system can provide a beat-to-beat or gated determination of left ventricular ejection fraction and ST segment analysis. In 28 patients this miniaturized probe was correlated against a high resolution gamma camera study. Over a wide range of ejection fraction (31% to 76%) in patients with and without regional wall motion abnormalities, the correlation between the Cardioscint detector and the gamma camera was excellent (r = 0.94, SEE +/- 2.1). This detector system has high temporal (10 msec) resolution, and comparison of peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling (TPFR) also showed close agreement with the gamma camera (PFR, r = 0.94, SEE +/- 0.17; TPFR, r = 0.92, SEE +/- 6.8). In 18 patients on bed rest the long-term stability of this system for measuring ejection fraction and ST segments was verified. During the monitoring period (108 +/- 28 minutes) only minor changes in ejection fraction occurred (coefficient of variation 0.035 +/- 0.016) and ST segment analysis showed no significant change from baseline. To determine whether continuous on-line measurement of ejection fraction would be useful after coronary angioplasty, 12 patients who had undergone a successful procedure were evaluated for 280 +/- 35 minutes with the Cardioscint system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Bi-ventricular finite element model of right ventricle overload in the healthy rat heart.

    PubMed

    Masithulela, Fulufhelo

    2016-11-25

    The recognition of RV overpressure is critical to human life, as this may signify morbidity and mortality. Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is understood to have an impact on the performance of the left ventricle (LV), but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is understood that ventricular compliance has the ability to affect cardiac performance. In this study, a bi-ventricular model of the rat heart was used in preference to other, single-ventricle models. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the bi-ventricular model provides important information on the function of the healthy heart. The passive myocardium was modelled as a nearly incompressible, hyperelastic, transversely isotropic material using finite element (FE) methods. Bi-ventricular geometries of healthy rat hearts reconstructed from magnetic resonance images were imported in Abaqus©. In simulating the normal passive filling of the rat heart, pressures of 4.8 kPa and 0.0098 kPa were applied to the inner walls of the LV and RV respectively. In addition, to simulate the overpressure of the RV, pressures of 2.4 kPa and 4.8 kPa were applied to the endocardial walls of the LV and RV respectively. As boundary conditions, the circumferential and longitudinal displacements at the base were set to zero. The radial displacements at the base were left free. The results show that the average circumferential stress at the mid-wall in the overloaded model increased from 2.8 kPa to 18.2 kPa. The average longitudinal stress increased from 1.5 kPa to 9.7 kPa. Additionally, in the radial direction, the average stress increased from 0.1 kPa to 0.6 kPa in the mid-wall. The average circumferential strain was found to be 0.138 and 0.100 on the endocardium of the over pressured and healthy model respectively. The average circumferential stress at the epicardium, mid-wall and endocardium in the case of a normal heart is 10 times lower than in the overloaded heart model. The finite analysis method is able to provide

  8. Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Todd M.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction arises in chronic lung disease when chronic hypoxemia and disruption of pulmonary vascular beds contribute to increase ventricular afterload, and is generally defined by hypertrophy with preserved myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Although the exact prevalence is unknown, right ventricular hypertrophy appears to be a common complication of chronic lung disease, and more frequently complicates advanced lung disease. Right ventricular failure is rare, except during acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease or when multiple co-morbidities are present. Treatment is targeted at correcting hypoxia and improving pulmonary gas exchange and mechanics. There are presently no convincing data to support the use of pulmonary hypertension-specific therapies in patients with right ventricular dysfunction secondary to chronic lung disease. PMID:22548815

  9. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention. PMID:26225205

  10. Secondary ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia during cardiac arrest and epinephrine dosing.

    PubMed

    Straznitskas, Andrew D; Wong, Sylvia; Kupchik, Nicole; Carlbom, David

    2015-05-01

    Development of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia after an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole is associated with significantly increased cardiac arrest mortality. To examine differences in epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest between patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop and patients who did not. Data were collected for 2 groups of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest and an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole: those who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop (cases) and those who did not (controls). Dosing of epinephrine during cardiac arrest and other variables were compared between cases and controls. Of the 215 patients identified with an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole, 51 (23.7%) had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop. Throughout the total duration of arrest, including periods of return of spontaneous circulation, the dosing interval for epinephrine in patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop was 1 mg every 3.4 minutes compared with 1 mg every 5 minutes in controls (P= .001). For the total duration of pulselessness, excluding periods of return of spontaneous circulation during the arrest, the dosing interval for epinephrine in patients who had a secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia develop was 1 mg every 3.1 minutes versus 1 mg every 4.3 minutes in controls (P= .001). More frequent administration of epinephrine during cardiac arrest is associated with development of secondary ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Reverse left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction: the prognostic impact of left ventricular global torsion.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Letizia; Morisco, Carmine; Assante di Panzillo, Emiliano; Izzo, Raffaele; Trimarco, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling (>10 % reduction in LV end-systolic volume) may occur in patients recovering for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), undergoing percutaneous revascularization of infarct-related coronary artery (PCI). To detect whether LV global torsion obtained by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was predictive of reverse LV remodeling, 75 patients with first anterior wall STEMI were studied before (T1) and after PCI (T2) and at 6-month follow-up. Two-year clinical follow-up was also accomplished. LV volumes and both LV sphericity index and conic index were obtained by three-dimensional echocardiography. Reverse remodeling was observed in 25 patients (33 %). By multivariate analysis, independent predictors of reverse LV remodeling were: LV conic index, T2 LV torsion and Δ torsion (difference between T2 and T1 LV torsion expressed as percentage of this latter). According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, 1.34°/cm for T2 LV torsion (sensitivity 88 % and specificity 80 %) and 54 % for Δ torsion (sensitivity 92 % and specificity 82 %) were the optimal cutoff values in predicting reverse LV remodeling. In up to 24 month follow-up, 4 non-fatal re-infarction, 7 hospitalization for heart failure and 4 cardiac deaths occurred. By multivariate Cox analysis, the best variable significantly associated with event-free survival rate was reverse LV remodeling with a hazard ratio = 9.9 (95 % confidence interval, 7.9-31.4, p < 0.01). In conclusion, reverse LV remodeling occurring after anterior wall STEMI is associated with favorable long-term outcome. The improvement of global LV torsion following coronary artery revascularization is the major predictor of reverse LV remodeling.

  12. Analysis of Regional Left Ventricular Strain in Patients with Chagas Disease and Normal Left Ventricular Systolic Function.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Victor Augusto M; Alves, Gabriel F; Hadlich, Marcelo; Azevedo, Clerio F; Pereira, Iane M; Santos, Carla Renata F; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel A A; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique C; Cunha, Ademir B; Xavier, Sergio S; Saraiva, Roberto M

    2016-07-01

    Chagas heart disease has a high socioeconomic burden, and any strategy to detect early myocardial damage is welcome. Speckle-tracking echocardiography assesses global and segmental left ventricular (LV) systolic function, yielding values of two-dimensional strain (ε). The aim of this study was to determine if patients with chronic Chagas disease and normal LV ejection fractions present abnormalities in global and segmental LV ε. In this prospective study, patients with Chagas disease with no evidence of cardiac involvement (group I; n = 83) or at stage A of the cardiac form (i.e., with changes limited to the electrocardiogram) (group A; n = 42) and 43 control subjects (group C) underwent evaluation of global and segmental LV ε by speckle-tracking echocardiography. A subset of randomly selected patients in group A underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and repeated echocardiography 3.5 ± 0.8 years after the first evaluation. Mean age, chamber dimensions, and LV ejection fraction were similar among the groups. Global longitudinal (group C, -19 ± 2%; group I, -19 ± 2%; group A, -19 ± 2%), circumferential (group C, -19 ± 3%; group I, -20 ± 3%; group A, -19 ± 3%), and radial (group C, 46 ± 10%; group I, 45 ± 13%; group A, 42 ± 14%) LV ε were similar among the groups. Segmental longitudinal, circumferential, and radial LV ε were similar across the studied groups. Seven of 14 patients had areas of fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with fibrosis had lower global longitudinal (-15 ± 2% vs -18 ± 2%, P = .004), circumferential (-14 ± 2% vs -19 ± 2%, P = .002), and radial LV ε (36 ± 13% vs 54 ± 12%, P = .02) than those without cardiac fibrosis despite similar LV ejection fractions. Patients with fibrosis had lower radial LV ε in the basal inferoseptal wall than patients without cardiac fibrosis (27 ± 17% vs 60 ± 15%, P = .04). Patients with chronic Chagas disease and normal

  13. Brain Emboli After Left Ventricular Endocardial Ablation.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Isaac R; Gladstone, Rachel A; Badhwar, Nitish; Hsia, Henry H; Lee, Byron K; Josephson, S Andrew; Meisel, Karl M; Dillon, William P; Hess, Christopher P; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Marcus, Gregory M

    2017-02-28

    Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is common. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is associated with a risk of cerebral emboli attributed to cardioversions and numerous ablation lesions in the low-flow left atrium, but cerebral embolic risk in ventricular ablation has not been evaluated. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients meeting study criteria scheduled for ventricular tachycardia or PVC ablation over a 9-month period. Patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) ablation were compared with a control group of those undergoing right ventricular ablation only. Patients were excluded if they had implantable cardioverter defibrillators or permanent pacemakers. Radiofrequency energy was used for ablation in all cases and heparin was administered with goal-activated clotting times of 300 to 400 seconds for all LV procedures. Pre- and postprocedural brain MRI was performed on each patient within a week of the ablation procedure. Embolic infarcts were defined as new foci of reduced diffusion and high signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI within a vascular distribution. The mean age was 58 years, half of the patients were men, half had a history of hypertension, and the majority had no known vascular disease or heart failure. LV ablation was performed in 12 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=2; PVC, n=10) and right ventricular ablation was performed exclusively in 6 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=1; PVC, n=5). Seven patients (58%) undergoing LV ablation experienced a total of 16 cerebral emboli, in comparison with zero patients undergoing right ventricular ablation ( P =0.04). Seven of 11 patients (63%) undergoing a retrograde approach to the LV developed at least 1 new brain lesion. More than half of patients undergoing routine LV ablation procedures (predominately PVC ablations) experienced new brain emboli after the procedure. Future research is critical to understanding the

