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Sample records for abnormal visual experience

  1. Audiovisual plasticity following early abnormal visual experience: Reduced McGurk effect in people with one eye.

    PubMed

    Moro, Stefania S; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2018-04-13

    Previously, we have shown that people who have had one eye surgically removed early in life during visual development have enhanced sound localization [1] and lack visual dominance, commonly observed in binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls [2]. Despite these changes, people with one eye integrate auditory and visual components of multisensory events optimally [3]. The current study investigates how people with one eye perceive the McGurk effect, an audiovisual illusion where a new syllable is perceived when visual lip movements do not match the corresponding sound [4]. We compared individuals with one eye to binocular and monocular viewing controls and found that they have a significantly smaller McGurk effect compared to binocular controls. Additionally, monocular controls tended to perceive the McGurk effect less often than binocular controls suggesting a small transient modulation of the McGurk effect. These results suggest altered weighting of the auditory and visual modalities with both short and long-term monocular viewing. These results indicate the presence of permanent adaptive perceptual accommodations in people who have lost one eye early in life that may serve to mitigate the loss of binocularity during early brain development. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sparse Coding Can Predict Primary Visual Cortex Receptive Field Changes Induced by Abnormal Visual Input

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Jonathan J.; Dayan, Peter; Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Receptive fields acquired through unsupervised learning of sparse representations of natural scenes have similar properties to primary visual cortex (V1) simple cell receptive fields. However, what drives in vivo development of receptive fields remains controversial. The strongest evidence for the importance of sensory experience in visual development comes from receptive field changes in animals reared with abnormal visual input. However, most sparse coding accounts have considered only normal visual input and the development of monocular receptive fields. Here, we applied three sparse coding models to binocular receptive field development across six abnormal rearing conditions. In every condition, the changes in receptive field properties previously observed experimentally were matched to a similar and highly faithful degree by all the models, suggesting that early sensory development can indeed be understood in terms of an impetus towards sparsity. As previously predicted in the literature, we found that asymmetries in inter-ocular correlation across orientations lead to orientation-specific binocular receptive fields. Finally we used our models to design a novel stimulus that, if present during rearing, is predicted by the sparsity principle to lead robustly to radically abnormal receptive fields. PMID:23675290

  3. Sparse coding can predict primary visual cortex receptive field changes induced by abnormal visual input.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jonathan J; Dayan, Peter; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Receptive fields acquired through unsupervised learning of sparse representations of natural scenes have similar properties to primary visual cortex (V1) simple cell receptive fields. However, what drives in vivo development of receptive fields remains controversial. The strongest evidence for the importance of sensory experience in visual development comes from receptive field changes in animals reared with abnormal visual input. However, most sparse coding accounts have considered only normal visual input and the development of monocular receptive fields. Here, we applied three sparse coding models to binocular receptive field development across six abnormal rearing conditions. In every condition, the changes in receptive field properties previously observed experimentally were matched to a similar and highly faithful degree by all the models, suggesting that early sensory development can indeed be understood in terms of an impetus towards sparsity. As previously predicted in the literature, we found that asymmetries in inter-ocular correlation across orientations lead to orientation-specific binocular receptive fields. Finally we used our models to design a novel stimulus that, if present during rearing, is predicted by the sparsity principle to lead robustly to radically abnormal receptive fields.

  4. Visual scan paths are abnormal in deluded schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M L; David, A S

    1997-01-01

    One explanation for delusion formation is that they result from distorted appreciation of complex stimuli. The study investigated delusions in schizophrenia using a physiological marker of visual attention and information processing, the visual scan path-a map tracing the direction and duration of gaze when an individual views a stimulus. The aim was to demonstrate the presence of a specific deficit in processing meaningful stimuli (e.g. human faces) in deluded schizophrenics (DS) by relating this to abnormal viewing strategies. Visual scan paths were measured in acutely-deluded (n = 7) and non-deluded (n = 7) schizophrenics matched for medication, illness duration and negative symptoms, plus 10 age-matched normal controls. DS employed abnormal strategies for viewing single faces and face pairs in a recognition task, staring at fewer points and fixating non-feature areas to a significantly greater extent than both control groups (P < 0.05). The results indicate that DS direct their attention to less salient visual information when viewing faces. Future paradigms employing more complex stimuli and testing DS when less-deluded will allow further clarification of the relationship between viewing strategies and delusions.

  5. Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M.; Leow, Alex D.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R.; O’Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide-ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, ASD is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared to those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and 7 typically developing boys (mean age/inter-scan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole-brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (p = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (p = 0.008), temporal (p = 0.03) and occipital lobes (p =0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in some gray matter structures, such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. TBM revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

  7. Transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms related to visual evoked potential abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Butler, Pamela D; Chan, Chi C; Trachik, Benjamin J

    2015-12-15

    Visual processing abnormalities have been reported across a range of psychotic and mood disorders, but are typically examined within a particular disorder. The current study used a novel transdiagnostic approach to examine diagnostic classes, clinician-rated current symptoms, and self-reported personality traits in relation to visual processing abnormalities. We examined transient visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) from 48 adults (56% female), representing a wide range of psychotic and mood disorders, as well as individuals with no history of psychiatric disorder. Stimuli were low contrast check arrays presented on green and red backgrounds. Pairwise comparisons between individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD), chronic mood disorders (CMD), and nonpsychiatric controls (NC) revealed no overall differences for either P1 or N1 amplitude. However, there was a significant interaction with the color background in which the NC group showed a significant increase in P1 amplitude to the red, vs. green, background, while the SSD group showed no change. This was related to an increase in social anhedonia and general negative symptoms. Stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that individuals with greater apathy and/or eccentric behavior had a reduced P1 amplitude. These relationships provide clues for uncovering the underlying causal pathology for these transdiagnostic symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormalities in the Visual Processing of Viewing Complex Visual Stimuli Amongst Individuals With Body Image Concern.

    PubMed

    Duncum, A J F; Atkins, K J; Beilharz, F L; Mundy, M E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i.e., increased local processing). Furthermore, we assessed whether this bias appeared for general visual stimuli or specifically for appearance-related stimuli, such as faces and bodies. Participants with high-BIC (n = 25) and low-BIC (n = 30) performed a stimulus discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, scenes, objects, and bodies. Unexpectedly, the high-BIC group showed an increased inversion effect compared to the low-BIC group, indicating perceptual abnormalities may not be present as local processing biases, as originally thought. There was no significant difference in performance across stimulus types, signifying that any visual processing abnormalities may be general rather than appearance-based. This has important implications for whether visual processing abnormalities are predisposing factors for BDD or develop throughout the disorder.

  9. Abnormalities of Object Visual Processing in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Feusner, Jamie D.; Hembacher, Emily; Moller, Hayley; Moody, Teena D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder may have perceptual distortions for their appearance. Previous studies suggest imbalances in detailed relative to configural/holistic visual processing when viewing faces. No study has investigated the neural correlates of processing non-symptom-related stimuli. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with body dysmorphic disorder have abnormal patterns of brain activation when viewing non-face/non-body object stimuli. Methods Fourteen medication-free participants with DSM-IV body dysmorphic disorder and 14 healthy controls participated. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants matched photographs of houses that were unaltered, contained only high spatial frequency (high detail) information, or only low spatial frequency (low detail) information. The primary outcome was group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes. Results The body dysmorphic disorder group showed lesser activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus for low spatial frequency images. There were greater activations in medial prefrontal regions for high spatial frequency images, although no significant differences when compared to a low-level baseline. Greater symptom severity was associated with lesser activity in dorsal occipital cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex for normal and high spatial frequency images. Conclusions Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder have abnormal brain activation patterns when viewing objects. Hypoactivity in visual association areas for configural and holistic (low detail) elements and abnormal allocation of prefrontal systems for details is consistent with a model of imbalances in global vs. local processing. This may occur not only for appearance but also for general stimuli unrelated to their symptoms. PMID:21557897

  10. Childhood visual impairment: normal and abnormal visual function in the context of developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Nyong'o, Omondi L; Del Monte, Monte A

    2008-12-01

    Abnormal or failed development of vision in children may give rise to varying degrees of visual impairment and disability. Disease and organ-specific mechanisms by which visual impairments arise are presented. The presentation of these mechanisms, along with an explanation of established pathologic processes and correlative up-to-date clinical and social research in the field of pediatrics, ophthalmology, and rehabilitation medicine are discussed. The goal of this article is to enhance the practitioner's recognition and care for children with developmental disability associated with visual impairment.

  11. Garbage Patch Visualization Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-20

    Goddard visualizers show us how five garbage patches formed in the world's oceans using 35 years of data. Read more: 1.usa.gov/1Lnj7xV Credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Visual Field Abnormalities among Adolescent Boys with Hearing Impairments

    PubMed Central

    KHORRAMI-NEJAD, Masoud; HERAVIAN, Javad; SEDAGHAT, Mohamad-Reza; MOMENI-MOGHADAM, Hamed; SOBHANI-RAD, Davood; ASKARIZADEH, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the visual field (VF) categorizations (based on the severity of VF defects) between adolescent boys with hearing impairments and those with normal hearing. This cross-sectional study involved the evaluation of the VF of 64 adolescent boys with hearing impairments and 68 age-matched boys with normal hearing at high schools in Tehran, Iran, in 2013. All subjects had an intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70. The hearing impairments were classified based on severity and time of onset. Participants underwent a complete eye examination, and the VFs were investigated using automated perimetry with a Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer. This device was used to determine their foveal threshold (FT), mean deviation (MD), and Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT) results. Most (50%) of the boys with hearing impairments had profound hearing impairments. There was no significant between-group difference in age (P = 0.49) or IQ (P = 0.13). There was no between-group difference in the corrected distance visual acuity (P = 0.183). According to the FT, MD, and GHT results, the percentage of boys with abnormal VFs in the hearing impairment group was significantly greater than that in the normal hearing group: 40.6% vs. 22.1%, 59.4% vs. 19.1%, and 31.2% vs. 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The mean MD in the hearing impairment group was significantly worse than that in the normal hearing group (-0.79 ± 2.04 and -4.61 ± 6.52 dB, respectively, P < 0.0001), and the mean FT was also significantly worse (38.97 ± 1.66 vs. 35.30 ± 1.43 dB, respectively, P <0.0001). Moreover, there was a significant between-group difference in the GHT results (P < 0.0001). Thus, there were higher percentages of boys with VF abnormalities and higher mean MD, FT, and GHT results among those with hearing impairments compared to those with normal hearing. These findings emphasize the need for detailed VF assessments for patients with hearing impairments. PMID:28293650

  13. Enhanced visualization of abnormalities in digital-mammographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Susan S.; Moore, William E.

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes two new presentation methods that are intended to improve the ability of radiologists to visualize abnormalities in mammograms by enhancing the appearance of the breast parenchyma pattern relative to the fatty-tissue surroundings. The first method, referred to as mountain- view, is obtained via multiscale edge decomposition through filter banks. The image is displayed in a multiscale edge domain that causes the image to have a topographic-like appearance. The second method displays the image in the intensity domain and is referred to as contrast-enhancement presentation. The input image is first passed through a decomposition filter bank to produce a filtered output (Id). The image at the lowest resolution is processed using a LUT (look-up table) to produce a tone scaled image (I'). The LUT is designed to optimally map the code value range corresponding to the parenchyma pattern in the mammographic image into the dynamic range of the output medium. The algorithm uses a contrast weight control mechanism to produce the desired weight factors to enhance the edge information corresponding to the parenchyma pattern. The output image is formed using a reconstruction filter bank through I' and enhanced Id.

  14. Visual abnormalities associated with enhanced optic nerve myelination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Minzhong; Narayanan, S Priyadarshini; Wang, Feng; Morse, Emily; Macklin, Wendy B; Peachey, Neal S

    2011-02-16

    Expression of the constitutively active serine/threonine kinase Akt in oligodendrocytes results in enhanced myelination in the CNS. Here, we have examined the effects of this Akt overexpression on optic nerve structure and on optic nerve function, assessed using the visual evoked potential (VEP). Transgenic mice have been generated with the Plp promoter driving expression of a modified form of Akt, in which aspartic acids are substituted for Thr308 and Ser473. These Plp-Akt-DD (Akt-DD) mice, and littermate controls, were studied at different ages. Optic nerves were examined anatomically at 2 and 6 months of age. At 2 months of age, optic nerves were substantially thicker in Akt-DD mice, reflecting an increase in myelination of optic nerve axons. By electron microscopy, myelin thickness was increased in Akt-DD optic nerve, with extended paranodal domains having excess paranodal loops, and the density of nodes of Ranvier was reduced, relative to control mice. We recorded VEPs in response to strobe flash ganzfeld stimuli presented after overnight dark- and light-adapted conditions at ages ranging from 1 to 10 months. It was possible to record a clear VEP from Akt-DD mice at all ages examined. At 1 month of age, VEP implicit times were somewhat shorter in Akt-DD transgenic mice than in control animals. Beyond 6months of age, VEP latencies were consistently delayed in Akt-DD transgenic mice. These abnormalities did not reflect an alteration in retinal function as there were no significant differences between ERGs obtained from control or Akt-DD transgenic mice. In young mice, the somewhat faster responses may reflect improved transmission due to increased myelination of optic nerve axons. In older mice, where the Akt-DD optic nerve is markedly thicker than control, it is remarkable that optic nerves continue to function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Cancer.gov

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  16. Optic nerve dysfunction during gravity inversion. Visual field abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, G E; Friberg, T R; Allen, R

    1987-06-01

    Inversion in a head-down position (gravity inversion) results in an intraocular pressure of 35 to 40 mm Hg in normal subjects. We used computerized static perimetry to measure the visual fields of normal subjects during gravity inversion. There were no visual field changes in the central 6 degrees of the visual field compared with the baseline (preinversion) values. However, when the central 30 degrees of the visual field was tested, reversible visual field defects were found in 11 of 19 eyes. We believe that the substantial elevation of intraocular pressure during gravity inversion may pose potential risks to the eyes, and we recommend that inversion for extended periods of time be avoided.

  17. Multifocal visual evoked potential and automated perimetry abnormalities in strabismic amblyopes.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Vivienne C; Eggers, Howard M; Hood, Donald C

    2008-02-01

    To compare visual field abnormalities obtained with standard automated perimetry (SAP) to those obtained with the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) technique in strabismic amblyopes. Humphrey 24-2 visual fields (HVF) and mfVEPs were obtained from each eye of 12 strabismic amblyopes. For the mfVEP, amplitudes and latencies were analyzed and probability plots were derived. Multifocal VEP and HVF hemifields were abnormal if they had clusters of two or more contiguous points at p < 0.01, or three or more contiguous points at p < 0.05 with at least one at p < 0.01. An eye was abnormal if it had an abnormal hemifield. On SAP, amblyopic eyes had significantly higher foveal thresholds (p = 0.003) and lower mean deviation values (p = 0.005) than fellow eyes. For the mfVEP, 11 amblyopic and 6 fellow eyes were abnormal. Of the 11 amblyopic eyes, 6 were abnormal on SAP. The deficits extended from the center to mid periphery. Monocular mfVEP latencies were significantly decreased for amblyopic eyes compared with control eyes (p < 0.0002). Both techniques revealed deficits in visual function across the visual field in strabismic amblyopes, but the mfVEP revealed deficits in fellow eyes and in more amblyopic eyes. In addition, mfVEP response latencies for amblyopic eyes were shorter than normal.

  18. Abnormal Visual Motion Processing is not a Cause of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Olulade, Olumide A.; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder, yet deficits also manifest in the magnocellular-dominated dorsal visual system. Uncertainty about whether visual deficits are causal or consequential to reading disability encumbers accurate identification and appropriate treatment of this common learning disability. Using fMRI, we demonstrate in typical readers a relationship between reading ability and activity in area V5/MT during visual motion processing and, as expected, also found lower V5/MT activity for dyslexic children compared to age-matched controls. However, when dyslexics were matched to younger controls on reading ability, no differences emerged, suggesting that weakness in V5/MT may not be causal to dyslexia. To further test for causality, dyslexics underwent a phonological-based reading intervention. Surprisingly, V5/MT activity increased along with intervention-driven reading gains, demonstrating that activity here is mobilized through reading. Our results provide strong evidence that visual magnocellular dysfunction is not causal to dyslexia, but may instead be consequential to impoverished reading. PMID:23746630

  19. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider.

  20. Abnormal visual scan paths: a psychophysiological marker of delusions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M L; David, A S

    1998-02-09

    The role of the visual scan path as a psychophysiological marker of visual attention has been highlighted previously (Phillips and David, 1994). We investigated information processing in schizophrenic patients with severe delusions and again when the delusions were subsiding using visual scan path measurements. We aimed to demonstrate a specific deficit in processing human faces in deluded subjects by relating this to abnormal viewing strategies. Scan paths were measured in six deluded and five non-deluded schizophrenics (matched for medication and negative symptoms), and nine age-matched normal controls. Deluded subjects had abnormal scan paths in a recognition task, fixating non-feature areas significantly more than controls, but were equally accurate. Re-testing after improvement in delusional conviction revealed fewer group differences. The results suggest state-dependent abnormal information processing in schizophrenics when deluded, with reliance on less-salient visual information for decision-making.

  1. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  2. Abnormal late visual responses and alpha oscillations in neurofibromatosis type 1: a link to visual and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) affects several areas of cognitive function including visual processing and attention. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the visual deficits of children and adolescents with NF1 by studying visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain oscillations during visual stimulation and rest periods. Methods Electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) responses were measured during visual processing (NF1 n = 17; controls n = 19) and idle periods with eyes closed and eyes open (NF1 n = 12; controls n = 14). Visual stimulation was chosen to bias activation of the three detection mechanisms: achromatic, red-green and blue-yellow. Results We found significant differences between the groups for late chromatic VEPs and a specific enhancement in the amplitude of the parieto-occipital alpha amplitude both during visual stimulation and idle periods. Alpha modulation and the negative influence of alpha oscillations in visual performance were found in both groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest abnormal later stages of visual processing and enhanced amplitude of alpha oscillations supporting the existence of deficits in basic sensory processing in NF1. Given the link between alpha oscillations, visual perception and attention, these results indicate a neural mechanism that might underlie the visual sensitivity deficits and increased lapses of attention observed in individuals with NF1. PMID:24559228

  3. Women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear results - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rask, Marie; Swahnberg, Katarina; Lindell, Gunnel; Oscarsson, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To describe women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear result. Ten women were recruited from a women's health clinic. Qualitative interviews based on six open-ended questions were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis. The women believed that their abnormal Pap smear result was indicative of having cancer. This created anxiety in the women, which resulted in the need for emotional support and information. Testing positive with human papillomavirus (HPV) also meant consequences for the relatives as well as concerns about the sexually transmitted nature of the virus. Finally, the women had a need to be treated with respect by the healthcare professionals in order to reduce feelings of being abused. In general, women have a low level of awareness of HPV and its relation to abnormal Pap smear results. Women who receive abnormal Pap smear results need oral information, based on the individual women's situation, and delivered at the time the women receive the test result. It is also essential that a good emotional contact be established between the women and the healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Basic abnormalities in visual processing affect face processing at an early age in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-12-15

    A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD and the relation with abnormal SF processing. We investigated whether young ASD children show abnormalities in low spatial frequency (LSF, global) and high spatial frequency (HSF, detailed) processing and explored whether these are crucially involved in the early development of face processing. Three- to 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 22) were compared with developmentally delayed children without ASD (n = 17). Spatial frequency processing was studied by recording visual evoked potentials from visual brain areas while children passively viewed gratings (HSF/LSF). In addition, children watched face stimuli with different expressions, filtered to include only HSF or LSF. Enhanced activity in visual brain areas was found in response to HSF versus LSF information in children with ASD, in contrast to control subjects. Furthermore, facial-expression processing was also primarily driven by detail in ASD. Enhanced visual processing of detailed (HSF) information is present early in ASD and occurs for neutral (gratings), as well as for socially relevant stimuli (facial expressions). These data indicate that there is a general abnormality in visual SF processing in early ASD and are in agreement with suggestions that a fast LSF subcortical face processing route might be affected in ASD. This could suggest that abnormal visual processing is causative in the development of social problems in ASD. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Women's experiences receiving abnormal prenatal chromosomal microarray testing results.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Barbara A; Soucier, Danielle; Hanson, Karen; Savage, Melissa S; Jackson, Laird; Wapner, Ronald J

    2013-02-01

    Genomic microarrays can detect copy-number variants not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. This technology is diffusing rapidly into prenatal settings even though the clinical implications of many copy-number variants are currently unknown. We conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore the experiences of women receiving abnormal results from prenatal microarray testing performed in a research setting. Participants were a subset of women participating in a multicenter prospective study "Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis by Array-based Copy Number Analysis." Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 women receiving abnormal prenatal microarray results. We found that five key elements dominated the experiences of women who had received abnormal prenatal microarray results: an offer too good to pass up, blindsided by the results, uncertainty and unquantifiable risks, need for support, and toxic knowledge. As prenatal microarray testing is increasingly used, uncertain findings will be common, resulting in greater need for careful pre- and posttest counseling, and more education of and resources for providers so they can adequately support the women who are undergoing testing.

  6. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder are associated with abnormalities in processing visual information.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Lai, T M; Bohon, C; Loo, S K; McCurdy, D; Strober, M; Bookheimer, S; Feusner, J

    2015-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by distorted body image and are frequently co-morbid with each other, although their relationship remains little studied. While there is evidence of abnormalities in visual and visuospatial processing in both disorders, no study has directly compared the two. We used two complementary modalities--event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)--to test for abnormal activity associated with early visual signaling. We acquired fMRI and ERP data in separate sessions from 15 unmedicated individuals in each of three groups (weight-restored AN, BDD, and healthy controls) while they viewed images of faces and houses of different spatial frequencies. We used joint independent component analyses to compare activity in visual systems. AN and BDD groups demonstrated similar hypoactivity in early secondary visual processing regions and the dorsal visual stream when viewing low spatial frequency faces, linked to the N170 component, as well as in early secondary visual processing regions when viewing low spatial frequency houses, linked to the P100 component. Additionally, the BDD group exhibited hyperactivity in fusiform cortex when viewing high spatial frequency houses, linked to the N170 component. Greater activity in this component was associated with lower attractiveness ratings of faces. Results provide preliminary evidence of similar abnormal spatiotemporal activation in AN and BDD for configural/holistic information for appearance- and non-appearance-related stimuli. This suggests a common phenotype of abnormal early visual system functioning, which may contribute to perceptual distortions.

  7. US Navy Women's Experience of an Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lisa A; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Sadler, Lois S; Dixon, Jane; Womack, Julie; Wilson, Candy

    2016-01-01

    Recent policy revisions allow greater inclusion of military women in operational and/or deployable positions (ie, shipboard, overseas, and war zone duty assignments), but these positions can create unique health care challenges. Military members are often transient due to deployments and change of duty stations, impacting timely follow-up care for treatable health conditions. There has been minimal research on challenges or strategies in preventive health screening and follow-up for US military women. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe US Navy women's experiences with abnormal cervical cancer screenings requiring colposcopic follow-up care. Ship- and shored-based women receiving care at a military colposcopy clinic completed interviews about their experience. Two forms of narrative analysis, Labov's sociolinguistic structural analysis and Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis, were employed to gain a more robust understanding of the women's experiences. The sample was comprised of 26 women (16 ship-based, 10 shore-based). Five themes were identified: 1) It's like this bombshell (initial abnormal results notification); 2) I didn't understand (self-discovery process); 3) Freaked (emotional toll); 4) It's kind of like this back and forth (scheduling and navigating care); and 5) It really opened my eyes (lessons learned). The women's stories highlighted some issues unique to military health care, such as operational demands and follow-up care; other issues are likely common for most women learning about an abnormal cervical cancer screening result. Areas important for practice and future research include improving notification practices, providing information, understanding women's fear, and continuity of care. Research exploring educational initiatives and self-management practices are critical within military populations. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  8. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Is exposure to cocaine or cigarette smoke during pregnancy associated with infant visual abnormalities?

    PubMed

    Hajnal, Beatrice Latal; Ferriero, Donna M; Partridge, J Colin; Dempsey, Delia A; Good, William V

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between cocaine or cigarette smoke exposure in utero and visual outcome. A total of 153 healthy infants (89 males, 64 females; gestational age range 34 to 42 weeks) were prospectively enrolled in a masked, race-matched study. Quantitative analyses of urine and meconium were used to document exposure to cigarette smoke and cocaine. Infants with exposure to other illicit drugs, excepting marijuana, were excluded. At 6 weeks of age, grating acuity and visual system abnormalities (VSA; eyelid oedema, gaze abnormalities, and visual inattention) of 96 infants from the original study sample were assessed with the Teller acuity card procedure and a detailed neurological examination. Neither cocaine nor cigarette smoke exposure was associated with acuity or VSA. However, VSAs were associated with abnormal neurological examination, independent of drug exposure and other risk factors (odds ratio 7.9; 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 31.5;p=0.004). This unexpected finding could prove a helpful clinical marker for the infant at risk for neurological abnormalities.

  10. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA.

  11. Effect of Developmental Binocular Vision Abnormalities on Visual Vertigo Symptoms and Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, Marousa; Acheson, James; Nicolaou, Despina; Fraser, Clare L; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Davies, Rosalyn A

    2015-10-01

    Customized vestibular rehabilitation incorporating optokinetic (OK) stimulation improves visual vertigo (VV) symptoms; however, the degree of improvement varies among individuals. Binocular vision abnormalities (misalignment of ocular axis, ie, strabismus) may be a potential risk factor. This study aimed to investigate the influence of binocular vision abnormalities on VV symptoms and treatment outcome. Sixty subjects with refractory peripheral vestibular symptoms underwent an orthoptic assessment after being recruited for participation in an 8-week customized program incorporating OK training via a full-field visual environment rotator or video display, supervised or unsupervised. Treatment response was assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks with dynamic posturography, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), and questionnaires for symptoms, symptom triggers, and psychological state. As no significant effect of OK training type was noted for any variables, data were combined and new groups identified on the basis of the absence or presence of a binocular vision abnormality. A total of 34 among 60 subjects consented to the orthoptic assessment, of whom 8 of the 34 had binocular vision abnormalities and 30 of the 34 subjects completed both the binocular function assessment and vestibular rehabilitation program. No significant between-group differences were noted at baseline. The only significant between-group difference was observed for pre-/post-VV symptom change (P = 0.01), with significant improvements noted only for the group without binocular vision abnormalities (P < 0.0005). Common vestibular symptoms, posturography, and the FGA improved significantly for both groups (P < 0.05). Binocular vision abnormalities may affect VV symptom improvement. These findings may have important implications for the management of subjects with refractory vestibular symptoms.Video Abstract available for insights from the authors regarding clinical implication of the study findings (see

  12. Visual Sensor Based Abnormal Event Detection with Moving Shadow Removal in Home Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sook; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    Vision-based abnormal event detection for home healthcare systems can be greatly improved using visual sensor-based techniques able to detect, track and recognize objects in the scene. However, in moving object detection and tracking processes, moving cast shadows can be misclassified as part of objects or moving objects. Shadow removal is an essential step for developing video surveillance systems. The goal of the primary is to design novel computer vision techniques that can extract objects more accurately and discriminate between abnormal and normal activities. To improve the accuracy of object detection and tracking, our proposed shadow removal algorithm is employed. Abnormal event detection based on visual sensor by using shape features variation and 3-D trajectory is presented to overcome the low fall detection rate. The experimental results showed that the success rate of detecting abnormal events was 97% with a false positive rate of 2%. Our proposed algorithm can allow distinguishing diverse fall activities such as forward falls, backward falls, and falling asides from normal activities. PMID:22368486

  13. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  14. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Isolated cortical visual loss with subtle brain MRI abnormalities in a case of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Edward; Gujar, Sachin K; Trobe, Jonathan D

    2007-12-01

    A 16-year-old boy who was briefly asystolic and hypotensive after a motor vehicle accident complained of abnormal vision after recovering consciousness. Visual acuity was normal, but visual fields were severely constricted without clear hemianopic features. The ophthalmic examination was otherwise normal. Brain MRI performed 11 days after the accident showed no pertinent abnormalities. At 6 months after the event, brain MRI demonstrated brain volume loss in the primary visual cortex and no other abnormalities. One year later, visual fields remained severely constricted; neurologic examination, including formal neuropsychometric testing, was normal. This case emphasizes the fact that hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) may cause enduring damage limited to primary visual cortex and that the MRI abnormalities may be subtle. These phenomena should be recognized in the management of patients with HIE.

  16. Developmental visual perception deficits with no indications of prosopagnosia in a child with abnormal eye movements.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Doron, Ravid

    2017-06-01

    Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias. Here, we studied BN, a 9 y.o. boy who has normal basic-level vision, abnormal (limited) oculomotor pursuit and saccades, and shows developmental object and contour integration deficits but with no indication of prosopagnosia. Although we cannot infer causation from the data presented here, we suggest that normal pursuit and saccades could be critical for the development of contour integration and object perception. While faces and perhaps reading, when fixated upon, take up a small portion of central visual field and require only small eye movements to be properly processed, common objects typically prevail in mid-peripheral visual field and rely on longer-distance voluntary eye movements as saccades to be brought to fixation. While retinal information feeds into early visual cortex in an eccentricity orderly manner, we hypothesize that propagation of non-foveal information to mid and high-order visual cortex critically relies on circuitry involving eye movements. Limited or atypical eye movements, as in the case of BN, may hinder normal information flow to mid-eccentricity biased high-order visual cortex, adversely affecting its development and consequently inducing visual perceptual deficits predominantly for categories associated with these regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experience-dependent central vision deficits: Neurobiology and visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kate; Balsor, Justin L; Beshara, Simon; Beston, Brett R; Jones, David G; Murphy, Kathryn M

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal visual experience during childhood often leads to amblyopia, with strong links to binocular dysfunction that can include poor acuity in both eyes, especially in central vision. In animal models of amblyopia, the non-deprived eye is often considered normal and what limits binocular acuity. This leaves open the question whether monocular deprivation (MD) induces binocular dysfunction similar to what is found in amblyopia. In previous studies of MD cats, we found a loss of excitatory receptors restricted to the central visual field representation in visual cortex (V1), including both eyes' columns. This led us to ask two questions about the effects of MD: how quickly are receptors lost in V1? and is there an impact on binocular acuity? We found that just a few hours of MD caused a rapid loss of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor proteins across all of V1. But after a few days of MD, there was recovery in the visual periphery, leaving a loss of AMPA receptors only in the central region of V1. We reared animals with early MD followed by a long period of binocular vision and found binocular acuity deficits that were greatest in the central visual field. Our results suggest that the greater binocular acuity deficits in the central visual field are driven in part by the long-term loss of AMPA receptors in the central region of V1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of visual and quantitative methods to identify interstitial lung abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kliment, Corrine R; Araki, Tetsuro; Doyle, Tracy J; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C; Zazueta, Oscar E; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A; Lederer, David J; Schwartz, David A; Silverman, Edwin K; Rosas, Ivan O; Washko, George R; O'Connor, George T; Hatabu, Hiroto; Hunninghake, Gary M

    2015-10-29

    Evidence suggests that individuals with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) on a chest computed tomogram (CT) may have an increased risk to develop a clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). Although methods used to identify individuals with ILA on chest CT have included both automated quantitative and qualitative visual inspection methods, there has been not direct comparison between these two methods. To investigate this relationship, we created lung density metrics and compared these to visual assessments of ILA. To provide a comparison between ILA detection methods based on visual assessment we generated measures of high attenuation areas (HAAs, defined by attenuation values between -600 and -250 Hounsfield Units) in >4500 participants from both the COPDGene and Framingham Heart studies (FHS). Linear and logistic regressions were used for analyses. Increased measures of HAAs (in ≥ 10 % of the lung) were significantly associated with ILA defined by visual inspection in both cohorts (P < 0.0001); however, the positive predictive values were not very high (19 % in COPDGene and 13 % in the FHS). In COPDGene, the association between HAAs and ILA defined by visual assessment were modified by the percentage of emphysema and body mass index. Although increased HAAs were associated with reductions in total lung capacity in both cohorts, there was no evidence for an association between measurement of HAAs and MUC5B promoter genotype in the FHS. Our findings demonstrate that increased measures of lung density may be helpful in determining the severity of lung volume reduction, but alone, are not strongly predictive of ILA defined by visual assessment. Moreover, HAAs were not associated with MUC5B promoter genotype.

  19. Autistic Traits and Abnormal Sensory Experiences in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horder, Jamie; Wilson, C. Ellie; Mendez, M. Andreina; Murphy, Declan G.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and now form part of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition" (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, but it is unclear whether they characterize the "broader phenotype" of the disorder. We recruited adults (n = 772) with and without an ASD and…

  20. Analysis and visualization of chromosomal abnormalities in SNP data with SNPscan

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Jason C; Ye, Ying; Thomas, George H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background A variety of diseases are caused by chromosomal abnormalities such as aneuploidies (having an abnormal number of chromosomes), microdeletions, microduplications, and uniparental disomy. High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays provide information on chromosomal copy number changes, as well as genotype (heterozygosity and homozygosity). SNP array studies generate multiple types of data for each SNP site, some with more than 100,000 SNPs represented on each array. The identification of different classes of anomalies within SNP data has been challenging. Results We have developed SNPscan, a web-accessible tool to analyze and visualize high density SNP data. It enables researchers (1) to visually and quantitatively assess the quality of user-generated SNP data relative to a benchmark data set derived from a control population, (2) to display SNP intensity and allelic call data in order to detect chromosomal copy number anomalies (duplications and deletions), (3) to display uniparental isodisomy based on loss of heterozygosity (LOH) across genomic regions, (4) to compare paired samples (e.g. tumor and normal), and (5) to generate a file type for viewing SNP data in the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Human Genome Browser. SNPscan accepts data exported from Affymetrix Copy Number Analysis Tool as its input. We validated SNPscan using data generated from patients with known deletions, duplications, and uniparental disomy. We also inspected previously generated SNP data from 90 apparently normal individuals from the Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) collection, and identified three cases of uniparental isodisomy, four females having an apparently mosaic X chromosome, two mislabelled SNP data sets, and one microdeletion on chromosome 2 with mosaicism from an apparently normal female. These previously unrecognized abnormalities were all detected using SNPscan. The microdeletion was independently confirmed by

  1. Adaptive design of visual perception experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John D.; Hixson, Jonathan; Thomas, James M., Jr.; Peterson, Matthew S.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2010-04-01

    Meticulous experimental design may not always prevent confounds from affecting experimental data acquired during visual perception experiments. Although experimental controls reduce the potential effects of foreseen sources of interference, interaction, or noise, they are not always adequate for preventing the confounding effects of unforeseen forces. Visual perception experimentation is vulnerable to unforeseen confounds because of the nature of the associated cognitive processes involved in the decision task. Some confounds are beyond the control of experimentation, such as what a participant does immediately prior to experimental participation, or the participant's attitude or emotional state. Other confounds may occur through ignorance of practical control methods on the part of the experiment's designer. The authors conducted experiments related to experimental fatigue and initially achieved significant results that were, upon re-examination, attributable to a lack of adequate controls. Re-examination of the original results and the processes and events that led to them yielded a second experimental design with more experimental controls and significantly different results. The authors propose that designers of visual perception experiments can benefit from planning to use a test-fix-test or adaptive experimental design cycle, so that unforeseen confounds in the initial design can be remedied.

  2. Development of visual category selectivity in ventral visual cortex does not require visual experience

    PubMed Central

    van den Hurk, Job; Van Baelen, Marc; Op de Beeck, Hans P.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent does functional brain organization rely on sensory input? Here, we show that for the penultimate visual-processing region, ventral-temporal cortex (VTC), visual experience is not the origin of its fundamental organizational property, category selectivity. In the fMRI study reported here, we presented 14 congenitally blind participants with face-, body-, scene-, and object-related natural sounds and presented 20 healthy controls with both auditory and visual stimuli from these categories. Using macroanatomical alignment, response mapping, and surface-based multivoxel pattern analysis, we demonstrated that VTC in blind individuals shows robust discriminatory responses elicited by the four categories and that these patterns of activity in blind subjects could successfully predict the visual categories in sighted controls. These findings were confirmed in a subset of blind participants born without eyes and thus deprived from all light perception since conception. The sounds also could be decoded in primary visual and primary auditory cortex, but these regions did not sustain generalization across modalities. Surprisingly, although not as strong as visual responses, selectivity for auditory stimulation in visual cortex was stronger in blind individuals than in controls. The opposite was observed in primary auditory cortex. Overall, we demonstrated a striking similarity in the cortical response layout of VTC in blind individuals and sighted controls, demonstrating that the overall category-selective map in extrastriate cortex develops independently from visual experience. PMID:28507127

  3. Online least squares one-class support vector machines-based abnormal visual event detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Yi; Snoussi, Hichem

    2013-12-12

    The abnormal event detection problem is an important subject in real-time video surveillance. In this paper, we propose a novel online one-class classification algorithm, online least squares one-class support vector machine (online LS-OC-SVM), combined with its sparsified version (sparse online LS-OC-SVM). LS-OC-SVM extracts a hyperplane as an optimal description of training objects in a regularized least squares sense. The online LS-OC-SVM learns a training set with a limited number of samples to provide a basic normal model, then updates the model through remaining data. In the sparse online scheme, the model complexity is controlled by the coherence criterion. The online LS-OC-SVM is adopted to handle the abnormal event detection problem. Each frame of the video is characterized by the covariance matrix descriptor encoding the moving information, then is classified into a normal or an abnormal frame. Experiments are conducted, on a two-dimensional synthetic distribution dataset and a benchmark video surveillance dataset, to demonstrate the promising results of the proposed online LS-OC-SVM method.

  4. Online Least Squares One-Class Support Vector Machines-Based Abnormal Visual Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Yi; Snoussi, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal event detection problem is an important subject in real-time video surveillance. In this paper, we propose a novel online one-class classification algorithm, online least squares one-class support vector machine (online LS-OC-SVM), combined with its sparsified version (sparse online LS-OC-SVM). LS-OC-SVM extracts a hyperplane as an optimal description of training objects in a regularized least squares sense. The online LS-OC-SVM learns a training set with a limited number of samples to provide a basic normal model, then updates the model through remaining data. In the sparse online scheme, the model complexity is controlled by the coherence criterion. The online LS-OC-SVM is adopted to handle the abnormal event detection problem. Each frame of the video is characterized by the covariance matrix descriptor encoding the moving information, then is classified into a normal or an abnormal frame. Experiments are conducted, on a two-dimensional synthetic distribution dataset and a benchmark video surveillance dataset, to demonstrate the promising results of the proposed online LS-OC-SVM method. PMID:24351629

  5. The effects of retinal abnormalities on the multifocal visual evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, John Y; Hood, Donald C; Odel, Jeffrey G; Behrens, Myles M

    2006-10-01

    To examine the effects on the amplitude and latency of the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) in retinal diseases associated with depressed multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG). Static automated perimetry (SAP), mfERGs, and mfVEPs were obtained from 15 individuals seen by neuro-ophthalmologists and diagnosed with retinal disease based on funduscopic examination, visual field, and mfERG. Optic neuropathy was ruled out in all cases. Diagnoses included autoimmune retinopathy (n = 3), branch retinal arterial occlusion (n = 3), branch retinal vein occlusion (n = 1), vitamin A deficiency (n = 1), digoxin/age-related macular degeneration (n = 1), multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (n = 1), and nonspecific retinal disease (n = 5). Patients were selected from a larger group based on abnormal mfERG amplitudes covering a diameter of 20 degrees or greater. Fourteen (93%) of 15 patients showed significant mfVEP delays, as determined by either mean latency or the probability of a cluster of delayed local responses. Thirteen of 15 patients had normal mfVEP amplitudes in regions corresponding to markedly reduced or nonrecordable mfERG responses. These findings can be mimicked in normal individuals by viewing the display through a neutral-density filter. Retinal diseases can result in mfVEPs of relatively normal amplitudes, often with delays, in regions showing decreased mfERG responses and visual field sensitivity loss. Consequently, a retinal problem can be missed, or dismissed as functional, if a diagnosis is based on an mfVEP of normal or near-normal amplitude. Further, in patients with marked mfVEP delays, a retinal problem could be confused with optic neuritis, especially in a patient with a normal appearing fundus.

  6. Developing Verbal and Visual Literacy through Experiences in the Visual Arts: 25 Tips for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret H.

    2008-01-01

    Including talk about art--conversing with children about artwork, their own and others'--as a component of visual art activities extends children's experiences in and understanding of visual messages. Johnson discusses practices that help children develop visual and verbal expression through active experiences with the visual arts. She offers 25…

  7. MBARI CANON Experiment Visualization and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, R.; Oscar, N.; Ryan, J. P.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    We describe the task of understanding a marine drift experiment conducted by MBARI in Fall 2012 ('CANON'). Datasets were aggregated from a drifting ADCP, from the MBARI Environmental Sample Processor, from Long Range Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (LRAUVs), from other in situ sensors, from NASA and NOAA remote sensing platforms, from moorings, from shipboard CTD casts and from post-experiment metagenomic analysis. We seek to combine existing approaches to data synthesis -- visual inspection, cross correlation and co.-- with three new ideas. This approach has the purpose of differentiating biological signals into three causal categories: Microcurrent advection, physical factors and microbe metabolism. Respective examples are aberrance from Lagrangian frame drift due to windage, changes in solar flux over several days, and microbial population responses to shifts in nitrate concentration. The three ideas we implemented are as follows: First, we advect LRAUV data to look for patterns in time series data for conserved quanitities such as salinity. We investigate whether such patterns can be used to support or undermine the premise of Lagrangian motion of the experiment ensemble. Second we built a set of configurable filters that enable us to visually isolate segments of data: By type, value, time, anomaly and location. Third we associated data hypotheses with a Bayesian inferrence engine for the purpose of model validation, again across sections taken from within the complete data complex. The end result is towards a free-form exploration of experimental data with low latency: from question to view, from hypothesis to test (albeit with considerable preparatory effort.) Preliminary results show the three causal categories shifting in relative influence.

  8. Augmented Visual Experience of Simulated Solar Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, A. O., IV; Berardino, R. A.; Hahne, D.; Schreurs, B.; Fox, N. J.; Raouafi, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will explore the Sun's corona, studying solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections. The effects of these phenomena can impact the technology that we use in ways that are not readily apparent, including affecting satellite communications and power grids. Determining the structure and dynamics of corona magnetic fields, tracing the flow of energy that heats the corona, and exploring dusty plasma near the Sun to understand its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation requires a suite of sensors on board the PSP spacecraft that are engineered to observe specific phenomena. Using models of these sensors and simulated observational data, we can visualize what the PSP spacecraft will "see" during its multiple passes around the Sun. Augmented reality (AR) technologies enable convenient user access to massive data sets. We are developing an application that allows users to experience environmental data from the point of view of the PSP spacecraft in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens. Observational data, including imagery, magnetism, temperature, and density are visualized in 4D within the user's immediate environment. Our application provides an educational tool for comprehending the complex relationships of observational data, which aids in our understanding of the Sun.

  9. Experience Report: Visual Programming in the Real World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, E.; Hartsough, C

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports direct experience with two commercial, widely used visual programming environments. While neither of these systems is object oriented, the tools have transformed the development process and indicate a direction for visual object oriented tools to proceed.

  10. 3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Agatha D.; Leow, Alex D.; Lu, Allen; Reiss, Allan L.; Hall, Scott; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX (age: 14.66+/−1.58SD, 18 females/18 males), and 33 age-matched healthy controls (age: 14.67+/−2.2SD, 17 females/16 males), using high-dimensional elastic image registration. All 69 subjects' 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs were spatially deformed to match a high-resolution single-subject average MRI scan in ICBM space, whose geometry was optimized to produce a minimal deformation target. Maps of the local Jacobian determinant (expansion factor) were computed from the deformation fields. Statistical maps showed increased caudate (10% higher; p=0.001) and lateral ventricle volumes (19% higher; p=0.003), and trend-level parietal and temporal white matter excesses (10% higher locally; p=0.04). In affected females, volume abnormalities correlated with reduction in systemically measured levels of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP; Spearman's r<−0.5 locally). Decreased FMRP correlated with ventricular expansion (p=0.042; permutation test), and anterior cingulate tissue reductions (p=0.0026; permutation test) supporting theories that FMRP is required for normal dendritic pruning in fronto-striatal-limbic pathways. No sex differences were found; findings were confirmed using traditional volumetric measures in regions of interest. Deficit patterns were replicated using Lie group statistics optimized for tensor-valued data. Investigation of how these anomalies emerge over time will accelerate our understanding of FraX and its treatment. PMID:17161622

  11. Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Joseph L.; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Rees, Geraint; Bentin, Shlomo; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG. PMID:22947116

  12. Looking you in the mouth: abnormal gaze in autism resulting from impaired top-down modulation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Dirk; Spezio, Michael L; Piven, Joseph; Adolphs, Ralph

    2006-12-01

    People with autism are impaired in their social behavior, including their eye contact with others, but the processes that underlie this impairment remain elusive. We combined high-resolution eye tracking with computational modeling in a group of 10 high-functioning individuals with autism to address this issue. The group fixated the location of the mouth in facial expressions more than did matched controls, even when the mouth was not shown, even in faces that were inverted and most noticeably at latencies of 200-400 ms. Comparisons with a computational model of visual saliency argue that the abnormal bias for fixating the mouth in autism is not driven by an exaggerated sensitivity to the bottom-up saliency of the features, but rather by an abnormal top-down strategy for allocating visual attention.

  13. Vitreoretinal interface abnormalities in middle-aged adults with visual impairment in the UK Biobank study: prevalence, impact on visual acuity and associations.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Martin; Farragher, Tracey; Shickle, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VRIA), the degree of visual impairment and associations with VRIA among adults, aged 40-69 years, in the UK Biobank study. Colour fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were graded for 25% of the 8359 UK Biobank participants with mild visual impairment or worse (LogMAR >0.3 or Snellen <6/12) in at least one eye. The prevalence and contribution of VRIA to visual impairment was determined and multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate association with known risk factors and other predetermined socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables for cases and matched controls. The minimum prevalence of any VRIA was 17.6% and 8.1% in the eyes with and without visual impairment, respectively. VRIA were identified as the primary cause of visual impairment in 3.6% of eyes. Although epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction were the most common VRIA, the degree of visual impairment was typically milder with these than with other VRIA. Visual impairment with a VRIA was positively associated with increasing age (relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.22 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.40)), female gender (RRR 1.28; 1.08 to 1.52) and Asian or Asian British ethnicity (RRR 1.60; 1.10 to 2.32). VRIA are common in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study, especially in eyes with visual impairment. VRIA were considered to be the primary cause of visual impairment in 3.6% of all eyes with visual impairment, although there was variation in the degree of visual impairment for each type of VRIA.

  14. Vitreoretinal interface abnormalities in middle-aged adults with visual impairment in the UK Biobank study: prevalence, impact on visual acuity and associations

    PubMed Central

    Farragher, Tracey; Shickle, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VRIA), the degree of visual impairment and associations with VRIA among adults, aged 40–69 years, in the UK Biobank study. Methods and analysis Colour fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were graded for 25% of the 8359 UK Biobank participants with mild visual impairment or worse (LogMAR >0.3 or Snellen <6/12) in at least one eye. The prevalence and contribution of VRIA to visual impairment was determined and multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate association with known risk factors and other predetermined socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables for cases and matched controls. Results The minimum prevalence of any VRIA was 17.6% and 8.1% in the eyes with and without visual impairment, respectively. VRIA were identified as the primary cause of visual impairment in 3.6% of eyes. Although epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction were the most common VRIA, the degree of visual impairment was typically milder with these than with other VRIA. Visual impairment with a VRIA was positively associated with increasing age (relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.22 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.40)), female gender (RRR 1.28; 1.08 to 1.52) and Asian or Asian British ethnicity (RRR 1.60; 1.10 to 2.32). Conclusions VRIA are common in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study, especially in eyes with visual impairment. VRIA were considered to be the primary cause of visual impairment in 3.6% of all eyes with visual impairment, although there was variation in the degree of visual impairment for each type of VRIA. PMID:29354705

  15. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  16. Termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: a meta-ethnography of women's experiences.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Due to technological advances in antenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities, more women face the prospect of terminating pregnancies on these grounds. Much existing research focuses on women's psychological adaptation to this event. However, there is a lack of holistic understanding of women's experiences. This article reports a systematic review of qualitative studies into women's experiences of pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Eight databases were searched up to April 2014 for peer-reviewed studies, written in English, that reported primary or secondary data, used identifiable and interpretative qualitative methods, and offered a valuable contribution to the synthesis. Altogether, 4,281 records were screened; 14 met the inclusion criteria. The data were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Four themes were identified: a shattered world, losing and regaining control, the role of health professionals and the power of cultures. Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality can be considered as a traumatic event that women experience as individuals, in their contact with the health professional community, and in the context of their politico-socio-legal environment. The range of emotions and experiences that pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality generates goes beyond the abortion paradigm and encompasses a bereavement model. Coordinated care pathways are needed that enable women to make their own decisions and receive supportive care. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Maureen; Curtis, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents a study of the higher education experiences of students with visual impairments in Canada. Methods: Students with visual impairments and the staff members of disability programs were surveyed and interviewed regarding the students' experiences in entering higher education and completing their higher education…

  18. Experience, Context, and the Visual Perception of Human Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Alissa; Pinto, Jeannine; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Why are human observers particularly sensitive to human movement? Seven experiments examined the roles of visual experience and motor processes in human movement perception by comparing visual sensitivities to point-light displays of familiar, unusual, and impossible gaits across gait-speed and identity discrimination tasks. In both tasks, visual…

  19. The Social Experiences of High School Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Glenda; Bundy, Anita C.; Broom, Alex; Hancock, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the social experiences in high school of students with visual impairments. Methods: Experience sampling methodology was used to examine (a) how socially included students with visual impairments feel, (b) the internal qualities of their activities, and (c) the factors that influence a sense of inclusion. Twelve…

  20. Embodied experiences of prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormality and pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Penelope; McClaren, Belinda J; Hodgson, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pregnant women routinely undergo prenatal screening in Australia and this has become a common experience of motherhood. When prenatal screening or prenatal testing results in diagnosis of a serious fetal abnormality, women are presented with a decision to continue or terminate their pregnancy. Few recent studies have explored women's psychosocial experience of prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality, and within this small group of studies it is rare for research to consider the embodied aspect of women's experiences. This paper reports on qualitative findings from in-depth interviews with 59 women in Melbourne, Australia who received a prenatal diagnosis of a significant abnormality and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Interview transcripts were coded inductively through thematic analysis. Two themes about embodiment were generated from the interviews: transitioning embodiment, and vulnerable bodies in un/comfortable spaces. Theory of pregnant embodiment was drawn on in interpreting women's narratives. Recommendations arising from the analysis include health professionals recognising, acknowledging and accommodating the transitioning embodied state of women as they consider, prepare for, undergo and recover from pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Further recommendations address the connections and disconnections between this transitioning embodied state and the spaces of clinics, hospitals and home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Women with abnormal Pap smear result: a qualitative study of Swedish healthcare professionals' experiences.

    PubMed

    Rask, M; Oscarsson, M; Lindell, G; Swahnberg, K

    2016-11-01

    A Papanicolaou (Pap) smear can be used to detect pre-cancerous cellular changes, so that they can be treated before they develop into cervical cancer. When the results of a Pap smear test are abnormal, women need further investigation, treatment and follow-up. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are in a position to care for these women with abnormalities. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of HCPs in caring for women with abnormal Pap smear results. In total, 20 HCPs from two counties in south-eastern Sweden participated in individual interviews, based on two open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. The results showed that HCPs experienced that abnormal Pap smear results created anxiety in women, who often sought information from the Internet as a way to cope. Furthermore, the HCPs thought that it was a problem that women chose not to attend investigation, treatment and follow-ups. However, information about the seriousness of abnormal Pap smear results causes women to participate. It is a challenge for HCPs to inform in a reassuring manner. Finally, HCPs should collaborate with women to meet their information needs and to also provide support regarding finding and filtering reliable information on the Internet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Inter-Rater Reliability for Speech-Language Therapists' Judgement of Oesophageal Abnormality during Oesophageal Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oesophageal abnormalities are common findings in a speech-language therapy videofluoroscopy clinic. Fluoroscopic screening involving oropharynx alone fails to identify these patients. Oesophageal screening as an adjunct to videofluoroscopy is gaining popularity. Yet currently, little is known about the reliability of speech and…

  3. Low-Intensity Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Abnormal Visual Cortical Circuit Topography and Upregulates BDNF in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R.; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5−/− (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5−/− mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5−/− mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5−/− mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

  4. 6th Yahya Cohen Lecture: visual experience during cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Au Eong, K G

    2002-09-01

    The visual sensations many patients experience during cataract surgery under local anaesthesia have received little attention until recently. This paper reviews the recent studies on this phenomenon, discusses its clinical significance and suggests novel approaches to reduce its negative impact on the surgery. Literature review. Many patients who have cataract surgery under retrobulbar, peribulbar or topical anaesthesia experience a variety of visual sensations in their operated eye during surgery. These visual sensations include perception of light, movements, flashes, one or more colours, surgical instruments, the surgeon's hand/fingers, the surgeon and changes in light brightness. Some patients experience transient no light perception, even if the operation is performed under topical anaesthesia. The clinical significance of this phenomenon lies in the fact that approximately 7.1% to 15.4% of patients find their visual experience frightening. This fear and anxiety may cause some patients to become uncooperative during surgery and trigger a sympathetic surge, causing such undesirable effects as hypertension, tachycardia, ischaemic strain on the heart, hyperventilation and acute panic attack. Several approaches to reduce the negative impact of patients' visual experience are suggested, including appropriate preoperative counselling and reducing the ability of patients to see during surgery. The findings that some patients find their intraoperative visual experience distressing have a major impact on the way ophthalmologists manage their cataract patients. To reduce its negative impact, surgeons should consider incorporating appropriate preoperative counselling on potential intraoperative visual experience when obtaining informed consent for surgery.

  5. Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.

  6. Healthcare experiences of women with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Smeltzer, Suzanne; Ott, Barbara B; Zimmerman, Vanessa; Duffin, Janice

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was a secondary analysis of focus group transcripts to address the question of how women with low vision or blindness have experienced healthcare. Secondary analysis of qualitative data was performed on transcripts from 2 focus groups. These focus groups were conducted at an agency serving visually impaired people in Philadelphia. The 2 focus groups included 7 and 11 women, respectively, having low-vision or who are blind who had been part of an original study of reaching hard-to-reach women with disabilities. Content analysis for the identification of thematic clusters was performed on transcriptions of the focus group data. Findings are consistent with existing research on the health needs of women with disabilities but add specific understanding related to visual impairment. Six thematic categories were identified: health professionals' awareness, information access, healthcare access, isolation, the need for self-advocacy, and perception by others. Secondary analysis of qualitative data affords in-depth understanding of a particular subset of participants within a larger study. Clinical nurse specialists and other health professionals need to increase their sensitivity to the challenges faced by women with visual impairment, and plan and provide care accordingly. Health professions students need to be prepared to interact with people who are visually impaired and healthcare settings need to respond to their needs.

  7. Experience-enabled enhancement of adult visual cortex function.

    PubMed

    Tschetter, Wayne W; Alam, Nazia M; Yee, Christopher W; Gorz, Mario; Douglas, Robert M; Sagdullaev, Botir; Prusky, Glen T

    2013-03-20

    We previously reported in adult mice that visuomotor experience during monocular deprivation (MD) augmented enhancement of visual-cortex-dependent behavior through the non-deprived eye (NDE) during deprivation, and enabled enhanced function to persist after MD. We investigated the physiological substrates of this experience-enabled form of adult cortical plasticity by measuring visual behavior and visually evoked potentials (VEPs) in binocular visual cortex of the same mice before, during, and after MD. MD on its own potentiated VEPs contralateral to the NDE during MD and shifted ocular dominance (OD) in favor of the NDE in both hemispheres. Whereas we expected visuomotor experience during MD to augment these effects, instead enhanced responses contralateral to the NDE, and the OD shift ipsilateral to the NDE were attenuated. However, in the same animals, we measured NMDA receptor-dependent VEP potentiation ipsilateral to the NDE during MD, which persisted after MD. The results indicate that visuomotor experience during adult MD leads to enduring enhancement of behavioral function, not simply by amplifying MD-induced changes in cortical OD, but through an independent process of increasing NDE drive in ipsilateral visual cortex. Because the plasticity is resident in the mature visual cortex and selectively effects gain of visual behavior through experiential means, it may have the therapeutic potential to target and non-invasively treat eye- or visual-field-specific cortical impairment.

  8. Visualization experiences and issues in Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, John; Burleigh, Scott; Maruya, Makoto; Maxwell, Scott; Pischel, Rene

    2003-01-01

    The panelists will discuss their experiences in collecting data in deep space, transmitting it to Earth, processing and visualizing it here, and using the visualization to drive the continued mission. This closes the loop, making missions more responsive to their environment, particularly in-situ operations on planetary surfaces and within planetary atmospheres.

  9. Youth with Visual Impairments: Experiences in General Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Robinson, Barbara L.; Rollheiser, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of students with visual impairments currently being educated in inclusive general physical education makes it important that physical education instructors know how best to serve them. Assessment of the experiences of students with visual impairments during general physical education classes, knowledge of students'…

  10. Abnormal white matter tractography of visual pathways detected by high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) corresponds to visual dysfunction in cortical/cerebral visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Corinna M.; Heidary, Gena; Koo, Bang-Bon; Killiany, Ronald J.; Bex, Peter; Merabet, Lotfi B.

    2014-01-01

    Cortical (cerebral) visual impairment (CVI) is characterized by visual dysfunction associated with damage to the optic radiations and/or visual cortex. Typically it results from pre- or perinatal hypoxic damage to postchiasmal visual structures and pathways. The neuroanatomical basis of this condition remains poorly understood, particularly with regard to how the resulting maldevelopment of visual processing pathways relates to observations in the clinical setting. We report our investigation of 2 young adults diagnosed with CVI and visual dysfunction characterized by difficulties related to visually guided attention and visuospatial processing. Using high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), we characterized and compared their individual white matter projections of the extrageniculo-striate visual system with a normal-sighted control. Compared to a sighted control, both CVI cases revealed a striking reduction in association fibers, including the inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus as well as superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. This reduction in fibers associated with the major pathways implicated in visual processing may provide a neuroanatomical basis for the visual dysfunctions observed in these patients. PMID:25087644

  11. The two-visual-systems hypothesis and the perspectival features of visual experience.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert T; Whitwell, Robert L; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2015-09-01

    Some critics of the two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) argue that it is incompatible with the fundamentally egocentric nature of visual experience (what we call the 'perspectival account'). The TVSH proposes that the ventral stream, which delivers up our visual experience of the world, works in an allocentric frame of reference, whereas the dorsal stream, which mediates the visual control of action, uses egocentric frames of reference. Given that the TVSH is also committed to the claim that dorsal-stream processing does not contribute to the contents of visual experience, it has been argued that the TVSH cannot account for the egocentric features of our visual experience. This argument, however, rests on a misunderstanding about how the operations mediating action and the operations mediating perception are specified in the TVSH. In this article, we emphasize the importance of the 'outputs' of the two-systems to the specification of their respective operations. We argue that once this point is appreciated, it becomes evident that the TVSH is entirely compatible with a perspectival account of visual experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wide-field fundus autofluorescence abnormalities and visual function in patients with cone and cone-rod dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Maho; Oishi, Akio; Ogino, Ken; Makiyama, Yukiko; Gotoh, Norimoto; Kurimoto, Masafumi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-05-20

    To evaluate the clinical utility of wide-field fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in patients with cone dystrophy and cone-rod dystrophy. Sixteen patients with cone dystrophy (CD) and 41 patients with cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) were recruited at one institution. The right eye of each patient was included for analysis. We obtained wide-field FAF images using a ultra-widefield retinal imaging device and measured the area of abnormal FAF. The association between the area of abnormal FAF and the results of visual acuity measurements, kinetic perimetry, and electroretinography (ERG) were investigated. The mean age of the participants was 51.4 ± 17.4 years, and the mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution was 1.00 ± 0.57. The area of abnormal FAF correlated with the scotoma measured by the Goldman perimetry I/4e isopter (ρ = 0.79, P < 0.001). The area also correlated with amplitudes of the rod ERG (ρ = -0.63, P < 0.001), combined ERG a-wave (ρ = -0.72, P < 0.001), combined ERG b-wave (ρ = -0.66, P < 0.001), cone ERG (ρ = -0.44, P = 0.001), and flicker ERG (ρ = -0.47, P < 0.001). The extent of abnormal FAF reflects the severity of functional impairment in patients with cone-dominant retinal dystrophies. Fundus autofluorescence measurements are useful for predicting retinal function in these patients. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Abnormal global processing along the dorsal visual pathway in autism: a possible mechanism for weak visuospatial coherence?

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Gibson, Lisa; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin; Badcock, David R

    2005-01-01

    Frith and Happe (Frith, U., & Happe, F. (1994). Autism: Beyond theory of mind. Cognition, 50, 115-132) argue that individuals with autism exhibit 'weak central coherence': an inability to integrate elements of information into coherent wholes. Some authors have speculated that a high-level impairment might be present in the dorsal visual pathway in autism, and furthermore, that this might account for weak central coherence, at least at the visuospatial level. We assessed the integrity of the dorsal visual pathway in children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in typically developing children, using two visual tasks, one examining functioning at higher levels of the dorsal cortical stream (Global Dot Motion (GDM)), and the other assessing lower-level dorsal stream functioning (Flicker Contrast Sensitivity (FCS)). Central coherence was tested using the Children's Embedded Figures Test (CEFT). Relative to the typically developing children, the children with ASD had shorter CEFT latencies and higher GDM thresholds but equivalent FCS thresholds. Additionally, CEFT latencies were inversely related to GDM thresholds in the ASD group. These outcomes indicate that the elevated global motion thresholds in autism are the result of high-level impairments in dorsal cortical regions. Weak visuospatial coherence in autism may be in the form of abnormal cooperative mechanisms in extra-striate cortical areas, which might contribute to differential performance when processing stimuli as Gestalts, including both dynamic (i.e., global motion perception) and static (i.e., disembedding performance) stimuli.

  14. Astronaut Charles Conrad during visual acuity experiments over Laredo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., pilot for the prime crew on the Gemini 5 space flight, takes pictures of predetermined land areas during visual acuity experiments over Laredo, Texas. The experiments will aid in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  15. Tobacco Induced Mutations: A Fun, Visually Impressive Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milholland, Rebecca B. R.; Hines, Stefani D.

    2004-01-01

    A modified version "Tobacco Induced Mutations" of Ames assay experiment provides a meaningful context for students to learn about the concept of mutations by using a known carcinogen that is tobacco. This experiment shows toxicological concept of the dose/response relationship and visually demonstrates when a mutation have occurred in bacteria…

  16. A Simple Experiment for Visualizing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and fascinating experiment for studying diffusion in gels using a pH-sensitive dye. By doping agar with methyl red, we obtain a gel which rapidly reacts to changes in pH by changing its absorption spectrum. The pH gradients can be followed using a digital camera, and we demonstrate here that the pH-sensitive colour changes can…

  17. Predictive Feedback and Conscious Visual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Panichello, Matthew F.; Cheung, Olivia S.; Bar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The human brain continuously generates predictions about the environment based on learned regularities in the world. These predictions actively and efficiently facilitate the interpretation of incoming sensory information. We review evidence that, as a result of this facilitation, predictions directly influence conscious experience. Specifically, we propose that predictions enable rapid generation of conscious percepts and bias the contents of awareness in situations of uncertainty. The possible neural mechanisms underlying this facilitation are discussed. PMID:23346068

  18. Flow visualization of acoustic levitation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, ED

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic levitation experiments for space applications were performed. Holographic interferometry is being used to study the heat transfer rates on a heated rod enclosed in a 6 cu in chamber. Acoustic waves at levels up to 150 db increased the heating rates to the rod by factors of three to four. High speed real time holographic interferometry was used to measure the boundary layer on the heated rod. Data reduction and digitization of the interferograms are being implemented.

  19. Sensory experience modifies feature map relationships in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cloherty, Shaun L; Hughes, Nicholas J; Hietanen, Markus A; Bhagavatula, Partha S

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which brain structure is influenced by sensory input during development is a critical but controversial question. A paradigmatic system for studying this is the mammalian visual cortex. Maps of orientation preference (OP) and ocular dominance (OD) in the primary visual cortex of ferrets, cats and monkeys can be individually changed by altered visual input. However, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps has appeared immutable. Using a computational model we predicted that biasing the visual input to orthogonal orientation in the two eyes should cause a shift of OP pinwheels towards the border of OD columns. We then confirmed this prediction by rearing cats wearing orthogonally oriented cylindrical lenses over each eye. Thus, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps can be modified by visual experience, revealing a previously unknown degree of brain plasticity in response to sensory input. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13911.001 PMID:27310531

  20. Women’s Experiences of Abnormal Cervical Cytology: Illness Representations, Care Processes, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Karasz, Alison; McKee, M. Diane; Roybal, Krista

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND We wanted to explore the conceptual representations of illness and experiences with care among women who have learned of an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear result. METHODS The study took place in 2 primary care, family practice clinics serving low-income, multiethnic patients in the Bronx, New York City. We conducted qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews with 17 patients who had recently learned of abnormal findings on a Pap smear. After a preliminary coding phase, the investigators identified 2 important outcomes: distress and dissatisfaction with care, and factors affecting these outcomes. A model was developed on a subset of the data, which was then tested on each transcript with an explicit search for disconfirming cases. A revised coding scheme conforming to the dimensions of the model was used to recode transcripts. RESULTS Women reported complex, syncretic models of illness that included both biomedical and folk elements. Many concerns, especially nonbiomedical concerns, were not addressed in interactions with physicians. An important source of both distress and dissatisfaction with care was the women’s lack of understanding of the inherent ambiguity of Pap smear results. When perceived care needs, which included emotional support as well as information, were not met, distress and dissatisfaction were greatly increased. CONCLUSION In this study, patients’ illness models and expectations of care were not routinely addressed in their conversations with physicians about abnormal Pap smear results. When physicians can take the time to review patients’ illness models carefully, distress and dissatisfaction with care can be reduced considerably. PMID:15055408

  1. Object-based attention benefits reveal selective abnormalities of visual integration in autism.

    PubMed

    Falter, Christine M; Grant, Kate C Plaisted; Davis, Greg

    2010-06-01

    A pervasive integration deficit could provide a powerful and elegant account of cognitive processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, in the case of visual Gestalt grouping, typically assessed by tasks that require participants explicitly to introspect on their own grouping perception, clear evidence for such a deficit remains elusive. To resolve this issue, we adopt an index of Gestalt grouping from the object-based attention literature that does not require participants to assess their own grouping perception. Children with ASD and mental- and chronological-age matched typically developing children (TD) performed speeded orientation discriminations of two diagonal lines. The lines were superimposed on circles that were either grouped together or segmented on the basis of color, proximity or these two dimensions in competition. The magnitude of performance benefits evident for grouped circles, relative to ungrouped circles, provided an index of grouping under various conditions. Children with ASD showed comparable grouping by proximity to the TD group, but reduced grouping by similarity. ASD seems characterized by a selective bias away from grouping by similarity combined with typical levels of grouping by proximity, rather than by a pervasive integration deficit.

  2. Visual field changes after cataract extraction: the AGIS experience.

    PubMed

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Patel, Gitane; Gaasterland, Douglas; Caprioli, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that cataract extraction in glaucomatous eyes improves overall sensitivity of visual function without affecting the size or depth of glaucomatous scotomas. Experimental study with no control group. One hundred fifty-eight eyes (of 140 patients) from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study with at least two reliable visual fields within a year both before and after cataract surgery were included. Average mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were compared before and after cataract extraction. To evaluate changes in scotoma size, the number of abnormal points (P < .05) on the pattern deviation plot was compared before and after surgery. We described an index ("scotoma depth index") to investigate changes of scotoma depth after surgery. Mean values for MD, PSD, and CPSD were -13.2, 6.4, and 5.9 dB before and -11.9, 6.8, and 6.2 dB after cataract surgery (P < or = .001 for all comparisons). Mean (+/- SD) number of abnormal points on pattern deviation plot was 26.7 +/- 9.4 and 27.5 +/- 9.0 before and after cataract surgery, respectively (P = .02). Scotoma depth index did not change after cataract extraction (-19.3 vs -19.2 dB, P = .90). Cataract extraction caused generalized improvement of the visual field, which was most marked in eyes with less advanced glaucomatous damage. Although the enlargement of scotomas was statistically significant, it was not clinically meaningful. No improvement of sensitivity was observed in the deepest part of the scotomas.

  3. The onset of visual experience gates auditory cortex critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Todd M.; Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems influence one another during development and deprivation can lead to cross-modal plasticity. As auditory function begins before vision, we investigate the effect of manipulating visual experience during auditory cortex critical periods (CPs) by assessing the influence of early, normal and delayed eyelid opening on hearing loss-induced changes to membrane and inhibitory synaptic properties. Early eyelid opening closes the auditory cortex CPs precociously and dark rearing prevents this effect. In contrast, delayed eyelid opening extends the auditory cortex CPs by several additional days. The CP for recovery from hearing loss is also closed prematurely by early eyelid opening and extended by delayed eyelid opening. Furthermore, when coupled with transient hearing loss that animals normally fully recover from, very early visual experience leads to inhibitory deficits that persist into adulthood. Finally, we demonstrate a functional projection from the visual to auditory cortex that could mediate these effects. PMID:26786281

  4. Experiences of Visually Impaired Students in Community College Math Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, S. Tomeka

    Blind and visually impaired students who attend community colleges face challenges in learning mathematics (Forrest, 2010). Scoy, McLaughlin, Walls, and Zuppuhaur (2006) claim these students are at a disadvantage in studying mathematics due to the visual and interactive nature of the subject, and by the way mathematics is taught. In this qualitative study six blind and visually impaired students attended three community colleges in one Mid-Atlantic state. They shared their experiences inside the mathematics classroom. Five of the students were enrolled in developmental level math, and one student was enrolled in college level math. The conceptual framework used to explore how blind and visually impaired students persist and succeed in math courses was Piaget's theory on constructivism. The data from this qualitative study was obtained through personal interviews. Based on the findings of this study, blind and visually impaired students need the following accommodations in order to succeed in community college math courses: Accommodating instructors who help to keep blind and visually impaired students motivated and facilitate their academic progress towards math completion, tutorial support, assistive technology, and a positive and inclusive learning environment.

  5. Development of the Visual Word Form Area Requires Visual Experience: Evidence from Blind Braille Readers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Judy S; Kanjlia, Shipra; Merabet, Lotfi B; Bedny, Marina

    2017-11-22

    Learning to read causes the development of a letter- and word-selective region known as the visual word form area (VWFA) within the human ventral visual object stream. Why does a reading-selective region develop at this anatomical location? According to one hypothesis, the VWFA develops at the nexus of visual inputs from retinotopic cortices and linguistic input from the frontotemporal language network because reading involves extracting linguistic information from visual symbols. Surprisingly, the anatomical location of the VWFA is also active when blind individuals read Braille by touch, suggesting that vision is not required for the development of the VWFA. In this study, we tested the alternative prediction that VWFA development is in fact influenced by visual experience. We predicted that in the absence of vision, the "VWFA" is incorporated into the frontotemporal language network and participates in high-level language processing. Congenitally blind ( n = 10, 9 female, 1 male) and sighted control ( n = 15, 9 female, 6 male), male and female participants each took part in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments: (1) word reading (Braille for blind and print for sighted participants), and (2) listening to spoken sentences of different grammatical complexity (both groups). We find that in blind, but not sighted participants, the anatomical location of the VWFA responds both to written words and to the grammatical complexity of spoken sentences. This suggests that in blindness, this region takes on high-level linguistic functions, becoming less selective for reading. More generally, the current findings suggest that experience during development has a major effect on functional specialization in the human cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region in the human cortex that becomes specialized for the recognition of written letters and words. Why does this particular brain region become specialized for reading? We

  6. Development of the Visual Word Form Area Requires Visual Experience: Evidence from Blind Braille Readers

    PubMed Central

    Kanjlia, Shipra; Merabet, Lotfi B.

    2017-01-01

    Learning to read causes the development of a letter- and word-selective region known as the visual word form area (VWFA) within the human ventral visual object stream. Why does a reading-selective region develop at this anatomical location? According to one hypothesis, the VWFA develops at the nexus of visual inputs from retinotopic cortices and linguistic input from the frontotemporal language network because reading involves extracting linguistic information from visual symbols. Surprisingly, the anatomical location of the VWFA is also active when blind individuals read Braille by touch, suggesting that vision is not required for the development of the VWFA. In this study, we tested the alternative prediction that VWFA development is in fact influenced by visual experience. We predicted that in the absence of vision, the “VWFA” is incorporated into the frontotemporal language network and participates in high-level language processing. Congenitally blind (n = 10, 9 female, 1 male) and sighted control (n = 15, 9 female, 6 male), male and female participants each took part in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments: (1) word reading (Braille for blind and print for sighted participants), and (2) listening to spoken sentences of different grammatical complexity (both groups). We find that in blind, but not sighted participants, the anatomical location of the VWFA responds both to written words and to the grammatical complexity of spoken sentences. This suggests that in blindness, this region takes on high-level linguistic functions, becoming less selective for reading. More generally, the current findings suggest that experience during development has a major effect on functional specialization in the human cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region in the human cortex that becomes specialized for the recognition of written letters and words. Why does this particular brain region become specialized for reading? We

  7. Three-dimensional brain growth abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia visualized by using tensor-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Gogtay, Nitin; Lu, Allen; Leow, Alex D; Klunder, Andrea D; Lee, Agatha D; Chavez, Alex; Greenstein, Deanna; Giedd, Jay N; Toga, Arthur W; Rapoport, Judith L; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-10-14

    Earlier studies revealed progressive cortical gray matter (GM) loss in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) across both lateral and medial surfaces of the developing brain. Here, we use tensor-based morphometry to visualize white matter (WM) growth abnormalities in COS throughout the brain. Using high-dimensional elastic image registration, we compared 3D maps of local WM growth rates in COS patients and healthy children over a 5-year period, based on analyzing longitudinal brain MRIs from 12 COS patients and 12 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and scan interval. COS patients showed up to 2.2% slower growth rates per year than healthy controls in WM (P = 0.02, all P values corrected). The greatest differences were in the right hemisphere (P = 0.006). This asymmetry was attributable to a right slower than left hemisphere growth rate mapped in COS patients (P = 0.037) but not in healthy controls. WM growth rates reached 2.6% per year in healthy controls (P = 0.0002). COS patients showed only a 1.3% per year trend for growth in the left hemisphere (P = 0.066). In COS, WM growth rates were associated with improvement in the Children's Global Assessment Scale (R = 0.64, P = 0.029). Growth rates were reduced throughout the brain in COS, but this process appeared to progress in a front-to-back (frontal-parietal) fashion, and this effect was not attributable to lower IQ. Growth rates were correlated with functional prognosis and were visualized as detailed 3D maps. Finally, these findings also confirm that the progressive GM deficits seen in schizophrenia are not the result of WM overgrowth.