  14. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias in alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Dominguez, Fernando; González-López, Esther; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gomez-Bueno, Manuel; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio; Millan, Isabel; Segovia, Javier; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a well-known aetiology of atrial arrhythmias but there is little information concerning the prevalence or incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). This study sought to investigate incidence and predictive factors of ventricular arrhythmias in ACM. Retrospective observational study of the clinical characteristics and long-term arrhythmic events in 282 consecutive patients with ACM (94 individuals) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) (188 individuals) evaluated between 1993 and 2011. During a median follow-up of 38months (IQR:12-77), 42 patients died and 79 underwent heart transplantation [31 (33%) with ACM vs 90 (48%) with IDCM; p=0.017]. A total of 37 (13%) patients [18 (19%) ACM vs 20 (11%) IDCM; p=0.048] suffered malignant ventricular arrhythmias. On multivariate analysis, left bundle branch block (LBBB) (OR 2.4; CI95%: 1.2-5; p=0.015) and alcoholic aetiology (OR 2.3; CI95%: 1.1-4.5; p=0.026) were the only independent predictors of malignant ventricular arrhythmic events. A total of 18 (19%) ACM patients experienced 20 malignant ventricular arrhythmic events (4 aborted SCD, 8 SCD and 8 appropriate ICD therapies). At baseline evaluation, the only independent predictor of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in ACM patients was LBBB (OR 11.2; CI95%: 2.6-50; p=0.001). No malignant ventricular arrhythmias were recorded during follow-up in ACM patients if left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) had increased or remained ≥40%. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are more frequent in ACM than in IDCM. LBBB identifies ACM patients with increased risk of SCD. No malignant ventricular arrhythmias were found during follow-up in ACM patients when LVEF was ≥40%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional cardiac wall motion from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. F.; Brigger, P.; Ferrand, S. K.; Dilsizian, V.; Bacharach, S. L.

    1999-06-01

    A method for estimating regional epicardial and endocardial wall motion from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT studies has been developed. The method uses epicardial and endocardial boundaries determined from four long-axis slices at each gate of the cardiac cycle. The epicardial and endocardial wall position at each time gate is computed with respect to stationary reference ellipsoids, and wall motion is measured along lines normal to these ellipsoids. An initial quantitative evaluation of the method was made using the beating heart from the dynamic mathematical cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom, with and without a 1.5-cm FWHM Gaussian blurring filter. Epicardial wall motion was generally well-estimated within a fraction of a 3.56-mm voxel, although apical motion was overestimated with the Gaussian filter. Endocardial wall motion was underestimated by about two voxels with and without the Gaussian filter. The MCAT heart phantom was modified to model hypokinetic and dyskinetic wall motion. The wall motion analysis method enabled this abnormal motion to be differentiated from normal motion. Regional cardiac wall motion also was analyzed for /sup 201/Tl patient studies. Estimated wall motion was consistent with a nuclear medicine physician's visual assessment of motion from gated long-axis slices for male and female study examples. Additional research is required for a comprehensive evaluation of the applicability of the method to patient studies with normal and abnormal wall motion.

  16. Wind tunnel wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

  17. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  19. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  20. Physiologic bases for anterior ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mirvis, D M

    1988-11-01

    Patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction commonly have ST segment depression in the anterior precordial leads. This may reflect either reciprocal changes from the inferior ST elevation or primary ST depression from additional anterior subendocardial ischemia. From a biophysical perspective reciprocal changes should be uniformly anticipated from basic dipole theory. Detection will vary with the size, location, orientation, and electrical intensity of the lesion and with the ECG lead system deployed to register the anterior changes. Alternatively, acute occlusion of the right coronary artery may produce ischemia in the anterior left ventricular wall supplied by a stenotic anterior descending coronary artery. Anterior ischemia may result from the abnormal hemodynamics or the reduced collateral flow produced by acute right coronary artery occlusion. Thus both mechanisms are based on sound physiologic principles. A review of the clinical literature suggests that such patients represent a heterogeneous group. In some instances coexistent anterior ischemia is present, whereas in others the anterior ST depression is the passive reflection of inferior ST elevation augmented in many cases by a large infarct size or more extensive posterobasal or septal involvement.

  1. Right ventricular systolic function in hypertensive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oketona, O A; Balogun, M O; Akintomide, A O; Ajayi, O E; Adebayo, R A; Mene-Afejuku, T O; Oketona, O T; Bamikole, O J

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of cardiovascular admissions and hypertensive heart failure (HHF) is the most common cause of HF admissions in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is being increasingly recognized in HF and found to be an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in HF. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in HHF by several echocardiographic parameters. One hundred subjects with HHF were recruited consecutively into the study along with 50 age and sex-matched controls. All study participants gave written informed consent, and had a full physical examination, blood investigations, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiography. RV systolic function was assessed in all subjects using different methods based on the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines for echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults. This included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV myocardial performance index (MPI), and RV systolic excursion velocity by tissue Doppler (S'). RV systolic dysfunction was found in 53% of subjects with HHF by TAPSE, 56% by RV MPI, and 48% by tissue Doppler systolic excursion S'. RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in subjects with HHF. A high proportion of subjects with HHF were found to have RV systolic functional abnormalities using TAPSE, RV MPI, and RV S'. Prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing LVEF.

  2. Electrocardiographic left ventricular strain pattern: everything old is new again.

    PubMed

    Schocken, Douglas D

    2014-01-01

    Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has many faces with countless features. Beyond the classic measures of LVH, including QRS voltage and duration, the left ventricular (LV) strain pattern is an element whereby characteristic R-ST depression is followed by a concave ST segment that ends in an asymmetrically inverted T wave. The LV strain pattern generally appears in states of increased systemic blood pressure and must be differentiated from similar but not identical ST-T waves indicating ischemia. The LV strain pattern has been found in population studies to be associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Regression of LV strain pattern parallels decline in systemic BP during clinical trials of anti-hypertensive therapies but does not indicate or serve as a surrogate for decrease in LV mass. Newer techniques in data collection and processing may allow the process of strain to be studied in more detail to determine the ways in which electrical remodeling of the left ventricle as characterized by LVH with 'repolarization abnormalities' indicates how CV risk might be managed by using LV strain pattern as an electrocardiographic biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  4. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily L; Kulik, Tobias B; Keyrouz, Salah G; Zipfel, Gregory J; Warren, David K

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD) DESIGN Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 SETTING Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care center PATIENTS Patients with an EVD were included. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. METHODS We reviewed the charts of patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. RESULTS We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 cases of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture-positive cases and 11 cases based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were gram-positive commensals (79.2%); however, 45% showed growth of only 1 colony on 1 piece of media. Approximately 60% of the ventriculitis cases by the NHSN definition met the Honda criteria, approximately 56% met the Gozal criteria, and 23% met Citerio's definition. Cases defined using Honda versus Gozal definitions had a moderate agreement (κ=0.528; P<.05) whereas comparisons of Honda versus Citerio definitions (κ=0.338; P<.05) and Citerio versus Gozal definitions (κ=0.384; P<.05) had only fair agreements. CONCLUSIONS The agreement between published ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:574-579.

  5. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily; Kulik, Tobias; Keyrouz, Salah; Zipfel, Gregory; Warren, David K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD). Design Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 Setting Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary care center. Patients Patients with an EVD. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. Methods We reviewed the charts of patients with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. Results We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 episodes of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture positive episodes and 11 episodes based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were Gram positive commensals (79.2%), however 45% of these had growth of only one colony on one piece of media. About 60% of the ventriculitis episodes by NHSN definition met Honda criteria, about 56% met Gozal criteria and 23% met Citerio’s definition. Honda vs. Gozal had a moderate agreement (Ƙ=0.528, p< 0.05) whereas Honda vs Citerio (Ƙ=0.338, p< 0.05) and Citerio vs Gozal (Ƙ=0.384, p< 0.05) comparisons had only fair agreements. Conclusions Agreement between published VAI definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. PMID:28219470

  6. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.