  8. Visualization experiments on steam injection in Hele-Shaw cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xianli; Haghighi, M.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-03-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been successfully employed in reservoir engineering research for many years. They involve 2-D geometries in transparent Hele-Shaw cells and glass micromodels. Although much work has been done on immiscible flows (drainage or imbibition), visualization of steamfloods, which constitute a major part of current EOR methods, has not been attempted to data. In this paper, we present experimental results on steam injection in a transparent, pyrex glass Hele-Shaw cell. Both synthetic (Dutrex 739) and natural heavy oils were used under a variety of conditions, including effects of gravity.

  9. Peripersonal space representation develops independently from visual experience.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Menicagli, Dario; Leo, Andrea; Costantini, Marcello; Pietrini, Pietro; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2017-12-15

    Our daily-life actions are typically driven by vision. When acting upon an object, we need to represent its visual features (e.g. shape, orientation, etc.) and to map them into our own peripersonal space. But what happens with people who have never had any visual experience? How can they map object features into their own peripersonal space? Do they do it differently from sighted agents? To tackle these questions, we carried out a series of behavioral experiments in sighted and congenitally blind subjects. We took advantage of a spatial alignment effect paradigm, which typically refers to a decrease of reaction times when subjects perform an action (e.g., a reach-to-grasp pantomime) congruent with that afforded by a presented object. To systematically examine peripersonal space mapping, we presented visual or auditory affording objects both within and outside subjects' reach. The results showed that sighted and congenitally blind subjects did not differ in mapping objects into their own peripersonal space. Strikingly, this mapping occurred also when objects were presented outside subjects' reach, but within the peripersonal space of another agent. This suggests that (the lack of) visual experience does not significantly affect the development of both one's own and others' peripersonal space representation.

  10. [Nursing Experience of Using Mirror Visual Feedback for a Schizophrenia Patient With Visual Hallucinations].

    PubMed

    Lan, Shu-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chi; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the nursing application of mirror visual feedback in a patient suffering from long-term visual hallucinations. The intervention period was from May 15th to October 19th, 2015. Using the five facets of psychiatric nursing assessment, several health problems were observed, including disturbed sensory perceptions (prominent visual hallucinations) and poor self-care (e.g. limited abilities to self-bathe and put on clothing). Furthermore, "caregiver role strain" due to the related intense care burden was noted. After building up a therapeutic interpersonal relationship, the technique of brain plasticity and mirror visual feedback were performed using multiple nursing care methods in order to help the patient suppress her visual hallucinations by enhancing a different visual stimulus. We also taught her how to cope with visual hallucinations in a proper manner. The frequency and content of visual hallucinations were recorded to evaluate the effects of management. The therapeutic plan was formulated together with the patient in order to boost her self-confidence, and a behavior contract was implemented in order to improve her personal hygiene. In addition, psychoeducation on disease-related topics was provided to the patient's family, and they were encouraged to attend relevant therapeutic activities. As a result, her family became less passive and negative and more engaged in and positive about her future. The crisis of "caregiver role strain" was successfully resolved. The current experience is hoped to serve as a model for enhancing communication and cooperation between family and staff in similar medical settings.

  11. Recent Visual Experience Shapes Visual Processing in Rats through Stimulus-Specific Adaptation and Response Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2017-03-20

    From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions [4]. A popular "predictive coding" theory of cortical responses states that neural responses should decrease for expected sensory input and increase for unexpected input [5, 6]. Despite evidence for response suppression and enhancement in noninvasive scalp recordings in humans with this paradigm [7, 8], it has proven challenging to observe both phenomena in invasive action potential recordings in other animals [9-11]. During a visual oddball experiment, we recorded multi-unit spiking activity in rat primary visual cortex (V1) and latero-intermediate area (LI), which is a higher area of the rodent ventral visual stream. In rat V1, there was only evidence for response suppression related to stimulus-specific adaptation, and not for response enhancement. However, higher up in area LI, spiking activity showed clear surprise-based response enhancement in addition to stimulus-specific adaptation. These results show that neural responses along the rat ventral visual stream become increasingly sensitive to changes in the visual environment, suggesting a system specialized in the detection of unexpected events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychopathology of Lived Time: Abnormal Time Experience in Persons With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Raballo, Andrea; Blasi, Stefano; Cutting, John

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal time experience (ATE) in schizophrenia is a long-standing theme of phenomenological psychopathology. This is because temporality constitutes the bedrock of any experience and its integrity is fundamental for the sense of coherence and continuity of selfhood and personal identity. To characterize ATE in schizophrenia patients as compared to major depressives we interviewed, in a clinical setting over a period of 15 years, 550 consecutive patients affected by schizophrenic and affective disorders. Clinical files were analyzed by means of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), an inductive method suited to research that requires rich descriptions of inner experiences. Of the whole sample, 109 persons affected by schizophrenic (n = 95 acute, n = 14 chronic) and 37 by major depression reported at least 1 ATE. ATE are more represented in acute (N = 109 out of 198; 55%) than in chronic schizophrenic patients (N = 14 out of 103; 13%). The main feature of ATE in people with schizophrenia is the fragmentation of time experience (71 out of 109 patients), an impairment of the automatic and prereflexive synthesis of primal impression-retention-protention. This includes 4 subcategories: disruption of time flowing, déjà vu/vecu, premonitions about oneself and the external world. We contrasted ATE in schizophrenia and in major depression, finding relevant differences: in major depressives there is no disarticulation of time experience, rather timelessness because time lacks duration, not articulation. These core features of the schizophrenic pheno-phenotype may be related to self-disorders and to the manifold of characteristic schizophrenic symptoms, including so called bizarre delusions and verbal-acoustic hallucinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Visual Prediction of Rover Slip: Learning Algorithms and Field Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Visual Prediction of Rover Slip: Learning Algorithms and Field Experiments 5a...rover mobility [23, 78]. Remote slip prediction will enable safe traversals on large slopes covered with sand, drift material or loose crater ejecta...aqueous processes, e.g., mineral-rich out- crops which imply exposure to water [92] or putative lake formations or shorelines, layered deposits, etc

  14. JoVE: the Journal of Visualized Experiments.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE) is the world's first scientific video journal and is designed to communicate research and scientific methods in an innovative, intuitive way. JoVE includes a wide range of biomedical videos, from biology to immunology and bioengineering to clinical and translation medicine. This column describes the browsing and searching capabilities of JoVE, as well as its additional features (including the JoVE Scientific Education Database designed for students in scientific fields).

  15. Tactile Radar: experimenting a computer game with visually disabled.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Virgínia; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Quérette, Paulo; Bergstrom, Niklas; Sampaio, Eliana

    2017-09-18

    Visually disabled people increasingly use computers in everyday life, thanks to novel assistive technologies better tailored to their cognitive functioning. Like sighted people, many are interested in computer games - videogames and audio-games. Tactile-games are beginning to emerge. The Tactile Radar is a device through which a visually disabled person is able to detect distal obstacles. In this study, it is connected to a computer running a tactile-game. The game consists in finding and collecting randomly arranged coins in a virtual room. The study was conducted with nine congenital blind people including both sexes, aged 20-64 years old. Complementary methods of first and third person were used: the debriefing interview and the quasi-experimental design. The results indicate that the Tactile Radar is suitable for the creation of computer games specifically tailored for visually disabled people. Furthermore, the device seems capable of eliciting a powerful immersive experience. Methodologically speaking, this research contributes to the consolidation and development of first and third person complementary methods, particularly useful in disabled people research field, including the evaluation by users of the Tactile Radar effectiveness in a virtual reality context. Implications for rehabilitation Despite the growing interest in virtual games for visually disabled people, they still find barriers to access such games. Through the development of assistive technologies such as the Tactile Radar, applied in virtual games, we can create new opportunities for leisure, socialization and education for visually disabled people. The results of our study indicate that the Tactile Radar is adapted to the creation of video games for visually disabled people, providing a playful interaction with the players.

  16. Audio-visual speech experience with age influences perceived audio-visual asynchrony in speech.

    PubMed

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2013-10-01

    Previous research indicates that perception of audio-visual (AV) synchrony changes in adulthood. Possible explanations for these age differences include a decline in hearing acuity, a decline in cognitive processing speed, and increased experience with AV binding. The current study aims to isolate the effect of AV experience by comparing synchrony judgments from 20 young adults (20 to 30 yrs) and 20 normal-hearing middle-aged adults (50 to 60 yrs), an age range for which a decline of cognitive processing speed is expected to be minimal. When presented with AV stop consonant syllables with asynchronies ranging from 440 ms audio-lead to 440 ms visual-lead, middle-aged adults showed significantly less tolerance for audio-lead than young adults. Middle-aged adults also showed a greater shift in their point of subjective simultaneity than young adults. Natural audio-lead asynchronies are arguably more predictable than natural visual-lead asynchronies, and this predictability may render audio-lead thresholds more prone to experience-related fine-tuning.

  17. Abnormal accumulation and recycling of glycoproteins visualized in Niemann–Pick type C cells using the chemical reporter strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mbua, Ngalle Eric; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Johnson, Steven; Wolfert, Margreet A.; Boons, Geert-Jan; Steet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Niemann–Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized by impaired cholesterol efflux from late endosomes and lysosomes and secondary accumulation of lipids. Although impaired trafficking of individual glycoproteins and glycolipids has been noted in NPC cells and other storage disorders, there is currently no effective way to monitor their localization and movement en masse. Using a chemical reporter strategy in combination with pharmacologic treatments, we demonstrate a disease-specific and previously unrecognized accumulation of a diverse set of glycoconjugates in NPC1-null and NPC2-deficient fibroblasts within endocytic compartments. These labeled vesicles do not colocalize with the cholesterol-laden compartments of NPC cells. Experiments using the endocytic uptake marker dextran show that the endosomal accumulation of sialylated molecules can be largely attributed to impaired recycling as opposed to altered fusion of vesicles. Treatment of either NPC1-null or NPC2-deficient cells with cyclodextrin was effective in reducing cholesterol storage as well as the endocytic accumulation of sialoglycoproteins, demonstrating a direct link between cholesterol storage and abnormal recycling. Our data further demonstrate that this accumulation is largely glycoproteins, given that inhibitors of O-glycan initiation or N-glycan processing led to a significant reduction in staining intensity. Taken together, our results provide a unique perspective on the trafficking defects in NPC cells, and highlight the utility of this methodology in analyzing cells with altered recycling and turnover of glycoproteins. PMID:23733943

  18. Interactive Visualization of Infrared Spectral Data: Synergy of Computation, Visualization, and Experiment for Learning Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Paul M.; Motyka, Eric J.; Lancashire, Robert J.

    2000-05-01

    A straightforward procedure is described to combine computation of molecular vibrational modes using commonly available molecular modeling programs with visualization of the modes using advanced features of the MDL Information Systems Inc. Chime World Wide Web browser plug-in. Minor editing of experimental spectra that are stored in the JCAMP-DX format allows linkage of IR spectral frequency ranges to Chime molecular display windows. The spectra and animation files can be combined by Hypertext Markup Language programming to allow interactive linkage between experimental spectra and computationally generated vibrational displays. Both the spectra and the molecular displays can be interactively manipulated to allow the user maximum control of the objects being viewed. This procedure should be very valuable not only for aiding students through visual linkage of spectra and various vibrational animations, but also by assisting them in learning the advantages and limitations of computational chemistry by comparison to experiment.

  19. Symptoms related to glaucomatous visual field abnormalities among male Japanese workers in a population-based setting.

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, Masayuki; Nakano, Tadashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Hiro, Hisanori; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Aratake, Miho; Nishinoue, Norihide; Yamazaki, Akira; Nakadate, Toshio; Sugita, Minoru

    2012-09-01

    To identify symptoms potentially related to glaucomatous visual field abnormalities (VFAs) in a population-based setting, and to assess the applicability of using these symptoms to identify persons at risk of developing glaucoma. In this study, 10,214 Japanese male general workers (mean age, 45.3±8.8 years) filled out a self-administered questionnaire and underwent frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry testing. The questionnaire inquired about whether the participant was suffering from any of nine symptoms, with scores for each response graded on a four-item Likert scale: 0 (none), 1 (rarely), 2 (sometimes), and 3 (always). Results from the questionnaire were compared among three groups: participants without any VFAs (9767), participants with VFAs as determined by the FDT test (FDT-VFA; 447), and 227 participants (of the 447 FDT-VFA participants) with glaucomatous VFAs who were newly diagnosed by ophthalmologic examinations. The mean summed scores for the total items were significantly (p<0.01) higher in FDT- and glaucomatous VFA groups than in normal subjects. In particular, responses citing the symptoms 'feeling of something in the front of the eye' and 'feeling of hardness to see in dark places' were significantly (p<0.05) more frequent in subjects with FDT- and glaucomatous VFAs than among normal participants. However, the respective areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of summed scores for the nine total items and for the two items which showed significant differences for the glaucoma groups were 0.57 (95% confidence interval=0.53-0.60) and 0.58 (95% confidence interval=0.54-0.61). Although the symptoms 'feeling of hardness to see in dark places' and 'feeling of something in the front of the eye' could be associated with glaucomatous VFA in a population-based setting, inquiring about symptoms is of little aid in identifying subjects with glaucomatous VFA as a strategy for public health. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation

  20. Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Davison, Peter A.; Nolan, John M.; Akkali, Mukunda C.; Beatty, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    There is now a consensus, based on histological, biochemical and spectral absorption data, that the yellow colour observed at the macula lutea is a consequence of the selective accumulation of dietary xanthophylls in the central retina of the living eye. Scientific research continues to explore the function(s) of MP in the human retina, with two main hypotheses premised on its putative capacity to (1) protect the retina from (photo)-oxidative damage by means of its optical filtration and/or antioxidant properties, the so-called protective hypothesis and (2) influence the quality of visual performance by means of selective short wavelength light absorption prior to photoreceptor light capture, thereby attenuating the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter, the so-called acuity and visibility hypotheses. The current epidemic of age-related macular degeneration has directed researchers to investigate the protective hypothesis of MP, while there has been a conspicuous lack of work designed to investigate the role of MP in visual performance. The aim of this review is to present and critically appraise the current literature germane to the contribution of MP, if any, to visual performance and experience.

  1. Asymmetric latent semantic indexing for gene expression experiments visualization.

    PubMed

    González, Javier; Muñoz, Alberto; Martos, Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new method to visualize gene expression experiments inspired by the latent semantic indexing technique originally proposed in the textual analysis context. By using the correspondence word-gene document-experiment, we define an asymmetric similarity measure of association for genes that accounts for potential hierarchies in the data, the key to obtain meaningful gene mappings. We use the polar decomposition to obtain the sources of asymmetry of the similarity matrix, which are later combined with previous knowledge. Genetic classes of genes are identified by means of a mixture model applied in the genes latent space. We describe the steps of the procedure and we show its utility in the Human Cancer dataset.

  2. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  3. Improving the User Experience of Finding and Visualizing Oceanographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Kinkade, D.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Searching for and locating data of interest can be a challenge to researchers as increasing volumes of data are made available online through various data centers, repositories, and archives. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) is keenly aware of this challenge and, as a result, has implemented features and technologies aimed at improving data discovery and enhancing the user experience. BCO-DMO was created in 2006 to manage and publish data from research projects funded by the Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Division of Polar Programs (PLR) Antarctic Sciences Organisms and Ecosystems Program (ANT) of the US National Science Foundation (NSF). The BCO-DMO text-based and geospatial-based data access systems provide users with tools to search, filter, and visualize data in order to efficiently find data of interest. The geospatial interface, developed using a suite of open-source software (including MapServer [1], OpenLayers [2], ExtJS [3], and MySQL [4]), allows users to search and filter/subset metadata based on program, project, or deployment, or by using a simple word search. The map responds based on user selections, presents options that allow the user to choose specific data parameters (e.g., a species or an individual drifter), and presents further options for visualizing those data on the map or in "quick-view" plots. The data managed and made available by BCO-DMO are very heterogeneous in nature, from in-situ biogeochemical, ecological, and physical data, to controlled laboratory experiments. Due to the heterogeneity of the data types, a 'one size fits all' approach to visualization cannot be applied. Datasets are visualized in a way that will best allow users to assess fitness for purpose. An advanced geospatial interface, which contains a semantically-enabled faceted search [5], is also available. These search facets are highly interactive and responsive, allowing

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities: the 8-year experience of a single medical center.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, Zvi; Reish, Orit; Ben-Ami, Ido; Heyman, Eli; Herman, Arie; Maymon, Ron

    2008-01-01

    To assess the indications for prenatal karyotyping of sex chromosomal abnormalities (SCAs) during pregnancy. All singleton pregnancies interrupted in our institute because of SCAs (1998-2005) were categorized into subgroups of 45,XO (Turner syndrome), 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), 47,XXX and 47,XYY. The indications for prenatal diagnostic testing were recorded. There were 67 SCAs pregnancies: 33% Turner syndrome, 28% Klinefelter syndrome, 21% 47,XXX and 18% 47,XYY. Maternal age was similar among the 4 groups (34 +/- 5, range 25-42 years). The main indications for fetal karyotyping were abnormal Down's syndrome (DS) screening or ultrasound findings, advanced maternal age (> or =35 years), and parental request. About 2/3 of the Turner and 47,XYY cases had either abnormal DS screening tests or sonographic findings, such as: increased nuchal translucency, mainly cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. However, fetal karyotyping in more than 2/3 of the 47,XXX and 47,XXY cases was mainly performed because of advanced maternal age, and the diagnosis of fetal SCAs was coincidental (p <0.03). Our recent suggestion to expand the DS screening capacity to other chromosomal abnormalities including SCAs is further supported. Prenatal detection seems to be promising for Turner syndrome and possibly for 47,XYY syndrome, while other SCAs are less likely to be detected either by ultrasound or biochemical screening. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Efficient visualization of high-throughput targeted proteomics experiments: TAPIR.

    PubMed

    Röst, Hannes L; Rosenberger, George; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars

    2015-07-15

    Targeted mass spectrometry comprises a set of powerful methods to obtain accurate and consistent protein quantification in complex samples. To fully exploit these techniques, a cross-platform and open-source software stack based on standardized data exchange formats is required. We present TAPIR, a fast and efficient Python visualization software for chromatograms and peaks identified in targeted proteomics experiments. The input formats are open, community-driven standardized data formats (mzML for raw data storage and TraML encoding the hierarchical relationships between transitions, peptides and proteins). TAPIR is scalable to proteome-wide targeted proteomics studies (as enabled by SWATH-MS), allowing researchers to visualize high-throughput datasets. The framework integrates well with existing automated analysis pipelines and can be extended beyond targeted proteomics to other types of analyses. TAPIR is available for all computing platforms under the 3-clause BSD license at https://github.com/msproteomicstools/msproteomicstools. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses

  7. Cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test experiences among women living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wigfall, Lisa T.; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Bond, Sharon M.; Lazenby, Gweneth B.; Richter, Donna L.; Glover, Saundra H.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA’s cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. Methods We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern United States between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n=3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n=14), and observations with missing data (n=22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Results Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3±10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One-third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83%) had a Pap test <1 year ago and 84% knew that WLHA should have a Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p=0.001). Conclusions For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  8. Online Support: Impact on Anxiety in Women Who Experience an Abnormal Screening Mammogram

    PubMed Central

    Obadina, Eniola T.; Dubenske, Lori L.; McDowell, Helene E.; Atwood, Amy K.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Woods, Ryan W.; Gustafson, David H.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether an online support tool can impact anxiety in women experiencing an abnormal mammogram. MATERIALS AND METHODS We developed an online support system using the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) designed for women experiencing an abnormal mammogram as a model. Our trial randomized 130 of these women to online support (the intervention group) or to a list of five commonly used Internet sites (the comparison group). Surveys assessed anxiety and breast cancer worry, and patient satisfaction at three important clinical time points: when women were notified of their abnormal mammogram, at the time of diagnostic imaging, and at the time of biopsy (if biopsy was recommended). RESULTS Study participants in the intervention group showed a significant decrease in anxiety at the time of biopsy compared to the comparison group (p=0.017). However, there was no significant difference in anxiety between the intervention group and the comparison group at the time of diagnostic work-up. We discontinued assessment of patient satisfaction after finding that many women had substantial difficulty answering the questions that referenced their physician, because they did not understand who their physician was for this process of care. CONCLUSION The combination of the inability to identify the physician providing care during the mammography work-up and anxiety effects seen only after an interaction with the breast imaging team may indicate that online support only decreases the anxiety of women in concert with direct interpersonal support from the healthcare team. PMID:25193424

  9. Online support: Impact on anxiety in women who experience an abnormal screening mammogram.

    PubMed

    Obadina, Eniola T; Dubenske, Lori L; McDowell, Helene E; Atwood, Amy K; Mayer, Deborah K; Woods, Ryan W; Gustafson, David H; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether an online support tool can impact anxiety in women experiencing an abnormal mammogram. We developed an online support system using the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) designed for women experiencing an abnormal mammogram as a model. Our trial randomized 130 of these women to online support (the intervention group) or to a list of five commonly used Internet sites (the comparison group). Surveys assessed anxiety and breast cancer worry, and patient satisfaction at three important clinical time points: when women were notified of their abnormal mammogram, at the time of diagnostic imaging, and at the time of biopsy (if biopsy was recommended). Study participants in the intervention group showed a significant decrease in anxiety at the time of biopsy compared to the comparison group (p = 0.017). However, there was no significant difference in anxiety between the intervention group and the comparison group at the time of diagnostic work-up. We discontinued assessment of patient satisfaction after finding that many women had substantial difficulty answering the questions that referenced their physician, because they did not understand who their physician was for this process of care. The combination of the inability to identify the physician providing care during the mammography work-up and anxiety effects seen only after an interaction with the breast imaging team may indicate that online support only decreases the anxiety of women in concert with direct interpersonal support from the healthcare team. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Entwining Psychology and Visual Arts: A Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahia, Sara; Trindade, Jose Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how activating perception, imagery and creativity facilitate the mastery of specific skills of visual arts education. Specifically, the study aimed at answering two questions: How can teachers enhance visual and creative expression?; and What criteria should be used to evaluate specific learning of visual arts…

  11. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person's mindset, which determines what top-down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art.

  12. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person’s mindset, which determines what top–down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art. PMID:25566111

  13. Adult Visual Experience Promotes Recovery of Primary Visual Cortex from Long-Term Monocular Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Quentin S.; Aleem, Salman; Zhou, Hongyi; Pham, Tony A.

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged visual deprivation from early childhood to maturity is believed to cause permanent visual impairment. However, there have been case reports of substantial improvement of binocular vision in human adults following lifelong visual impairment or deprivation. These observations, together with recent findings of adult ocular dominance…

  14. Fifteen-minute consultation-the child with a developmental disability: is there an ocular or visual abnormality?

    PubMed

    Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer

    2017-12-01

    To present a structured approach for an outpatient consultation for a child with developmental disability who may have an ocular or visual disorder. Review of relevant literature and description of the approach to ocular and visual assessment which could be used by any paediatrician. A systematic approach to history, observation and examination of a child with a developmental disability will assist in identifying a possible visual problem. A structured referral letter will ensure that the child will receive the most appropriate assessment to clarify the problem and appropriate management in the eye clinic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Abnormal brain activation in neurofibromatosis type 1: a link between visual processing and the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Violante, Inês R; Ribeiro, Maria J; Cunha, Gil; Bernardino, Inês; Duarte, João V; Ramos, Fabiana; Saraiva, Jorge; Silva, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common single gene disorders affecting the human nervous system with a high incidence of cognitive deficits, particularly visuospatial. Nevertheless, neurophysiological alterations in low-level visual processing that could be relevant to explain the cognitive phenotype are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study early cortical visual pathways in children and adults with NF1. We employed two distinct stimulus types differing in contrast and spatial and temporal frequencies to evoke relatively different activation of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways. Hemodynamic responses were investigated in retinotopically-defined regions V1, V2 and V3 and then over the acquired cortical volume. Relative to matched control subjects, patients with NF1 showed deficient activation of the low-level visual cortex to both stimulus types. Importantly, this finding was observed for children and adults with NF1, indicating that low-level visual processing deficits do not ameliorate with age. Moreover, only during M-biased stimulation patients with NF1 failed to deactivate or even activated anterior and posterior midline regions of the default mode network. The observation that the magnocellular visual pathway is impaired in NF1 in early visual processing and is specifically associated with a deficient deactivation of the default mode network may provide a neural explanation for high-order cognitive deficits present in NF1, particularly visuospatial and attentional. A link between magnocellular and default mode network processing may generalize to neuropsychiatric disorders where such deficits have been separately identified.

  16. Stroke survivors' views and experiences on impact of visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Fiona J

    2017-09-01

    We sought to determine stroke survivors' views on impact of stroke-related visual impairment to quality of life. Stroke survivors with visual impairment, more than 1 year post stroke onset, were recruited. Semistructured biographical narrative interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic approach to analysis of the qualitative data was adopted. Transcripts were systematically coded using NVivo10 software. Thirty-five stroke survivors were interviewed across the UK: 16 females, 19 males; aged 20-75 years at stroke onset. Five qualitative themes emerged: "Formal care," "Symptoms and self," "Adaptations," "Daily life," and "Information." Where visual problems existed, they were often not immediately recognized as part of the stroke syndrome and attributed to other causes such as migraine. Many participants did not receive early vision assessment or treatment for their visual problems. Visual problems included visual field loss, double vision, and perceptual problems. Impact of visual problems included loss in confidence, being a burden to others, increased collisions/accidents, and fear of falling. They made many self-identified adaptations to compensate for visual problems: magnifiers, large print, increased lighting, use of white sticks. There was a consistent lack of support and provision of information about visual problems. Poststroke visual impairment causes considerable impact to daily life which could be substantially improved by simple measures including early formal visual assessment, management and advice on adaptive strategies and self-management options. Improved education about poststroke visual impairment for the public and clinicians could aid earlier diagnosis of visual impairments.

  17. Teaching the Mammalian Heart to the Visually Handicapped--A Lesson in Concrete Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francoeur, Pearl; Eilam, Bihah

    1975-01-01

    Utilizes programmed instruction with concrete experiences and raised diagrams to teach the mammalian heart to an integrated high school classroom (one containing sighted and visually handicapped students). (LS)

  18. Magnetic Resonance Neurography Visualizes Abnormalities in Sciatic and Tibial Nerves in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vaeggemose, Michael; Pham, Mirko; Ringgaard, Steffen; Tankisi, Hatice; Ejskjaer, Niels; Heiland, Sabine; Poulsen, Per L; Andersen, Henning

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluates whether diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance neurography (DTI-MRN), T2 relaxation time, and proton spin density can detect and grade neuropathic abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes ( n = 49) were included-11 with severe polyneuropathy (sDPN), 13 with mild polyneuropathy (mDPN), and 25 without polyneuropathy (nDPN)-along with 30 healthy control subjects (HCs). Clinical examinations, nerve conduction studies, and vibratory perception thresholds determined the presence and severity of DPN. DTI-MRN covered proximal (sciatic nerve) and distal (tibial nerve) nerve segments of the lower extremity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated, as were T2 relaxation time and proton spin density obtained from DTI-MRN. All magnetic resonance findings were related to the presence and severity of neuropathy. FA of the sciatic and tibial nerves was lowest in the sDPN group. Corresponding with this, proximal and distal ADCs were highest in patients with sDPN compared with patients with mDPN and nDPN, as well as the HCs. DTI-MRN correlated closely with the severity of neuropathy, demonstrating strong associations with sciatic and tibial nerve findings. Quantitative group differences in proton spin density were also significant, but less pronounced than those for DTI-MRN. In conclusion, DTI-MRN enables detection in peripheral nerves of abnormalities related to DPN, more so than proton spin density or T2 relaxation time. These abnormalities are likely to reflect pathology in sciatic and tibial nerve fibers. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. A Contaminant Ice Visualization Experiment in a Glass Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. L.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Le, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented from pulse tube experiments designed to investigate the effect of 400 parts per million water vapor contamination of the helium working gas. The experiments were conducted in a glass pulse tube to enable visualization of ice formation on internal surfaces. Photographs of this ice formation were taken along with simultaneous coldtip temperature and compressor power measurements. Four types of regenerator elements were tested in various combinations: 200- and 400-mesh stainless steel screens, 1.6 mm diameter glass beads, and 1.6 mm thick perforated plastic plates. Internal spacers were also used to provide clear fields of view into the regenerator stack. Substantial water-ice formation was observed at the cold end of the regenerator and on the inside wall of pulse tube; it appeared to be highly porous, like snow, and was seen to accumulate only in a very localized region at the coldest end, despite changing the cold tip temperature across a range of 150 to 235 K. Ice formation degraded pulse tube thermal performance only in cases where screen regenerators were used at the regenerator cold end. It was concluded that flow blockage was the mechanism by which contaminants affected performance; coarse regenerator elements were largely immune over the tested time scale of a few days. Substantially reduced ice formation and minimal performance loss were also observed in repeated tests where the contaminated gas was reused after warming up and melting of the accumulated internal ice. Significant adsorption of the liquid water onto the regenerator was inferred, a process that depleted the gas phase concentration of water.

  20. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among students with cognitive impairment in eastern Taiwan: The special group with undetected visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Wei-Shan; Hsieh, Hsi-Pao; Chuang, Yi-Ting; Sheu, Min-Muh

    2017-05-01

    Students with cognitive impairment are at increased risk of suffering from visual impairment due to refractive errors and ocular disease, which can adversely influence learning and daily activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular and visual status among students at the special education school in Hualien. All students at the National Hualien Special Education School were evaluated. Full eye examinations were conducted by a skilled ophthalmologist. The students' medical records and disability types were reviewed. A total of 241 students, aged 7-18 years, were examined. Visual acuity could be assessed in 138 students. A total of 169/477 (35.4%) eyes were found to suffer from refractive errors, including 20 eyes with high myopia (≤-6.0 D) and 16 eyes with moderate hypermetropia (+3.0 D to +5.0 D). A total of 84/241 (34.8%) students needed spectacles to correct their vision, thus improving their daily activities and learning process, but only 15/241 (6.2%) students were wearing suitable corrective spectacles. A total of 55/241 students (22.8%) had ocular disorders, which influenced their visual function. The multiple disability group had a statistically significant higher prevalence of ocular disorders (32.9%) than the simple intellectual disability group (19.6%). Students with cognitive impairment in eastern Taiwan have a high risk of visual impairment due to refractive errors and ocular disorders. Importantly, many students have unrecognized correctable refractive errors. Regular ophthalmic examination should be administered to address this issue and prevent further disability in this already handicapped group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. AODA Training Experiences of Blindness and Visual Impairment Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, S. J.; Koch, D. Shane; McKee, Marissa F.; Nelipovich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Co-existing alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) and blindness or visually impairment may complicate the delivery of rehabilitation services. Professionals working with individuals who are blind or visually impaired need to be aware of unique issues facing those with co-existing disabilities. This study sought to examine the AODA training needs,…

  2. Experiences of Visually Impaired Students in Community College Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, S. Tomeka

    2017-01-01

    Blind and visually impaired students who attend community colleges face challenges in learning mathematics (Forrest, 2010). Scoy, McLaughlin, Walls, and Zuppuhaur (2006) claim these students are at a disadvantage in studying mathematics due to the visual and interactive nature of the subject, and by the way mathematics is taught. In this…

  3. The role of visuohaptic experience in visually perceived depth.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yun-Xian; Serwe, Sascha; Trommershäuser, Julia; Maloney, Laurence T; Landy, Michael S

    2009-06-01

    Berkeley suggested that "touch educates vision," that is, haptic input may be used to calibrate visual cues to improve visual estimation of properties of the world. Here, we test whether haptic input may be used to "miseducate" vision, causing observers to rely more heavily on misleading visual cues. Human subjects compared the depth of two cylindrical bumps illuminated by light sources located at different positions relative to the surface. As in previous work using judgments of surface roughness, we find that observers judge bumps to have greater depth when the light source is located eccentric to the surface normal (i.e., when shadows are more salient). Following several sessions of visual judgments of depth, subjects then underwent visuohaptic training in which haptic feedback was artificially correlated with the "pseudocue" of shadow size and artificially decorrelated with disparity and texture. Although there were large individual differences, almost all observers demonstrated integration of haptic cues during visuohaptic training. For some observers, subsequent visual judgments of bump depth were unaffected by the training. However, for 5 of 12 observers, training significantly increased the weight given to pseudocues, causing subsequent visual estimates of shape to be less veridical. We conclude that haptic information can be used to reweight visual cues, putting more weight on misleading pseudocues, even when more trustworthy visual cues are available in the scene.

  4. Visual scanpath abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: is this a face specific deficit?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kathryn; Rich, Dominique; Loughland, Carmel Maree; Schall, Ulrich; Campbell, Linda Elisabet

    2011-09-30

    People with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have deficits in face emotion recognition. However, it is not known whether this is a deficit specific to faces, or represents maladaptive information processing strategies to complex stimuli in general. This study examined the specificity of face emotion processing deficits in 22q11DS by exploring recognition accuracy and visual scanpath performance to a Faces task compared to a Weather Scene task. Seventeen adolescents with 22q11DS (11=females, age=17.4) and 18 healthy controls (11=females, age=17.7) participated in the study. People with 22q11DS displayed an overall impoverished scanning strategy to face and weather stimuli alike, resulting in poorer accuracy across all stimuli for the 22q11DS participants compared to controls. While the control subjects altered their information processing in response to faces, a similar change was not present in the 22q11DS group indicating different visual scanpath strategies to identify category within each of the tasks, of which faces appear to represent a particularly difficult subcategory. To conclude, while this study indicates that people with 22q11DS have a general visual processing deficit, the lack of strategic change between tasks suggest that the 22q11DS group did not adapt to the change in stimuli content as well as the controls, indicative of cognitive inflexibility rather than a face specific deficit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G.; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

  6. Age, School Experience and the Development of Visual-Perceptual Memory. Final Report, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, L. R.

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of school experience on visual perception tests involving line figures and forms. There were two experiments in this study. Experiment 1 examined the independent and interactive influences of school experience and chronological age in kindergarten children. Experiment 2 compared the effects of…

  7. Using Visual Literacy to Teach Science Academic Language: Experiences from Three Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Jackson, Charlease; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    This original pedagogical study captured three preservice teachers' experiences using visual literacy strategies as an approach to teaching English language learners (ELLs) science academic language. The following research questions guided this study: (1) What are the experiences of preservice teachers' use of visual literacy to teach science…

  8. Conversational Pedagogy: Exploring Interactions between a Teaching Artist and Young Learners during Visual Arts Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Angela

    2013-01-01

    In many early childhood classrooms, visual arts experiences occur around a communal arts table. A shared workspace allows for spontaneous conversation and exploration of the art-making process of peers and teachers. In this setting, conversation can play an important role in visual arts experiences as children explore new media, skills, and ideas.…

  9. How Can Visual Experience Be Depicted? A Study of Close-Up Double Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; Pepperell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The attempt to record visual experience has been of central importance to many artists throughout the history of art. Vision itself is made up of many processes, both psychological and physiological, and is still only partially understood. This paper presents research into an aspect of visual experience descried as "close-up double…

  10. Experiences in using DISCUS for visualizing human communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groehn, Matti; Nieminen, Marko; Haho, Paeivi; Smeds, Riitta

    2000-02-01

    In this paper, we present further improvement to the DISCUS software that can be used to record and analyze the flow and constants of business process simulation session discussion. The tool was initially introduced in 'visual data exploration and analysis IV' conference. The initial features of the tool enabled the visualization of discussion flow in business process simulation sessions and the creation of SOM analyses. The improvements of the tool consists of additional visualization possibilities that enable quick on-line analyses and improved graphical statistics. We have also created the very first interface to audio data and implemented two ways to visualize it. We also outline additional possibilities to use the tool in other application areas: these include usability testing and the possibility to use the tool for capturing design rationale in a product development process. The data gathered with DISCUS may be used in other applications, and further work may be done with data ming techniques.

  11. Development of cortical orientation selectivity in the absence of visual experience with contour

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Shaista; Weliky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Visual cortical neurons are selective for the orientation of lines, and the full development of this selectivity requires natural visual experience after eye opening. Here we examined whether this selectivity develops without seeing lines and contours. Juvenile ferrets were reared in a dark room and visually trained by being shown a movie of flickering, sparse spots. We found that despite the lack of contour visual experience, the cortical neurons of these ferrets developed strong orientation selectivity and exhibited simple-cell receptive fields. This finding suggests that overt contour visual experience is unnecessary for the maturation of orientation selectivity and is inconsistent with the computational models that crucially require the visual inputs of lines and contours for the development of orientation selectivity. We propose that a correlation-based model supplemented with a constraint on synaptic strength dynamics is able to account for our experimental result. PMID:21753023

  12. Do patients with structural abnormalities of the shoulder experience pain after MR arthrography of the shoulder?

    PubMed

    Steurer-Dober, Isabelle; Rufibach, Kaspar; Hodler, Juerg; Saupe, Nadja; Zanetti, Marco; Fucentese, Sandro F; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2010-09-01

    To assess the pain course after intraarticular injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast material admixed with anesthetic for magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the shoulder in relation to internal derangements of the shoulder. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. The study sample consisted of 655 consecutive patients (249 female, 406 male; median age, 54 years) referred for MR arthrography of the shoulder. Pain level was measured at baseline, directly after intraarticular injection of the gadolinium-containing contrast material admixed with anesthetic, 4 hours after injection, 1 day (18-30 hours) after injection, and 1 week (6-8 days) after injection with a visual analog scale (range, 0-10). MR arthrography was used to assess the following internal derangements: lesions of the rotator cuff tendons and long biceps tendon, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), fluid in the subacromial bursa, labral tears, and osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. History of shoulder surgery was recorded. Linear regression models were calculated for the dependent variable (difference between follow-up pain and baseline pain), with the independent variable grouping adjusted for age and sex. There was no significant association between pain level over time and internal derangements of the shoulder, nor was there significant association between pain level over time in patients with a history of shoulder surgery and patients without a history of shoulder surgery. Neither internal derangements nor prior surgery have an apparent effect on the pain course after MR arthrography of the shoulder. (c) RSNA, 2010.