    1984-01-19

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thalliummore » defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury.« less

  7. Myocardial Viability and Impact of Surgical Ventricular Reconstruction on Outcomes of Patients with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Results of the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Thomas A.; Bonow, Robert O.; Arnold, J. Malcolm O.; Oh, Jae K.; Varadarajan, Padmini; Pohost, Gerald M.; Haddad, Haissam; Jones, Robert H.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Asch, Federico M.; Malinowski, Marcin; Barretto, Rodrigo; Kalil, Renato A.K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Lee, Kerry L.; Panza, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial, surgical ventricular reconstruction plus coronary artery bypass surgery was not associated with a reduction in the rate of death or cardiac hospitalization compared to bypass alone. We hypothesized that the absence of viable myocardium identifies patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction who have a greater benefit with coronary artery bypass graft surgery and surgical ventricular reconstruction compared to bypass alone. Methods Myocardial viability was assessed by single photon computed tomography in 267 of the 1,000 patients randomized to bypass or bypass plus surgical ventricular reconstruction in STICH. Myocardial viability was assessed on a per patient basis as well as regionally based on pre-specified criteria. Results At 3 years, there was no difference in mortality or the combined outcome of death or cardiac hospitalization between those with and those without viability, and there was no significant interaction between the type of surgery and global viability status with respect to mortality or death plus cardiac hospitalization. Furthermore, there was no difference in mortality or death plus cardiac hospitalization between those with and without anterior wall or apical scar, and no significant interaction between the presence of scar in these regions and the type of surgery with respect to mortality. Conclusion In patients with coronary artery disease and severe regional left ventricular dysfunction, assessment of myocardial viability does not identify patients who will derive a mortality benefit from adding surgical ventricular reconstruction to coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:25152476

  8. A history of ventricular neuroendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Decq, Philippe; Schroeder, Henry W S; Fritsch, Michael; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    To describe the history of neuroendoscopy through the history of the major neurosurgeons who worked and published in the field. All relevant data described in publications before 1980 about the history of neuroendoscopy and found through OVID MEDLINE searches and related references are reported. Contributions of 14 neurosurgeons who were pioneers in neuroendoscopy are described in chronologic order: Lespinasse, Dandy, Payr, Mixter, Fay, Grant, Volkmann, Putnam, Dereymacker, Scarff, Feld, Guiot, Fukushima, and Griffith. An historical review of ventricular neuroendoscopy remains by essence incomplete. Medical technical progress proceeds by leaps and bounds, related to the ingenuity of surgeons able to understand rapidly the value of a technical change to improve their surgical procedure. The ability to remain attentive to patients and evolving pathologies as well as the evolution of modern technology is required to make further progress in neuroendoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Aortic Compliance on Left Ventricular Power Requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2009-11-01

    Aortic compliance depends on both geometry and mechanical properties of the aorta. Reduction in arterial compliance has been associated with aging, smoking, and multiple cardiovascular diseases. Increased stiffness of the aorta affects the wave dynamics in the aorta by increasing both pulse pressure amplitude and wave speed. We hypothesized that decreased aortic compliance leads to an increased left ventricular power requirement for a fixed cardiac output due to altered pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. We used a computational approach using the finite element method for solid and fluid domains coupled to each other by using the direct coupling method. A nonlinear material model was used for the solid wall. The fluid flow model was considered to be Newtonian, incompressible, and laminar. The simulation was performed for a heart rate of 75 beats per minute for six different compliances while keeping the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance constant. The results show a trend towards increased left ventricular energy expenditure per cycle with decreased compliance. The relevance of these findings to clinical observations will be discussed.

  10. [Ebstein's "like" anomaly ventricular double inlet. A rare association].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Castellanos, Luis; Kuri Nivon, Magdalena

    The association of univentricular heart with double inlet and Ebstein's "like" anomaly of the common atrioventricular valve is extremely rare. Two hearts with this association are described with the segmental sequential system which determine the atrial situs, the types of atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections and associated anomalies. Both hearts had atrial situs solitus, and a univentricular heart with common atrioventricular valve, a foramen primum and double outlet ventricle with normal crossed great arteries. In the fiefirst heart the four leaflets of the atrioventricular valve were displaced and fused to the ventricular walls, from the atrioventricular union roward the apex with atrialization of the inlet and trabecular zones and there was stenosis in the infundibulum and in the pulmonary valve. In the second heart the proximal segment of the atrioventricular valve was displaced and fused to the ventricular whith shot atrialization and the distal segment was dysplastic with fibromixoid nodules and tendinous cords short and thick; the pulmonary artery was dilate. Both hearts are grouped in the atrioventricular univentricular connection in the segmental sequential system. The application of this method in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease demonstrates its usefulness. The associations of complex anomalies in these hearts show us the infinite spectrum of presentation of congenital heart disease which expands our knowledge of pediatric cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. EVALUATION OF RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC FILLING

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual fluid-dynamics framework for diastolic filling is developed. The convective deceleration load (CDL) is identified as an important determinant of ventricular inflow during the E-wave (A-wave) upstroke. Convective deceleration occurs as blood moves from the inflow anulus through larger-area cross-sections toward the expanding walls. Chamber dilatation underlies previously unrecognized alterations in intraventricular flow dynamics. The larger the chamber, the larger become the endocardial surface and the CDL. CDL magnitude affects strongly the attainable E-wave (A-wave) peak. This underlies the concept of diastolic ventriculoannular disproportion. Large vortices, whose strength decreases with chamber dilatation, ensue after the E-wave peak and impound inflow kinetic energy, averting an inflow-impeding, convective Bernoulli pressure-rise. This reduces the CDL by a variable extent depending on vortical intensity. Accordingly, the filling vortex facilitates filling to varying degrees, depending on chamber volume. The new framework provides stimulus for functional genomics research, aimed at new insights into ventricular remodeling. PMID:23585308

  12. Evolving targeted therapies for right ventricular failure.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Although right and left ventricular embryological origins, morphology and cardiodynamics differ, the notion of selectively targeted right ventricular therapies remains controversial. This review focuses on both the currently evolving pharmacologic agents targeting right ventricular failure (metabolic modulators, phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors) and future therapeutic approaches including epigenetic modulation by miRNAs, chromatin binding complexes, long non-coding RNAs, genomic editing, adoptive gene transfer and gene therapy, cell regeneration via cell transplantation and cell reprogramming and cardiac tissue engineering. Strategies for adult right ventricular regeneration will require a more holistic approach than strategies for adult left ventricular failure. Instances of right ventricular failure requiring global reconstitution of right ventricular myocardium, attractive approaches include: i) myocardial patches seeded with cardiac fibroblasts reprogrammed into cardiomyocytes in vivo by small molecules, miRNAs or other epigenetic modifiers; and ii) administration of miRNAs, lncRNAs or small molecules by non-viral vector delivery systems targeted to fibroblasts (e.g., episomes) to stimulate in vivo reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. For selected heritable genetic myocardial diseases, genomic editing affords exciting opportunities for allele-specific silencing by site-specific directed silencing, mutagenesis or gene excision. Genomic editing by adoptive gene transfer affords similarly exciting opportunities for restoration of myocardial gene expression.

  13. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, p<0.001, p<0.001; p<0.001). Statistically significant negative correlation was found between SEC in left atrium and left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, p<0.001, p=0.002). In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  14. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  15. β1-Adrenoceptor blocker aggravated ventricular arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Patel, Dimpi; Wang, Dao Wu; Yan, Jiang Tao; Hsia, Henry H; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Chun Xia; Zuo, Hou Juan; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of β1 -adrenoceptor blockers (β1 -blocker) and isoprenaline on the incidence of idiopathic repetitive ventricular arrhythmia that apparently decreases with preprocedural anxiety. From January 2010 to July 2012, six patients were identified who had idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias that apparently decreased (by greater than 90%) with preprocedural anxiety. The number of ectopic ventricular beats per hour (VPH) was calculated from Holter or telemetry monitoring to assess the ectopic burden. The mean VPH of 24 hours from Holter before admission (VPH-m) was used as baseline (100%) for normalization. β1 -Blockers, isoprenaline, and/or aminophylline were administrated successively on the ward and catheter lab to evaluate their effects on the ventricular arrhythmias. Among 97 consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, six had reduction in normalized VPHs in the hour before the scheduled procedure time from (104.6 ± 4.6%) to (2.8 ± 1.6%) possibly due to preprocedural anxiety (P < 0.05), then increased to (97.9 ± 9.7%) during β1 -blocker administration (P < 0.05), then quickly reduced to (1.6 ± 1.0%) during subsequent isoprenaline infusion. Repeated β1 -blocker quickly counteracted the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline, and VPHs increased to (120.9 ± 2.4%) from (1.6 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Isoprenaline and β1 -blocker showed similar effects on the arrhythmias in catheter lab. In some patients with structurally normal heart and ventricular arrhythmias there is a marked reduction of arrhythmias associated with preprocedural anxiety. These patients exhibit a reproducible sequence of β1 -blocker aggravation and catecholamine inhibition of ventricular arrhythmias, including both repetitive ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Intractable Electrical Storm After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Originating in Abnormal Purkinje Fibers.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Chiho; Tsukada, Toru; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Naruse, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Kentaro; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Imai, Akito; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Electrical storm is a rare but critical complication following revascularization in patients with ischemic heart disease. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who developed drug refractory intractable electrical storm after emergent coronary artery bypass grafting for ischemic cardiomyopathy. The electrical storm was successfully eliminated by percutaneous endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation targeting the abnormal Purkinje-related triggering ventricular premature contractions in a low-voltage zone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [The reasonable use of right ventricular protection strategy in right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Yuan, H Y; Liu, X B; Wen, S S; Xu, G; Cui, H J; Zhuang, J; Chen, J M

    2018-06-01

    As a result of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, which is the important and basic step of complex cardiac surgery, the blood flow of right ventricular outflow tract is unobstructed, while pulmonary valve regurgitation and right heart dysfunction could be happened. These problems are often ignored in early days, more and more cases of right heart dysfunction need clinical intervention, which is quite difficult and less effective. How to protect effectively the right ventricular function is the focus. At present main methods to protect the right ventricular function include trying to avoid or reduce length of right ventricular incision, reserving or rebuilding the function of the pulmonary valve, using growth potential material for surgery. The protection of the right ventricular function is a systemic project, it involves many aspects, single measures is difficult to provide complete protection, only the comprehensive use of various protection strategy, can help to improve the long-term prognosis.

  18. Catheter ablation for premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardia in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Stevenson, William G; John, Roy M

    2014-09-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VA) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Implantable cardioverter defibrillators are effective in reducing mortality, but do not prevent arrhythmia recurrence. There is increasing recognition that frequent premature ventricular contractions or repetitive ventricular tachycardia may also lead to new onset ventricular dysfunction or deterioration of ventricular function in patients with pre-existing HF. Suppression of the arrhythmia may lead to recovery of ventricular function. Catheter ablation has emerged as a safe and effective treatment option for reducing arrhythmia recurrence and for suppression of PVCs but its efficacy is governed by the nature of the arrhythmias, the underlying HF substrate and the accessibility of the arrhythmia substrates to ablation.

  19. One-and-a-half ventricular repair for isolated right ventricle metastatic tumor resection after lobectomy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shiose, Akira; Desai, Parag; Criner, Gerard J; Pai, Sheela; Steiner, Robert M; Kaiser, Larry R; Guy, T Sloane; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with shortness of breath 1 year after a right upper lobectomy for lung cancer. She showed a possible intracardiac metastasis on positron emission tomography scan. There was no other evidence of recurrence. The large right ventricular mass was associated with the right ventricle free wall, the apex, the papillary muscle, and the chordae to the tricuspid valve. After mass resection of the right ventricle, a one-and-a-half ventricular repair was performed with tricuspid valve replacement and defect closure. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 14 without complications and has been well for the first 3 months after the surgery.

  20. Computational analysis of the effect of valvular regurgitation on ventricular mechanics using a 3D electromechanics model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ki Moo; Hong, Seung-Bae; Lee, Byong Kwon; Shim, Eun Bo; Trayanova, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    Using a three-dimensional electromechanical model of the canine ventricles with dyssynchronous heart failure, we investigated the relationship between severity of valve regurgitation and ventricular mechanical responses. The results demonstrated that end-systolic tension in the septum and left ventricular free wall was significantly lower under the condition of mitral regurgitation (MR) than under aortic regurgitation (AR). Stroke work in AR was higher than that in MR. On the other hand, the difference in stroke volume between the two conditions was not significant, indicating that AR may cause worse pumping efficiency than MR in terms of consumed energy and performed work.

  1. Sedentary Screen Time and Left Ventricular Structure and Function: the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Reis, Jared P.; Schelbert, Erik B.; Craft, Lynette L.; Sidney, Steve; Lima, Joao; Lewis, Cora E.

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary screen time (watching TV or using a computer) predicts cardiovascular outcomes independently from moderate and vigorous physical activity and could impact left ventricular structure and function through the adverse consequences of sedentary behavior. Purpose To determine whether sedentary screen time is associated with measures of left ventricular structure and function. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study measured screen time by questionnaire and left ventricular structure and function by echocardiography in 2,854 black and white participants, aged 43–55 years, in 2010–2011. Generalized linear models evaluated cross-sectional trends for echocardiography measures across higher categories of screen time and adjusting for demographics, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. Further models adjusted for potential intermediate factors (blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). Results The relationship between screen time and left ventricular mass(LVM) differed in blacks vs. whites. Among whites, higher screen time was associated with larger LVM (P<0.001), after adjustment for height, demographics, and lifestyle variables. Associations between screen time and LVM persisted when adjusting for blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and diabetes (P=0.008) but not with additional adjustment for BMI (P=0.503). Similar relationships were observed for screen time with LVM indexed to height2.7, relative wall thickness, and mass-to-volume ratio. Screen time was not associated with left ventricular structure among blacks or left ventricular function in either race group. Conclusions Sedentary screen time is associated with greater LVM in white adults and this relationship was largely explained by higher overall adiposity. The lack of association in blacks supports a potential qualitative difference in the cardiovascular consequences of sedentary screen-based behavior. PMID

  2. Pulmonary Right Ventricular Resynchronization in Congenital Heart Disease: Acute Improvement in Right Ventricular Mechanics and Contraction Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Janoušek, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Ložek, Miroslav; Tomek, Viktor; Vojtovič, Pavel; Gebauer, Roman; Kubuš, Peter; Krejčíř, Miroslav; Lumens, Joost; Delhaas, Tammo; Prinzen, Frits

    2017-09-01

    Electromechanical discoordination may contribute to long-term pulmonary right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients after surgery for congenital heart disease. We sought to evaluate changes in RV function after temporary RV cardiac resynchronization therapy. Twenty-five patients aged median 12.0 years after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and similar lesions were studied echocardiographically (n=23) and by cardiac catheterization (n=5) after primary repair (n=4) or after surgical RV revalvulation for significant pulmonary regurgitation (n=21). Temporary RV cardiac resynchronization therapy was applied in the presence of complete right bundle branch block by atrial-synchronized RV free wall pacing in complete fusion with spontaneous ventricular depolarization using temporary electrodes. The q-RV interval at the RV free wall pacing site (mean 77.2% of baseline QRS duration) confirmed pacing from a late activated RV area. RV cardiac resynchronization therapy carried significant decrease in QRS duration ( P <0.001) along with elimination of the right bundle branch block QRS morphology, increase in RV filling time ( P =0.002), pulmonary artery velocity time integral ( P =0.006), and RV maximum +dP/dt ( P <0.001), and decrease in RV index of myocardial performance ( P =0.006). RV mechanical synchrony improved: septal-to-lateral RV mechanical delay decreased ( P <0.001) and signs of RV dyssynchrony pattern were significantly abolished. RV systolic stretch fraction reflecting the ratio of myocardial stretching and contraction during systole diminished ( P =0.001). In patients with congenital heart disease and right bundle branch block, RV cardiac resynchronization therapy carried multiple positive effects on RV mechanics, synchrony, and contraction efficiency. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Studies on deflection area vectors of QRS and T and ventricular gradient in right ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1985-04-01

    QRS deflection area vector (Aqrs), T deflection area vector (At) and ventricular gradient (G) in right ventricular hypertrophy were studied in 53 subjects divided on the basis of cardiac catheterization data into four subgroups; normal controls, mild MS group, right ventricular pressure overload group and right ventricular volume overload group. Aqrs, At and G of the four subgroups were calculated using a microcomputer and compared. Aqrs in right ventricular pressure overload group and volume overload group was shifted to the right and slightly anteriorly from that in normal control group. At in right ventricular pressure overload group and volume overload group was shifted slightly upwards and significantly posteriorly from that in the normal control and mild MS groups. G in right ventricular pressure overload group and volume overload group was shifted to the right and significantly posteriorly from that in normal control and mild MS groups. Using multivariative analysis, we developed criteria for diagnosing right ventricular hypertrophy with At: 0.059At(Z) - 0.0145 [At] - 0.2608 less than or equal to 0. Application of this criteria achieved 82.4% (28 of 34) sensitivity in the patients with right ventricular hypertrophy and 90.9% (10 of 11) specificity in the normal control subjects.

  4. Surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients undergoing surgical ventricular restoration: the Karolinska approach.

    PubMed

    Sartipy, Ulrik; Albåge, Anders; Insulander, Per; Lindblom, Dan

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a review on the efficacy of surgical ventricular restoration and direct surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients with left ventricular aneurysm or dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy. The procedure includes a non-electrophysiologically guided subtotal endocardiectomy and cryoablation in addition to endoventricular patch plasty of the left ventricle. Coronary artery bypass surgery and mitral valve repair are performed concomitantly as needed. In our experience, this procedure yielded a 90% success rate in terms of freedom from spontaneous ventricular tachycardia, with an early mortality rate of 3.8%. A practical guide to the pre- and postoperative management of these patients is provided.

  5. A rabbit model of progressive chronic right ventricular pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Roldan Ramos, Sara; Pieles, Guido; Hui, Wei; Slorach, Cameron; Redington, Andrew N; Friedberg, Mark K

    2018-04-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure from increased pressure loading is a frequent consequence of acquired and congenital heart diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in their pathophysiology are still unclear, and few data exist on RV pressure-loading models and early versus late effects on RV and left ventricular responses. We characterized a rabbit model of chronic RV pressure overload and early-late effects on biventricular function. Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups: (i) sham, (ii) pulmonary artery (PA) banding (PAB) for 3 weeks (PAB3W) and (iii) PAB for 6 weeks (PAB6W). Progressive RV pressure overload was created by serial band inflation using an adjustable device. Molecular, echocardiographic and haemodynamic studies were performed. RV pressure overload was achieved with clinical manifestations of RV failure. Heart and liver weights were significantly higher after PAB. PAB-induced echocardiographic ventricular remodelling increased wall thickness and stress and ventricular dilation. Cardiac output (ml/min) (sham 172.4 ± 42.86 vs PAB3W 103.1 ± 23.14 vs PAB6W 144 ± 60.9, P = 0.0027) and systolic and diastolic functions decreased; with increased RV end-systolic and end-diastolic pressures (mmHg) (sham 1.6 ± 0.66 vs PAB3W 3.9 ± 1.8 vs PAB6W 5.2 ± 2.2, P = 0.0103), despite increased contractility [end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (mmHg/ml), sham 3.76 ± 1.76 vs PAB3W 12.21 ± 3.44 vs PAB6W 19.4 ± 6.88, P < 0.0001]. Functional parameters further worsened after PAB6W versus PAB3W. LV contractility increased in both the PAB groups, despite worsening of other invasive measures of systolic and diastolic functions. We describe a novel, unique model of chronic RV pressure overload leading to early biventricular dysfunction and fibrosis with further progression at 6 weeks. These findings can aid in guiding management.