  13. Visual experience sculpts whole-cortex spontaneous infraslow activity patterns through an Arc-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Andrew W.; Mitra, Anish; Bauer, Adam Q.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Culver, Joseph P.; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Decades of work in experimental animals has established the importance of visual experience during critical periods for the development of normal sensory-evoked responses in the visual cortex. However, much less is known concerning the impact of early visual experience on the systems-level organization of spontaneous activity. Human resting-state fMRI has revealed that infraslow fluctuations in spontaneous activity are organized into stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns across the entire brain. Furthermore, the organization of spontaneous infraslow activity (ISA) is plastic in that it can be modulated by learning and experience, suggesting heightened sensitivity to change during critical periods. Here we used wide-field optical intrinsic signal imaging in mice to examine whole-cortex spontaneous ISA patterns. Using monocular or binocular visual deprivation, we examined the effects of critical period visual experience on the development of ISA correlation and latency patterns within and across cortical resting-state networks. Visual modification with monocular lid suturing reduced correlation between left and right cortices (homotopic correlation) within the visual network, but had little effect on internetwork correlation. In contrast, visual deprivation with binocular lid suturing resulted in increased visual homotopic correlation and increased anti-correlation between the visual network and several extravisual networks, suggesting cross-modal plasticity. These network-level changes were markedly attenuated in mice with genetic deletion of Arc, a gene known to be critical for activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Taken together, our results suggest that critical period visual experience induces global changes in spontaneous ISA relationships, both within the visual network and across networks, through an Arc-dependent mechanism. PMID:29087327

  14. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR-VEP of UTAS-E3000 techniques. Cortical activation by binocular viewing of reversal checkerboard patterns was examined in terms of the calcarine region of interest (ROI)-based and spatial frequency–dependent analysis. The correlation of cortical activation in fMRI and the P100 amplitude in VEP were analyzed using the SPSS 12.0 software package. Results In the BOLD-fMRI procedure, reduced areas and decreased activation levels were found in Brodmann area (BA) 17 and other extrastriate areas in subjects with amblyopia compared with the normal vision group. In general, the reduced areas mainly resided in the striate visual cortex in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. In subjects with strabismic amblyopia, a more significant cortical impairment was found in bilateral BA 18 and BA 19 than that in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. The activation by high-spatial-frequency stimuli was reduced in bilateral BA 18 and 19 as well as BA 17 in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia, whereas the activation was mainly reduced in BA 18 and BA 19 in subjects with strabismic amblyopia. These findings were further confirmed by the ROI-based analysis of BA 17. During spatial frequency–dependent VEP detection, subjects with anisometropic amblyopia had reduced sensitivity for high spatial frequency compared to subjects with strabismic amblyopia. The cortical activation in fMRI with the calcarine ROI-based analysis of BA 17 was significantly correlated with the P100 amplitude in VEP

  15. The Dynamic Discourse of Visual Literacy in Experience Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Search, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, people have used perspectives of space and time to define a sense of place and personal identity. Western cultures interpret place and time as static entities. In interactive multimedia computing, visual literacy defines new dimensions in communication that are reshaping traditional Western concepts of place and time. Experience…

  16. Not Your Mother's View: The Dynamics of Toddler Visual Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen; Pereira, Alfredo F.

    2011-01-01

    Human toddlers learn about objects through second-by-second, minute-by-minute sensory-motor interactions. In an effort to understand how toddlers' bodily actions structure the visual learning environment, mini-video cameras were placed low on the foreheads of toddlers, and for comparison also on the foreheads of their parents, as they jointly…

  17. Abnormal agency experiences in schizophrenia patients: Examining the role of psychotic symptoms and familial risk.

    PubMed

    Prikken, Merel; van der Weiden, Anouk; Renes, Robert A; Koevoets, Martijn G J C; Heering, Henriette D; Kahn, René S; Aarts, Henk; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2017-04-01

    Experiencing self-agency over one's own action outcomes is essential for social functioning. Recent research revealed that patients with schizophrenia do not use implicitly available information about their action-outcomes (i.e., prime-based agency inference) to arrive at self-agency experiences. Here, we examined whether this is related to symptoms and/or familial risk to develop the disease. Fifty-four patients, 54 controls, and 19 unaffected (and unrelated) siblings performed an agency inference task, in which experienced agency was measured over action-outcomes that matched or mismatched outcome-primes that were presented before action performance. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) were administered to assess psychopathology. Impairments in prime-based inferences did not differ between patients with symptoms of over- and underattribution. However, patients with agency underattribution symptoms reported significantly lower overall self-agency experiences. Siblings displayed stronger prime-based agency inferences than patients, but weaker prime-based inferences than healthy controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Findings suggest that impairments in prime-based agency inferences may be a trait characteristic of schizophrenia. Moreover, this study may stimulate further research on the familial basis and the clinical relevance of impairments in implicit agency inferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Scholte, H Steven; van Es, Daniel M; Knapen, Tomas; Rouw, Romke

    2016-07-29

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual areas can be directly related to letter-color associations acquired by training. Non-synesthetes read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. If the acquired letter-color associations were visual in nature, then brain activation in visual cortex while viewing the trained black letters (compared to untrained black letters) should predict the strength of the associations, the quality of the color experience, or the vividness of visual mental imagery. Results showed that training-related activation of area V4 was correlated with differences in reported subjective color experience. Trainees who were classified as having stronger 'associator' types of color experiences also had more negative activation for trained compared to untrained achromatic letters in area V4. In contrast, the strength of the acquired associations (measured as the Stroop effect) was not reliably reflected in visual cortex activity. The reported vividness of visual mental imagery was related to veridical color activation in early visual cortex, but not to the acquired color associations. We show for the first time that subjective experience related to a synesthesia-training paradigm was reflected in visual brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Visual’ parsing can be taught quickly without visual experience during critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Lior; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Cases of invasive sight-restoration in congenital blind adults demonstrated that acquiring visual abilities is extremely challenging, presumably because visual-experience during critical-periods is crucial for learning visual-unique concepts (e.g. size constancy). Visual rehabilitation can also be achieved using sensory-substitution-devices (SSDs) which convey visual information non-invasively through sounds. We tested whether one critical concept – visual parsing, which is highly-impaired in sight-restored patients – can be learned using SSD. To this end, congenitally blind adults participated in a unique, relatively short (~70 hours), SSD-‘vision’ training. Following this, participants successfully parsed 2D and 3D visual objects. Control individuals naïve to SSDs demonstrated that while some aspects of parsing with SSD are intuitive, the blind’s success could not be attributed to auditory processing alone. Furthermore, we had a unique opportunity to compare the SSD-users’ abilities to those reported for sight-restored patients who performed similar tasks visually, and who had months of eyesight. Intriguingly, the SSD-users outperformed the patients on most criteria tested. These suggest that with adequate training and technologies, key high-order visual features can be quickly acquired in adulthood, and lack of visual-experience during critical-periods can be somewhat compensated for. Practically, these highlight the potential of SSDs as standalone-aids or combined with invasive restoration approaches. PMID:26482105

  20. Development of Accessible Laboratory Experiments for Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroes, KC; Lefler, Daniel; Schmitt, Aaron; Supalo, Cary A.

    2016-01-01

    The hands-on laboratory experiments are frequently what spark students' interest in science. Students who are blind or have low vision (BLV) typically do not get the same experience while participating in hands-on activities due to accessibility. Over the course of approximately nine months, common chemistry laboratory experiments were adapted and…

  1. Language processing abnormalities in adolescents with psychotic-like experiences: an event related potential study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jennifer; Blanchard, Mathieu M; Rawdon, Caroline; Kavanagh, Fergal; Kelleher, Ian; Clarke, Mary C; Roche, Richard A P; Cannon, Mary

    2012-05-01

    Language impairments are a well established finding in patients with schizophrenia and in individuals at-risk for psychosis. A growing body of research has revealed shared risk factors between individuals with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) from the general population and patients with schizophrenia. In particular, adolescents with PLEs have been shown to be at an increased risk for later psychosis. However, to date there has been little information published on electrophysiological correlates of language comprehension in this at-risk group. A 64 channel EEG recorded electrical activity while 37 (16 At-Risk; 21 Controls) participants completed the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II) receptive vocabulary task. The P300 component was examined as a function of language comprehension. The at-risk group were impaired behaviourally on receptive language and were characterised by a reduction in P300 amplitude relative to the control group. The results of this study reveal electrophysiological evidence for receptive language deficits in adolescents with PLEs, suggesting that the earliest neurobiological changes underlying psychosis may be apparent in the adolescent period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of the Work Experiences of Adults with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, people with visual impairments often struggle to gain employment. This study attempts to closely evaluate the work experiences of employed individuals with visual impairments living in one of the world's most populous developing nations, Nigeria. Methods: The researchers developed a questionnaire that assessed personal and…

  3. Experiences of Individuals with Visual Impairments in Integrated Physical Education: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin A.; Zhu, Xihe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the experiences of adults with visual impairments during school-based integrated physical education (PE). Method: An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) research approach was used and 16 adults (ages 21-48 years; 10 women, 6 men) with visual impairments acted as…

  4. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  5. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats.

    PubMed

    Saddoris, Michael P; Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A; Carelli, Regina M

    2016-01-06

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence, particularly its role in

  6. High resolution renderings and interactive visualization of the 2006 Huntington Beach experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, T.; Nayak, A.; Keen, C.; Samilo, D.; Matthews, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Visualization Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography investigates innovative ways to represent graphically interactive 3D virtual landscapes and to produce high resolution, high quality renderings of Earth sciences data and the sensors and instruments used to collect the data . Among the Visualization Center's most recent work is the visualization of the Huntington Beach experiment, a study launched in July 2006 by the Southern California Ocean Observing System (http://www.sccoos.org/) to record and synthesize data of the Huntington Beach coastal region. Researchers and students at the Visualization Center created visual presentations that combine bathymetric data provided by SCCOOS with USGS aerial photography and with 3D polygonal models of sensors created in Maya into an interactive 3D scene using the Fledermaus suite of visualization tools (http://www.ivs3d.com). In addition, the Visualization Center has produced high definition (HD) animations of SCCOOS sensor instruments (e.g. REMUS, drifters, spray glider, nearshore mooring, OCSD/USGS mooring and CDIP mooring) using the Maya modeling and animation software and rendered over multiple nodes of the OptIPuter Visualization Cluster at Scripps. These visualizations are aimed at providing researchers with a broader context of sensor locations relative to geologic characteristics, to promote their use as an educational resource for informal education settings and increasing public awareness, and also as an aid for researchers' proposals and presentations. These visualizations are available for download on the Visualization Center website at http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu/sccoos/hb2006.php.

  7. Real-Time Strategy Video Game Experience and Visual Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-07-22

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as long-term improvement in performance on a visual-perception task after visual experiences or training. Early studies have found that VPL is highly specific for the trained feature and location, suggesting that VPL is associated with changes in the early visual cortex. However, the generality of visual skills enhancement attributable to action video-game experience suggests that VPL can result from improvement in higher cognitive skills. If so, experience in real-time strategy (RTS) video-game play, which may heavily involve cognitive skills, may also facilitate VPL. To test this hypothesis, we compared VPL between RTS video-game players (VGPs) and non-VGPs (NVGPs) and elucidated underlying structural and functional neural mechanisms. Healthy young human subjects underwent six training sessions on a texture discrimination task. Diffusion-tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after training. VGPs performed better than NVGPs in the early phase of training. White-matter connectivity between the right external capsule and visual cortex and neuronal activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were greater in VGPs than NVGPs and were significantly correlated with RTS video-game experience. In both VGPs and NVGPs, there was task-related neuronal activity in the right IFG, ACC, and striatum, which was strengthened after training. These results indicate that RTS video-game experience, associated with changes in higher-order cognitive functions and connectivity between visual and cognitive areas, facilitates VPL in early phases of training. The results support the hypothesis that VPL can occur without involvement of only visual areas. Significance statement: Although early studies found that visual perceptual learning (VPL) is associated with involvement of the visual cortex, generality of visual skills enhancement by action video-game experience

  8. Abnormalities in early visual processes are linked to hypersociability and atypical evaluation of facial trustworthiness: An ERP study with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula; Mills, Debra L

    2017-10-01

    Accurate assessment of trustworthiness is fundamental to successful and adaptive social behavior. Initially, people assess trustworthiness from facial appearance alone. These assessments then inform critical approach or avoid decisions. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit a heightened social drive, especially toward strangers. This study investigated the temporal dynamics of facial trustworthiness evaluation in neurotypic adults (TD) and individuals with WS. We examined whether differences in neural activity during trustworthiness evaluation may explain increased approach motivation in WS compared to TD individuals. Event-related potentials were recorded while participants appraised faces previously rated as trustworthy or untrustworthy. TD participants showed increased sensitivity to untrustworthy faces within the first 65-90 ms, indexed by the negative-going rise of the P1 onset (oP1). The amplitude of the oP1 difference to untrustworthy minus trustworthy faces was correlated with lower approachability scores. In contrast, participants with WS showed increased N170 amplitudes to trustworthy faces. The N170 difference to low-high-trust faces was correlated with low approachability in TD and high approachability in WS. The findings suggest that hypersociability associated with WS may arise from abnormalities in the timing and organization of early visual brain activity during trustworthiness evaluation. More generally, the study provides support for the hypothesis that impairments in low-level perceptual processes can have a cascading effect on social cognition.

  9. Resting-State Retinotopic Organization in the Absence of Retinal Input and Visual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Paola; Benson, Noah C.; Bridge, Holly; Watkins, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    Early visual areas have neuronal receptive fields that form a sampling mosaic of visual space, resulting in a series of retinotopic maps in which the same region of space is represented in multiple visual areas. It is not clear to what extent the development and maintenance of this retinotopic organization in humans depend on retinal waves and/or visual experience. We examined the corticocortical receptive field organization of resting-state BOLD data in normally sighted, early blind, and anophthalmic (in which both eyes fail to develop) individuals and found that resting-state correlations between V1 and V2/V3 were retinotopically organized for all subject groups. These results show that the gross retinotopic pattern of resting-state connectivity across V1-V3 requires neither retinal waves nor visual experience to develop and persist into adulthood. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Evidence from resting-state BOLD data suggests that the connections between early visual areas develop and are maintained even in the absence of retinal waves and visual experience. PMID:26354906

  10. Newborn chickens generate invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Justin N.

    2013-01-01

    To recognize objects quickly and accurately, mature visual systems build invariant object representations that generalize across a range of novel viewing conditions (e.g., changes in viewpoint). To date, however, the origins of this core cognitive ability have not yet been established. To examine how invariant object recognition develops in a newborn visual system, I raised chickens from birth for 2 weeks within controlled-rearing chambers. These chambers provided complete control over all visual object experiences. In the first week of life, subjects’ visual object experience was limited to a single virtual object rotating through a 60° viewpoint range. In the second week of life, I examined whether subjects could recognize that virtual object from novel viewpoints. Newborn chickens were able to generate viewpoint-invariant representations that supported object recognition across large, novel, and complex changes in the object’s appearance. Thus, newborn visual systems can begin building invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience. These abstract representations can be generated from sparse data, in this case from a visual world containing a single virtual object seen from a limited range of viewpoints. This study shows that powerful, robust, and invariant object recognition machinery is an inherent feature of the newborn brain. PMID:23918372

  11. The role of visual deprivation and experience on the performance of sensory substitution devices.

    PubMed

    Stronks, H Christiaan; Nau, Amy C; Ibbotson, Michael R; Barnes, Nick

    2015-10-22

    It is commonly accepted that the blind can partially compensate for their loss of vision by developing enhanced abilities with their remaining senses. This visual compensation may be related to the fact that blind people rely on their other senses in everyday life. Many studies have indeed shown that experience plays an important role in visual compensation. Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown that the visual cortices of the blind are recruited by other functional brain areas and can become responsive to tactile or auditory input instead. These cross-modal plastic changes are more pronounced in the early blind compared to late blind individuals. The functional consequences of cross-modal plasticity on visual compensation in the blind are debated, as are the influences of various etiologies of vision loss (i.e., blindness acquired early or late in life). Distinguishing between the influences of experience and visual deprivation on compensation is especially relevant for rehabilitation of the blind with sensory substitution devices. The BrainPort artificial vision device and The vOICe are assistive devices for the blind that redirect visual information to another intact sensory system. Establishing how experience and different etiologies of vision loss affect the performance of these devices may help to improve existing rehabilitation strategies, formulate effective selection criteria and develop prognostic measures. In this review we will discuss studies that investigated the influence of training and visual deprivation on the performance of various sensory substitution approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Absence of visual experience modifies the neural basis of numerical thinking.

    PubMed

    Kanjlia, Shipra; Lane, Connor; Feigenson, Lisa; Bedny, Marina

    2016-10-04

    In humans, the ability to reason about mathematical quantities depends on a frontoparietal network that includes the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). How do nature and nurture give rise to the neurobiology of numerical cognition? We asked how visual experience shapes the neural basis of numerical thinking by studying numerical cognition in congenitally blind individuals. Blind (n = 17) and blindfolded sighted (n = 19) participants solved math equations that varied in difficulty (e.g., 27 - 12 = x vs. 7 - 2 = x), and performed a control sentence comprehension task while undergoing fMRI. Whole-cortex analyses revealed that in both blind and sighted participants, the IPS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were more active during the math task than the language task, and activity in the IPS increased parametrically with equation difficulty. Thus, the classic frontoparietal number network is preserved in the total absence of visual experience. However, surprisingly, blind but not sighted individuals additionally recruited a subset of early visual areas during symbolic math calculation. The functional profile of these "visual" regions was identical to that of the IPS in blind but not sighted individuals. Furthermore, in blindness, number-responsive visual cortices exhibited increased functional connectivity with prefrontal and IPS regions that process numbers. We conclude that the frontoparietal number network develops independently of visual experience. In blindness, this number network colonizes parts of deafferented visual cortex. These results suggest that human cortex is highly functionally flexible early in life, and point to frontoparietal input as a mechanism of cross-modal plasticity in blindness.

  13. Leading and Learning as a Transcultural Experience: A Visual Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schratz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Leaving one's own territory in research by taking part in an international project is like learning a new language: it's not just learning a new vocabulary and grammar, but is a total human experience which is best learnt in everyday activity. Social scientists like Jean Lave argued that "knowledge-in-practice, constituted in the settings of…

  14. Aesthetic Experience in the World of Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    This article draws attention to three important aesthetic ideas--ideas which have become, in the early twenty-first century, so widely endorsed in Western culture that they have become the stock platform of much theorizing and teaching about our experience of art and its relation to the rest of life. All of these ideas sprang from Beat thought in…

  15. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Visual Merchandising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the steps to be followed in planning, constructing, and evaluating the effectiveness of merchandise displays. The course is comprised of one unit, General Merchandise Displays. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions…

  16. Does experience in hysteroscopy improve accuracy and inter-observer agreement in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding?

    PubMed

    Bourdel, Nicolas; Modaffari, Paola; Tognazza, Enrica; Pertile, Riccardo; Chauvet, Pauline; Botchorishivili, Revaz; Savary, Dennis; Pouly, Jean Luc; Rabischong, Benoit; Canis, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Hysteroscopic reliability may be influenced by the experience of the operator and by a lack of morphological diagnostic criteria for endometrial malignant pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the inter-observer agreement (IOA) in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) among different experienced gynecologists. Each gynecologist, without any other clinical information, was asked to evaluate the anonymous video recordings of 51 consecutive patients who underwent hysteroscopy and endometrial resection for AUB. Experts (>500 hysteroscopies), seniors (20-499 procedures) and junior (≤19 procedures) gynecologists were asked to judge endometrial macroscopic appearance (benign, suspicious or frankly malignant). They also had to propose the histological diagnosis (atrophic or proliferative endometrium; simple, glandulocystic or atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma). Observers were free to indicate whether the quality of recordings were not good enough for adequate assessment. IOA (k coefficient), sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and the likelihood ratio were calculated. Five expert, five senior and six junior gynecologists were involved in the study. Considering endometrial cancer and endometrial atypical hyperplasia, sensitivity and specificity were respectively 55.5 % and 84.5 % for juniors, 66.6 % and 81.2 % for seniors and 86.6 % and 87.3 % for experts. Concerning endometrial macroscopic appearance, IOA was poor for juniors (k = 0.10) and fair for seniors and experts (k = 0.23 and 0.22, respectively). IOA was poor for juniors and experts (k = 0.18 and 0.20, respectively) and fair for seniors (k = 0.30) in predicting the histological diagnosis. Sensitivity improves with the observer's experience, but inter-observer agreement and reproducibility of hysteroscopy for endometrial malignancies are not satisfying no matter the level of expertise. Therefore, an accurate and

  17. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  18. Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Kohne, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events in a…

  19. The Impact of a Visual Imagery Intervention on Army ROTC Cadets' Marksmanship Performance and Flow Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Edward Lee

    2012-01-01

    This investigation used an experimental design to examine how a visual imagery intervention and two levels of challenge would affect the flow experiences and performance of cadets engaged in Army ROTC marksmanship training. I employed MANCOVA analyses, with gender and prior marksmanship training experience as covariates, to assess cadets' (n =…

  20. Visual Design as a Holistic Experience: How Students Engage with Instructional Materials of Various Visual Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomita, Kei

    2017-01-01

    This study explored factors thought to affect college students' selection and experience of instructional materials by utilizing general procedures of Giorgi's (2012) descriptive phenomenological psychological method and Spradley's (1979) approach to interpretation. Twenty-five undergraduate students were asked to study finite mathematics…

  1. Focus of attention in systems for visual monitoring of experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. E.; Martin, W. N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing a computerized experiment monitoring system for use in a space station or elsewhere is examined. It is shown that the essential challenge of such a system - attaining a reasonable expected running time - can be attacked using the concept of focus of attention and by exploiting parallelism. The use of the Contract Net Protocol for the latter purpose is discussed. The use of ideas from information science to help focus a programs's efforts on those computations likely to bring results is addressed, and the incorporation of those ideas into a design in order to aid the system in deciding upon the best course of action is considered.

  2. Experience-dependent hemispheric specialization of letters and numbers is revealed in early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2014-10-01

    Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140-170 msec) than did numbers over left occipital channels, whereas numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves (starting around 250 msec) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 msec). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics.

  3. Increased Incidence of Visual Field Abnormalities as Determined by Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry in High Computer Users Among Japanese Workers: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tadashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Toru; Honda, Toru; Owada, Satoshi; Endo, Hitoshi; Tatemichi, Masayuki

    2018-04-05

    This retrospective cohort study primarily aimed to investigate the possible association of computer use with visual field abnormalities (VFA) among Japanese workers. The study included 2,377 workers (mean age 45.7 [standard deviation, 8.3] years; 2,229 men and 148 women) who initially exhibited no VFA during frequency doubling technology perimetry (FDT) testing. Subjects then underwent annual follow-up FDT testing for 7 years, and VFA were determined using a FDT-test protocol (FDT-VFA). Subjects with FDT-VFA were examined by ophthalmologists. Baseline data about the mean duration of computer use during a 5-year period and refractive errors were obtained via self-administered questionnaire and evaluations for refractive errors (use of eyeglasses or contact lenses), respectively. A Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that heavy computer users (>8 hr/day) had a significantly increased risk of FDT-VFA (hazard ratio [HR] 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-6.48) relative to light users (<4 hr/day), and this association was strengthened among subjects with refractive errors (HR 4.48; 95% CI, 1.87-10.74). The computer usage history also significantly correlated with FDT-VFA among subject with refractive errors (P < 0.05), and 73.1% of subjects with FDT-VFA and refractive errors were diagnosed with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The incidence of FDT-VFA appears to be increased among Japanese workers who are heavy computer users, particularly if they have refractive errors. Further investigations of epidemiology and causality are warranted.

  4. Building effective learning experiences around visualizations: NASA Eyes on the Solar System and Infiniscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, A. J. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Klug Boonstra, S.; Mead, C.; Swann, J. L.; Hunsley, D.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in scientific visualization and public access to data have transformed science outreach and communication, but have yet to realize their potential impacts in the realm of education. Computer-based learning is a clear bridge between visualization and education, but creating high-quality learning experiences that leverage existing visualizations requires close partnerships among scientists, technologists, and educators. The Infiniscope project is working to foster such partnerships in order to produce exploration-driven learning experiences around NASA SMD data and images, leveraging the principles of ETX (Education Through eXploration). The visualizations inspire curiosity, while the learning design promotes improved reasoning skills and increases understanding of space science concepts. Infiniscope includes both a web portal to host these digital learning experiences, as well as a teaching network of educators using and modifying these experiences. Our initial efforts to enable student discovery through active exploration of the concepts associated with Small Worlds, Kepler's Laws, and Exoplanets led us to develop our own visualizations at Arizona State University. Other projects focused on Astrobiology and Mars geology led us to incorporate an immersive Virtual Field Trip platform into the Infiniscope portal in support of virtual exploration of scientifically significant locations. Looking to apply ETX design practices with other visualizations, our team at Arizona State partnered with the Jet Propulsion Lab to integrate the web-based version of NASA Eyes on the Eclipse within Smart Sparrow's digital learning platform in a proof-of-concept focused on the 2017 Eclipse. This goes a step beyond the standard features of "Eyes" by wrapping guided exploration, focused on a specific learning goal into standards-aligned lesson built around the visualization, as well as its distribution through Infiniscope and it's digital teaching network. Experience from this

  5. Seeing The "New Forest": A Visual Curricular Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garramone, Pariss Nicola

    In contemporary Western contexts, human interaction with and interpretation of nature is a perpetually mediated process. Understandings and engagements with natural environments are informed by and often overlaid with meanings derived from representations. In other words, representations help constitute human relationships with nature. Thus learning how representations shape human understandings and experiences of nature and the resulting social, political, and ecological impact of these mediated relationships has emerged as an important field of inquiry within environmental education. This dissertation examines how a critical, self-reflexive act of looking at photographs can challenge an individual's concepts of nature/culture, real/imaginary, and self/other. The project engages in a curricular experiment where the researcher explores how photography meditates her abstract and embodied understandings of specific natural environments. A critical, self-reflexive approach to aesthetic engagement with photographs moves beyond simply deciphering or decoding representations; it incorporates the learner's own narrative and embodied responses to the photographic representations being explored. This approach also recognizes that pedagogy has a transformative effect; both the learner and the representations being explored are transformed through the process of engagement. In this dissertation, a selection of iconic photographs of Canadian tree planting from the collection of the National Gallery of Canada are looked at: Lorraine Gilbert's (1987-2004) series "Shaping the New Forest" and Sarah Anne Johnson's (2005) work "The Tree Planting Project." The aim of this project is twofold: to unravel how these photographs construct and transform knowledge of and relationships with the environment in Canada, and to demonstrate a model of environmental inquiry that can be integrated into critical environmental education curricula.

  6. Food experiences and eating patterns of visually impaired and blind people.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Marie Claire; Sontrop, Jessica M; Chapman, Gwen E; Barr, Susan I; Mamer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind Canadians will rise dramatically as our population ages, and yet little is known about the impact of blindness on the experience of food and eating. In this qualitative study, the food experiences and eating patterns of visually impaired and blind people were examined. Influencing factors were also explored. In 2000, nine blind or severely visually impaired subjects were recruited through blindness-related organizations in British Columbia. Participants completed individual semi-structured, in-depth interviews. These were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to explicate participants' experiences. Participants experienced blindness-related obstacles when shopping for food, preparing food, and eating in restaurants. Inaccessible materials and environments left participants with a diet lacking in variety and limited access to physical activity. Seven participants were overweight or obese, a finding that may be related to limited physical activity and higher-than-average restaurant use. This is the first study in which the experience of food and eating is described from the perspective of visually impaired Canadians. Nutrition and blindness professionals must work together to reduce the food-related obstacles faced by visually impaired and blind people. Professionals must address both individual skill development and social and structural inequities.

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The Puzzle of Visual Development: Behavior and Neural Limits.

    PubMed

    Kiorpes, Lynne

    2016-11-09

    The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants. The high degree of visual plasticity that has been documented during the sensitive period in young children and animals leaves the brain vulnerable to abnormal visual experience. Abnormal visual experience during the sensitive period can lead to amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision affecting ∼3% of children. This review provides a historical perspective on research into visual development and the disorder amblyopia. The mismatch between the status of the primary visual cortex and visual behavior, both during visual development and in amblyopia, is discussed, and several potential resolutions are considered. It seems likely that extrastriate visual areas further along the visual pathways may set important limits on visual function and show greater vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. Analyses based on multiunit, population activity may provide useful representations of the information being fed forward from primary visual cortex to extrastriate processing areas and to the motor output. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611384-10$15.00/0.

  9. Linguistic experience and audio-visual perception of non-native fricatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn M; Jiang, Haisheng

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the effects of linguistic experience on audio-visual (AV) perception of non-native (L2) speech. Canadian English natives and Mandarin Chinese natives differing in degree of English exposure [long and short length of residence (LOR) in Canada] were presented with English fricatives of three visually distinct places of articulation: interdentals nonexistent in Mandarin and labiodentals and alveolars common in both languages. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in a cafe-noise background in four ways: audio only (A), visual only (V), congruent AV (AVc), and incongruent AV (AVi). Identification results showed that overall performance was better in the AVc than in the A or V condition and better in quiet than in cafe noise. While the Mandarin long LOR group approximated the native English patterns, the short LOR group showed poorer interdental identification, more reliance on visual information, and greater AV-fusion with the AVi materials, indicating the failure of L2 visual speech category formation with the short LOR non-natives and the positive effects of linguistic experience with the long LOR non-natives. These results point to an integrated network in AV speech processing as a function of linguistic background and provide evidence to extend auditory-based L2 speech learning theories to the visual domain.

  10. Anomalous visual experiences, negative symptoms, perceptual organization and the magnocellular pathway in schizophrenia: a shared construct?

    PubMed

    Kéri, Szabolcs; Kiss, Imre; Kelemen, Oguz; Benedek, György; Janka, Zoltán

    2005-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired visual information processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anomalous perceptual experiences, positive and negative symptoms, perceptual organization, rapid categorization of natural images and magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) visual pathway functioning. Thirty-five unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy control volunteers participated. Anomalous perceptual experiences were assessed with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment Basic Symptoms (BSABS). General intellectual functions were evaluated with the revised version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The 1-9 version of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to investigate sustained attention. The following psychophysical tests were used: detection of Gabor patches with collinear and orthogonal flankers (perceptual organization), categorization of briefly presented natural scenes (rapid visual processing), low-contrast and frequency-doubling vernier threshold (M pathway functioning), isoluminant colour vernier threshold and high spatial frequency discrimination (P pathway functioning). The patients with schizophrenia were impaired on test of perceptual organization, rapid visual processing and M pathway functioning. There was a significant correlation between BSABS scores, negative symptoms, perceptual organization, rapid visual processing and M pathway functioning. Positive symptoms, IQ, CPT and P pathway measures did not correlate with these parameters. The best predictor of the BSABS score was the perceptual organization deficit. These results raise the possibility that multiple facets of visual information processing deficits can be explained by M pathway dysfunctions in schizophrenia, resulting in impaired attentional modulation of perceptual organization and of natural image categorization.

  11. Experiences of Individuals With Visual Impairments in Integrated Physical Education: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Haegele, Justin A; Zhu, Xihe

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the experiences of adults with visual impairments during school-based integrated physical education (PE). An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) research approach was used and 16 adults (ages 21-48 years; 10 women, 6 men) with visual impairments acted as participants for this study. The primary sources of data were semistructured audiotaped telephone interviews and reflective field notes, which were recorded during and immediately following each interview. Thematic development was undertaken utilizing a 3-step analytical process guided by IPA. Based on the data analysis, 3 interrelated themes emerged from the participant transcripts: (a) feelings about "being put to the side," frustration and inadequacy; (b) "She is blind, she can't do it," debilitating feelings from physical educators' attitudes; and (c) "not self-esteem raising," feelings about peer interactions. The 1st theme described the participants' experiences and ascribed meaning to exclusionary practices. The 2nd theme described the participants' frustration over being treated differently by their PE teachers because of their visual impairments. Lastly, "not self-esteem raising," feelings about peer interactions demonstrated how participants felt about issues regarding challenging social situations with peers in PE. Utilizing an IPA approach, the researchers uncovered 3 interrelated themes that depicted central feelings, experiences, and reflections, which informed the meaning of the participants' PE experiences. The emerged themes provide unique insight into the embodied experiences of those with visual impairments in PE and fill a previous gap in the extant literature.

  12. Cortical activation during Braille reading is influenced by early visual experience in subjects with severe visual disability: a correlational fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Melzer, P; Morgan, V L; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Wall, R S; Ebner, F F

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on blind adults resting and reading Braille. The strongest activation was found in primary somatic sensory/motor cortex on both cortical hemispheres. Additional foci of activation were situated in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes where visual information is processed in sighted persons. The regions were differentiated most in the correlation of their time courses of activation with resting and reading. Differences in magnitude and expanse of activation were substantially less significant. Among the traditionally visual areas, the strength of correlation was greatest in posterior parietal cortex and moderate in occipitotemporal, lateral occipital, and primary visual cortex. It was low in secondary visual cortex as well as in dorsal and ventral inferior temporal cortex and posterior middle temporal cortex. Visual experience increased the strength of correlation in all regions except dorsal inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex. The greatest statistically significant increase, i.e., approximately 30%, was in ventral inferior temporal and posterior middle temporal cortex. In these regions, words are analyzed semantically, which may be facilitated by visual experience. In contrast, visual experience resulted in a slight, insignificant diminution of the strength of correlation in dorsal inferior temporal cortex where language is analyzed phonetically. These findings affirm that posterior temporal regions are engaged in the processing of written language. Moreover, they suggest that this function is modified by early visual experience. Furthermore, visual experience significantly strengthened the correlation of activation and Braille reading in occipital regions traditionally involved in the processing of visual features and object recognition suggesting a role for visual imagery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The lived experience of visual creative expression for young adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Green, A R; Young, R A

    2015-09-01

    Engaging in visual creative expression individually and in a therapeutic setting can be a beneficial experience for cancer survivors; however, most research in this field has been conducted with older adults. The current study aimed to address this gap by utilising van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenology to answer the following question: 'What is the lived experience and meaning of visual creative expression for young adult cancer survivors?' Seven young adults, diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 18 and 35, were interviewed about creative expression experiences, which they engaged in individually and/or in a therapeutic setting. Data analysis included a thematic reflection, guided existential reflection, and a process of writing and rewriting. Two superordinate themes were identified: increased self-understanding and a healing experience. Seven subthemes were also identified and included the following: being in the flow, allowing the body to express itself, renegotiating control, changing one's environment, being seen, respect for art as a separate entity and giving back. Findings suggest that visual creative expression can be a meaningful experience for young adult cancer survivors, and that this experience espouses both similarities and differences from experiences of older adult survivors. Recommendations are made for future research, in addition to implications for practitioners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Understanding the patient-provider communication needs and experiences of Latina and non-Latina White women following an abnormal mammogram.

    PubMed

    Molina, Yamile; Hohl, Sarah D; Ko, Linda K; Rodriguez, Edgar A; Thompson, Beti; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2014-12-01

    Latinas are more likely to delay recommended follow-up care than non-Latina White (NLW) women after an abnormal mammogram result. Ethnic differences in communication needs and experiences with health-care staff and providers may contribute to these delays as well as satisfaction with care. Nonetheless, little research has explored the aspects of communication that may contribute to patient comprehension, adherence to follow-up care, and satisfaction across ethnicity. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to identify patients' communication needs and experiences with follow-up care among Latina and NLW women who received an abnormal mammogram. We conducted 41 semi-structured interviews with 19 Latina and 22 NLW women between the ages of 40 and 74 who had received an abnormal mammogram. Communication themes indicated that women's needs and experiences concerning abnormal mammograms and follow-up care varied across ethnicity. Latinas and NLW women appeared to differ in their comprehension of abnormal results and follow-up care as a result of language barriers and health literacy. Both groups of women identified clear, empathic communication as being important in patient-provider communication; however, Latinas underscored the need for warm communicative styles, and NLW women emphasized the importance of providing more information. Women with high levels of satisfaction with patient-provider interactions appeared to have positive perspectives of subsequent screening and cancer treatment. To improve patient satisfaction and adherence to follow-up care among Latinas, educational programs are necessary to counsel health-care professionals with regard to language, health literacy, and empathic communication needs in health-care service delivery.