  6. Arterial Wall Imaging in Pediatric Stroke.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Nomazulu; Yau, Ivanna; Muthusami, Prakash; Mikulis, David J; Elbers, Jorina; Slim, Mahmoud; Askalan, Rand; MacGregor, Daune; deVeber, Gabrielle; Shroff, Manohar; Moharir, Mahendranath

    2018-04-01

    Arteriopathy is common in childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and predicts stroke recurrence. Currently available vascular imaging techniques mainly image the arterial lumen rather than the vessel wall and have a limited ability to differentiate among common arteriopathies. We aimed to investigate the value of a magnetic resonance imaging-based technique, namely noninvasive arterial wall imaging (AWI), for distinguishing among arteriopathy subtypes in a consecutive cohort of children presenting with AIS. Children with confirmed AIS and magnetic resonance angiography underwent 3-Tesla AWI including T1-weighted 2-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery fast spin echo sequences pre- and post-gadolinium contrast. AWI characteristics, including wall enhancement, wall thickening, and luminal stenosis, were documented for all. Twenty-six children with AIS had AWI. Of these, 9 (35%) had AWI enhancement. AWI enhancement was associated with anterior circulation magnetic resonance angiography abnormality and cortical infarction in 8 of 9 (89%) children and normal magnetic resonance angiography with posterior circulation subcortical infarction in 1 (1 of 9; 11%) child. AWI enhancement was not seen in 17 (65%), 10 (59%) of whom had an abnormal magnetic resonance angiography. Distinct patterns of pre- and postcontrast signal abnormality were demonstrated in the vessel wall in the region of interest in children with transient cerebral arteriopathy, arterial dissection, primary central nervous system angiitis, dissecting aneurysm, and cardioembolic stroke. AWI is a noninvasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance AWI technique, which can be successfully used in children presenting with AIS. Patterns of AWI enhancement are recognizable and associated with specific AIS pathogeneses. Further studies are required to assess the additional diagnostic utility of AWI over routine vascular imaging techniques, in childhood AIS. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  8. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  13. An Echocardiographic Study of Left Ventricular Size and Cardiac Function in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carolina A; Potts, James E; Lam, Pei-Yoong; De Souza, Astrid M; Mugford, Gerald J; Sandor, George G S

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case-control study investigated cardiac dimensions and ventricular function in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared with controls. Echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index were made. Detailed measures of systolic and diastolic ventricular function were made including tissue Doppler imaging. Patients were stratified by body mass index ≤10th percentile (AN ≤ 10th) and >10th percentile (AN > 10th). Ninety-five AN patients and 58 controls were included. AN and AN ≤ 10th groups had reduced LV dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index compared with controls. There were no differences between groups in measures of systolic function. Measures of diastolic tissue Doppler imaging were decreased in AN and AN ≤ 10th. No differences in echocardiographic measurements existed between controls and AN > 10th. Female adolescents with AN have preserved systolic function and abnormalities of diastolic ventricular function. AN ≤ 10th may be a higher risk group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Bradycardia, Syncope, and Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Glancy, D Luke; Helmcke, Frederick R; Hoang, Allen P

    2017-08-15

    A 55-year-old man with syncopal episodes was found to have sinus bradycardia at a rate of 37 beats/min, an episode of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy. After placement of a dual-chamber cardioverter defibrillator 4 years ago, he has had no further syncopal episodes, and there have been no defibrillator shocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  16. Assessment of left ventricular functions and myocardial iron load with tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography and T2* MRI in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Ari, Mehmet Emre; Ekici, Filiz; Çetin, İbrahim İlker; Tavil, Emine Betül; Yaralı, Neşe; Işık, Pamir; Hazırolan, Tuncay; Tunç, Bahattin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine early myocardial dysfunction in β-thalassemia major (BTM) patients. Where the myocardial dysfunction cannot be detected by conventional echocardiography, it could be detected by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) or speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). In this study, we analyzed 60 individuals, 30 of whom were BTM patients and the other 30 of whom were the control group. T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure cardiac iron deposition. The myocardial functions were evaluated by conventional echocardiography, TDI and STE. When basal lateral left ventricular and basal septal wall TDI values were compared between the patient group and control group, only isovolumic contraction time values were significantly longer in the patients. The global circumferential strain was significantly lower in the patients. When evaluated as segmental, longitudinal strain values of basal inferoseptum and circumferential strain values of anteroseptum, anterior, and inferolateral segments were significantly lower in the patients. In the patients, global longitudinal and circumferential strains in the group who had pathological T2* values were significantly lower than the group who did not. In addition, circumferential strain values in anteroseptum, anterolateral, inferior, and inferoseptum segments were significantly lower in the patients with T2* values<20 ms than those with T2* values≥20 ms. Although T2* MRI is the most sensitive test detecting myocardial iron load, TDI and STE can be used for screening myocardial dysfunction. The abnormal strain values, especially circumferential, may be detected as the first finding of abnormal iron load and related to T2* values. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Large right ventricular sinusoids in an infant with aorta-left ventricular tunnel and proximal right coronary artery atresia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter C; Spinner, Joseph A; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2018-07-01

    We report a 1-month-old infant diagnosed with an aorta-left ventricular tunnel, ventricular septal defect, and right coronary atresia with right ventricular sinusoids. The patient's anatomy and physiology did not indicate right-ventricular-dependent coronary circulation, and therefore right ventricular decompression could be performed without compromising coronary perfusion during surgical correction. A detailed understanding of the coronary anatomy is critical in managing this defect when coronary anomalies are present.

  18. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  19. Early electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive children.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, A L; Zicker, F; Rassi, A; Rassi, A G; Oliveira, R M; Silva, S A; de Andrade, S S; Martelli, C M

    1998-10-01

    As part of a major epidemiologic study on Chagas' disease, we compared the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among 141 school children 7-12 years of age and seropositive for Trypanosoma cruzi, and 282 age-, sex-, and school-matched seronegative children in an endemic area in Brazil. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was 11.3% among seropositive children and 3.5% among seronegative children (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-8.4). The prevalence rate of ECG alterations was 10.7% for seropositive males versus 8.9% for seropositive females. Complete right bundle branch block (CRBBB), which is highly suggestive of Chagas' disease cardiopathy, was diagnosed in nine (6.4%) seropositive children and in only one (0.3%) seronegative child (odds ratio = 18.5, 95% CI = 2.3-146.5, attributable fraction = 58.3%). Five incident new cases of CRBBB were diagnosed after a 36-month follow-up of seropositive children who were enrolled in an independent clinical field trial. No case of frequent and/or multifocal ventricular premature beats was found in the cohort of children. The surprisingly high frequency of early ECG abnormalities, which indicates a rapid evolution from infection to disease, suggests the existence of endemic areas with a particular accelerated disease progression that was not described before. Under such conditions, a public health chemotherapy program focusing on the treatment of young seropositive children would be recommended.

  20. Patients with left bundle branch block and left axis deviation show a specific left ventricular asynchrony pattern: Implications for left ventricular lead placement during CRT implantation.

    PubMed

    Sciarra, Luigi; Golia, Paolo; Palamà, Zefferino; Scarà, Antonio; De Ruvo, Ermenegildo; Borrelli, Alessio; Martino, Anna Maria; Minati, Monia; Fagagnini, Alessandro; Tota, Claudia; De Luca, Lucia; Grieco, Domenico; Delise, Pietro; Calò, Leonardo

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) and left axis deviation (LAD) patients may have poor response to resynchronization therapy (CRT). We sought to assess if LBBB and LAD patients show a specific pattern of mechanical asynchrony. CRT candidates with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and LBBB were categorized as having normal QRS axis (within -30° and +90°) or LAD (within -30° and -90°). Patients underwent tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) to measure time interval between onset of QRS complex and peak systolic velocity in ejection period (Q-peak) at basal segments of septal, inferior, lateral and anterior walls, as expression of local timing of mechanical activation. Thirty patients (mean age 70.6years; 19 males) were included. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.28±0.06. Mean QRS duration was 172.5±13.9ms. Fifteen patients showed LBBB with LAD (QRS duration 173±14; EF 0.27±0.06). The other 15 patients had LBBB with a normal QRS axis (QRS duration 172±14; EF 0.29±0.05). Among patients with LAD, Q-peak interval was significantly longer at the anterior wall in comparison to each other walls (septal 201±46ms, inferior 242±58ms, lateral 267±45ms, anterior 302±50ms; p<0.0001). Conversely, in patients without LAD Q-peak interval was longer at lateral wall, when compared to each other (septal 228±65ms, inferior 250±64ms, lateral 328±98ms, anterior 291±86ms; p<0.0001). Patients with heart failure, presenting LBBB and LAD, show a specific pattern of ventricular asynchrony, with latest activation at anterior wall. This finding could affect target vessel selection during CRT procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin resistance-associated decreases in left ventricular diastolic function are strongly modified by the extent of concentric remodeling in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Vernice; Norton, Gavin R; Raymond, Andrew; Libhaber, Carlos D; Millen, Aletta M E; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Maseko, Muzi J; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2016-10-01

    Whether excess adiposity, associated metabolic abnormalities or alternative risk factors for left ventricular (LV) diastolic function are modified rather than mediated by geometric LV remodeling, is uncertain. Echocardiographic LV mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT) and diastolic function (lateral and septal wall myocardial tissue lengthening at the level of the mitral annulus [e'] [n=430], ratio of early-to-late transmitral blood flow velocity (E/A), and E/e' [n=430]) were determined in 737 randomly recruited participants of a community-based study (43% obese). Independent of LVMI and confounders, indexes of adiposity and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were independently associated with LV diastolic function (p<0.05). In addition, RWT was independently associated with LV diastolic function (p<0.002). Importantly, an independent interaction between HOMA-IR and RWT, but not between blood pressure or age and RWT, was related to LV diastolic function (p<0.05). This translated into an independent relationship between HOMA-IR and lateral e' (partial r=-0.17, p<0.02), septal e' (partial r=-0.14, p=0.05), E/A (partial r=-0.17, p<0.005) and E/e' (partial r=0.19, p<0.01) in those with RWT above, but a lack of relationship between HOMA-IR and LV diastolic function (p>0.59) in those with RWT below the median for the sample. Similarly, HOMA-IR was independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in those with RWT above (p<0.05) but not below (p>0.19) the median for the sample. The relationship between insulin resistance, but not alternative risk factors and LV diastolic function is markedly modified by the presence of a more concentrically remodeled LV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The proliferative ventricular zone in adult vertebrates: a comparative study using reptiles, birds, and mammals.

    PubMed

    García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Ferrón, Sacri; Flames, Nuria; Collado, Lucía; Desfilis, Ester; Font, Enrique

    2002-04-01

    Although evidence accumulated during the last decades has advanced our understanding of adult neurogenesis in the vertebrate brain, many aspects of this intriguing phenomenon remain controversial. Here we review the organization and cellular composition of the ventricular wall of reptiles, birds, and mammals in an effort to identify differences and commonalities among these vertebrate classes. Three major cell types have been identified in the ventricular zone of reptiles and birds: migrating (Type A) cells, radial glial (Type B) cells, and ependymal (Type E) cells. Cells similar anatomically and functionally to Types A, B, and E have also been described in the ventricular wall of mammals, which contains an additional cell type (Type C) not found in reptiles or birds. The bulk of the evidence points to a role of Type B cells as primary neural precursors (stem cells) in the three classes of living amniotic vertebrates. This finding may have implications for the development of strategies for the possible treatment of human neurological disorders.

  3. Closed-chest transthoracic magnetic resonance imaging-guided ventricular septal defect closure in swine.

    PubMed

    Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Saikus, Christina E; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Bell, Jamie A; Barbash, Israel M; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Reyes, Christine A; Sonmez, Merdim; Schenke, William H; Wright, Victor J; Hansen, Michael S; Slack, Michael C; Lederman, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to close ventricular septal defects (VSDs) directly through the chest wall using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, without cardiopulmonary bypass, sternotomy, or radiation exposure. Surgical, percutaneous, and hybrid management of VSD each have limitations and known morbidity. Percutaneous muscular VSDs were created in 10 naive Yorkshire swine using a transjugular laser catheter. Under real-time MRI guidance, a direct transthoracic vascular access sheath was introduced through the chest into the heart along a trajectory suitable for VSD access and closure. Through this transthoracic sheath, muscular VSDs were occluded using a commercial nitinol device. Finally, the right ventricular free wall was closed using a commercial collagen plug intended for arterial closure. Anterior, posterior, and mid-muscular VSDs (6.8 ± 1.8 mm) were created. VSDs were closed successfully in all animals. The transthoracic access sheath was displaced in 2, both fatal. Thereafter, we tested an intracameral retention sheath to prevent this complication. Right ventricular access ports were closed successfully in all, and after as many as 30 days, healed successfully. Real-time MRI guidance allowed closed-chest transthoracic perventricular muscular VSD closure in a clinically meaningful animal model. Once applied to patients, this approach may avoid traditional surgical, percutaneous, or open-chest transcatheter ("hybrid") risks. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Closed-Chest Transthoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Ventricular Septal Defect Closure in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Saikus, Christina E.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Bell, Jamie A.; Barbash, Israel M.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Reyes, Christine A.; Sonmez, Merdim; Schenke, William H.; Wright, Victor J.; Hansen, Michael S.; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to close ventricular septal defects (VSDs) directly through the chest wall using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, without cardiopulmonary bypass, sternotomy, or radiation exposure. Background Surgical, percutaneous, and hybrid management of VSD each have limitations and known morbidity. Methods Percutaneous muscular VSDs were created in 10 naive Yorkshire swine using a transjugular laser catheter. Under real-time MRI guidance, a direct transthoracic vascular access sheath was introduced through the chest into the heart along a trajectory suitable for VSD access and closure. Through this transthoracic sheath, muscular VSDs were occluded using a commercial nitinol device. Finally, the right ventricular free wall was closed using a commercial collagen plug intended for arterial closure. Results Anterior, posterior, and mid-muscular VSDs (6.8 ± 1.8 mm) were created. VSDs were closed successfully in all animals. The transthoracic access sheath was displaced in 2, both fatal. Thereafter, we tested an intracameral retention sheath to prevent this complication. Right ventricular access ports were closed successfully in all, and after as many as 30 days, healed successfully. Conclusions Real-time MRI guidance allowed closed-chest transthoracic perventricular muscular VSD closure in a clinically meaningful animal model. Once applied to patients, this approach may avoid traditional surgical, percutaneous, or open-chest transcatheter (“hybrid”) risks. PMID:22192373

  5. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  6. Electrical and Structural Substrate of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Determined Using Noninvasive Electrocardiographic Imaging and Late Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christopher M; Srinivasan, Neil T; Rosmini, Stefania; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Orini, Michele; Jenkins, Sharon; Pantazis, Antonis; McKenna, William J; Moon, James C; Lambiase, Pier D; Rudy, Yoram

    2017-07-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a significant cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Improved noninvasive assessment of ARVC and better understanding of the disease substrate are important for improving patient outcomes. We studied 20 genotyped ARVC patients with a broad spectrum of disease using electrocardiographic imaging (a method for noninvasive cardiac electrophysiology mapping) and advanced late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance scar imaging. Compared with 20 healthy controls, ARVC patients had longer ventricular activation duration (median, 52 versus 42 ms; P =0.007) and prolonged mean epicardial activation-recovery intervals (a surrogate for local action potential duration; median, 275 versus 241 ms; P =0.014). In these patients, we observed abnormal and varied epicardial activation breakthrough locations and regions of nonuniform conduction and fractionated electrograms. Nonuniform conduction and fractionated electrograms were present in the early concealed phase of ARVC. Electrophysiological abnormalities colocalized with late gadolinium enhancement scar, indicating a relationship with structural disease. Premature ventricular contractions were common in ARVC patients with variable initiation sites in both ventricles. Premature ventricular contraction rate increased with exercise, and within anatomic segments, it correlated with prolonged repolarization, electric markers of scar, and late gadolinium enhancement (all P <0.001). Electrocardiographic imaging reveals electrophysiological substrate properties that differ in ARVC patients compared with healthy controls. A novel mechanistic finding is the presence of repolarization abnormalities in regions where ventricular ectopy originates. The results suggest a potential role for electrocardiographic imaging and late gadolinium enhancement in early diagnosis and noninvasive follow-up of ARVC patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Acquired tricuspid valve stenosis associated with two ventricular endocardial pacing leads in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Emily; Dulake, Michelle I; Ghaffari, Shadie; Nakamura, Reid K

    2015-01-01

    Acquired tricuspid valve stenosis (TVS) is a rare complication of endocardial pacing lead implantation in humans that has only been described once previously in the veterinary literature in a dog with excessive lead redundancy. A 12 yr old terrier presented with right-sided congestive heart failure 6 mo after implantation of a second ventricular endocardial pacing lead. The second lead was placed due to malfunction of the first lead, which demonstrated abnormally low impedance. Transthoracic echocardiography identified hyperechoic tissue associated with the pacing leads as they crossed the tricuspid valve annulus as well as a stenotic tricuspid inflow pattern via spectral Doppler interrogation. Medical management was ultimately unsuccessful and the dog was euthanized 6 wk after TVS was diagnosed. The authors report the first canine case of acquired TVS associated with two ventricular endocardial pacing leads.

  8. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-03-04

    Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current I K1 , which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential I K1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that I K1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels.

  9. Left ventricular geometric patterns in end-stage kidney disease: Determinants and course over time.

    PubMed

    Nubé, Menso J; Hoekstra, Tiny; Doganer, Volkan; Bots, Michiel L; Blankestijn, Peter J; van den Dorpel, Marinus; Kamp, Otto; Ter Wee, Piet M; de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Camiel L M; Grooteman, Muriel P C

    2018-02-20

    While concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH) predominates in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD), eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (eLVH) is most prevalent in dialysis-dependent CKD stage 5 (CKD5D). In these patients, the risk of sudden death is 5× higher than in individuals with cLVH. Currently, it is unknown which factors determine left ventricular (LV) geometry and how it changes over time in CKD5D. Data from participants of the CONvective TRAnsport Study who underwent serial transthoracic echocardiography were used. Based on left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT), 4 types of left ventricular geometry were distinguished: normal, concentric remodeling, eLVH, and cLVH. Determinants of eLVH were assessed with logistic regression. Left ventricular geometry of patients who died and survived were compared. Long-term changes in RWT and LVM were evaluated with a linear mixed model. Three hundred twenty-two patients (63.1 ± 13.3 years) were included. At baseline, LVH was present in 71% (cLVH: 27%; eLVH: 44%). Prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) was positively associated with eLVH and ß-blocker use inversely. None of the putative volume parameters showed any relationship with eLVH. Although eLVH was most prevalent in non-survivors, the distribution of left ventricular geometry did not vary over time. The finding that previous CVD was positively associated with eLVH may result from the permanent high cardiac output and the strong tendency for aortic valve calcification in this group of long-term hemodialysis patients, who suffer generally also from chronic anemia and various other metabolic derangements. No association was found between eLVH and parameters of fluid balance. The distribution of left ventricular geometry did not alter over time. The assumption that LV geometry worsens over time in susceptible individuals, who then suffer from a high risk of dying, may explain these findings. © 2018 The Authors

  10. Renewed interest in preejectional isovolumic phase: new applications of tissue Doppler indexes: implications to ventricular dyssynchrony.