  15. Initial experience with visualizing hand and foot tendons by dual-energy computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Sun, Cong; Liu, Cheng; Ma, Rui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of visualizing hand and foot tendons by dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Twenty patients who suffered from hand or feet pains were scanned on dual-source CT (Definition, Forchheim, Germany) with dual-energy mode at tube voltages of 140 and 80 kV and a corresponding ratio of 1:4 between tube currents. The reconstructed images were postprocessed by volume rendering techniques (VRT) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). All of the suspected lesions were confirmed by surgery or follow-up studies. Twelve patients (total of 24 hands and feet, respectively) were found to be normal and the other eight patients (total of nine hands and feet, respectively) were found abnormal. Dual-energy techniques are very useful in visualizing tendons of the hands and feet, such as flexor pollicis longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis/profundus tendon, Achilles tendon, extensor hallucis longus tendon, and extensor digitorum longus tendon, etc. It can depict the whole shape of the tendons and their fixation points clearly. Peroneus longus tendon in the sole of the foot was not displayed very well. The distal ends of metacarpophalangeal joints with extensor digitoium tendon and extensor pollicis longus tendon were poorly shown. The lesions of tendons such as the circuitry, thickening, and adherence were also shown clearly. Dual-energy CT offers a new method to visualize tendons of the hand and foot. It could clearly display both anatomical structures and pathologic changes of hand and foot tendons.

  16. Retrograde Endourological Management of Upper Urinary Tract Abnormalities in Patients with Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion: A Dual-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Olson, Louise; Satherley, Hywel; Cleaveland, Paul; Zelhof, Bachar; Mokete, Max; Neilson, Donald; Srirangam, Shalom

    2017-09-01

    Patients with ileal conduit urinary diversions are at an increased risk of long-term upper urinary tract (UUT) complications, including anastomotic strictures, infections, and urolithiasis. The reconstructed urinary system poses challenges for endoscopic manipulation. We present and describe our dual-center experience in performing retrograde ureteroscopy to treat or diagnose UUT abnormalities in patients with ileal conduit incontinent diversion. We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records for all patients with previous urinary diversion who underwent retrograde ureteroscopic procedures via the ileal loop in our institutions over a 9 year period (between June 2007 and August 2016). Fifty-four procedures were performed in 36 patients. Mean age was 61 (28-90) years. Average time from diversion to ureteroscopic procedure was 13.0 (0.08-53) years. Stone disease was the most common indication for intervention in 35.2% (19/54) of cases, with a stone-free rate of 78.9% (15/19). Other indications included surveillance of transitional-cell carcinoma in 22.2% (12/54), diagnostic flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) in 20.4% (11/54), stricture management in 11.1% (6/54), removal of encrusted stent/nephrostomy in 7.4% (4/54), urine leak after diversion in 1.9% (1/54), and miscellaneous in 1.9% (1/54). Successful retrograde access was possible in 74% (40/54) of cases. A long and tortuous ileal segment, too difficult to negotiate, was the most common cause of failure to access the UUT. In 13 out of 54 (24.1%) cases, retrograde fURS was combined with simultaneous percutaneous antegrade access. Six patients (11.1%) developed postprocedural pyrexia requiring additional antibiotic therapy, and one (1.9%) patient required embolization of the renal artery for ongoing bleeding. Median length of stay was 1 day (0-55), with 13 (24%) being performed as day-case procedures. Retrograde ureteroscopy in patients with ileal conduits can be technically challenging due to distorted anatomy

  17. A Qualitatively Different Experience: Mainstreaming Pupils with a Visual Impairment in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the experiences of special education needs co-ordinators (SENCOs) on the inclusion of pupils with a visual impairment (VI) in mainstream schools in Northern Ireland. A mixed method approach (postal questionnaire survey (n=113) and interviews (n=6)) was utilised to triangulate the findings. The results indicate an inverse…

  18. Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Adoption of Digital Talking Textbooks: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Ahamad

    2013-01-01

    Assistive technology devices have become essential tools for students with visual impairments. In 2009, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced Digital Talking Textbooks (DTTs) for selected subjects to facilitate learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, describe, and interpret the experiences of students with visual…

  19. The Role of Visual Experience on the Representation and Updating of Novel Haptic Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Newell, Fiona N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of visual experience on the spatial representation and updating of haptic scenes by comparing recognition performance across sighted, congenitally and late blind participants. We first established that spatial updating occurs in sighted individuals to haptic scenes of novel objects. All participants were required to…

  20. Layered Worlds: A Metaphor of Time, Visualizing the Experience of Alzheimer's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Ann M.

    This paper describes an exhibit, "Layered Worlds: The Look of Alzheimer's," which uses photography as the medium to interpret Alzheimer's disease visually. The goal was not to photograph the victims of the disease, but to interpret the experience of Alzheimer's for the patient, family members, and caregivers. The metaphor of layers was…

  1. Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Adoption of Digital Talking Textbooks: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Ahamad; Folkestad, James E.; Makela, Carole

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the experiences of Malaysian secondary students with visual impairments in using digital talking textbooks (DTTs) to assist their learning. Data were obtained from individual in-depth interviews. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to understand the findings and confirm the emergent…

  2. Braille and Tactile Graphics: Youths with Visual Impairments Share Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Data were collected from youths with visual impairment about their experiences with tactile graphics and braille materials used in mathematics and science classes. Methods: Youths answered questions and explored four tactile graphics made using different production methods. They located specific information on each graphic and shared…

  3. The 1980 and 1981 accident experience of civil airmen with selected visual pathology.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-07-01

    In studies of the 1974-76 accident experience of U.S. general aviation pilots with static physical defects, all the significantly increased rates and ratios were for visual defect categories--blindness, or absence of either eye, deficient distant vis...

  4. The Lived Experience of Women With Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears Receiving Care in a Military Health Care Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    importance of routine cervical cytologic screening has been demonstrated. It is estimated that the rate of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced...low risk of developing invasive cervical cancer when detection, surveillance, and treatment occur early in the course of cervical pathology...cervical cancer . Despite the effectiveness of this screening tool, patient compliance with treatment recommendations for abnormal Pap smears remains low

  5. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Effects of Fluoxetine and Visual Experience on Glutamatergic and GABAergic Synaptic Proteins in Adult Rat Visual Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Beshara, Simon; Beston, Brett R.; Pinto, Joshua G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fluoxetine has emerged as a novel treatment for persistent amblyopia because in adult animals it reinstates critical period-like ocular dominance plasticity and promotes recovery of visual acuity. Translation of these results from animal models to the clinic, however, has been challenging because of the lack of understanding of how this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic mechanisms that are essential for experience-dependent plasticity. An appealing hypothesis is that fluoxetine recreates a critical period (CP)-like state by shifting synaptic mechanisms to be more juvenile. To test this we studied the effect of fluoxetine treatment in adult rats, alone or in combination with visual deprivation [monocular deprivation (MD)], on a set of highly conserved presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins (synapsin, synaptophysin, VGLUT1, VGAT, PSD-95, gephyrin, GluN1, GluA2, GluN2B, GluN2A, GABAAα1, GABAAα3). We did not find evidence that fluoxetine shifted the protein amounts or balances to a CP-like state. Instead, it drove the balances in favor of the more mature subunits (GluN2A, GABAAα1). In addition, when fluoxetine was paired with MD it created a neuroprotective-like environment by normalizing the glutamatergic gain found in adult MDs. Together, our results suggest that fluoxetine treatment creates a novel synaptic environment dominated by GluN2A- and GABAAα1-dependent plasticity. PMID:26730408

  7. Experience-Dependent Hemispheric Specialization of Letters and Numbers is Revealed in Early Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared to numbers, while the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared to letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140–170 ms) than did numbers over left occipital channels, while numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves, (starting around 250 ms) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 ms). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics. PMID:24669789

  8. Absence of visual experience modifies the neural basis of numerical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Kanjlia, Shipra; Lane, Connor; Feigenson, Lisa; Bedny, Marina

    2016-01-01

    In humans, the ability to reason about mathematical quantities depends on a frontoparietal network that includes the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). How do nature and nurture give rise to the neurobiology of numerical cognition? We asked how visual experience shapes the neural basis of numerical thinking by studying numerical cognition in congenitally blind individuals. Blind (n = 17) and blindfolded sighted (n = 19) participants solved math equations that varied in difficulty (e.g., 27 − 12 = x vs. 7 − 2 = x), and performed a control sentence comprehension task while undergoing fMRI. Whole-cortex analyses revealed that in both blind and sighted participants, the IPS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were more active during the math task than the language task, and activity in the IPS increased parametrically with equation difficulty. Thus, the classic frontoparietal number network is preserved in the total absence of visual experience. However, surprisingly, blind but not sighted individuals additionally recruited a subset of early visual areas during symbolic math calculation. The functional profile of these “visual” regions was identical to that of the IPS in blind but not sighted individuals. Furthermore, in blindness, number-responsive visual cortices exhibited increased functional connectivity with prefrontal and IPS regions that process numbers. We conclude that the frontoparietal number network develops independently of visual experience. In blindness, this number network colonizes parts of deafferented visual cortex. These results suggest that human cortex is highly functionally flexible early in life, and point to frontoparietal input as a mechanism of cross-modal plasticity in blindness. PMID:27638209

  9. Showing the Unsayable: Participatory Visual Approaches and the Constitution of 'Patient Experience' in Healthcare Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Papoulias, Constantina

    2018-06-01

    This article considers the strengths and potential contributions of participatory visual methods for healthcare quality improvement research. It argues that such approaches may enable us to expand our understanding of 'patient experience' and of its potential for generating new knowledge for health systems. In particular, they may open up dimensions of people's engagement with services and treatments which exceed both the declarative nature of responses to questionnaires and the narrative sequencing of self reports gathered through qualitative interviewing. I will suggest that working with such methods may necessitate a more reflexive approach to the constitution of evidence in quality improvement work. To this end, the article will first consider the emerging rationale for the use of visual participatory methods in improvement before outlining the implications of two related approaches-photo-elicitation and PhotoVoice-for the constitution of 'experience'. It will then move to a participatory model for healthcare improvement work, Experience Based Co-Design (EBCD). It will argue that EBCD exemplifies both the strengths and the limitations of adequating visual participatory approaches to quality improvement ends. The article will conclude with a critical reflection on a small photographic study, in which the author participated, and which sought to harness service user perspectives for the design of psychiatric facilities, as a way of considering the potential contribution of visual participatory methods for quality improvement.

  10. The Lived Experience of Women With Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears Receiving Care in a Military Health Care Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    cytologic screening has been demonstrated. It is estimated that the rate of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced by as much as 70% because of... invasive cervical cancer when detection, surveillance, and treatment occur early in the course of cervical pathology. Interpreting abnormal results...procedure has greatly reduced morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer . Despite the effectiveness of this screening tool, patient compliance with

  11. STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri conducts visual stability experiment in SLJ

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    STS047-204-006 (12 - 20 Sept 1992) --- Dr. Mamoru Mohri, payload specialist representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA), participates in an experiment designed to learn more about Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). The experiment is titled, "Comparative Measurement of Visual Stability in Earth and Cosmic Space." During the experiment, Dr. Mohri tracked a flickering light target while eye movements and neck muscle tension were measured. This 45-degree angle position was one of four studied during the eight-day Spacelab-J mission.

  12. Experience-dependent plasticity from eye opening enables lasting, visual cortex-dependent enhancement of motion vision.

    PubMed

    Prusky, Glen T; Silver, Byron D; Tschetter, Wayne W; Alam, Nazia M; Douglas, Robert M

    2008-09-24

    Developmentally regulated plasticity of vision has generally been associated with "sensitive" or "critical" periods in juvenile life, wherein visual deprivation leads to loss of visual function. Here we report an enabling form of visual plasticity that commences in infant rats from eye opening, in which daily threshold testing of optokinetic tracking, amid otherwise normal visual experience, stimulates enduring, visual cortex-dependent enhancement (>60%) of the spatial frequency threshold for tracking. The perceptual ability to use spatial frequency in discriminating between moving visual stimuli is also improved by the testing experience. The capacity for inducing enhancement is transitory and effectively limited to infancy; however, enhanced responses are not consolidated and maintained unless in-kind testing experience continues uninterrupted into juvenile life. The data show that selective visual experience from infancy can alone enable visual function. They also indicate that plasticity associated with visual deprivation may not be the only cause of developmental visual dysfunction, because we found that experientially inducing enhancement in late infancy, without subsequent reinforcement of the experience in early juvenile life, can lead to enduring loss of function.

  13. Experiences of visually impaired students in higher education: Bodily perspectives on inclusive education

    PubMed Central

    Lourens, Heidi; Swartz, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Although previous literature sheds light on the experiences of visually impaired students on tertiary grounds, these studies failed to provide an embodied understanding of their lives. In-depth interviews with 15 visually impaired students at one university demonstrated the ways in which they experienced their disability and the built environment in their bodies. At the same time, lost, fearful, shameful and aching bodies revealed prevailing gaps in provision for disabled students. Through this research it becomes clear how the environment is acutely felt within fleshly worlds, while bodies do not fail to tell of disabling societal structures. Based on the bodily stories, we thus make recommendations to improve the lives of visually impaired students on tertiary campuses. PMID:27917028

  14. Experiences of visually impaired students in higher education: Bodily perspectives on inclusive education.

    PubMed

    Lourens, Heidi; Swartz, Leslie

    Although previous literature sheds light on the experiences of visually impaired students on tertiary grounds, these studies failed to provide an embodied understanding of their lives. In-depth interviews with 15 visually impaired students at one university demonstrated the ways in which they experienced their disability and the built environment in their bodies. At the same time, lost, fearful, shameful and aching bodies revealed prevailing gaps in provision for disabled students. Through this research it becomes clear how the environment is acutely felt within fleshly worlds, while bodies do not fail to tell of disabling societal structures. Based on the bodily stories, we thus make recommendations to improve the lives of visually impaired students on tertiary campuses.

  15. Experimenting with Visual Storytelling in Students' Portfolios: Narratives of Visual Pedagogy for Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifa-Valls, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    This article interprets the repercussions of visual storytelling for art education and arts-based narrative research and, particularly, it approaches visual storytelling as a critical tool for pre-service teacher education. After reinterpreting storytelling from the perspective of visual critical pedagogy, I will narratively reconstruct the use of…

  16. Four-Month-Old Infants' Visual Investigation of Cats and Dogs: Relations with Pet Experience and Attentional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; McMurray, Bob; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the eye-movements of 4-month-old infants (N = 38) as they visually inspected pairs of images of cats or dogs. In general, infants who had previous experience with pets exhibited more sophisticated inspection than did infants without pet experience, both directing more visual attention to the informative head regions of the animals,…

  17. Recreational Physical Activity Experiences Among Guatemalan Families With Children With Visual Impairments.

    PubMed

    Columna, Luis; Fernández-Vivó, Margarita; Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina

    2015-08-01

    Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp. Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits. There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.

  18. Experience with Using Multiple Types of Visual Educational Tools during Problem-Based Learning.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Jin

    2012-06-01

    This study describes the experience of using multiple types of visual educational tools in the setting of problem-based learning (PBL). The author intends to demonstrate their roles in diverse and efficient ways of clinical reasoning and problem solving. Visual educational tools were introduced in a lecture that included their various types, possible benefits, and some examples. Each group made one mechanistic case diagram per week, and each student designed one diagnostic schema or therapeutic algorithm per week, based on their learning issues. The students were also told to provide commentary, which was intended to give insights into their truthfulness. Subsequently, the author administered a questionnaire about the usefulness and weakness of visual educational tools and the difficulties with performing the work. Also, the qualities of the products were assessed by the author. There were many complaints about the adequacy of the introduction of visual educational tools, also revealed by the many initial inappropriate types of products. However, the exercise presentation in the first week improved the level of understanding regarding their purposes and the method of design. In general, students agreed on the benefits of their help in providing a deep understanding of the cases and the possibility of solving clinical problems efficiently. The commentary was helpful in evaluating the truthfulness of their efforts. Students gave suggestions for increasing the percentage of their scores, considering the efforts. Using multiple types of visual educational tools during PBL can be useful in understanding the diverse routes of clinical reasoning and clinical features.

  19. Impact of audio-visual storytelling in simulation learning experiences of undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sandra; Parker, Christina N; Fox, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    Use of high fidelity simulation has become increasingly popular in nursing education to the extent that it is now an integral component of most nursing programs. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have difficulty engaging with simulation manikins due to their unrealistic appearance. Introduction of the manikin as a 'real patient' with the use of an audio-visual narrative may engage students in the simulated learning experience and impact on their learning. A paucity of literature currently exists on the use of audio-visual narratives to enhance simulated learning experiences. This study aimed to determine if viewing an audio-visual narrative during a simulation pre-brief altered undergraduate nursing student perceptions of the learning experience. A quasi-experimental post-test design was utilised. A convenience sample of final year baccalaureate nursing students at a large metropolitan university. Participants completed a modified version of the Student Satisfaction with Simulation Experiences survey. This 12-item questionnaire contained questions relating to the ability to transfer skills learned in simulation to the real clinical world, the realism of the simulation and the overall value of the learning experience. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise demographic information. Two tailed, independent group t-tests were used to determine statistical differences within the categories. Findings indicated that students reported high levels of value, realism and transferability in relation to the viewing of an audio-visual narrative. Statistically significant results (t=2.38, p<0.02) were evident in the subscale of transferability of learning from simulation to clinical practice. The subgroups of age and gender although not significant indicated some interesting results. High satisfaction with simulation was indicated by all students in relation to value and realism. There was a significant finding in relation to transferability on knowledge and this

  20. Macular photostress and visual experience between microscope and intracameral illumination during cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyejin; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Jong Yeon; Park, Su Jin; Kim, Yu Jeong; Kim, Seong-Woo; Chung, Tae-Young; Inoue, Makoto; Kim, Terry

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate macular photostress and visual experience between coaxial microscope illumination versus oblique intracameral illumination during cataract surgery. Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon, South Korea. Prospective case series. Consecutive patients who had cataract surgery using microscope illumination and intracameral illumination were included. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire (seeing strong lights, feeling photophobia, feeling startled (fright) when seeing lights, seeing any colors, seeing any instruments or surgical procedures, and estimating intraoperative visual function) designed to describe their cataract surgery experience. The images projected on the retina of the model eye (rear view) with artificial opaque fragments in the anterior chamber during simulating cataract surgery were compared between the 2 illumination types. Sixty patients completed the questionnaire. Scores for strong lights, photophobia, fright, and color perception were significantly higher with microscope illumination than with intracameral illumination (all P < .001). More patients preferred the intracameral illumination (45 [75.0%]) to the microscope illumination (13 [21.7%]). In the rear-view images created in a model eye, only the bright microscope light in the center was seen without any lens image in the microscope illumination. However, in the intracameral illumination, the less bright light from the light pipe in the periphery and the lens fragments were seen more clearly. In a view of the patients' visual experience, oblique intracameral illumination caused less subjective photostress and was preferred over coaxial microscope illumination. Objective findings from the model-eye experiment correlated to the result of visual experience. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Visual Experience on Perceived Haptic Verticality When Tilted in the Roll Plane

    PubMed Central

    Cuturi, Luigi F.; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The orientation of the body in space can influence perception of verticality leading sometimes to biases consistent with priors peaked at the most common head and body orientation, that is upright. In this study, we investigate haptic perception of verticality in sighted individuals and early and late blind adults when tilted counterclockwise in the roll plane. Participants were asked to perform a stimulus orientation discrimination task with their body tilted to their left ear side 90° relative to gravity. Stimuli were presented by using a motorized haptic bar. In order to test whether different reference frames relative to the head influenced perception of verticality, we varied the position of the stimulus on the body longitudinal axis. Depending on the stimulus position sighted participants tended to have biases away or toward their body tilt. Visually impaired individuals instead show a different pattern of verticality estimations. A bias toward head and body tilt (i.e., Aubert effect) was observed in late blind individuals. Interestingly, no strong biases were observed in early blind individuals. Overall, these results posit visual sensory information to be fundamental in influencing the haptic readout of proprioceptive and vestibular information about body orientation relative to gravity. The acquisition of an idiotropic vector signaling the upright might take place through vision during development. Regarding early blind individuals, independent spatial navigation experience likely enhanced by echolocation behavior might have a role in such acquisition. In the case of participants with late onset blindness, early experience of vision might lead them to anchor their visually acquired priors to the haptic modality with no disambiguation between head and body references as observed in sighted individuals (Fraser et al., 2015). With our study, we aim to investigate haptic perception of gravity direction in unusual body tilts when vision is absent due to visual

  2. The influence of anaesthetists' experience on workload, performance and visual attention during simulated critical incidents.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian M; Schneider, Erich; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Heuser, Fabian; Wagner, Klaus J; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Development of accurate Situation Awareness (SA) depends on experience and may be impaired during excessive workload. In order to gain adequate SA for decision making and performance, anaesthetists need to distribute visual attention effectively. Therefore, we hypothesized that in more experienced anaesthetists performance is better and increase of physiological workload is less during critical incidents. Additionally, we investigated the relation between physiological workload indicators and distribution of visual attention. In fifteen anaesthetists, the increase of pupil size and heart rate was assessed in course of a simulated critical incident. Simulator log files were used for performance assessment. An eye-tracking device (EyeSeeCam) provided data about the anaesthetists' distribution of visual attention. Performance was assessed as time until definitive treatment. T tests and multivariate generalized linear models (MANOVA) were used for retrospective statistical analysis. Mean pupil diameter increase was 8.1% (SD ± 4.3) in the less experienced and 15.8% (±10.4) in the more experienced subjects (p = 0.191). Mean heart rate increase was 10.2% (±6.7) and 10.5% (±8.3, p = 0.956), respectively. Performance did not depend on experience. Pupil diameter and heart rate increases were associated with a shift of visual attention from monitoring towards manual tasks (not significant). For the first time, the following four variables were assessed simultaneously: physiological workload indicators, performance, experience, and distribution of visual attention between "monitoring" and "manual" tasks. However, we were unable to detect significant interactions between these variables. This experimental model could prove valuable in the investigation of gaining and maintaining SA in the operation theatre.

  3. Video game experience and its influence on visual attention parameters: an investigation using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA).

    PubMed

    Schubert, Torsten; Finke, Kathrin; Redel, Petra; Kluckow, Steffen; Müller, Hermann; Strobach, Tilo

    2015-05-01

    Experts with video game experience, in contrast to non-experienced persons, are superior in multiple domains of visual attention. However, it is an open question which basic aspects of attention underlie this superiority. We approached this question using the framework of Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) with tools that allowed us to assess various parameters that are related to different visual attention aspects (e.g., perception threshold, processing speed, visual short-term memory storage capacity, top-down control, spatial distribution of attention) and that are measurable on the same experimental basis. In Experiment 1, we found advantages of video game experts in perception threshold and visual processing speed; the latter being restricted to the lower positions of the used computer display. The observed advantages were not significantly moderated by general person-related characteristics such as personality traits, sensation seeking, intelligence, social anxiety, or health status. Experiment 2 tested a potential causal link between the expert advantages and video game practice with an intervention protocol. It found no effects of action video gaming on perception threshold, visual short-term memory storage capacity, iconic memory storage, top-down control, and spatial distribution of attention after 15 days of training. However, observations of a selected improvement of processing speed at the lower positions of the computer screen after video game training and of retest effects are suggestive for limited possibilities to improve basic aspects of visual attention (TVA) with practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  5. Role of the visual experience-dependent nascent proteome in neuronal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han-Hsuan; McClatchy, Daniel B; Schiapparelli, Lucio; Shen, Wanhua; Yates, John R

    2018-01-01

    Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity refines brain circuits during development. To identify novel protein synthesis-dependent mechanisms contributing to experience-dependent plasticity, we conducted a quantitative proteomic screen of the nascent proteome in response to visual experience in Xenopus optic tectum using bio-orthogonal metabolic labeling (BONCAT). We identified 83 differentially synthesized candidate plasticity proteins (CPPs). The CPPs form strongly interconnected networks and are annotated to a variety of biological functions, including RNA splicing, protein translation, and chromatin remodeling. Functional analysis of select CPPs revealed the requirement for eukaryotic initiation factor three subunit A (eIF3A), fused in sarcoma (FUS), and ribosomal protein s17 (RPS17) in experience-dependent structural plasticity in tectal neurons and behavioral plasticity in tadpoles. These results demonstrate that the nascent proteome is dynamic in response to visual experience and that de novo synthesis of machinery that regulates RNA splicing and protein translation is required for experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:29412139

  6. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aesthetic perception of visual textures: a holistic exploration using texture analysis, psychological experiment, and perception modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianli; Lughofer, Edwin; Zeng, Xianyi

    2015-01-01

    Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design, and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective, and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and non-linear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  8. On the role of visual experience in mathematical development: Evidence from blind mathematicians.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Denghien, Isabelle; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2018-04-01

    Advanced mathematical reasoning, regardless of domain or difficulty, activates a reproducible set of bilateral brain areas including intraparietal, inferior temporal and dorsal prefrontal cortex. The respective roles of genetics, experience and education in the development of this math-responsive network, however, remain unresolved. Here, we investigate the role of visual experience by studying the exceptional case of three professional mathematicians who were blind from birth (n=1) or became blind during childhood (n=2). Subjects were scanned with fMRI while they judged the truth value of spoken mathematical and nonmathematical statements. Blind mathematicians activated the classical network of math-related areas during mathematical reflection, similar to that found in a group of sighted professional mathematicians. Thus, brain networks for advanced mathematical reasoning can develop in the absence of visual experience. Additional activations were found in occipital cortex, even in individuals who became blind during childhood, suggesting that either mental imagery or a more radical repurposing of visual cortex may occur in blind mathematicians. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Health services experiences of parents of recently diagnosed visually impaired children

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, J S; Manaras, I; Tuomainen, H; Lewando Hundt, G

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the health service experiences and needs of parents in the period around diagnosis of ophthalmic disorders in their children. Methods: Parents of children newly diagnosed with visual impairment and/or ophthalmic disorders at a tertiary level hospital in London participated in a questionnaire survey, using standard instruments, followed by in-depth individual interviews, to elicit their views about the processes of care, their overall level of satisfaction, and their unmet needs. Results: 67% (147) of eligible families (135 mothers, 76 fathers) participated. Overall satisfaction with care was high, being greater among parents of children with milder visual loss or isolated ophthalmic disorders than those with more severe visual loss or multiple impairments. Nevertheless, parents’ reported greatest need was the provision of general information, including about their child’s ophthalmic disorder and educational and social services and support. Mothers reported greater information needs than fathers, as did white parents compared to those from ethnic minorities. White parents also regarded the processes of care to be less comprehensive and coordinated, as well as less enabling, than did parents from ethnic minorities. Conclusions: Although parents reported high overall satisfaction with services, improving the medium, content, and scope of general information provided by professionals to parents of visually impaired children emerges as a priority. Equitable planning and provision of health services for families of children with visual impairment needs to take into account that informational and other needs vary by whether the parent is the primary carer or not and their ethnicity, as well as by the severity and complexity of their child’s visual loss. PMID:15665355

  10. Modernized Approach for Generating Reproducible Heterogeneity Using Transmitted-Light for Flow Visualization Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Image capturing in flow experiments has been used for fluid mechanics research since the early 1970s. Interactions of fluid flow between the vadose zone and permanent water table are of great interest because this zone is responsible for all recharge waters, pollutant transport and irrigation efficiency for agriculture. Griffith, et al. (2011) developed an approach where constructed reproducible "geologically realistic" sand configurations are deposited in sandfilled experimental chambers for light-transmitted flow visualization experiments. This method creates reproducible, reverse graded, layered (stratified) thin-slab sand chambers for point source experiments visualizing multiphase flow through porous media. Reverse-graded stratification of sand chambers mimic many naturally occurring sedimentary deposits. Sandfilled chambers use light as nonintrusive tools for measuring water saturation in two-dimensions (2-D). Homogeneous and heterogeneous sand configurations can be produced to visualize the complex physics of the unsaturated zone. The experimental procedure developed by Griffith, et al. (2011) was designed using now outdated and obsolete equipment. We have modernized this approach with new Parker Deadel linear actuator and programed projects/code for multiple configurations. We have also updated the Roper CCD software and image processing software with the latest in industry standards. Modernization of transmitted-light source, robotic equipment, redesigned experimental chambers, and newly developed analytical procedures have greatly reduced time and cost per experiment. We have verified the ability of the new equipment to generate reproducible heterogeneous sand-filled chambers and demonstrated the functionality of the new equipment and procedures by reproducing several gravity-driven fingering experiments conducted by Griffith (2008).

  11. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience

    PubMed Central

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom–up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top–down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel (“aesthetics of perception”), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel (“aesthetics of cognition”). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of

  12. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience.

    PubMed

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel ("aesthetics of perception"), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel ("aesthetics of cognition"). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

  13. Caries experience and oral hygiene status of a group of visually impaired children in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bekiroglu, Nural; Acar, Nihan; Kargul, Betul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the caries experience, oral hygiene status and oral health knowledge of a group of visually impaired students. The study was conducted at one of the largest visually impaired children's schools among students aged between 7 and 16 years (n = 178) in Istanbul, Turkey. A 16-item questionnaire was asked in addition to a clinical tooth examination. The 16-item verbal questionnaire was developed to record the students' general health, impairment, the socioeconomic profile and education level of their parents, oral health knowledge, sources of information about oral health and oral hygiene habits. Oral hygiene was assessed according to Greene and Vermillion's Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S). To measure the oral hygiene status, OHI-S index scores were recorded. Additionally, DMFT and dft indices were documented. Only 26.40% of children were caries free, and only 2.2% of students had good oral hygiene. A total of 3.3% of these students were mildly retarded and 2.8% of them had a developmental disability. Visually impaired children exhibited a fair-to-poor level of oral hygiene. Maintenance of oral hygiene remains the greatest challenge in the care of visually impaired children.

  14. Cross-species 3D virtual reality toolbox for visual and cognitive experiments.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Guillaume; Gulli, Roberto A; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C

    2016-06-15

    Although simplified visual stimuli, such as dots or gratings presented on homogeneous backgrounds, provide strict control over the stimulus parameters during visual experiments, they fail to approximate visual stimulation in natural conditions. Adoption of virtual reality (VR) in neuroscience research has been proposed to circumvent this problem, by combining strict control of experimental variables and behavioral monitoring within complex and realistic environments. We have created a VR toolbox that maximizes experimental flexibility while minimizing implementation costs. A free VR engine (Unreal 3) has been customized to interface with any control software via text commands, allowing seamless introduction into pre-existing laboratory data acquisition frameworks. Furthermore, control functions are provided for the two most common programming languages used in visual neuroscience: Matlab and Python. The toolbox offers milliseconds time resolution necessary for electrophysiological recordings and is flexible enough to support cross-species usage across a wide range of paradigms. Unlike previously proposed VR solutions whose implementation is complex and time-consuming, our toolbox requires minimal customization or technical expertise to interface with pre-existing data acquisition frameworks as it relies on already familiar programming environments. Moreover, as it is compatible with a variety of display and input devices, identical VR testing paradigms can be used across species, from rodents to humans. This toolbox facilitates the addition of VR capabilities to any laboratory without perturbing pre-existing data acquisition frameworks, or requiring any major hardware changes. Copyright © 2016 Z. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensori-motor experience leads to changes in visual processing in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    James, Karin Harman

    2010-03-01

    Since Broca's studies on language processing, cortical functional specialization has been considered to be integral to efficient neural processing. A fundamental question in cognitive neuroscience concerns the type of learning that is required for functional specialization to develop. To address this issue with respect to the development of neural specialization for letters, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activation patterns in pre-school children before and after different letter-learning conditions: a sensori-motor group practised printing letters during the learning phase, while the control group practised visual recognition. Results demonstrated an overall left-hemisphere bias for processing letters in these pre-literate participants, but, more interestingly, showed enhanced blood oxygen-level-dependent activation in the visual association cortex during letter perception only after sensori-motor (printing) learning. It is concluded that sensori-motor experience augments processing in the visual system of pre-school children. The change of activation in these neural circuits provides important evidence that 'learning-by-doing' can lay the foundation for, and potentially strengthen, the neural systems used for visual letter recognition.

  16. Visual perception and appraisal of persons with impairments: a randomised controlled field experiment using photo elicitation.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Ballert, Carolina Saskia; Fellinghauer, Bernd; Lötscher, Alexander; Gradinger, Felix; Hilfiker, Roger; Graf, Sibylle; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Visual cues from persons with impairments may trigger stereotypical generalisations that lead to prejudice and discrimination. The main objective of this pilot study is to examine whether visual stimuli of impairment activate latent prejudice against disability and whether this connection can be counteracted with priming strategies. In a field experiment, participants were asked to rate photographs showing models with mental impairments, wheelchair users with paraplegia, and persons without any visible impairment. Participants should appraise the models with regard to several features (e.g. communicativeness, intelligence). One hundred participants rated 12 photo models yielding a total of 1183 observations. One group of participants was primed with a cover story introducing visual perception of impairment as the study's gist, while controls received neutral information. Photo models with mental impairments were rated lowest and models without visible impairment highest. In participants who did not have prior contacts with persons with impairments, priming led to a levelling of scores of models with and without impairment. Prior contacts with persons with impairments created similar effects as the priming. Unexpectedly, a pattern of converse double discrimination to the disadvantage of men with mental impairments was revealed. Signs of stereotypical processing of visual cues of impairment have been found in participants of the Swiss general population. Personal contact with persons with impairments as well as priming participants seems to reduce stereotyping.

  17. Wearable ultrasonic guiding device with white cane for the visually impaired: A preliminary verisimilitude experiment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    Several assistive technologies are available to help visually impaired individuals avoid obstructions while walking. Unfortunately, white canes and medical walkers are unable to detect obstacles on the road or react to encumbrances located above the waist. In this study, I adopted the cyber-physical system approach in the development of a cap-connected device to compensate for gaps in detection associated with conventional aids for the visually impaired. I developed a verisimilar, experimental route involving the participation of seven individuals with visual impairment, including straight sections, left turns, right turns, curves, and suspended objects. My aim was to facilitate the collection of information required for the practical use of the device. My findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed guiding device in alerting walkers to the presence of some kinds of obstacles from the small number of subjects. That is, it shows promise for future work and research with the proposed device. My findings provide a valuable reference for the further improvement of these devices as well as the establishment of experiments involving the visually impaired.

  18. Visual experience and subsequent sleep induce sequential plastic changes in putative inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Aton, Sara J.; Broussard, Christopher; Dumoulin, Michelle; Seibt, Julie; Watson, Adam; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G.

    2013-01-01

    Ocular dominance plasticity in the developing primary visual cortex is initiated by monocular deprivation (MD) and consolidated during subsequent sleep. To clarify how visual experience and sleep affect neuronal activity and plasticity, we continuously recorded extragranular visual cortex fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and putative principal (i.e., excitatory) neurons in freely behaving cats across periods of waking MD and post-MD sleep. Consistent with previous reports in mice, MD induces two related changes in FS interneurons: a response shift in favor of the closed eye and depression of firing. Spike-timing–dependent depression of open-eye–biased principal neuron inputs to FS interneurons may mediate these effects. During post-MD nonrapid eye movement sleep, principal neuron firing increases and becomes more phase-locked to slow wave and spindle oscillations. Ocular dominance (OD) shifts in favor of open-eye stimulation—evident only after post-MD sleep—are proportional to MD-induced changes in FS interneuron activity and to subsequent sleep-associated changes in principal neuron activity. OD shifts are greatest in principal neurons that fire 40–300 ms after neighboring FS interneurons during post-MD slow waves. Based on these data, we propose that MD-induced changes in FS interneurons play an instructive role in ocular dominance plasticity, causing disinhibition among open-eye–biased principal neurons, which drive plasticity throughout the visual cortex during subsequent sleep. PMID:23300282

  19. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Kawasaki Disease and Factors Associated with Coronary Artery Abnormalities in East China: Nine Years Experience

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yunjia; Gao, Xiang; Shen, Jie; Sun, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because of the different genetic backgrounds, living environments and economic conditions, the epidemiologic, clinical characteristics and risk factors for coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) in the Chinese population may differ among different parts of China. Methods: We did a retrospective study to explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors for CAAs in east China between 2006 and 2014. Results: There were 1016 patients during the study period. Of the 1004 patients who completed echocardiographic studies, 23.9% had CAAs. Sex, serum albumin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) started after the 10th day of illness and IVIG non-responders were independent risk factors associated with CAA. Conclusions: East China has a lower incidence of CAAs compared with southwest and northeast China, while similar to north China. Male gender, serum albumin, ESR, MP infection, IVIG started after the 10th day of illness and IVIG non-responders were predictive of CAA. PMID:26884440

  20. The Importance of Visual Experience, Gender, and Emotion in the Assessment of an Assistive Tactile Mouse.

    PubMed

    Brayda, Luca; Campus, Claudio; Memeo, Mariacarla; Lucagrossi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tactile maps are efficient tools to improve spatial understanding and mobility skills of visually impaired people. Their limited adaptability can be compensated with haptic devices which display graphical information, but their assessment is frequently limited to performance-based metrics only which can hide potential spatial abilities in O&M protocols. We assess a low-tech tactile mouse able to deliver three-dimensional content considering how performance, mental workload, behavior, and anxiety status vary with task difficulty and gender in congenitally blind, late blind, and sighted subjects. Results show that task difficulty coherently modulates the efficiency and difficulty to build mental maps, regardless of visual experience. Although exhibiting attitudes that were similar and gender-independent, the females had lower performance and higher cognitive load, especially when congenitally blind. All groups showed a significant decrease in anxiety after using the device. Tactile graphics with our device seems therefore to be applicable with different visual experiences, with no negative emotional consequences of mentally demanding spatial tasks. Going beyond performance-based assessment, our methodology can help with better targeting technological solutions in orientation and mobility protocols.