    PubMed

    Veyrat, Colette; Larrazet, Fabrice; Pellerin, Denis

    2005-10-01

    There is renewed interest in isovolumic contraction (IC) in tissue Doppler echocardiography of the myocardial walls, which is revisited in this editorial with new regional velocity data. The aims are to recall traditional background information and to emphasize the need to master the rapidly evolving tissue Doppler procedures for the accurate display of brief IC. IC, a preejectional component of great physiologic interest, is very demanding in terms of ultrasound technology. The onset and end of its motion velocities should be unambiguously defined versus the QRS complex and ejection wall motion. This is a prerequisite for exploiting the new information as guidance toward new therapeutic strategies from a practical viewpoint. However, IC preload dependence should be kept in mind, because of its limited potential for contractility studies. Finally, when only duration measurements are made in the assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony, regional preejectional duration is the pertinent tool to single out the onset of ejection local wall motion.

  11. Subclinical atherosclerosis in obese adolescents with normal left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Amina M; Atwa, Hoda A; El-Eraky, Azza Z; El-Aziz, Mohamed A

    2011-09-01

    To assess the impact of obesity on carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular (LV) mass in obese adolescents. The study included 52 obese adolescents (mean age 14.16+/-2.64 years) and 52 healthy adolescents who served as a control group (mean age 12+/-2.3 years), who were attended the outpatient clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. The study population was submitted for medical history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations (fasting blood sugar and lipid profile), and echocardiographic examination of LV mass and dimensions. Assessment of carotid intima-media thickness was carried out by using carotid duplex. All children had normal LV function. Obese adolescents had a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and low HDL-C compared to the control group. Also, there was a significant increase in blood pressure, carotid intima media thickness, LV mass, and LV mass index. There was a significant correlation between BMI and dyslipidemia, blood pressure, carotid intima/media thickness, LV mass, and posterior wall thickness. Carotid intima-media thickness had a significant correlation with increased LDL-C and low HDL-C, blood pressure, LV mass, and posterior wall thickness. Obesity in childhood and adolescents is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Although obese children had no LV dysfunction, yet there are LV structure changes.

  12. Left ventricular geometry in children and adolescents with primary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Phyllis A.; DiSessa, Thomas G.; Somes, Grant W.; Alpert, Bruce S.; Jones, Deborah P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Children with hypertension (HTN) are at increased risk for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Increased LV mass by the process of remodeling in response to volume or pressure loading may be eccentric (increased LV diameter) or concentric (increased wall thickness). Our objective was to classify LV geometry among children with primary HTN and examine differences in ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Study design Subjects aged 7-18 years with suspected HTN were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. ABP and LVM index (LVMI) and were measured within the same 24 hour period. LV geometry was classified as normal, concentric remodeling, concentric LVH or eccentric LVH. Results Children with LVH had significantly higher ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP levels and BMI z-score. Sixty-eight children had HTN based upon ABPM. Thirty-eight percent of the hypertensive subjects had LVH, with equal distribution in the concentric and eccentric groups. There were significant differences in the 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP) parameters when the eccentric LVH group was compared to the normal geometry and concentric LVH groups. Relative wall thickness was inversely associated with nighttime DBP parameters. These relationships persisted after controlling for BMI Z-score. Conclusions While the risk for LVH is associated with increased systolic BP and BMI Z-score, those with eccentric LVH had significantly higher DBP. PMID:19851297

  13. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  14. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio L; Sabino, Ester C; Marcolino, Milena S; Salemi, Vera M C; Ianni, Barbara M; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Eduard L

    2013-01-01

    Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors. Several

  15. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. Background: QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. Material and methods: We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X2 test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. Results: QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max

  16. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  17. Dynamic Changes of QRS Morphology of Premature Ventricular Contractions During Ablation in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yue-Chun, Li; Jia-Feng, Lin; Jia-Xuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Electrocardiographic characteristics can be useful in differentiating between right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and aortic sinus cusp (ASC) ventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias originating from ASC, however, show preferential conduction to RVOT that may render the algorithms of electrocardiographic characteristics less reliable. Even though there are few reports describing ventricular arrhythmias with ASC origins and endocardial breakout sites of RVOT, progressive dynamic changes in QRS morphology of the ventricular arrhythmias during ablation obtained were rare.This case report describes a patient with symptomatic premature ventricular contractions of left ASC origin presenting an electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristic of right ventricular outflow tract before ablation. Pacing at right ventricular outflow tract reproduced an excellent pace map. When radiofrequency catheter ablation was applied to the right ventricular outflow tract, the QRS morphology of premature ventricular contractions progressively changed from ECG characteristics of right ventricular outflow tract origin to ECG characteristics of left ASC origin.Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was achieved at the site of the earliest ventricular activation in the left ASC. The distance between the successful ablation site of the left ASC and the site with an excellent pace map of the RVOT was 20 mm.The ndings could be strong evidence for a preferential conduction via the myocardial bers from the ASC origin to the breakout site in the right ventricular outflow tract. This case demonstrates that ventricular arrhythmias with a single origin and exit shift may exhibit QRS morphology changes.

  18. A Generalized Wall Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

  19. Fabry disease presenting as apical left ventricular hypertrophy in a patient carrying the missense mutation R118C.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Francisca; Botelho, Ana; Mota, Paula; Silva, Joana; Leitão Marques, António

    2014-03-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by abnormalities of the GLA gene, which encodes the enzyme α-galactosidase A. A deficiency of this enzyme leads to the lysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipids, which may cause left ventricular hypertrophy that is typically concentric and symmetric. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptoms of dyspnea, atypical chest pain and palpitations, in whom a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed an apical variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Analysis of specific sarcomeric genetic mutations was negative. The patient underwent a screening protocol for Anderson-Fabry disease, using a dried blood spot test, which was standard at our institution for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The enzymatic activity assay revealed reduced α-galactosidase A enzymatic activity. Molecular analysis identified a missense point mutation in the GLA gene (p.R118C). This case report shows that Anderson-Fabry disease may cause an apical form of left ventricular hypertrophy. The diagnosis was only achieved because of systematic screening, which highlights the importance of screening for Anderson-Fabry disease in patients with unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, including those presenting with more unusual patterns, such as apical variants of left ventricular hypertrophy. This case also supports the idea that the missense mutation R118C is indeed a true pathogenic mutation of Anderson-Fabry disease. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Left ventricular remodelling in chronic primary mitral regurgitation: implications for medical therapy.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Keir; Manga, Pravin

    Surgical repair or replacement of the mitral valve is currently the only recommended therapy for severe primary mitral regurgitation. The chronic elevation of wall stress caused by the resulting volume overload leads to structural remodelling of the muscular, vascular and extracellular matrix components of the myocardium. These changes are initially compensatory but in the long term have detrimental effects, which ultimately result in heart failure. Understanding the changes that occur in the myocardium due to volume overload at the molecular and cellular level may lead to medical interventions, which potentially could delay or prevent the adverse left ventricular remodelling associated with primary mitral regurgitation. The pathophysiological changes involved in left ventricular remodelling in response to chronic primary mitral regurgitation and the evidence for potential medical therapy, in particular beta-adrenergic blockers, are the focus of this review.

  1. Traumatic ventricular septal defect following a stab wound to the chest.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideki; Saito, Shunei; Miyahara, Ken; Takemura, Haruki; Sawaki, Sadanari; Matsuura, Akio

    2009-03-01

    A 51-year-old man who had been suffering from depression stabbed himself in the chest with an ice pick. At presentation, an ice pick lodged in the left fifth intercostal space was moving synchronously with his heartbeat. Echocardiography revealed that the tip was penetrating the anterior wall of the right ventricle. Because the patient was tamponading, an emergency operation was carried out. The ice pick was removed following the establishment of a cardiopulmonary bypass and pericardiotomy. The perforation of the right ventricle was closed with a pledget-reinforced mattress stitch. On postoperative day 12, a holosystolic murmur was detected on auscultation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a ventricular septal defect 5 mm in diameter located near the apex. The pulmonary-tosystemic flow ratio was 1.1 by echocardiographic measurement. No sign of heart failure was present. Although it was agreed to manage the ventricular septal defect conservatively, careful echocardiographic follow-up is mandatory.

  2. Activation patterns of Purkinje fibers during long-duration ventricular fibrillation in an isolated canine heart model.

    PubMed

    Tabereaux, Paul B; Walcott, Greg P; Rogers, Jack M; Kim, Jong; Dosdall, Derek J; Robertson, Peter G; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E

    2007-09-04

    The roles of Purkinje fibers (PFs) and focal wave fronts, if any, in the maintenance of ventricular fibrillation (VF) are unknown. If PFs are involved in VF maintenance, it should be possible to map wave fronts propagating from PFs into the working ventricular myocardium during VF. If wave fronts ever arise focally during VF, it should be possible to map them appearing de novo. Six canine hearts were isolated, and the left main coronary artery was cannulated and perfused. The left ventricular cavity was exposed, which allowed direct endocardial mapping of the anterior papillary muscle insertion. Nonperfused VF was induced, and 6 segments of data, each 5 seconds long, were analyzed during 10 minutes of VF. During 36 segments of data that were analyzed, 1018 PF or focal wave fronts of activation were identified. In 534 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from working ventricular myocardium to PF. In 142 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from PF to working ventricular myocardium. In 342 wave fronts, activation was mapped arising focally. More than 1 of these 3 patterns could occur in the same wave front. PFs are highly active throughout the first 10 minutes of VF. In addition to retrograde propagation from the working ventricular myocardium to PFs, antegrade propagation occurs from PFs to working ventricular myocardium, which suggests PFs are important in VF maintenance. Prior plunge needle recordings in dogs indicate activation propagates from the endocardium toward the epicardium after 1 minute of VF, which suggests that focal sites on the endocardium may represent foci and not breakthrough. If so, in addition to reentry, abnormal automaticity or triggered activity may also occur during VF.

  3. The Role of NT-proBNP in the Diagnosis of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    MURESAN, Lucian; PETCU, Ana; MURESAN, Crina; RINZIS, Mirela; GUSETU, Gabriel; POP, Dana; ZDRENGHEA, Dumitru; REDNIC, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Background: In patients with systemic sclerosis, NT-proBNP is a useful diagnostic marker for pulmonary hypertension and ventricular dysfunction, with important prognostic significance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the NT-proBNP levels and the presence and severity of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with scleroderma. Methods: Forty consecutive patients with a diagnostic of systemic sclerosis according to the EULAR criteria admitted at the Rheumatology Clinic of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, from Jan 2014 to Apr 2014 were enrolled. Patients underwent a 12-lead ECG and a 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring for ventricular arrhythmias evaluation. Blood sample testing (including NT-proBNP level measurements), echocardiography, spirometry, chest X-ray and, when considered appropriate, high-resolution chest CT were performed. Results: Sixty percent of patients (n=24) had abnormal NT-proBNP serum levels (>125 pg/ml) and 10 patients had >100 PVC/24 h. There was a statistically significant correlation between the NT-proBNP levels and the total number of premature ventricular contractions (PVC) (r=0.445, P=0.006), total number of isolated PVC (r=0,493, P=0.002), total number of ventricular couplets (r=0.379, P=0.021) and the number of PVC morphologies (r=0.501, P=0.002). The presence of an NT-proBNP serum level >287 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 93% in predicting the presence of complex ventricular arrhythmias on 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring. Conclusion: NT-proBNP levels could become a useful ventricular arrhythmia marker for assessing the arrhythmic risk in patients with systemic sclerosis. PMID:28845401

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of the Fetal Right and Left Ventricular Fractional Area Change Using Speckle Tracking Technology.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Greggory R; Klas, Berthold; Satou, Gary; Sklansky, Mark

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fractional area change (FAC) of the right and left ventricles in normal fetal hearts between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation using speckle-tracking software. The 4-chamber view of the fetal heart was obtained in 200 control fetuses between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The FAC was computed from the ventricular areas [((end-diastolic area) - (end-systolic area)/(end-diastolic area)) x 100] for the right and left ventricles and regressed against 7 independent biometric and age variables. The FAC was correlated with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) [((end-diastolic longitudinal length) - (end-systolic longitudinal length) /(end-diastolic longitudinal length)) x 100] obtained from the mid ventricular basal-apical lengths of the right and left ventricular chambers and the transverse fractional shortening (TFS) [((end-diastolic transverse length) - (end-systolic transverse length)/(end-diastolic transverse length)) x 100] from three transverse positions (base, mid, apical) located within each ventricular chamber. To evaluate potential clinical utility, the FAC, LFS, and TFS results were examined in 9 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). Regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between the FAC and the biometric and age independent variables (R 2 = 0.13 - 0.15). The FAC was significantly correlated with the LFS (R 2 =0.18 to 0.28) and TFS (R 2 = 0.13 to 0.33). The 9 fetuses with CHD illustrated the interrelationship between the FAC, LFS, and TFS when identifying abnormal ventricular function. This study reports results from measuring the FAC of the right and left ventricles, and demonstrates a correlation with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) and transverse fractional shortening (TFS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Right Ventricular Dysfunction Impairs Effort Tolerance Independent of Left Ventricular Function Among Patients Undergoing Exercise Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwon; Di Franco, Antonino; Seoane, Tania; Srinivasan, Aparna; Kampaktsis, Polydoros N; Geevarghese, Alexi; Goldburg, Samantha R; Khan, Saadat A; Szulc, Massimiliano; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Levine, Robert A; Morgan, Ashley E; Maddula, Pooja; Rozenstrauch, Meenakshi; Shah, Tara; Devereux, Richard B; Weinsaft, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function are closely linked due to a variety of factors, including common coronary blood supply. Altered LV perfusion holds the potential to affect the RV, but links between LV ischemia and RV performance, and independent impact of RV dysfunction on effort tolerance, are unknown. The population comprised 2051 patients who underwent exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging and echo (5.5±7.9 days), among whom 6% had echo-evidenced RV dysfunction. Global summed stress scores were ≈3-fold higher among patients with RV dysfunction, attributable to increments in inducible and fixed LV perfusion defects (all P≤0.001). Regional inferior and lateral wall ischemia was greater among patients with RV dysfunction (both P<0.01), without difference in corresponding anterior defects (P=0.13). In multivariable analysis, inducible inferior and lateral wall perfusion defects increased the likelihood of RV dysfunction (both P<0.05) independent of LV function, fixed perfusion defects, and pulmonary artery pressure. Patients with RV dysfunction demonstrated lesser effort tolerance whether measured by exercise duration (6.7±2.8 versus 7.9±2.9 minutes; P<0.001) or peak treadmill stage (2.6±0.9 versus 3.1±1.0; P<0.001), paralleling results among patients with LV dysfunction (7.0±2.9 versus 8.0±2.9; P<0.001|2.7±1.0 versus 3.1±1.0; P<0.001 respectively). Exercise time decreased stepwise in relation to both RV and LV dysfunction (P<0.001) and was associated with each parameter independent of age or medication regimen. Among patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, regional LV ischemia involving the inferior and lateral walls confers increased likelihood of RV dysfunction. RV dysfunction impairs exercise tolerance independent of LV dysfunction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  7. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  8. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in Chagas disease: findings in residents of rural Bolivian communities hyperendemic for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Antonio B; Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Clark, Eva H; Samuels, Aaron; Menacho, Silvio; Gomez, Jesus; Bozo Gutierrez, Ricardo W; Crawford, Thomas C; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected and preventable tropical disease that causes significant cardiac morbidity and mortality in Latin America. This study sought to describe cardiac findings among inhabitants of rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco. The cardiac study drew participants from an epidemiologic study in 7 indigenous Guarani communities. All infected participants 10 years or older were asked to undergo a brief physical examination and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). A subset had echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiograms were read by 1 or more cardiologists. Of 1,137 residents 10 years or older, 753 (66.2%) had Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Cardiac evaluations were performed for 398 infected participants 10 years or older. Fifty-five participants (13.8%) had 1 or more ECG abnormalities suggestive of Chagas cardiomyopathy. The most frequent abnormalities were bundle branch blocks in 42 (11.3%), followed by rhythm disturbances or ventricular ectopy in 13 (3.3%), and atrioventricular blocks (AVB) in 10 participants (2.6%). The prevalence of any abnormality rose from 1.1% among those 10 to 19 years old to 14.2%, 17.3%, and 26.4% among those 20 to 39, 40 to 59, and older than 60 years, respectively. First-degree AVB was seen most frequently in participants 60 years or older, but the 4 patients with third-degree AVB were all under 50 years old. Eighteen and 2 participants had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% to 54% and <40%, respectively. An increasing number of ECG abnormalities was associated with progressively larger left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. We found a high prevalence of ECG abnormalities and substantial evidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Programs to improve access to basic cardiac care (annual ECG, antiarrhythmics, pacemakers) could have an immediate impact on morbidity and mortality in these highly endemic communities. Copyright © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva). All rights reserved.

  9. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias. A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone. The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia. As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  10. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. Materials and Methods We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a−/−-NP). Results During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a−/−-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Conclusion Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. PMID:29436197

  11. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  12. Antiarrhythmic Effects of Beta3-adrenergic Receptor Stimulation in a Canine Model of Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengmei; Tan, Alex Y.; Paz, Offir; Ogawa, Masahiro; Chou, Chung-Chuan; Hayashi, Hideki; Nihei, Motoki; Fishbein, Michael C.; Chen, Lan S.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) stimulation inhibits cardiac contractility. Objective To test the hypothesis that beta3-AR stimulation is antiarrhythmic. Methods We implanted a radiotransmitter for continuous ECG monitoring in 18 dogs with a tendency for high incidence of spontaneous ventricular tachycardia (VT). Ten of 18 had subcutaneous continuous BRL37344 (beta3-AR agonist) infusion (experimental group) for 1 month. The other dogs were controls. Western blotting studies were performed on tissues sampled from the noninfarcted left ventricular free wall of all dogs that survived the 60-day follow up period. Results Phase-2 VT appeared significantly later in the experimental group than in the control group (p<0.05). The number of VT episodes in the experimental group was significantly lower than control during both the first month (0.5 ± 0.95 episode/d vs. 2.6 ± 2.3 episode/d) and the second month (0.2 ± 0.2 episode/d vs. 1.2 ± 1.1 episode/d, p<0.05 for both). The experimental group had shorter QTc than control (p<0.002). The experimental group had decreased protein levels for sodium calcium exchanger and dihydropyridine receptor, increased beta3-AR expression, without changes in beta1-AR, beta2-AR. The average heart weight and the left ventricular free wall thickness in the experimental group (226 ± 17 g and 15.1 ± 1.2 mm, respectively) was significantly lower than control (265 ± 21 g and 17.4 ± 2.5 mm, respectively, p<0.05 for both). There was no difference in the incidences of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in these two groups of dogs. Conclusion Beta3-AR stimulation significantly reduces the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia. PMID:18242556

  13. Overexpressed connective tissue growth factor in cardiomyocytes attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by angiotensin II perfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Yan, Hua; Guang, Gong-Chang; Deng, Zheng-Rong

    2017-01-01