  1. Drivers' Visual Search Behavior Toward Vulnerable Road Users at Junctions as a Function of Cycling Experience.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Chloe Jade; Chapman, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The current study investigated the behavior and visual attention of two groups of drivers with differing pedal cycling experience (pedal cyclists and nonpedal cyclists) towards vulnerable road users at junctions in a driving simulator. Pedal cyclists and motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Many studies have found that car drivers who also hold a motorcycle license have increased awareness towards motorcycles. The task involved approaching a T-junction and turning right when it was deemed to be safe. In Study 1, the junction was controlled by a give way sign, and in Study 2, the junction was controlled by a stop sign. Each T-junction contained a target vehicle (car, motorcycle, or pedal cycle), approaching from a near, medium, or far distance from the junction. Participants did not look at pedal cycles approaching from a far distance for as long as they looked at approaching motorcycles and cars, despite all vehicles travelling at identical speeds. No differences were found between pedal cyclists and nonpedal cyclists on any visual attention measures, indicating that pedal cycling experience was not associated with differences in drivers' attention toward pedal cycles. Findings have implications for road safety, demonstrating subtle differences in drivers' everyday visual attention toward differing vehicle types. This research has the potential to inform the development of in-car technical assistive systems, improving the safety of vulnerable road users at junctions.

  2. Simulated in vivo Electrophysiology Experiments Provide Previously Inaccessible Insights into Visual Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, Maria del Mar; Price, Nicholas SC

    2016-01-01

    Lecture content and practical laboratory classes are ideally complementary. However, the types of experiments that have led to our detailed understanding of sensory neuroscience are often not amenable to classroom experimentation as they require expensive equipment, time-consuming surgeries, specialized experimental techniques, and the use of animals. While sometimes feasible in small group teaching, these experiments are not suitable for large cohorts of students. Previous attempts to expose students to sensory neuroscience experiments include: the use of electrophysiology preparations in invertebrates, data-driven simulations that do not replicate the experience of conducting an experiment, or simply observing an experiment in a research laboratory. We developed an online simulation of a visual neuroscience experiment in which extracellular recordings are made from a motion sensitive neuron. Students have control over stimulation parameters (direction and contrast) and can see and hear the action potential responses to stimuli as they are presented. The simulation provides an intuitive way for students to gain insight into neurophysiology, including experimental design, data collection and data analysis. Our simulation allows large cohorts of students to cost-effectively “experience” the results of animal research without ethical concerns, to be exposed to realistic data variability, and to develop their understanding of how sensory neuroscience experiments are conducted. PMID:27980465

  3. Hallucinatory experiences in visually impaired individuals: Charles Bonnet syndrome - implications for research and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jurišić, Darija; Sesar, Irena; Ćavar, Ivan; Sesar, Antonio; Živković, Maja; Ćurković, Marko

    2018-06-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) refers to visual hallucinations that occur in individuals with preserved cognitive functions associated with visual impairment. This article reviews occurence of visual hallucinations in subjects with CBS by journals published in English in the Pubmed database in the period 1992-2018. Criteria for selection of appropriate papers were sufficient information and perspicuous view on pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment possibilities of CBS. Most commonly, visual hallucinations in patients with CBS are complex, repetitive and stereotyped. Such individuals have preserved insight that those percepts are not real, and there is an absence of secondary explanatory delusions and hallucinations within other modalities. Seeing as the aforementioned percepts do not share all the characteristics of hallucinations, it remains unresolved how they should be referred to. Terms as release hallucinations, one that is reflecting its underlying pathogenesis, or confabulatory hallucinatory experiences have been proposed. Moreover, CBS has also been referred to as phantom vision syndrome and may occur in any ophthalmological disease. It is not particularly connected with loss of function along any level of the visual pathway. Although this syndrome is mostly associated with age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and cataract, it could be related to almost any other ophthalmological conditions. The incidence of CBS alongside with mostly other ocular pathology is rising as population is ageing. Nonetheless, CBS remains commonly underreported, under recognized and/or misrecognized. Albeit the treatment recommendations and guidelines are not yet fully established, it is important to raise awareness of this specific and distinct condition, which inevitably implicates many differential diagnostic deliberations.

  4. Experiments on Auditory-Visual Perception of Sentences by Users of Unilateral, Bimodal, and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Michael F.; Liss, Julie; Wang, Shuai; Berisha, Visar; Ludwig, Cimarron; Natale, Sarah Cook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Five experiments probed auditory-visual (AV) understanding of sentences by users of cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Sentence material was presented in auditory (A), visual (V), and AV test conditions to listeners with normal hearing and CI users. Results: (a) Most CI users report that most of the time, they have access to both A and V…

  5. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images atmore » runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.« less

  6. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  7. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  8. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S.; Lauring, Jon O.; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art. PMID:27199697

  9. Measuring Software Timing Errors in the Presentation of Visual Stimuli in Cognitive Neuroscience Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Garaizar, Pablo; Vadillo, Miguel A.; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Matute, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Because of the features provided by an abundance of specialized experimental software packages, personal computers have become prominent and powerful tools in cognitive research. Most of these programs have mechanisms to control the precision and accuracy with which visual stimuli are presented as well as the response times. However, external factors, often related to the technology used to display the visual information, can have a noticeable impact on the actual performance and may be easily overlooked by researchers. The aim of this study is to measure the precision and accuracy of the timing mechanisms of some of the most popular software packages used in a typical laboratory scenario in order to assess whether presentation times configured by researchers do not differ from measured times more than what is expected due to the hardware limitations. Despite the apparent precision and accuracy of the results, important issues related to timing setups in the presentation of visual stimuli were found, and they should be taken into account by researchers in their experiments. PMID:24409318

  10. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience.

    PubMed

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S; Lauring, Jon O; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art.

  11. Overview of long-term field experiments in Germany - metadata visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqit Zoarder, Md Abdul; Heinrich, Uwe; Svoboda, Nikolai; Grosse, Meike; Hierold, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    BonaRes ("soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy") is conducting to collect data and metadata of agricultural long-term field experiments (LTFE) of Germany. It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the umbrella of the National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030. BonaRes consists of ten interdisciplinary research project consortia and the 'BonaRes - Centre for Soil Research'. BonaRes Data Centre is responsible for collecting all LTFE data and regarding metadata into an enterprise database upon higher level of security and visualization of the data and metadata through data portal. In the frame of the BonaRes project, we are compiling an overview of long-term field experiments in Germany that is based on a literature review, the results of the online survey and direct contacts with LTFE operators. Information about research topic, contact person, website, experiment setup and analyzed parameters are collected. Based on the collected LTFE data, an enterprise geodatabase is developed and a GIS-based web-information system about LTFE in Germany is also settled. Various aspects of the LTFE, like experiment type, land-use type, agricultural category and duration of experiment, are presented in thematic maps. This information system is dynamically linked to the database, which means changes in the data directly affect the presentation. An easy data searching option using LTFE name, -location or -operators and the dynamic layer selection ensure a user-friendly web application. Dispersion and visualization of the overlapping LTFE points on the overview map are also challenging and we make it automatized at very zoom level which is also a consistent part of this application. The application provides both, spatial location and meta-information of LTFEs, which is backed-up by an enterprise geodatabase, GIS server for hosting map services and Java script API for web application development.

  12. Uncertainty analysis of thermocouple measurements used in normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments at Sandia's Radiant Heat Facility and Lurance Canyon Burn Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2004-04-01

    It would not be possible to confidently qualify weapon systems performance or validate computer codes without knowing the uncertainty of the experimental data used. This report provides uncertainty estimates associated with thermocouple data for temperature measurements from two of Sandia's large-scale thermal facilities. These two facilities (the Radiant Heat Facility (RHF) and the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS)) routinely gather data from normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments. They are managed by Fire Science & Technology Department 09132. Uncertainty analyses were performed for several thermocouple (TC) data acquisition systems (DASs) used at the RHF and LCBS. These analyses apply tomore » Type K, chromel-alumel thermocouples of various types: fiberglass sheathed TC wire, mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed (MIMS) TC assemblies, and are easily extended to other TC materials (e.g., copper-constantan). Several DASs were analyzed: (1) A Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3852A system, and (2) several National Instrument (NI) systems. The uncertainty analyses were performed on the entire system from the TC to the DAS output file. Uncertainty sources include TC mounting errors, ANSI standard calibration uncertainty for Type K TC wire, potential errors due to temperature gradients inside connectors, extension wire uncertainty, DAS hardware uncertainties including noise, common mode rejection ratio, digital voltmeter accuracy, mV to temperature conversion, analog to digital conversion, and other possible sources. Typical results for 'normal' environments (e.g., maximum of 300-400 K) showed the total uncertainty to be about {+-}1% of the reading in absolute temperature. In high temperature or high heat flux ('abnormal') thermal environments, total uncertainties range up to {+-}2-3% of the reading (maximum of 1300 K). The higher uncertainties in abnormal thermal environments are caused by increased errors due to the effects of imperfect TC attachment to the test item

  13. Trained Eyes: Experience Promotes Adaptive Gaze Control in Dynamic and Uncertain Visual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Taya, Shuichiro; Windridge, David; Osman, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Current eye-tracking research suggests that our eyes make anticipatory movements to a location that is relevant for a forthcoming task. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that with more practice anticipatory gaze control can improve. However, these findings are largely limited to situations where participants are actively engaged in a task. We ask: does experience modulate anticipative gaze control while passively observing a visual scene? To tackle this we tested people with varying degrees of experience of tennis, in order to uncover potential associations between experience and eye movement behaviour while they watched tennis videos. The number, size, and accuracy of saccades (rapid eye-movements) made around ‘events,’ which is critical for the scene context (i.e. hit and bounce) were analysed. Overall, we found that experience improved anticipatory eye-movements while watching tennis clips. In general, those with extensive experience showed greater accuracy of saccades to upcoming event locations; this was particularly prevalent for events in the scene that carried high uncertainty (i.e. ball bounces). The results indicate that, even when passively observing, our gaze control system utilizes prior relevant knowledge in order to anticipate upcoming uncertain event locations. PMID:23951147

  14. Application Of Empirical Phase Diagrams For Multidimensional Data Visualization Of High Throughput Microbatch Crystallization Experiments.

    PubMed

    Klijn, Marieke E; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2018-04-27

    Protein phase diagrams are a tool to investigate cause and consequence of solution conditions on protein phase behavior. The effects are scored according to aggregation morphologies such as crystals or amorphous precipitates. Solution conditions affect morphological features, such as crystal size, as well as kinetic features, such as crystal growth time. Common used data visualization techniques include individual line graphs or symbols-based phase diagrams. These techniques have limitations in terms of handling large datasets, comprehensiveness or completeness. To eliminate these limitations, morphological and kinetic features obtained from crystallization images generated with high throughput microbatch experiments have been visualized with radar charts in combination with the empirical phase diagram (EPD) method. Morphological features (crystal size, shape, and number, as well as precipitate size) and kinetic features (crystal and precipitate onset and growth time) are extracted for 768 solutions with varying chicken egg white lysozyme concentration, salt type, ionic strength and pH. Image-based aggregation morphology and kinetic features were compiled into a single and easily interpretable figure, thereby showing that the EPD method can support high throughput crystallization experiments in its data amount as well as its data complexity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Confinement has no effect on visual space perception: The results of the Mars-500 experiment.

    PubMed

    Sikl, Radovan; Simeček, Michal

    2014-02-01

    People confined to a closed space live in a visual environment that differs from a natural open-space environment in several respects. The view is restricted to no more than a few meters, and nearby objects cannot be perceived relative to the position of a horizon. Thus, one might expect to find changes in visual space perception as a consequence of the prolonged experience of confinement. The subjects in our experimental study were participants of the Mars-500 project and spent nearly a year and a half isolated from the outside world during a simulated mission to Mars. The participants were presented with a battery of computer-based psychophysical tests examining their performance on various 3-D perception tasks, and we monitored changes in their perceptual performance throughout their confinement. Contrary to our expectations, no serious effect of the confinement on the crewmembers' 3-D perception was observed in any experiment. Several interpretations of these findings are discussed, including the possibilities that (1) the crewmembers' 3-D perception really did not change significantly, (2) changes in 3-D perception were manifested in the precision rather than the accuracy of perceptual judgments, and/or (3) the experimental conditions and the group sample were problematic.

  16. A Robotics-Based Approach to Modeling of Choice Reaching Experiments on Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Soeren; Heinke, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a robotics-based model for choice reaching experiments on visual attention. In these experiments participants were asked to make rapid reach movements toward a target in an odd-color search task, i.e., reaching for a green square among red squares and vice versa (e.g., Song and Nakayama, 2008). Interestingly these studies found that in a high number of trials movements were initially directed toward a distractor and only later were adjusted toward the target. These “curved” trajectories occurred particularly frequently when the target in the directly preceding trial had a different color (priming effect). Our model is embedded in a closed-loop control of a LEGO robot arm aiming to mimic these reach movements. The model is based on our earlier work which suggests that target selection in visual search is implemented through parallel interactions between competitive and cooperative processes in the brain (Heinke and Humphreys, 2003; Heinke and Backhaus, 2011). To link this model with the control of the robot arm we implemented a topological representation of movement parameters following the dynamic field theory (Erlhagen and Schoener, 2002). The robot arm is able to mimic the results of the odd-color search task including the priming effect and also generates human-like trajectories with a bell-shaped velocity profile. Theoretical implications and predictions are discussed in the paper. PMID:22529827

  17. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  18. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  19. Arousal Rules: An Empirical Investigation into the Aesthetic Experience of Cross-Modal Perception with Emotional Visual Music

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Irene Eunyoung; Latchoumane, Charles-Francois V.; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-01-01

    Emotional visual music is a promising tool for the study of aesthetic perception in human psychology; however, the production of such stimuli and the mechanisms of auditory-visual emotion perception remain poorly understood. In Experiment 1, we suggested a literature-based, directive approach to emotional visual music design, and inspected the emotional meanings thereof using the self-rated psychometric and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses of the viewers. A two-dimensional (2D) approach to the assessment of emotion (the valence-arousal plane) with frontal alpha power asymmetry EEG (as a proposed index of valence) validated our visual music as an emotional stimulus. In Experiment 2, we used our synthetic stimuli to investigate possible underlying mechanisms of affective evaluation mechanisms in relation to audio and visual integration conditions between modalities (namely congruent, complementation, or incongruent combinations). In this experiment, we found that, when arousal information between auditory and visual modalities was contradictory [for example, active (+) on the audio channel but passive (−) on the video channel], the perceived emotion of cross-modal perception (visual music) followed the channel conveying the stronger arousal. Moreover, we found that an enhancement effect (heightened and compacted in subjects' emotional responses) in the aesthetic perception of visual music might occur when the two channels contained contradictory arousal information and positive congruency in valence and texture/control. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to propose a literature-based directive production of emotional visual music prototypes and the validations thereof for the study of cross-modally evoked aesthetic experiences in human subjects. PMID:28421007

  20. Arousal Rules: An Empirical Investigation into the Aesthetic Experience of Cross-Modal Perception with Emotional Visual Music.

    PubMed

    Lee, Irene Eunyoung; Latchoumane, Charles-Francois V; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-01-01

    Emotional visual music is a promising tool for the study of aesthetic perception in human psychology; however, the production of such stimuli and the mechanisms of auditory-visual emotion perception remain poorly understood. In Experiment 1, we suggested a literature-based, directive approach to emotional visual music design, and inspected the emotional meanings thereof using the self-rated psychometric and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses of the viewers. A two-dimensional (2D) approach to the assessment of emotion (the valence-arousal plane) with frontal alpha power asymmetry EEG (as a proposed index of valence) validated our visual music as an emotional stimulus. In Experiment 2, we used our synthetic stimuli to investigate possible underlying mechanisms of affective evaluation mechanisms in relation to audio and visual integration conditions between modalities (namely congruent, complementation, or incongruent combinations). In this experiment, we found that, when arousal information between auditory and visual modalities was contradictory [for example, active (+) on the audio channel but passive (-) on the video channel], the perceived emotion of cross-modal perception (visual music) followed the channel conveying the stronger arousal. Moreover, we found that an enhancement effect (heightened and compacted in subjects' emotional responses) in the aesthetic perception of visual music might occur when the two channels contained contradictory arousal information and positive congruency in valence and texture/control. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to propose a literature-based directive production of emotional visual music prototypes and the validations thereof for the study of cross-modally evoked aesthetic experiences in human subjects.

  1. Tornado Warning Perception and Response: Integrating the Roles of Visual Design, Demographics, and Hazard Experience.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Ronald L; Ash, Kevin D; Bowser, Gregg C

    2018-02-01

    Recent advancements in severe weather detection and warning dissemination technologies have reduced, but not eliminated, large-casualty tornado hazards in the United States. Research on warning cognition and behavioral response by the public has the potential to further reduce tornado-related deaths and injuries; however, less research has been conducted in this area compared to tornado research in the physical sciences. Extant research in this vein tends to bifurcate. One branch of studies derives from classic risk perception, which investigates cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors in relation to concern and preparation for uncertain risks. Another branch focuses on psychological, social, and cultural factors implicated in warning response for rapid onset hazards, with attention paid to previous experience and message design. Few studies link risk perceptions with cognition and response as elicited by specific examples of warnings. The present study unites risk perception, cognition, and response approaches by testing the contributions of hypothesized warning response drivers in one set of path models. Warning response is approximated by perceived fear and intended protective action as reported by survey respondents when exposed to hypothetical tornado warning scenarios. This study considers the roles of hazard knowledge acquisition, information-seeking behaviors, previous experience, and sociodemographic factors while controlling for the effects of the visual warning graphic. Findings from the study indicate the primacy of a user's visual interpretation of a warning graphic in shaping tornado warning response. Results also suggest that information-seeking habits, previous tornado experience, and local disaster culture play strong influencing roles in warning response. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour.

  3. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  4. Single-Cell Analysis of Experience-Dependent Transcriptomic States in Mouse Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; Hochbaum, Daniel R.; Nagy, M. Aurel; Cicconet, Marcelo; Robertson, Keiramarie; Cheadle, Lucas; Zilionis, Rapolas; Ratner, Alex; Borges-Monroy, Rebeca; Klein, Allon M.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Activity-dependent transcriptional responses shape cortical function. However, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the diversity of these responses across the full range of cortical cell types, and how these changes contribute to neuronal plasticity and disease. Here we applied high-throughput single-cell RNA-sequencing to investigate the breadth of transcriptional changes that occur across cell types in mouse visual cortex following exposure to light. We identified significant and divergent transcriptional responses to stimulation in each of the 30 cell types characterized, revealing 611 stimulus-responsive genes. Excitatory pyramidal neurons exhibit inter- and intra-laminar heterogeneity in the induction of stimulus responsive genes. Non-neuronal cells demonstrated clear transcriptional responses that may regulate experience-dependent changes in neurovascular coupling and myelination. Together, these results reveal the dynamic landscape of stimulus-dependent transcriptional changes that occur across cell types in visual cortex, which are likely critical for cortical function and may be sites of de-regulation in developmental brain disorders. PMID:29230054

  5. Eye-tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an ASD Subtype Associated with Increased Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinically and biologically, ASD is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye-tracking are hallmarks, yet whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole, or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. Methods A sample of 334 toddlers from 6 distinct groups (115 ASD, 20 ASD-Features, 57 DD, 53 Other, 64 TD, and 25 Typ SIB) participated. Toddlers watched a movie containing both geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each AOI and validation statistics for this independent sample computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (N=110) was added totaling 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. Results As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images greater than 69%. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity 98%, and PPV 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had (a) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and (b) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggest that this test may not be appropriate with children > 4 years. Conclusions Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. PMID:25981170

  6. Intermittently-visual Tracking Experiments Reveal the Roles of Error-correction and Predictive Mechanisms in the Human Visual-motor Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Tamura, Yurie; Sase, Kazuya; Sugawara, Ken; Sawada, Yasuji

    Prediction mechanism is necessary for human visual motion to compensate a delay of sensory-motor system. In a previous study, “proactive control” was discussed as one example of predictive function of human beings, in which motion of hands preceded the virtual moving target in visual tracking experiments. To study the roles of the positional-error correction mechanism and the prediction mechanism, we carried out an intermittently-visual tracking experiment where a circular orbit is segmented into the target-visible regions and the target-invisible regions. Main results found in this research were following. A rhythmic component appeared in the tracer velocity when the target velocity was relatively high. The period of the rhythm in the brain obtained from environmental stimuli is shortened more than 10%. The shortening of the period of rhythm in the brain accelerates the hand motion as soon as the visual information is cut-off, and causes the precedence of hand motion to the target motion. Although the precedence of the hand in the blind region is reset by the environmental information when the target enters the visible region, the hand motion precedes the target in average when the predictive mechanism dominates the error-corrective mechanism.

  7. Visualizing characteristics of ocean data collected during the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilley, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Topographic measurements of sea surface elevation collected by the Surface Contour Radar (SCR) during NASA's Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B) experiment are plotted as three dimensional surface plots to observe wave height variance along the track of a P-3 aircraft. Ocean wave spectra were computed from rotating altimeter measurements acquired by the Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS). Fourier power spectra computed from SIR-B synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean are compared to ROWS surface wave spectra. Fourier inversion of SAR spectra, after subtraction of spectral noise and modeling of wave height modulation, yields topography similar to direct measurements made by SCR. Visual perspectives on the SCR and SAR ocean data are compared. Threshold distinctions between surface elevation and texture modulations of SAR data are considered within the context of a dynamic statistical model of rough surface scattering. The result of these endeavors is insight as to the physical mechanism governing the imaging of ocean waves with SAR.

  8. Unseen stimuli modulate conscious visual experience: evidence from inter-hemispheric summation.

    PubMed

    de Gelder, B; Pourtois, G; van Raamsdonk, M; Vroomen, J; Weiskrantz, L

    2001-02-12

    Emotional facial expression can be discriminated despite extensive lesions of striate cortex. Here we report differential performance with recognition of facial stimuli in the intact visual field depending on simultaneous presentation of congruent or incongruent stimuli in the blind field. Three experiments were based on inter-hemispheric summation. Redundant stimulation in the blind field led to shorter latencies for stimulus detection in the intact field. Recognition of the expression of a half-face expression in the intact field was faster when the other half of the face presented to the blind field had a congruent expression. Finally, responses to the expression of whole faces to the intact field were delayed for incongruent facial expressions presented in the blind field. These results indicate that the neuro-anatomical pathways (extra-striate cortical and sub-cortical) sustaining inter-hemispheric summation can operate in the absence of striate cortex.

  9. Genome image programs: visualization and interpretation of Escherichia coli microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Daniel P; Paliy, Oleg; Thomas, Brian; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Kustu, Sydney

    2004-08-01

    We have developed programs to facilitate analysis of microarray data in Escherichia coli. They fall into two categories: manipulation of microarray images and identification of known biological relationships among lists of genes. A program in the first category arranges spots from glass-slide DNA microarrays according to their position in the E. coli genome and displays them compactly in genome order. The resulting genome image is presented in a web browser with an image map that allows the user to identify genes in the reordered image. Another program in the first category aligns genome images from two or more experiments. These images assist in visualizing regions of the genome with common transcriptional control. Such regions include multigene operons and clusters of operons, which are easily identified as strings of adjacent, similarly colored spots. The images are also useful for assessing the overall quality of experiments. The second category of programs includes a database and a number of tools for displaying biological information about many E. coli genes simultaneously rather than one gene at a time, which facilitates identifying relationships among them. These programs have accelerated and enhanced our interpretation of results from E. coli DNA microarray experiments. Examples are given. Copyright 2004 Genetics Society of America

  10. Goal-directed visual attention drives health goal priming: An eye-tracking experiment.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Laura N; Papies, Esther K; Hooge, Ignace T C; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-01-01

    Several lab and field experiments have shown that goal priming interventions can be highly effective in promoting healthy food choices. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms by which goal priming affects food choice. This experiment tested the hypothesis that goal priming affects food choices through changes in visual attention. Specifically, it was hypothesized that priming with the dieting goal steers attention toward goal-relevant, low energy food products, which, in turn, increases the likelihood of choosing these products. In this eye-tracking experiment, 125 participants chose between high and low energy food products in a realistic online supermarket task while their eye movements were recorded with an eye-tracker. One group was primed with a health and dieting goal, a second group was exposed to a control prime, and a third group was exposed to no prime at all. The health goal prime increased low energy food choices and decreased high energy food choices. Furthermore, the health goal prime resulted in proportionally longer total dwell times on low energy food products, and this effect mediated the goal priming effect on choices. The findings suggest that the effect of priming on consumer choice may originate from an increase in attention for prime-congruent items. This study supports the effectiveness of health goal priming interventions in promoting healthy eating and opens up directions for research on other behavioral interventions that steer attention toward healthy foods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Fusing visual and behavioral cues for modeling user experience in games.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Noor; Asteriadis, Stylianos; Yannakakis, Georgios N; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2013-12-01

    Estimating affective and cognitive states in conditions of rich human-computer interaction, such as in games, is a field of growing academic and commercial interest. Entertainment and serious games can benefit from recent advances in the field as, having access to predictors of the current state of the player (or learner) can provide useful information for feeding adaptation mechanisms that aim to maximize engagement or learning effects. In this paper, we introduce a large data corpus derived from 58 participants that play the popular Super Mario Bros platform game and attempt to create accurate models of player experience for this game genre. Within the view of the current research, features extracted both from player gameplay behavior and game levels, and player visual characteristics have been used as potential indicators of reported affect expressed as pairwise preferences between different game sessions. Using neuroevolutionary preference learning and automatic feature selection, highly accurate models of reported engagement, frustration, and challenge are constructed (model accuracies reach 91%, 92%, and 88% for engagement, frustration, and challenge, respectively). As a step further, the derived player experience models can be used to personalize the game level to desired levels of engagement, frustration, and challenge as game content is mapped to player experience through the behavioral and expressivity patterns of each player.

  12. eXframe: reusable framework for storage, analysis and visualization of genomics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide experiments are routinely conducted to measure gene expression, DNA-protein interactions and epigenetic status. Structured metadata for these experiments is imperative for a complete understanding of experimental conditions, to enable consistent data processing and to allow retrieval, comparison, and integration of experimental results. Even though several repositories have been developed for genomics data, only a few provide annotation of samples and assays using controlled vocabularies. Moreover, many of them are tailored for a single type of technology or measurement and do not support the integration of multiple data types. Results We have developed eXframe - a reusable web-based framework for genomics experiments that provides 1) the ability to publish structured data compliant with accepted standards 2) support for multiple data types including microarrays and next generation sequencing 3) query, analysis and visualization integration tools (enabled by consistent processing of the raw data and annotation of samples) and is available as open-source software. We present two case studies where this software is currently being used to build repositories of genomics experiments - one contains data from hematopoietic stem cells and another from Parkinson's disease patients. Conclusion The web-based framework eXframe offers structured annotation of experiments as well as uniform processing and storage of molecular data from microarray and next generation sequencing platforms. The framework allows users to query and integrate information across species, technologies, measurement types and experimental conditions. Our framework is reusable and freely modifiable - other groups or institutions can deploy their own custom web-based repositories based on this software. It is interoperable with the most important data formats in this domain. We hope that other groups will not only use eXframe, but also contribute their own useful modifications. PMID

  13. Experience-Driven Formation of Parts-Based Representations in a Model of Layered Visual Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jitsev, Jenia; von der Malsburg, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character modulated by an oscillatory rhythm. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units and their synaptic connections. Choosing human face recognition as a test task, we show that, under the condition of open-ended, unsupervised incremental learning, the system is able to form memory traces for individual faces in a parts-based fashion. On a lower memory layer the synaptic structure is developed to represent local facial features and their interrelations, while the identities of different persons are captured explicitly on a higher layer. An additional property of the resulting representations is the sparseness of both the activity during the recall and the synaptic patterns comprising the memory traces. PMID:19862345

  14. Living Independently: Exploring the Experiences of Visually Impaired People Living in Age-Related and Lifetime Housing Through Qualitative Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Clíona; Hadjri, Karim; Faith, Verity; Rooney, Máirin; McAllister, Keith; Craig, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of visually impaired older people living independently at home. As populations are aging globally, there is now an increase in the prevalence of visual impairment. That means for ongoing and future aging-in-place strategies that seek to enable older people to remain independent for longer, more attention needs to be given to the needs of those with visual impairment. As people develop visual impairment, they use adaptive strategies including modifying long-term homes or relocating to more suitable accommodation. In the United Kingdom, aging-in-place strategies include employing statutory lifetime home standards (LTHS) in the home or relocating to sheltered housing to live independently with support available if required. To get a better understanding of the needs of the visually impaired in the home, 12 interviews with six visually impaired occupants of LTHS homes and six from sheltered accommodation were analyzed separately using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Secondly, qualitative synthesis was used to further analyze themes generated from both samples before interview results were conceptualized in two superordinate concepts, namely, "negotiating priorities" and "understanding visual impairment." Participants from both groups had similar needs and were willing to compromise by living with some negative features. Those who coped well with moving utilized various resources. These findings will shed more understanding on providing good quality housing for those with visual impairment wanting to live either independently or within healthcare home environments.

  15. Theta Oscillations in Visual Cortex Emerge with Experience to Convey Expected Reward Time and Experienced Reward Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zold, Camila L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely regarded as faithfully conveying the physical properties of visual stimuli. Thus, experience-induced changes in V1 are often interpreted as improving visual perception (i.e., perceptual learning). Here we describe how, with experience, cue-evoked oscillations emerge in V1 to convey expected reward time as well as to relate experienced reward rate. We show, in chronic multisite local field potential recordings from rat V1, that repeated presentation of visual cues induces the emergence of visually evoked oscillatory activity. Early in training, the visually evoked oscillations relate to the physical parameters of the stimuli. However, with training, the oscillations evolve to relate the time in which those stimuli foretell expected reward. Moreover, the oscillation prevalence reflects the reward rate recently experienced by the animal. Thus, training induces experience-dependent changes in V1 activity that relate to what those stimuli have come to signify behaviorally: when to expect future reward and at what rate. PMID:26134643

  16. Analysis of experience-regulated transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development reveals spatiotemporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Lin; Chou, Chih-Hsuan; Huang, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Yi; Lin, Meng-Ying; Tung, Chun-Che; Lin, Chun-Yen; Lai, Ivan Pochou; Zou, Yan-Fang; Youngson, Neil A; Lin, Shau-Ping; Yang, Chang-Hao; Chen, Shih-Kuo; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Huang, Hsien-Sung

    2018-03-15

    Visual system development is light-experience dependent, which strongly implicates epigenetic mechanisms in light-regulated maturation. Among many epigenetic processes, genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism through which monoallelic gene expression occurs in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is unknown if genomic imprinting contributes to visual system development. We profiled the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development under normal- and dark-rearing conditions using B6/CAST F1 hybrid mice. We identified experience-regulated, isoform-specific and brain-region-specific imprinted genes. We also found imprinted microRNAs were predominantly clustered into the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus with light experience affecting some imprinted miRNA expression. Our findings provide the first comprehensive analysis of light-experience regulation of the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of visual system development. Our results may contribute to therapeutic strategies for visual impairments and circadian rhythm disorders resulting from a dysfunctional imprintome.

  17. Toward autonomous rotorcraft flight in degraded visual environments: experiments and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambler, Adam; Spiker, Spencer; Bergerman, Marcel; Singh, Sanjiv

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned cargo delivery to combat outposts will inevitably involve operations in degraded visual environments (DVE). When DVE occurs, the aircraft autonomy system needs to be able to function regardless of the obscurant level. In 2014, Near Earth Autonomy established a baseline perception system for autonomous rotorcraft operating in clear air conditions, when its m3 sensor suite and perception software enabled autonomous, no-hover landings onto unprepared sites populated with obstacles. The m3's long-range lidar scanned the helicopter's path and the perception software detected obstacles and found safe locations for the helicopter to land. This paper presents the results of initial tests with the Near Earth perception system in a variety of DVE conditions and analyzes them from the perspective of mission performance and risk. Tests were conducted with the m3's lidar and a lightweight synthetic aperture radar in rain, smoke, snow, and controlled brownout experiments. These experiments showed the capability to penetrate through mild DVE but the perceptual capabilities became degraded with the densest brownouts. The results highlight the need for not only improved ability to see through DVE, but also for improved algorithms to monitor and report DVE conditions.

  18. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  19. Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: A calculus method for synthesizing choice experiments studies.

    PubMed

    Wen, Cheng; Dallimer, Martin; Carver, Steve; Ziv, Guy

    2018-05-06

    Despite the great potential of mitigating carbon emission, development of wind farms is often opposed by local communities due to the visual impact on landscape. A growing number of studies have applied nonmarket valuation methods like Choice Experiments (CE) to value the visual impact by eliciting respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to accept (WTA) for hypothetical wind farms through survey questions. Several meta-analyses have been found in the literature to synthesize results from different valuation studies, but they have various limitations related to the use of the prevailing multivariate meta-regression analysis. In this paper, we propose a new meta-analysis method to establish general functions for the relationships between the estimated WTP or WTA and three wind farm attributes, namely the distance to residential/coastal areas, the number of turbines and turbine height. This method involves establishing WTA or WTP functions for individual studies, fitting the average derivative functions and deriving the general integral functions of WTP or WTA against wind farm attributes. Results indicate that respondents in different studies consistently showed increasing WTP for moving wind farms to greater distances, which can be fitted by non-linear (natural logarithm) functions. However, divergent preferences for the number of turbines and turbine height were found in different studies. We argue that the new analysis method proposed in this paper is an alternative to the mainstream multivariate meta-regression analysis for synthesizing CE studies and the general integral functions of WTP or WTA against wind farm attributes are useful for future spatial modelling and benefit transfer studies. We also suggest that future multivariate meta-analyses should include non-linear components in the regression functions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Visualizing the Bay: Bringing a Research Experience into a High Enrollment Online Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Anglin, J.

    2005-12-01

    General education courses at many universities are required to demonstrate specific student learning outcomes and methodologies of learning assessment that can be measure the success, or lack thereof, of meeting these outcomes. A primary learning outcome of the SJSU general education program is to have students apply a scientific approach to problems of the earth and environment. This requirement can be challenging in high enrollment classes offered at universities without the resources of graduate teaching assistantships. In order to meet this outcome through an active learning environment, we have redesigned a web-based oceanography course, primarily for non-science majors, that has students assume the role of shipboard scientists on a number of ocean-going virtual research experiences. One activity has students participate on a virtual research voyage based on a multi-beam sonar study of the central San Francisco Bay described in USGS Circular 1259 by Chin et al (2004). Students carry out the duties of virtual shipboard scientists, including pre- and post-cruise scientific meetings, sonar data acquisition, processing and visualization, and interpretation of the seafloor mapping data using a combination of scientific visualizations, animations, and audio and video segments. While on the voyage, students are required to: (1) determine the navigational hazards posed by three submerged rocks near the main shipping lane in the bay, (2) assess the long-term viability of a disposal site for mud dredged from the bay, and (3) generate a sediment characteristics map of the bay floor that can be used as a basis for future studies of contaminant transport. Upon completion of the voyage students are required to write an abstract describing their research for publication in the proceedings volume of a virtual scientific conference in the form of an essay question on the mid-term exam. Based on the work of over 200 students, this question has received the highest score of four

  1. Do you see what I see? The difference between dog and human visual perception may affect the outcome of experiments.

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Ujvári, Vera; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Péter, András

    2017-07-01

    The visual sense of dogs is in many aspects different than that of humans. Unfortunately, authors do not explicitly take into consideration dog-human differences in visual perception when designing their experiments. With an image manipulation program we altered stationary images, according to the present knowledge about dog-vision. Besides the effect of dogs' dichromatic vision, the software shows the effect of the lower visual acuity and brightness discrimination, too. Fifty adult humans were tested with pictures showing a female experimenter pointing, gazing or glancing to the left or right side. Half of the pictures were shown after they were altered to a setting that approximated dog vision. Participants had difficulty to find out the direction of glancing when the pictures were in dog-vision mode. Glances in dog-vision setting were followed less correctly and with a slower response time than other cues. Our results are the first that show the visual performance of humans under circumstances that model how dogs' weaker vision would affect their responses in an ethological experiment. We urge researchers to take into consideration the differences between perceptual abilities of dogs and humans, by developing visual stimuli that fit more appropriately to dogs' visual capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visualization tools for model/data comparisons and decision making during the Monterey Bay 2006 experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, L.; Kolber, D.; Godin, M.; Chavez, F. P.

    2006-12-01

    During summer 2006, almost 100 different oceanographic sensors have captured for more than one month the properties of the waters of the Californian Central Coast. Data were assimilated in quasi-real time by three hydrodynamical models to forecast the evolution of the local conditions such as currents, sea water temperature, salinity and to adapt accordingly the sampling strategy of the involved unmanned vehicles (AUV, gliders). Due to the high diversity of data and models (sources, file structures, time and spatial coverage, periodicity of sampling), the collected informations were first converted into a standardized format which allows one to quickly find and extract the relevant variables from the main data server of the experiment. Visualization softwares were developed to provide live maps of the latest locations of instruments, surface plots and vertical transects of currents, temperature and salinity from data and models. These products were mainly used for decision making, for model intercomparison and to evaluate the quality of the data assimilation process for each model. Plots were updated several times a day and automatically posted on an internet collaborative portal. Softwares were adaptive in regards of the availability of simulations and datasets from satellite, aircraft, robotic vehicles, research vessels, moorings, drifters Their modular structures allowed a quick implementation of new instruments during the experiment. Profiles from gliders and AUV served as references for intercomparisons between models for salinity and temperature. As simulations were not synchronized between models, the involved algorithm selected, for all gliders, relevant portions of their tracks to serve as references for model intercomparison. These portions were delimited to prioritize the comparison for each model between observations and nowcasts/hindcasts and also to evaluate the loss of forecasting capabilities with time. We provide here several examples of these

  3. Multisensory integration and the concert experience: An overview of how visual stimuli can affect what we hear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Jerald R.

    2004-05-01

    It is clear to those who ``listen'' to concert halls and evaluate their degree of acoustical success that it is quite difficult to separate the acoustical response at a given seat from the multi-modal perception of the whole event. Objective concert hall data have been collected for the purpose of finding a link with their related subjective evaluation and ultimately with the architectural correlates which produce the sound field. This exercise, while important, tends to miss the point that a concert or opera event utilizes all the senses of which the sound field and visual stimuli are both major contributors to the experience. Objective acoustical factors point to visual input as being significant in the perception of ``acoustical intimacy'' and with the perception of loudness versus distance in large halls. This paper will review the evidence of visual input as a factor in what we ``hear'' and introduce concepts of perceptual constancy, distance perception, static and dynamic visual stimuli, and the general process of the psychology of the integrated experience. A survey of acousticians on their opinions about the auditory-visual aspects of the concert hall experience will be presented. [Work supported in part from the Veneklasen Research Foundation and Veneklasen Associates.

  4. Quantifying the Movement and Dissolution of Fugitive Methane in Shallow Aquifers: Visualization Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Ven, C. J. C.; Mumford, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    The environmental impact and potential human health implications, specifically from the contamination of groundwater sources, has sparked controversy around shale gas extraction in North America. It is clear that understanding the effects of hydraulic fracturing on shallow fresh water aquifers is of great importance, including the threat of stray gas (also referred to as fugitive methane) on groundwater quality. Faulty wells provide a preferential pathway for free gas phase (mostly methane) to migrate from deeper gas-bearing formations of natural gas to shallow aquifers, followed by its dissolution into the surrounding groundwater. An increased understanding of the fate of fugitive methane in shallow aquifers is required to assess the potential risks associated with current and future operations, as well as to better link gas migration, dissolution and the deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were performed using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a surrogate for methane to improve our understanding of gas dissolution in groundwater systems. Using CO2, a novel laboratory technique was developed that allows the measurement of dissolved CO2 concentrations using image analysis alongside visualization of free gas mobilization. The technique is based on the acidification of water during CO2 dissolution, which causes a colour change in an indicator dye. The colour change is recorded using a visual light transmission technique, in which digital images are used to track dissolved concentrations at high spatial (1 mm) and temporal (5 s) resolutions in a two-dimensional (25 × 25 × 1 cm3) flow cell. The experiments were completed in both homogeneous sand packs and sand packs containing layered heterogeneities to investigate the dissolution of both gas fingers and gas pools. The results demonstrate the potential of this novel technique for investigating gas dissolution, and showed significant tailing of dissolved CO2 and

  5. Experience-dependent development of perineuronal nets and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan receptors in mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qian; Miao, Qing-Long

    2013-08-08

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures consisting of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, link proteins and tenascin-R (Tn-R). They enwrap a subset of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex and restrict experience-dependent cortical plasticity. While the expression profile of PNN components has been widely studied in many areas of the central nervous system of various animal species, it remains unclear how these components are expressed during the postnatal development of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In the present study, we characterized the developmental time course of the formation of PNNs in the mouse primary visual cortex, using the specific antibodies against the two PNN component proteins aggrecan and tenascin-R, or the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) that directly binds to glycosaminoglycan chains of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We found that the fluorescence staining signals of both the WFA staining and the antibody against aggrecan rapidly increased in cortical neurons across layers 2-6 during postnatal days (PD) 10-28 and reached a plateau around PD42, suggesting a full construction of PNNs by the end of the critical period. Co-staining with antibodies to Ca(2+) binding protein parvalbumin (PV) demonstrated that the majority of PNN-surrounding cortical neurons are immunoreactive to PV. Similar expression profile of another PNN component tenascin-R was observed in the development of V1. Dark rearing of mice from birth significantly reduced the density of PNN-surrounding neurons. In addition, the expression of two recently identified CSPG receptors - Nogo receptor (NgR) and leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase (LAR), showed significant increases from PD14 to PD70 in layer 2-6 of cortical PV-positive interneurons in normal reared mice, but decreased significantly in dark-reared ones. Taken together, these results suggest that PNNs form preferentially in cortical

  6. Cortical response tracking the conscious experience of threshold duration visual stimuli indicates visual perception is all or none

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Krithiga; Findley, William M.; Poeppel, David; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2013-01-01

    At perceptual threshold, some stimuli are available for conscious access whereas others are not. Such threshold inputs are useful tools for investigating the events that separate conscious awareness from unconscious stimulus processing. Here, viewing unmasked, threshold-duration images was combined with recording magnetoencephalography to quantify differences among perceptual states, ranging from no awareness to ambiguity to robust perception. A four-choice scale was used to assess awareness: “didn’t see” (no awareness), “couldn’t identify” (awareness without identification), “unsure” (awareness with low certainty identification), and “sure” (awareness with high certainty identification). Stimulus-evoked neuromagnetic signals were grouped according to behavioral response choices. Three main cortical responses were elicited. The earliest response, peaking at ∼100 ms after stimulus presentation, showed no significant correlation with stimulus perception. A late response (∼290 ms) showed moderate correlation with stimulus awareness but could not adequately differentiate conscious access from its absence. By contrast, an intermediate response peaking at ∼240 ms was observed only for trials in which stimuli were consciously detected. That this signal was similar for all conditions in which awareness was reported is consistent with the hypothesis that conscious visual access is relatively sharply demarcated. PMID:23509248

  7. Sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words: Relationships with other psycholinguistic variables and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Bugaïska, Aurélia

    2015-09-01

    We collected sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words in adults. Sensory experience for words is a recently introduced variable that corresponds to the degree to which words elicit sensory and perceptual experiences (Juhasz & Yap Behavior Research Methods, 45, 160-168, 2013; Juhasz, Yap, Dicke, Taylor, & Gullick Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1683-1691, 2011). The relationships of the sensory experience norms with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g., imageability and age of acquisition) were analyzed. We also investigated the degree to which SER predicted performance in visual word recognition tasks (lexical decision, word naming, and progressive demasking). The analyses indicated that SER reliably predicted response times in lexical decision, but not in word naming or progressive demasking. The findings are discussed in relation to the status of SER, the role of semantic code activation in visual word recognition, and the embodied view of cognition.

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  10. Using ICT at an Open Distance Learning (ODL) Institution in South Africa: The Learning Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokiwa, S. A.; Phasha, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    For students with visual impairments, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important means through which they can learn and access learning materials at various levels of education. However, their learning experiences in using such form of technologies have been rarely documented, thus suggests society's lack of…

  11. Children's Negotiations of Visualization Skills during a Design-Based Learning Experience Using Nondigital and Digital Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shaunna

    2018-01-01

    In the context of a 10-day summer camp makerspace experience that employed design-based learning (DBL) strategies, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to better understand the ways in which children use visualization skills to negotiate design as they move back and forth between the world of nondigital design techniques (i.e., drawing,…

  12. A Model of Successful Work Experience for Employees Who Are Visually Impaired: The Results of a Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Dawn B.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the factors that contribute to a successful work experience for employees who are visually impaired from the perspective of employers. The employers who were interviewed emphasized the dual responsibility that employees have to empower their own success and that employers have to enable the employees' success. In addition, an…

  13. A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Educational, Vocational and Social Experiences of College Educated Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Mary-Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Students who are visually impaired have significantly lower educational and vocational success rates than their nondisabled peers (Hasazi, Johnson, Hasazi, Gordon, & Hull, 1989; Nagle, 2001). A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to explore the educational, vocational and social experiences of college educated individuals who were…

  14. EXEL; Experience for Children in Learning. Parent-Directed Activities to Develop: Oral Expression, Visual Discrimination, Auditory Discrimination, Motor Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Polly; Millman, Joan

    The activities collected in this handbook are planned for parents to use with their children in a learning experience. They can also be used in the classroom. Sections contain games designed to develop visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, motor coordination and oral expression. An objective is given for each game, and directions for…

  15. The Influence of Visual Experience on the Ability to Form Spatial Mental Models Based on Route and Survey Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences (i.e. level of performance on spatial tasks) as…

  16. Hemispheric Specialization for Language According to Grapho-Phonemic Transformation and Gender. A Divided Visual Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousin, Emilie; Perrone, Marcela; Baciu, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This behavioral study aimed at assessing the effect of two variables on the degree of hemispheric specialization for language. One of them was the "grapho-phonemic translation (transformation)" (letter-sound mapping) and the other was the participants' "gender". The experiment was conducted with healthy volunteers. A divided visual field procedure…

  17. The Roles for Prior Visual Experience and Age on the Extraction of Egocentric Distance.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Courtney P; Gajewski, Daniel A; Teplitz, Rebeca W; Mihelic Jaidzeka, Sandra; Philbeck, John W

    2017-01-01

    In a well-lit room, observers can generate well-constrained estimates of the distance to an object on the floor even with just a fleeting glimpse. Performance under these conditions is typically characterized by some underestimation but improves when observers have previewed the room. Such evidence suggests that information extracted from longer durations may be stored to contribute to the perception of distance at limited time frames. Here, we examined the possibility that this stored information is used differentially across age. Specifically, we posited that older adults would rely more than younger adults on information gathered and stored at longer glimpses to judge the distance of briefly glimpsed objects. We collected distance judgments from younger and older adults after brief target glimpses. Half of the participants were provided 20-s previews of the testing room in advance; the other half received no preview. Performance benefits were observed for all individuals with prior visual experience, and these were moderately more pronounced for the older adults. The results suggest that observers store contextual information gained from longer viewing durations to aid in the perception of distance at brief glimpses, and that this memory becomes more important with age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Visualization of the meridian of traditional Chinese medicine with electrical impedance tomography: An initial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanli; Lu, Xiaozuo; Wang, Xuemin

    2010-04-01

    The meridian is a concept central to traditional Chinese medical techniques such as acupuncture. There is no physically verifiable anatomical or histological basis for the existence of meridians. In Chinese medicine, the meridians are channels along which the energy of the psychological system is considered to flow. It has been proven that the resistance along the meridian channels is lower compared to other paths. Based on this knowledge, we proposed using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to visualize the meridians of human being. A simplified three dimensional (3D) mathematical model of the forearm developed. Current was injected in the direction perpendicular to the cross-section where eight electrodes were equally placed around the surface of the forearm for the voltage measurements. The model was solved using Finite Element Method (FEM) and dynamic image was reconstructed using truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) regularization method. The conductivity distributions were compared with different current injections, along the meridian channel and channels around respectively. We also conducted experiments on models and the meridians were shown in final reconstructed images.

  19. Experiences using Visualization Techniques to Present Requirements, Risks to Them, and Options for Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Cornford, Steven L.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    For several years we have been employing a risk-based decision process to guide development and application of advanced technologies, and for research and technology portfolio planning. The process is supported by custom software, in which visualization plays an important role. During requirements gathering, visualization is used to help scrutinize the status (completeness, extent) of the information. During decision making based on the gathered information, visualization is used to help decisionmakers understand the space of options and their consequences. In this paper we summarize the visualization capabilities that we have employed, indicating when and how they have proven useful.

  20. Visual Half-Field Experiments Are a Good Measure of Cerebral Language Dominance if Used Properly: Evidence from fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Zoe R.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Traditional neuropsychology employs visual half-field (VHF) experiments to assess cerebral language dominance. This approach is based on the assumption that left cerebral dominance for language leads to faster and more accurate recognition of words in the right visual half-field (RVF) than in the left visual half-field (LVF) during tachistoscopic…

  1. 'My brain couldn't move from planning a birth to planning a funeral': a qualitative study of parents' experiences of decisions after ending a pregnancy for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kate; France, Emma; Ziebland, Sue; Field, Kate; Wyke, Sally

    2009-08-01

    With increasing technology for screening and diagnostic testing for fetal abnormality in pregnancy, many more pregnant women and couples are faced with the decision to terminate a pregnancy often after receiving diagnostic test results in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Whilst there is extensive research on people's experience of diagnostic testing and decision-making, there has been less research on people's experiences of decisions they face immediately following their termination. To describe the experiences of (often unanticipated) decisions that people face in the immediate aftermath of ending a pregnancy following diagnosis of serious fetal abnormality. Secondary analysis of narrative qualitative interview data. Participants were recruited throughout the United Kingdom (UK) and interviewed between 2004 and 2006. 38 individual mothers, 10 individual fathers and 10 couples who ended a pregnancy following diagnosis of fetal abnormality. Parents who had experienced the ending of a pregnancy following diagnosis of fetal abnormality described their experiences, and often distress, of facing painful decisions consequent upon their decision to terminate the pregnancy. What was striking from their accounts was their sense of being unprepared for these decisions. Often they suggested that they had received no information or forewarning of the 'choices' they would have to make, although information designed specifically for people in this situation is available in the UK. Many of the decisions that people face in the immediate aftermath of a termination for fetal abnormality are upsetting, and in some circumstances more so because they are not anticipated. Often parents report not receiving information which could be helpful until after these decisions have been made. Health professionals face difficult choices about what issues to raise with patients at this sensitive time, and the optimum time to inform patients of the extra decisions they will face. More

  2. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  3. The Nature of Experience Determines Object Representations in the Visual System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yetta K.; Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (PL) and perceptual expertise (PE) traditionally lead to different training effects and recruit different brain areas, but reasons for these differences are largely unknown. Here, we tested how the learning history influences visual object representations. Two groups were trained with tasks typically used in PL or PE…

  4. English Language Learners: Experiences of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments Who Work with This Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Irene; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents a study that gathered data from 66 teachers of students with visual impairments about their preparation to work with children who are visually impaired and are learning English, and their knowledge of instructional strategies and methods of instruction. Methods: An online five-part survey was available to…

  5. Experience-dependent emergence of beta and gamma band oscillations in the primary visual cortex during the critical period

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang; Rasch, Malte J.; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2015-01-01

    Neural oscillatory activities have been shown to play important roles in neural information processing and the shaping of circuit connections during development. However, it remains unknown whether and how specific neural oscillations emerge during a postnatal critical period (CP), in which neuronal connections are most substantially modified by neural activity and experience. By recording local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity in developing primary visual cortex (V1) of head-fixed awake mice, we here demonstrate an emergence of characteristic oscillatory activities during the CP. From the pre-CP to CP, the peak frequency of spontaneous fast oscillatory activities shifts from the beta band (15–35 Hz) to the gamma band (40–70 Hz), accompanied by a decrease of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and broadband spike-field coherence (SFC). Moreover, visual stimulation induced a large increase of beta-band activity but a reduction of gamma-band activity specifically from the CP onwards. Dark rearing of animals from the birth delayed this emergence of oscillatory activities during the CP, suggesting its dependence on early visual experience. These findings suggest that the characteristic neuronal oscillatory activities emerged specifically during the CP may represent as neural activity trait markers for the experience-dependent maturation of developing visual cortical circuits. PMID:26648548

  6. Dysregulation of synaptic proteins, dendritic spine abnormalities and pathological plasticity of synapses as experience-dependent mediators of cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Nithianantharajah, J; Hannan, A J

    2013-10-22

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant tandem repeat expansion disorder involving cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms. The expanded trinucleotide (CAG) repeat leads to an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein and a subsequent cascade of molecular and cellular pathogenesis. One of the key features of neuropathology, which has been shown to precede the eventual loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex, striatum and other areas, are changes to synapses, including the dendritic protrusions known as spines. In this review we will focus on synapse and spine pathology in HD, including molecular and experience-dependent aspects of pathogenesis. Dendritic spine pathology has been found in both the human HD brain at post mortem as well as various transgenic and knock-in animal models. These changes may help explain the symptoms in HD, and synaptopathy within the cerebral cortex may be particularly important in mediating the psychiatric and cognitive manifestations of this disease. The earliest stages of synaptic dysfunction in HD, as assayed in various mouse models, appears to involve changes in synaptic proteins and associated physiological abnormalities such as synaptic plasticity deficits. In mouse models, synaptic and cortical plasticity deficits have been directly correlated with the onset of cognitive deficits, implying a causal link. Furthermore, following the discovery that environmental enrichment can delay onset of affective, cognitive and motor deficits in HD transgenic mice, specific synaptic molecules shown to be dysregulated by the polyglutamine-induced toxicity were also found to be beneficially modulated by environmental stimulation. This identifies potential molecular targets for future therapeutic developments to treat this devastating disease. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. With the Advent of Tomosynthesis in the Workup of Mammographic Abnormality, is Spot Compression Mammography Now Obsolete? An Initial Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhuircheartaigh, Neasa; Coffey, Louise; Fleming, Hannah; O' Doherty, Ann; McNally, Sorcha

    2017-09-01

    To determine if the routine use of spot compression mammography is now obsolete in the assessment of screen detected masses, asymmetries and architectural distortion since the availability of digital breast tomosynthesis. We introduced breast tomosynthesis in the workup of screen detected abnormalities in our screening center in January 2015. During an initial learning period with tomosynthesis standard spot compression views were also performed. Three consultant breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed all screening mammograms recalled for assessment over the first 6-month period. We assessed retrospectively whether there was any additional diagnostic information obtained from spot compression views not already apparent on tomography. All cases were also reviewed for any additional lesions detected by tomosynthesis, not detected on routine 2-view screening mammography. 548 women screened with standard 2-view digital screening mammography were recalled for assessment in the selected period and a total of 565 lesions were assessed. 341 lesions were assessed by both tomosynthesis and routine spot compression mammography. The spot compression view was considered more helpful than tomosynthesis in only one patient. This was because the breast was inadequately positioned for tomosynthesis and the area in question was not adequately imaged. Apart from this technical error there was no asymmetry, distortion or mass where spot compression provided more diagnostic information than tomosynthesis alone. We detected three additional cancers on tomosynthesis, not detected by routine screening mammography. From our initial experience with tomosynthesis we conclude that spot compression mammography is now obsolete in the assessment of screen detected masses, asymmetries and distortions where tomosynthesis is available. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Monitoring Processes in Visual Search Enhanced by Professional Experience: The Case of Orange Quality-Control Workers

    PubMed Central

    Visalli, Antonino; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Visual search tasks have often been used to investigate how cognitive processes change with expertise. Several studies have shown visual experts' advantages in detecting objects related to their expertise. Here, we tried to extend these findings by investigating whether professional search experience could boost top-down monitoring processes involved in visual search, independently of advantages specific to objects of expertise. To this aim, we recruited a group of quality-control workers employed in citrus farms. Given the specific features of this type of job, we expected that the extensive employment of monitoring mechanisms during orange selection could enhance these mechanisms even in search situations in which orange-related expertise is not suitable. To test this hypothesis, we compared performance of our experimental group and of a well-matched control group on a computerized visual search task. In one block the target was an orange (expertise target) while in the other block the target was a Smurfette doll (neutral target). The a priori hypothesis was to find an advantage for quality-controllers in those situations in which monitoring was especially involved, that is, when deciding the presence/absence of the target required a more extensive inspection of the search array. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. Quality-controllers were faster in those conditions that extensively required monitoring processes, specifically, the Smurfette-present and both target-absent conditions. No differences emerged in the orange-present condition, which resulted to mainly rely on bottom-up processes. These results suggest that top-down processes in visual search can be enhanced through immersive real-life experience beyond visual expertise advantages. PMID:29497392

  9. How the mechanisms of long-term synaptic potentiation and depression serve experience-dependent plasticity in primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Sam F.; Bear, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Donald Hebb chose visual learning in primary visual cortex (V1) of the rodent to exemplify his theories of how the brain stores information through long-lasting homosynaptic plasticity. Here, we revisit V1 to consider roles for bidirectional ‘Hebbian’ plasticity in the modification of vision through experience. First, we discuss the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in the mouse, which have been studied by many laboratories over many years, and the evidence that synaptic depression of excitatory input from the thalamus is a primary contributor to the loss of visual cortical responsiveness to stimuli viewed through the deprived eye. Second, we describe a less studied, but no less interesting form of plasticity in the visual cortex known as stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP). SRP results in increases in the response of V1 to a visual stimulus through repeated viewing and bears all the hallmarks of perceptual learning. We describe evidence implicating an important role for potentiation of thalamo-cortical synapses in SRP. In addition, we present new data indicating that there are some features of this form of plasticity that cannot be fully accounted for by such feed-forward Hebbian plasticity, suggesting contributions from intra-cortical circuit components. PMID:24298166

  10. Predictive value of background experiences and visual spatial ability testing on laparoscopic baseline performance among residents entering postgraduate surgical training.

    PubMed

    Louridas, Marisa; Quinn, Lauren E; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that despite dedicated practice, not all surgical trainees have the ability to reach technical competency in minimally invasive techniques. While selecting residents that have the ability to reach technical competence is important, evidence to guide the incorporation of technical ability into selection processes is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether background experiences and 2D-3D visual spatial test results are predictive of baseline laparoscopic skill for the novice surgical trainee. First-year residents were studied. Demographic data and background surgical and non-surgical experiences were obtained using a questionnaire. Visual spatial ability was evaluated using the PicSOr, cube comparison (CC) and card rotation (CR) tests. Technical skill was assessed using the camera navigation (LCN) task and laparoscopic circle cut (LCC) task. Resident performance on these technical tasks was compared and correlated with the questionnaire and visual spatial findings. Previous experience in observing laparoscopic procedures was associated with significantly better LCN performance, and experience in navigating the laparoscopic camera was associated with significantly better LCC task results. Residents who scored higher on the CC test demonstrated a more accurate LCN path length score (r s(PL) = -0.36, p = 0.03) and angle path (r s(AP) = -0.426, p = 0.01) score when completing the LCN task. No other significant correlations were found between the visual spatial tests (PicSOr, CC or CR) and LCC performance. While identifying selection tests for incoming surgical trainees that predict technical skill performance is appealing, the surrogate markers evaluated correlate with specific metrics of surgical performance related to a single task but do not appear to reliably predict technical performance of different laparoscopic tasks. Predicting the acquisition of technical skills will require the development

  11. Apollo experience report: The application of a computerized visualization capability to lunar missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyle, C. T.; Lunde, A. N.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computerized capability to depict views from the Apollo spacecraft during a lunar mission was undertaken before the Apollo 8 mission. Such views were considered valuable because of the difficulties in visualizing the complex geometry of the Earth, Moon, Sun, and spacecraft. Such visualization capability originally was desired for spacecraft attitude verification and contingency situations. Improvements were added for later Apollo flights, and results were adopted for several real time and preflight applications. Some specific applications have included crewmember and ground control personnel familiarization, nominal and contingency mission planning, definition of secondary attitude checks for all major thrust maneuvers, and preflight star selection for navigation and for platform alinement. The use of this computerized visualization capability should prove valuable for any future space program as an aid to understanding the geometrical relationships between the spacecraft and the celestial surroundings.

  12. Visually induced analgesia in a deep tissue experimental pain model: A randomised crossover experiment.

    PubMed

    van Selm, M J; Gibson, W I; Travers, M J; Moseley, G L; Hince, D; Wand, B M

    2018-04-20

    Visualizing one's own painful body part appears to have an effect on reported pain intensity. Furthermore, it seems that manipulating the size of the viewed image can determine the direction and extent of this phenomenon. When visual distortion has been applied to clinical populations, the analgesic effects have been in opposition to those observed in some experimental pain models. To help resolve this problem, we explored the effect of visualisation and magnification of the visual image on reported pain using a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) pain model. We induced DOMS in the quadriceps of 20 healthy volunteers. Forty-eight hours later, participants performed a series of painful contractions of the DOMS-affected muscle under four randomised conditions: (1) Viewing the injured thigh; (2) Viewing the contralateral thigh; (3) Viewing a neutral object; and (4) Viewing the injured thigh through magnifying glasses. For each condition, participants rated their pain intensity during a series of painful contractions. We observed that direct visualisation of the injured thigh had no effect on pain intensity when compared to viewing the contralateral thigh or neutral object. However, magnification of the DOMS-affected leg during the performance of painful contractions caused participants to report more pain than when viewing the injured thigh normally. These results further demonstrate that the effect of visualisation varies between different pain conditions. These results may have implications for the integration of visual feedback into clinical practice. We present delayed onset muscle soreness as a model for exploring visually induced analgesia. Our findings suggest that this phenomenon is expressed differently in exogenous and endogenous experimental pain models. Further exploration may offer a potential pathway for the integration of visual analgesia into the management of clinical pain. © 2018 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  13. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  15. Reading in the dark: neural correlates and cross-modal plasticity for learning to read entire words without visual experience.

    PubMed

    Sigalov, Nadine; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has long attempted to determine the ways in which cortical selectivity develops, and the impact of nature vs. nurture on it. Congenital blindness (CB) offers a unique opportunity to test this question as the brains of blind individuals develop without visual experience. Here we approach this question through the reading network. Several areas in the visual cortex have been implicated as part of the reading network, and one of the main ones among them is the VWFA, which is selective to the form of letters and words. But what happens in the CB brain? On the one hand, it has been shown that cross-modal plasticity leads to the recruitment of occipital areas, including the VWFA, for linguistic tasks. On the other hand, we have recently demonstrated VWFA activity for letters in contrast to other visual categories when the information is provided via other senses such as touch or audition. Which of these tasks is more dominant? By which mechanism does the CB brain process reading? Using fMRI and visual-to-auditory sensory substitution which transfers the topographical features of the letters we compare reading with semantic and scrambled conditions in a group of CB. We found activation in early auditory and visual cortices during the early processing phase (letter), while the later phase (word) showed VWFA and bilateral dorsal-intraparietal activations for words. This further supports the notion that many visual regions in general, even early visual areas, also maintain a predilection for task processing even when the modality is variable and in spite of putative lifelong linguistic cross-modal plasticity. Furthermore, we find that the VWFA is recruited preferentially for letter and word form, while it was not recruited, and even exhibited deactivation, for an immediately subsequent semantic task suggesting that despite only short sensory substitution experience orthographic task processing can dominate semantic processing in the VWFA. On a wider

  16. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  17. Subjective evaluation of two stereoscopic imaging systems exploiting visual attention to improve 3D quality of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-03-01

    Crosstalk and vergence-accommodation rivalry negatively impact the quality of experience (QoE) provided by stereoscopic displays. However, exploiting visual attention and adapting the 3D rendering process on the fly can reduce these drawbacks. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two different approaches that exploit visual attention to improve 3D QoE on stereoscopic displays: an offline system, which uses a saliency map to predict gaze position, and an online system, which uses a remote eye tracking system to measure real time gaze positions. The gaze points were used in conjunction with the disparity map to extract the disparity of the object-of-interest. Horizontal image translation was performed to bring the fixated object on the screen plane. The user preference between standard 3D mode and the two proposed systems was evaluated through a subjective evaluation. Results show that exploiting visual attention significantly improves image quality and visual comfort, with a slight advantage for real time gaze determination. Depth quality is also improved, but the difference is not significant.

  18. Family Voices at Mealtime: Experiences with Young Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Catherine A.; Spicer, Carol L.; Morgese, Zoe L.

    2014-01-01

    Infants with visual impairment often require additional interaction from adults to reinforce behaviors that lead to competency at mealtimes, but parental and professional confidence in teaching these skills is often limited. In the following collective case study, the authors, a speech/language pathologist (S/LP), occupational therapist (OT), and…

  19. Engaging the Unengaged: Using Visual Images to Enhance Students' "Poli Sci 101" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbig, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    As the nation witnesses a distinct decline in civic engagement among young adults, political science instructors across the nation face the formidable task of engaging students in lower-level, general education courses outside students' primary domain of interest. The research presented here seeks to understand if visually enhanced lecture…

  20. EyeMusic: Introducing a "visual" colorful experience for the blind using auditory sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Sami; Hanassy, Shlomi; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory-substitution devices (SSDs) provide auditory or tactile representations of visual information. These devices often generate unpleasant sensations and mostly lack color information. We present here a novel SSD aimed at addressing these issues. We developed the EyeMusic, a novel visual-to-auditory SSD for the blind, providing both shape and color information. Our design uses musical notes on a pentatonic scale generated by natural instruments to convey the visual information in a pleasant manner. A short behavioral protocol was utilized to train the blind to extract shape and color information, and test their acquired abilities. Finally, we conducted a survey and a comparison task to assess the pleasantness of the generated auditory stimuli. We show that basic shape and color information can be decoded from the generated auditory stimuli. High performance levels were achieved by all participants following as little as 2-3 hours of training. Furthermore, we show that users indeed found the stimuli pleasant and potentially tolerable for prolonged use. The novel EyeMusic algorithm provides an intuitive and relatively pleasant way for the blind to extract shape and color information. We suggest that this might help facilitating visual rehabilitation because of the added functionality and enhanced pleasantness.

  1. The role of visual experience in the production of emotional facial expressions by blind people: a review.

    PubMed

    Valente, Dannyelle; Theurel, Anne; Gentaz, Edouard

    2018-04-01

    Facial expressions of emotion are nonverbal behaviors that allow us to interact efficiently in social life and respond to events affecting our welfare. This article reviews 21 studies, published between 1932 and 2015, examining the production of facial expressions of emotion by blind people. It particularly discusses the impact of visual experience on the development of this behavior from birth to adulthood. After a discussion of three methodological considerations, the review of studies reveals that blind subjects demonstrate differing capacities for producing spontaneous expressions and voluntarily posed expressions. Seventeen studies provided evidence that blind and sighted spontaneously produce the same pattern of facial expressions, even if some variations can be found, reflecting facial and body movements specific to blindness or differences in intensity and control of emotions in some specific contexts. This suggests that lack of visual experience seems to not have a major impact when this behavior is generated spontaneously in real emotional contexts. In contrast, eight studies examining voluntary expressions indicate that blind individuals have difficulty posing emotional expressions. The opportunity for prior visual observation seems to affect performance in this case. Finally, we discuss three new directions for research to provide additional and strong evidence for the debate regarding the innate or the culture-constant learning character of the production of emotional facial expressions by blind individuals: the link between perception and production of facial expressions, the impact of display rules in the absence of vision, and the role of other channels in expression of emotions in the context of blindness.

  2. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  3. CompGO: an R package for comparing and visualizing Gene Ontology enrichment differences between DNA binding experiments.

    PubMed

    Waardenberg, Ashley J; Basset, Samuel D; Bouveret, Romaric; Harvey, Richard P

    2015-09-02

    Gene ontology (GO) enrichment is commonly used for inferring biological meaning from systems biology experiments. However, determining differential GO and pathway enrichment between DNA-binding experiments or using the GO structure to classify experiments has received little attention. Herein, we present a bioinformatics tool, CompGO, for identifying Differentially Enriched Gene Ontologies, called DiEGOs, and pathways, through the use of a z-score derivation of log odds ratios, and visualizing these differences at GO and pathway level. Through public experimental data focused on the cardiac transcription factor NKX2-5, we illustrate the problems associated with comparing GO enrichments between experiments using a simple overlap approach. We have developed an R/Bioconductor package, CompGO, which implements a new statistic normally used in epidemiological studies for performing comparative GO analyses and visualizing comparisons from . BED data containing genomic coordinates as well as gene lists as inputs. We justify the statistic through inclusion of experimental data and compare to the commonly used overlap method. CompGO is freely available as a R/Bioconductor package enabling easy integration into existing pipelines and is available at: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/CompGO.html packages/release/bioc/html/CompGO.html.

  4. Impact of a visual programming experience on the attitude toward programming of introductory undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Saurabh

    Traditionally, textual tools have been utilized to teach basic programming languages and paradigms. Research has shown that students tend to be visual learners. Using flowcharts, students can quickly understand the logic of their programs and visualize the flow of commands in the algorithm. Moreover, applying programming to physical systems through the use of a microcontroller to facilitate this type of learning can spark an interest in students to advance their programming knowledge to create novel applications. This study examined if freshmen college students' attitudes towards programming changed after completing a graphical programming lesson. Various attributes about students' attitudes were examined including confidence, interest, stereotypes, and their belief in the usefulness of acquiring programming skills. The study found that there were no statistically significant differences in attitudes either immediately following the session or after a period of four weeks.

  5. Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: experiments in visual configural learning and auditory perception.

    PubMed Central

    Plaisted, Kate; Saksida, Lisa; Alcántara, José; Weisblatt, Emma

    2003-01-01

    The weak central coherence hypothesis of Frith is one of the most prominent theories concerning the abnormal performance of individuals with autism on tasks that involve local and global processing. Individuals with autism often outperform matched nonautistic individuals on tasks in which success depends upon processing of local features, and underperform on tasks that require global processing. We review those studies that have been unable to identify the locus of the mechanisms that may be responsible for weak central coherence effects and those that show that local processing is enhanced in autism but not at the expense of global processing. In the light of these studies, we propose that the mechanisms which can give rise to 'weak central coherence' effects may be perceptual. More specifically, we propose that perception operates to enhance the representation of individual perceptual features but that this does not impact adversely on representations that involve integration of features. This proposal was supported in the two experiments we report on configural and feature discrimination learning in high-functioning children with autism. We also examined processes of perception directly, in an auditory filtering task which measured the width of auditory filters in individuals with autism and found that the width of auditory filters in autism were abnormally broad. We consider the implications of these findings for perceptual theories of the mechanisms underpinning weak central coherence effects. PMID:12639334

  6. Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: experiments in visual configural learning and auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Plaisted, Kate; Saksida, Lisa; Alcántara, José; Weisblatt, Emma

    2003-02-28

    The weak central coherence hypothesis of Frith is one of the most prominent theories concerning the abnormal performance of individuals with autism on tasks that involve local and global processing. Individuals with autism often outperform matched nonautistic individuals on tasks in which success depends upon processing of local features, and underperform on tasks that require global processing. We review those studies that have been unable to identify the locus of the mechanisms that may be responsible for weak central coherence effects and those that show that local processing is enhanced in autism but not at the expense of global processing. In the light of these studies, we propose that the mechanisms which can give rise to 'weak central coherence' effects may be perceptual. More specifically, we propose that perception operates to enhance the representation of individual perceptual features but that this does not impact adversely on representations that involve integration of features. This proposal was supported in the two experiments we report on configural and feature discrimination learning in high-functioning children with autism. We also examined processes of perception directly, in an auditory filtering task which measured the width of auditory filters in individuals with autism and found that the width of auditory filters in autism were abnormally broad. We consider the implications of these findings for perceptual theories of the mechanisms underpinning weak central coherence effects.

  7. Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Luft, Caroline D B; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-05-01

    Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The Dynamics of Visual Experience, an EEG Study of Subjective Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Mark A.; Twomey, Deirdre; Glennon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the origin of psychological science a number of studies have reported visual pattern formation in the absence of either physiological stimulation or direct visual-spatial references. Subjective patterns range from simple phosphenes to complex patterns but are highly specific and reported reliably across studies. Methodology/Principal Findings Using independent-component analysis (ICA) we report a reduction in amplitude variance consistent with subjective-pattern formation in ventral posterior areas of the electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG exhibits significantly increased power at delta/theta and gamma-frequencies (point and circle patterns) or a series of high-frequency harmonics of a delta oscillation (spiral patterns). Conclusions/Significance Subjective-pattern formation may be described in a way entirely consistent with identical pattern formation in fluids or granular flows. In this manner, we propose subjective-pattern structure to be represented within a spatio-temporal lattice of harmonic oscillations which bind topographically organized visual-neuronal assemblies by virtue of low frequency modulation. PMID:22292053

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding unrelated to structural uterine abnormalities: management in the perimenopausal period.

    PubMed

    Sabbioni, Lorenzo; Zanetti, Isabella; Orlandini, Cinzia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the commonest health problems encountered by women and a frequent phenomenon during menopausal transition. The clinical management of AUB must follow a standardized classification system to obtain the better diagnostic pathway and the optimal therapy. The PALM-COEIN classification system has been approved by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO); it recognizes structural causes of AUB, which can be measured visually with imaging techniques or histopathology, and non-structural entities such as coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunctions, endometrial and iatrogenic causes and disorders not yet classified. In this review we aim to evaluate the management of nonstructural causes of AUB during the menopausal transition, when commonly women experience changes in menstrual bleeding patterns and unexpected bleedings which affect their quality of life.

  10. Language experience shapes early electrophysiological responses to visual stimuli: the effects of writing system, stimulus length, and presentation duration.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gui; Jiang, Ting; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2008-02-15

    How language experience affects visual word recognition has been a topic of intense interest. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study compared the early electrophysiological responses (i.e., N1) to familiar and unfamiliar writings under different conditions. Thirteen native Chinese speakers (with English as their second language) were recruited to passively view four types of scripts: Chinese (familiar logographic writings), English (familiar alphabetic writings), Korean Hangul (unfamiliar logographic writings), and Tibetan (unfamiliar alphabetic writings). Stimuli also differed in lexicality (words vs. non-words, for familiar writings only), length (characters/letters vs. words), and presentation duration (100 ms vs. 750 ms). We found no significant differences between words and non-words, and the effect of language experience (familiar vs. unfamiliar) was significantly modulated by stimulus length and writing system, and to a less degree, by presentation duration. That is, the language experience effect (i.e., a stronger N1 response to familiar writings than to unfamiliar writings) was significant only for alphabetic letters, but not for alphabetic and logographic words. The difference between Chinese characters and unfamiliar logographic characters was significant under the condition of short presentation duration, but not under the condition of long presentation duration. Long stimuli elicited a stronger N1 response than did short stimuli, but this effect was significantly attenuated for familiar writings. These results suggest that N1 response might not reliably differentiate familiar and unfamiliar writings. More importantly, our results suggest that N1 is modulated by visual, linguistic, and task factors, which has important implications for the visual expertise hypothesis.

  11. Using Experience Language (LEA Variation) to Teach an Autistic-Like Child with a Visual Disorder to Read (and Write and Talk).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Terry R.

    The author, a university professor, describes his experiences in teaching language to his autistic-like son who also has visual impairments. "Experience Language," an adaptation of Language Experience Approach (LEA) is described, and its contributions to the child's reading, writing, and talking are noted. Suggestions are made on the importance of…

  12. Hemispheric specialization for language according to grapho-phonemic transformation and gender. A divided visual field experiment.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Emilie; Perrone, Marcela; Baciu, Monica

    2009-04-01

    This behavioral study aimed at assessing the effect of two variables on the degree of hemispheric specialization for language. One of them was the grapho-phonemic translation (transformation) (letter-sound mapping) and the other was the participants'gender. The experiment was conducted with healthy volunteers. A divided visual field procedure has been used to perform a phoneme detection task implying either regular (transparent) grapho-phonemic translation (letter-sound mapping consistency) or irregular (non-transparent) grapho-phonemic translation (letter-sound mapping inconsistency). Our results reveal a significant effect of grapho-phonemic translation on the degree of hemispheric dominance for language. The phoneme detection on items with transparent translation (TT) was performed faster than phoneme detection on items with non-transparent translation (NTT). This effect seems to be due to faster identification of TT than NTT when the items were presented in the left visual field (LVF)-right hemisphere (RH). There was no difference between TT and NTT for stimuli presented in the right visual field (RVF)-left hemisphere (LH). This result suggests that grapho-phonemic translation or the degree of transparency can affect the degree of hemispheric specialization, by modulating the right hemisphere activity. With respect to gender, male participants were significantly more lateralized than female participants but no interaction was observed between gender and degree of transparency.

  13. Does Visual Participatory Research Have Resilience-Promoting Value? Teacher Experiences of Generating and Interpreting Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theron, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV&AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher experiences of drawings to…

  14. The Role of Visual Experience in Changing the Size of Objects in Imagery Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szubielska, Magdalena; Marek, Boguslaw

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper investigates the question of whether or not subjects who are congenitally blind experience greater difficulties mentally in resizing images of objects than those who have low vision or are adventitiously blind. Methods: Two experiments were conducted--one in which subjects were asked to mentally enlarge objects they…

  15. ComVisMD - compact visualization of multidimensional data: experimenting with cricket players data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandin, Shridhar B.; Ducassé, Mireille

    2018-03-01

    Database information is multidimensional and often displayed in tabular format (row/column display). Presented in aggregated form, multidimensional data can be used to analyze the records or objects. Online Analytical database Processing (OLAP) proposes mechanisms to display multidimensional data in aggregated forms. A choropleth map is a thematic map in which areas are colored in proportion to the measurement of a statistical variable being displayed, such as population density. They are used mostly for compact graphical representation of geographical information. We propose a system, ComVisMD inspired by choropleth map and the OLAP cube to visualize multidimensional data in a compact way. ComVisMD displays multidimensional data like OLAP Cube, where we are mapping an attribute a (first dimension, e.g. year started playing cricket) in vertical direction, object coloring based on b (second dimension, e.g. batting average), mapping varying-size circles based on attribute c (third dimension, e.g. highest score), mapping numbers based on attribute d (fourth dimension, e.g. matches played). We illustrate our approach on cricket players data, namely on two tables Country and Player. They have a large number of rows and columns: 246 rows and 17 columns for players of one country. ComVisMD’s visualization reduces the size of the tabular display by a factor of about 4, allowing users to grasp more information at a time than the bare table display.

  16. The roles of vocal and visual interactions in social learning zebra finches: A video playback experiment.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2017-06-01

    The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTSThe redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific

  18. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS The redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific

  19. Gamma abnormalities during perception of illusory figures in autism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caroline; Gruber, Thomas; Boucher, Jill; Rippon, Gina; Brock, Jon

    2005-06-01

    This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that perceptual abnormalities in autism might be associated with alteration of induced gamma activity patterns overlying visual cortical regions. EEG was recorded from six adolescents with autism and eight controls matched on chronological age, and verbal and nonverbal mental age, whilst identifying the presence or absence of an illusory Kanizsa shape. Although there were no reaction time or accuracy differences between the groups there were significant task-related differences in cortical activity. Control participants showed typical gamma-band activity over parietal regions at around 350 msec post onset of shape trials, similar to gamma patterns found in previous studies with non-impaired adults. In contrast, autistic participants showed overall increased activity, including an early 100 msec gamma peak and a late induced peak, 50 to 70 msec earlier than that shown by the control group. We interpret the abnormal gamma activity to reflect decreased "signal to noise" due to decreased inhibitory processing. In this experiment we did not establish a link between altered perception and abnormal gamma, as the autistic participants' behaviour did not differ from the controls. Future work should be designed to replicate this phenomenon and establish the perceptual consequences of altered gamma activity.

  20. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  1. Virtual reality visualization algorithms for the ALICE high energy physics experiment on the LHC at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrcha, Julian; Trzciński, Tomasz; Rokita, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    Analyzing massive amounts of data gathered during many high energy physics experiments, including but not limited to the LHC ALICE detector experiment, requires efficient and intuitive methods of visualisation. One of the possible approaches to that problem is stereoscopic 3D data visualisation. In this paper, we propose several methods that provide high quality data visualisation and we explain how those methods can be applied in virtual reality headsets. The outcome of this work is easily applicable to many real-life applications needed in high energy physics and can be seen as a first step towards using fully immersive virtual reality technologies within the frames of the ALICE experiment.

  2. MRMer, an interactive open source and cross-platform system for data extraction and visualization of multiple reaction monitoring experiments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel B; Holzman, Ted; May, Damon; Peterson, Amelia; Eastham, Ashley; Eng, Jimmy; McIntosh, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry identifies and quantifies specific peptides in a complex mixture with very high sensitivity and speed and thus has promise for the high throughput screening of clinical samples for candidate biomarkers. We have developed an interactive software platform, called MRMer, for managing highly complex MRM-MS experiments, including quantitative analyses using heavy/light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer parses and extracts information from MS files encoded in the platform-independent mzXML data format. It extracts and infers precursor-product ion transition pairings, computes integrated ion intensities, and permits rapid visual curation for analyses exceeding 1000 precursor-product pairs. Results can be easily output for quantitative comparison of consecutive runs. Additionally MRMer incorporates features that permit the quantitative analysis experiments including heavy and light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer is open source and provided under the Apache 2.0 license.

  3. Chromosomal Abnormalities Are Major Prognostic Factors in Elderly Patients With Multiple Myeloma: The Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome Experience

    PubMed Central

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Hulin, Cyrille; Campion, Loic; Rodon, Philippe; Marit, Gerald; Attal, Michel; Royer, Bruno; Dib, Mamoun; Voillat, Laurent; Bouscary, Didier; Caillot, Denis; Wetterwald, Marc; Pegourie, Brigitte; Lepeu, Gerard; Corront, Bernadette; Karlin, Lionel; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Delbrel, Xavier; Guilhot, Francois; Kolb, Brigitte; Decaux, Olivier; Lamy, Thierry; Garderet, Laurent; Allangba, Olivier; Lifermann, Francois; Anglaret, Bruno; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Facon, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chromosomal abnormalities, especially t(4;14) and del(17p), are major prognostic factors in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, this has been especially demonstrated in patients age < 66 years treated with intensive approaches. The goal of this study was to address this issue in elderly patients treated with conventional-dose chemotherapy. Patients and Methods To answer this important question, we retrospectively analyzed a series of 1,890 patients (median age, 72 years; range, 66 to 94 years), including 1,095 with updated data on treatment modalities and survival. Results This large study first showed that the incidence of t(4;14) was not uniform over age, with a marked decrease in the oldest patients. Second, it showed that both t(4;14) and del(17p) retained their prognostic value in elderly patients treated with melphalan and prednisone–based chemotherapy. Conclusion t(4;14) and del(17p) are major prognostic factors in elderly patients with MM, both for progression-free and overall survival, indicating that these two abnormalities should be investigated at diagnosis of MM, regardless of age. PMID:23796999

  4. Art Experiences for Young Children with Severe Visual Imapairments: Report from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Anna M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten guidelines are offered for providing art experiences for blind young children include adding sound, smell, or taste whenever possible. Suggested activities include making styrofoam-toothpick sculptures, box sculptures, tape and feather collages, torn paper collages, and fingerpaintings. (DB)

  5. Asymmetrical Interhemispheric Connections Develop in Cat Visual Cortex after Early Unilateral Convergent Strabismus: Anatomy, Physiology, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bui Quoc, Emmanuel; Ribot, Jérôme; Quenech’Du, Nicole; Doutremer, Suzette; Lebas, Nicolas; Grantyn, Alexej; Aushana, Yonane; Milleret, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    In the mammalian primary visual cortex, the corpus callosum contributes to the unification of the visual hemifields that project to the two hemispheres. Its development depends on visual experience. When this is abnormal, callosal connections must undergo dramatic anatomical and physiological changes. However, data concerning these changes are sparse and incomplete. Thus, little is known about the impact of abnormal postnatal visual experience on the development of callosal connections and their role in unifying representation of the two hemifields. Here, the effects of early unilateral convergent strabismus (a model of abnormal visual experience) were fully characterized with respect to the development of the callosal connections in cat visual cortex, an experimental model for humans. Electrophysiological responses and 3D reconstruction of single callosal axons show that abnormally asymmetrical callosal connections develop after unilateral convergent strabismus, resulting from an extension of axonal branches of specific orders in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deviated eye and a decreased number of nodes and terminals in the other (ipsilateral to the non-deviated eye). Furthermore this asymmetrical organization prevents the establishment of a unifying representation of the two visual hemifields. As a general rule, we suggest that crossed and uncrossed retino-geniculo-cortical pathways contribute successively to the development of the callosal maps in visual cortex. PMID:22275883

  6. Go Home, Med Student: Comics as Visual Media for Students' Traumatic Medical Education Experiences.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    A comic created by a medical student allows the reader to share the student's own unique perception of the medical education experience. Through the process of comic creation, medical students have opportunities to gain insight into how their relationships with patients and supervising physicians have shaped the physician they will become. The comic itself can be a safe space for expression and provides an opportunity for students and educators to share experiences. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Exploratory Visual Analysis of Statistical Results from Microarray Experiments Comparing High and Low Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Reif, David M.; Israel, Mark A.; Moore, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    The biological interpretation of gene expression microarray results is a daunting challenge. For complex diseases such as cancer, wherein the body of published research is extensive, the incorporation of expert knowledge provides a useful analytical framework. We have previously developed the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA) software for exploring data analysis results in the context of annotation information about each gene, as well as biologically relevant groups of genes. We present EVA as a flexible combination of statistics and biological annotation that provides a straightforward visual interface for the interpretation of microarray analyses of gene expression in the most commonly occuring class of brain tumors, glioma. We demonstrate the utility of EVA for the biological interpretation of statistical results by analyzing publicly available gene expression profiles of two important glial tumors. The results of a statistical comparison between 21 malignant, high-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors and 19 indolent, low-grade pilocytic astrocytomas were analyzed using EVA. By using EVA to examine the results of a relatively simple statistical analysis, we were able to identify tumor class-specific gene expression patterns having both statistical and biological significance. Our interactive analysis highlighted the potential importance of genes involved in cell cycle progression, proliferation, signaling, adhesion, migration, motility, and structure, as well as candidate gene loci on a region of Chromosome 7 that has been implicated in glioma. Because EVA does not require statistical or computational expertise and has the flexibility to accommodate any type of statistical analysis, we anticipate EVA will prove a useful addition to the repertoire of computational methods used for microarray data analysis. EVA is available at no charge to academic users and can be found at http://www.epistasis.org. PMID:19390666

  8. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  9. Understanding Student Experiences: A Case Study in Scientific Visualization and Civics and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Emily George

    2012-01-01

    This research study provides the finding of a qualitative case study in Technology, Engineering, and Design Education as well as Social Studies Education. The purpose of this study was to describe the role of graphics within a social studies lesson by examining a student's experience when a new lesson is implemented in class. The participants were…

  10. Oscillating Droplets and Incompressible Liquids: Slow-Motion Visualization of Experiments with Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present fascinating simple demonstration experiments recorded with high-speed cameras in the field of fluid dynamics. Examples include oscillations of falling droplets, effects happening upon impact of a liquid droplet into a liquid, the disintegration of extremely large droplets in free fall and the consequences of incompressibility. (Contains…

  11. Visual Data Collection Methods for Research on the Affective Dimensions of Children's Personal Experiences of PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of research on Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) over the past decade has paid little attention to research methodology. This paper redresses this lack of attention to research methods and reports on a study conducted on children's personal experiences of Game Sense. The study focuses on the use of year six students'…

  12. Why Are Faces Denser in the Visual Experiences of Younger than Older Infants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaraman, Swapnaa; Fausey, Caitlin M.; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence from studies using head cameras suggests that the frequency of faces directly in front of infants "declines" over the first year and a half of life, a result that has implications for the development of and evolutionary constraints on face processing. Two experiments tested 2 opposing hypotheses about this observed…

  13. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  14. Hemispheric Predominance Assessment of Phonology and Semantics: A Divided Visual Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousin, Emilie; Peyrin, Carole; Baciu, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present behavioural experiment was to evaluate the most lateralized among two phonological (phoneme vs. rhyme detection) and the most lateralized among two semantic ("living" vs. "edible" categorization) tasks, within the dominant hemisphere for language. The reason of addressing this question was a practical one: to evaluate the…

  15. Creating Meaningful Art Experiences with Assistive Technology for Students with Physical, Visual, Severe, and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mari Beth; Cramer, Elizabeth Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Various levels of assistive technology can be used in the art classroom to provide a fulfilling artmaking experience for all levels of learners. The purpose of this article is to add to the body of knowledge by providing ideas generated from collaboration between the fields of special education and art education that the authors feel will benefit…

  16. Rapid Improvement in Visual Selective Attention Related to Action Video Gaming Experience.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Nan; Ma, Weiyi; Fan, Xin; Zhang, Youjin; Li, Yi; Yan, Yuening; Zhou, Zhongliang; Li, Fali; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    A central issue in cognitive science is understanding how learning induces cognitive and neural plasticity, which helps illuminate the biological basis of learning. Research in the past few decades showed that action video gaming (AVG) offered new, important perspectives on learning-related cognitive and neural plasticity. However, it is still unclear whether cognitive and neural plasticity is observable after a brief AVG session. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, this study examined the plasticity of visual selective attention (VSA) associated with a 1 h AVG session. Both AVG experts and non-experts participated in this study. Their VSA was assessed prior to and after the AVG session. Within-group comparisons on the participants' performance before and after the AVG session showed improvements in response time in both groups and modulations of electrophysiological measures in the non-experts. Furthermore, between-group comparisons showed that the experts had superior VSA, relative to the non-experts, prior to the AVG session. These findings suggested an association between the plasticity of VSA and AVG. Most importantly, this study showed that the plasticity of VSA was observable after even a 1 h AVG session.

  17. Collaborative WorkBench (cwb): Enabling Experiment Execution, Analysis and Visualization with Increased Scientific Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, Manil; Ramachandran, Rahul; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2015-04-01

    The Collaborative WorkBench (CWB) has been successfully developed to support collaborative science algorithm development. It incorporates many features that enable and enhance science collaboration, including the support for both asynchronous and synchronous modes of interactions in collaborations. With the former, members in a team can share a full range of research artifacts, e.g. data, code, visualizations, and even virtual machine images. With the latter, they can engage in dynamic interactions such as notification, instant messaging, file exchange, and, most notably, collaborative programming. CWB also implements behind-the-scene provenance capture as well as version control to relieve scientists of these chores. Furthermore, it has achieved a seamless integration between researchers' local compute environments and those of the Cloud. CWB has also been successfully extended to support instrument verification and validation. Adopted by almost every researcher, the current practice of downloading data to local compute resources for analysis results in much duplication and inefficiency. CWB leverages Cloud infrastructure to provide a central location for data used by an entire science team, thereby eliminating much of this duplication and waste. Furthermore, use of CWB in concert with this same Cloud infrastructure enables co-located analysis with data where opportunities of data-parallelism can be better exploited, thereby further improving efficiency. With its collaboration-enabling features apposite to steps throughout the scientific process, we expect CWB to fundamentally transform research collaboration and realize maximum science productivity.

  18. Recognition of simple visual images using a sparse distributed memory: Some implementations and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, a method was described of representing a class of simple visual images so that they could be used with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). Herein, two possible implementations are described of a SDM, for which these images, suitably encoded, will serve both as addresses to the memory and as data to be stored in the memory. A key feature of both implementations is that a pattern that is represented as an unordered set with a variable number of members can be used as an address to the memory. In the 1st model, an image is encoded as a 9072 bit string to be used as a read or write address; the bit string may also be used as data to be stored in the memory. Another representation, in which an image is encoded as a 256 bit string, may be used with either model as data to be stored in the memory, but not as an address. In the 2nd model, an image is not represented as a vector of fixed length to be used as an address. Instead, a rule is given for determining which memory locations are to be activated in response to an encoded image. This activation rule treats the pieces of an image as an unordered set. With this model, the memory can be simulated, based on a method of computing the approximate result of a read operation.

  19. Rapid Improvement in Visual Selective Attention Related to Action Video Gaming Experience

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Nan; Ma, Weiyi; Fan, Xin; Zhang, Youjin; Li, Yi; Yan, Yuening; Zhou, Zhongliang; Li, Fali; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    A central issue in cognitive science is understanding how learning induces cognitive and neural plasticity, which helps illuminate the biological basis of learning. Research in the past few decades showed that action video gaming (AVG) offered new, important perspectives on learning-related cognitive and neural plasticity. However, it is still unclear whether cognitive and neural plasticity is observable after a brief AVG session. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, this study examined the plasticity of visual selective attention (VSA) associated with a 1 h AVG session. Both AVG experts and non-experts participated in this study. Their VSA was assessed prior to and after the AVG session. Within-group comparisons on the participants' performance before and after the AVG session showed improvements in response time in both groups and modulations of electrophysiological measures in the non-experts. Furthermore, between-group comparisons showed that the experts had superior VSA, relative to the non-experts, prior to the AVG session. These findings suggested an association between the plasticity of VSA and AVG. Most importantly, this study showed that the plasticity of VSA was observable after even a 1 h AVG session. PMID:29487514

  20. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: a voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL.

    PubMed

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Singh, Namita; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Khushu, Subash

    2012-10-01

    To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The 1980 and 1981 Accident Experience of Civil Airmen with Selected Visual Pathology,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    contact lens users did not. The present study examined the 1980-81 accident experience of 4,169 monocular pilots, 1,299 with amblyopia , 969 with aphakia...organic lesions, and others had an entry of "no fusion" on their reports of examination, the amblyopia and tropia categories were also scheduled for...the 10 selected eye pathologies (diplopia, tropia, aphakia, lens implants, blindness or absence of an eye, amblyopia , right hyperphoria >1 diopter

  2. The Experiment Data Depot: A Web-Based Software Tool for Biological Experimental Data Storage, Sharing, and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, William C.; Birkel, Garrett W.; Forrer, Mark

    Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high-quality data to be parametrized and tested, which are not generally available. Here, we present the Experiment Data Depot (EDD), an online tool designed as a repository of experimental data and metadata. EDD provides a convenient way to upload a variety of data types, visualize these data, and export them in a standardized fashion for use with predictive algorithms. In this paper, we describe EDDmore » and showcase its utility for three different use cases: storage of characterized synthetic biology parts, leveraging proteomics data to improve biofuel yield, and the use of extracellular metabolite concentrations to predict intracellular metabolic fluxes.« less

  3. The Experiment Data Depot: A Web-Based Software Tool for Biological Experimental Data Storage, Sharing, and Visualization.

    PubMed

    Morrell, William C; Birkel, Garrett W; Forrer, Mark; Lopez, Teresa; Backman, Tyler W H; Dussault, Michael; Petzold, Christopher J; Baidoo, Edward E K; Costello, Zak; Ando, David; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; George, Kevin W; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Vaino, Ian; Keasling, Jay D; Adams, Paul D; Hillson, Nathan J; Garcia Martin, Hector

    2017-12-15

    Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high-quality data to be parametrized and tested, which are not generally available. Here, we present the Experiment Data Depot (EDD), an online tool designed as a repository of experimental data and metadata. EDD provides a convenient way to upload a variety of data types, visualize these data, and export them in a standardized fashion for use with predictive algorithms. In this paper, we describe EDD and showcase its utility for three different use cases: storage of characterized synthetic biology parts, leveraging proteomics data to improve biofuel yield, and the use of extracellular metabolite concentrations to predict intracellular metabolic fluxes.

  4. The Experiment Data Depot: A Web-Based Software Tool for Biological Experimental Data Storage, Sharing, and Visualization

    DOE PAGES

    Morrell, William C.; Birkel, Garrett W.; Forrer, Mark; ...

    2017-08-21

    Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high-quality data to be parametrized and tested, which are not generally available. Here, we present the Experiment Data Depot (EDD), an online tool designed as a repository of experimental data and metadata. EDD provides a convenient way to upload a variety of data types, visualize these data, and export them in a standardized fashion for use with predictive algorithms. In this paper, we describe EDDmore » and showcase its utility for three different use cases: storage of characterized synthetic biology parts, leveraging proteomics data to improve biofuel yield, and the use of extracellular metabolite concentrations to predict intracellular metabolic fluxes.« less

  5. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment

    PubMed Central

    Landim, Ricardo C.G.; Edden, Richard A.E.; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J.M.; Castellano, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in 1H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA + NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of −(21 ± 19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64 ± 62)% (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05). These results may relate to: 1) the only known NAAG synthesis pathway is from NAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response. PMID:26656908

  6. Abnormal cubic-tetragonal phase transition of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles studied by in situ Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Chen; Gao, Ran

    2015-11-02

    Phase stability of the ferroelectric materials at high temperature is extremely important to their device performance. Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) nanoparticles with different Sr contents (x = 1, 0.91, 0.65, 0.4, and 0) are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses under in situ heating conditions (up to 300 °C), the phase transitions of BST nanoparticles between 25 °C and 280 °C are comprehensively investigated. The original Curie temperature of BST nanoparticles decreases abruptly with the increase in Sr content, which is more obvious than in the bulk or film material. Besides, an abnormal phase transitionmore » from cubic to tetragonal structure is observed from BST nanoparticles and the transition temperature rises along with the increase in Sr content. Direct TEM evidences including a slight lattice distortion have been provided. Differently, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained in the tetragonal phase during the above temperature ranges.« less

  7. Why are faces denser in the visual experiences of younger than older infants?

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Swapnaa; Fausey, Caitlin M.; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence from studies using head cameras suggests that the frequency of faces directly in front of infants declines over the first year and a half of life, a result that has implications for the development of and evolutionary constraints on face processing. Two experiments tested two opposing hypotheses about this observed age-related decline in the frequency of faces in infant views. By the People-input hypothesis, there are more faces in view for younger infants because people are more often physically in front of younger than older infants. This hypothesis predicts that not just faces but views of other body parts will decline with age. By the Face-input hypothesis, the decline is strictly about faces, not people or other body parts in general. Two experiments, one using a time-sampling method (84 infants 3 to 24 months in age) and the other analyses of head camera images (36 infants 1 to 24 months) provide strong support for the Face-input hypothesis. The results suggest developmental constraints on the environment that ensure faces are prevalent early in development. PMID:28026190

  8. Anger and associated experiences of sadness, fear, valence, arousal, and dominance evoked by visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Javela, José Julían; Mercadillo, Roberto E; Martín Ramírez, J

    2008-12-01

    Anger is a basic emotion experienced in several aversive situations. In this study, the relation between Anger, Fear, and Sadness, as well as the dimensions of Valence, Arousal, and Dominance, were examined. It was hypothesized that pictures showing an Intention to Harm would evoke not only Anger, but also Fear and Sadness, and that this would be correlated with low Valence, high Arousal, and high Dominance. To this end, 45 healthy volunteers (25 women and 20 men; M age = 27.2 yr., SD = 9.5) recorded appraisals for each of these emotional experience while viewing 120 pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and a hierarchical classes approach to identify differences and correlations between emotional categories. Results indicate that those pictures showing Intention to Harm generate higher Anger and Fear, while pictures representing Frustration of Goals leads to higher Sadness. In addition, high Anger, Fear, and Sadness are associated with low Valence, moderate Arousal, and high Dominance. Same sex differences in emotional responses were also found. These findings suggest that the experience of Anger requires the inference of the other's mental and physical state and need the regulation of cognitive and affective systems acting together. The study of this emotion should consider both categorical and dimensional approaches in order to define its coherent features.

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. OH PLIF Visualization of the UVa Supersonic Combustion Experiment: Configuration A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Craig T.; McRae, Colin D.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gallo, Emanuela; Cantu, Luca Maria Luigi; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed in the University of Virginia s dual-mode scramjet experiment. The test section was set up in configuration A, which includes a Mach 2 nozzle, combustor, and extender section. Hydrogen fuel was injected through an unswept compression ramp at two different equivalence ratios. Through the translation of the optical system and the use of two separate camera views, the entire optical range of the combustor was accessed. Single-shot, average, and standard deviation images of the OH PLIF signal are presented at several streamwise locations. The results show the development of a highly turbulent flame structure and provide an experimental database to be used for numerical model assessment.

  11. OH PLIF Visualization of the UVa Supersonic Combustion Experiment: Configuration A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Craig T.; McRae, Colin D.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Rockwell, Robert D., Jr.; Goyne, Chris P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed in the University of Virginia supersonic combustion experiment. The test section was set up in configuration A, which includes a Mach 2 nozzle, combustor, and extender section. Hydrogen fuel was injected through an unswept compression ramp at two different equivalence ratios. Through the translation of the optical system and the use of two separate camera views, the entire optically accessible range of the combustor was imaged. Single-shot, average, and standard deviation images of the OH PLIF signal are presented at several streamwise locations. The results show the development of a highly turbulent flame structure and provide an experimental database to be used for numerical model assessment.

  12. Laboratory flow experiments for visualizing carbon dioxide-induced, density-driven brine convection

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-09-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers confined by low-permeability cap rock will result in a layer of CO{sub 2} overlying the brine. Dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine increases the brine density, resulting in an unstable situation in which more-dense brine overlies less-dense brine. This gravitational instability could give rise to density-driven convection of the fluid, which is a favorable process of practical interest for CO{sub 2} storage security because it accelerates the transfer of buoyant CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase, where it is no longer subject to an upward buoyant drive. Laboratory flow visualizationmore » tests in transparent Hele-Shaw cells have been performed to elucidate the processes and rates of this CO{sub 2} solute-driven convection (CSC). Upon introduction of CO{sub 2} into the system, a layer of CO{sub 2}-laden brine forms at the CO{sub 2}-water interface. Subsequently, small convective fingers form, which coalesce, broaden, and penetrate into the test cell. Images and time-series data of finger lengths and wavelengths are presented. Observed CO{sub 2} uptake of the convection system indicates that the CO{sub 2} dissolution rate is approximately constant for each test and is far greater than expected for a diffusion-only scenario. Numerical simulations of our system show good agreement with the experiments for onset time of convection and advancement of convective fingers. There are differences as well, the most prominent being the absence of cell-scale convection in the numerical simulations. This cell-scale convection observed in the experiments is probably initiated by a small temperature gradient induced by the cell illumination.« less

  13. Women's access to abortion after 20 weeks' gestation for fetal chromosomal abnormalities: Views and experiences of doctors in New South Wales and Queensland.

    PubMed

    Black, Kirsten I; Douglas, Heather; de Costa, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Induced abortions after 20 weeks' gestation comprise around one per cent of all terminations in Australia and mostly occur following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. However, these abortions are overly represented in legal cases against doctors and challenging to organise in those states where abortion remains in the criminal code and health department directives impose regulations. This study explores barriers to abortion access after 20 weeks' gestation in the states of Queensland and New South Wales. We approached and sought consent from 22 doctors involved in abortion provision (15 in Queensland and seven in NSW), who responded in depth to a set of clinical scenarios. This study presents participants' responses to three clinical scenarios of women presenting with a fetal chromosomal abnormality after 20 weeks' gestation. Of the 22 medical practitioners in this study, 18 reported that access to late-term abortion in their state was restricted. The two key factors perceived to affect the decision to terminate a pregnancy in this context were the legal status of abortion and Department of Health policies mandating that applications for abortion be presented to clinical ethics committees. Practitioners reported that committees were slow to convene and inconsistent in their decisions. Ethics committee involvement for late-term abortions is required by state health policy in NSW and Queensland, where abortion is still a criminal offence. This process is seen by abortion providers to hinder timely access to services and excludes women from the decision-making process. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    PubMed Central

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  15. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  16. OH PLIF Visualization of the UVa Supersonic Combustion Experiment: Configuration C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Colin D.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Rockwell, Robert D., Jr.; Goyne, Christopher P.; McDnaiel, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Non-intrusive hydroxyl radical (OH) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were obtained in configuration C of the University of Virginia supersonic combustion experiment. The combustion of hydrogen fuel injected through an unswept compression ramp into a supersonic cross-flow was imaged over a range of streamwise positions. Images were corrected for optical distortion, variations in the laser sheet profile, and different camera views. Results indicate an effect of fuel equivalence ratio on combustion zone shape and local turbulence length scale. The streamwise location of the reaction zone relative to the fuel injector was also found to be sensitive to the fuel equivalence ratio. The flow boundary conditions in the combustor section, which are sensitive to the fuel flow rate, are believed to have caused this effect. A combination of laser absorption and radiative trapping effects are proposed to have caused asymmetry observed in the images. The results complement previously published OH PLIF data obtained for configuration A along with other non-intrusive measurements to form a database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model validation.

  17. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  18. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  19. Publisher Correction: Single-cell analysis of experience-dependent transcriptomic states in the mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; Hochbaum, Daniel R; Nagy, M Aurel; Cicconet, Marcelo; Robertson, Keiramarie; Cheadle, Lucas; Zilionis, Rapolas; Ratner, Alex; Borges-Monroy, Rebeca; Klein, Allon M; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Greenberg, Michael E

    2018-05-11

    In the version of this article initially published, the x-axis labels in Fig. 3c read Vglut, Gad1/2, Aldh1l1 and Pecam1; they should have read Vglut + , Gad1/2 + , Aldh1l1 + and Pecam1 + . In Fig. 4, the range values were missing from the color scales; they are, from left to right, 4-15, 0-15, 4-15 and 0-15 in Fig. 4a and 4-15, 4-15 and 4-8 in Fig. 4h. In the third paragraph of the main text, the phrase reading "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types, thus masking the full diversity of excitatory populations" should have read "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types and masked the full diversity of excitatory populations." In the second paragraph of Results section "Diversity of experience-regulated ERGs," the phrase reading "thus suggesting considerable divergence within the gene expression program responding to early stimuli" should have read "thus suggesting considerable divergence within the early stimulus-responsive gene expression program." In the fourth paragraph of Results section "Excitatory neuronal LRGs," the sentence reading "The anatomical organization of these cell types into sublayers, coupled with divergent transcriptional responses to a sensory stimulus, suggested previously unappreciated functional subdivisions located within the laminae of the mouse visual cortex and resembling the cytoarchitecture in higher mammals" should have read "The anatomical organization of these cell types into sublayers, coupled with divergent transcriptional responses to a sensory stimulus, suggests previously unappreciated functional subdivisions located within the laminae of the mouse visual cortex, resembling the cytoarchitecture in higher mammals." In the last sentence of the Results, "sensory-responsive genes" should have read "sensory-stimulus-responsive genes." The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

  20. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.

    PubMed

    Landim, Ricardo C G; Edden, Richard A E; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J M; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). These results may relate to: 1) the only known NAAG synthesis pathway is from NAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conduction Abnormalities and Permanent Pacemaker Implantation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using the Repositionable LOTUS Device: The United Kingdom Experience.

    PubMed

    Rampat, Rajiv; Khawaja, M Zeeshan; Hilling-Smith, Roland; Byrne, Jonathan; MacCarthy, Philip; Blackman, Daniel J; Krishnamurthy, Arvindra; Gunarathne, Ashan; Kovac, Jan; Banning, Adrian; Kharbanda, Raj; Firoozi, Sami; Brecker, Stephen; Redwood, Simon; Bapat, Vinayak; Mullen, Michael; Aggarwal, Suneil; Manoharan, Ganesh; Spence, Mark S; Khogali, Saib; Dooley, Maureen; Cockburn, James; de Belder, Adam; Trivedi, Uday; Hildick-Smith, David

    2017-06-26

    The authors report the incidence of pacemaker implantation up to hospital discharge and the factors influencing pacing rate following implantation of the LOTUS bioprosthesis (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) in the United Kingdom. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with a significant need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Pacing rates vary according to the device used. The REPRISE II (Repositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve Through Implantation of Lotus Valve System) trial reported a pacing rate of 29% at 30 days after implantation of the LOTUS device. Data were collected retrospectively on 228 patients who had the LOTUS device implanted between March 2013 and February 2015 across 10 centers in the United Kingdom. Twenty-seven patients (12%) had pacemakers implanted pre-procedure and were excluded from the analysis. Patients were aged 81.2 ± 7.7 years; 50.7% were male. The mean pre-procedural QRS duration was 101.7 ± 20.4 ms. More than one-half of the cohort (n = 111, 55%) developed new left bundle branch block (LBBB) following the procedure. Permanent pacemakers were implanted in 64 patients (32%) with a median time to insertion of 3.0 ± 3.4 days. Chief indications for pacing were atrioventricular (AV) block (n = 46, 72%), or LBBB with 1st degree AV block (n = 11, 17%). Amongst those who received a pacemaker following TAVR the pre-procedural electrocardiogram findings included: No conduction disturbance (n = 41, 64%); 1st degree AV block (n = 10, 16%); right bundle branch block (n = 6, 9%) and LBBB (n = 5, 8%). LBBB (but not permanent pacemaker) occurred more frequently in patients who had balloon aortic valvuloplasty before TAVR (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25; p = 0.03). Pre-procedural conduction abnormality (composite of 1st degree AV block, hemiblock, right bundle branch block, LBBB) was independently associated with the need for permanent pacemaker (OR: 2.54; p = 0.048). The absence of

  2. Detection experiments with humans implicate visual predation as a driver of colour polymorphism dynamics in pygmy grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal colour patterns offer good model systems for studies of biodiversity and evolution of local adaptations. An increasingly popular approach to study the role of selection for camouflage for evolutionary trajectories of animal colour patterns is to present images of prey on paper or computer screens to human ‘predators’. Yet, few attempts have been made to confirm that rates of detection by humans can predict patterns of selection and evolutionary modifications of prey colour patterns in nature. In this study, we first analyzed encounters between human ‘predators’ and images of natural black, grey and striped colour morphs of the polymorphic Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers presented on background images of unburnt, intermediate or completely burnt natural habitats. Next, we compared detection rates with estimates of capture probabilities and survival of free-ranging grasshoppers, and with estimates of relative morph frequencies in natural populations. Results The proportion of grasshoppers that were detected and time to detection depended on both the colour pattern of the prey and on the type of visual background. Grasshoppers were detected more often and faster on unburnt backgrounds than on 50% and 100% burnt backgrounds. Striped prey were detected less often than grey or black prey on unburnt backgrounds; grey prey were detected more often than black or striped prey on 50% burnt backgrounds; and black prey were detected less often than grey prey on 100% burnt backgrounds. Rates of detection mirrored previously reported rates of capture by humans of free-ranging grasshoppers, as well as morph specific survival in the wild. Rates of detection were also correlated with frequencies of striped, black and grey morphs in samples of T. subulata from natural populations that occupied the three habitat types used for the detection experiment. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that crypsis is background-dependent, and implicate visual predation

  3. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural mechanisms of oculomotor abnormalities in the infantile strabismus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walton, Mark M G; Pallus, Adam; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael J; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    Infantile strabismus is characterized by numerous visual and oculomotor abnormalities. Recently nonhuman primate models of infantile strabismus have been established, with characteristics that closely match those observed in human patients. This has made it possible to study the neural basis for visual and oculomotor symptoms in infantile strabismus. In this review, we consider the available evidence for neural abnormalities in structures related to oculomotor pathways ranging from visual cortex to oculomotor nuclei. These studies provide compelling evidence that a disturbance of binocular vision during a sensitive period early in life, whatever the cause, results in a cascade of abnormalities through numerous brain areas involved in visual functions and eye movements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Developing an Inclusive Learning Environment for Students with Visual Impairment in Higher Education: Progressive Mutual Accommodation and Learner Experiences in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewett, Rachel; Douglas, Graeme; McLinden, Michael; Keil, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of a unique longitudinal qualitative study, this article investigates the experiences of 32 young people with visual impairment (VI) in higher education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) to explore how well they were able to participate on their courses. We propose and apply a Bioecological Model of Inclusive HE to interpret…

  6. H3 and H4 Lysine Acetylation Correlates with Developmental and Experimentally Induced Adult Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Mouse Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vierci, Gabriela; Pannunzio, Bruno; Bornia, Natalia; Rossi, Francesco M.

    2016-01-01

    Histone posttranslational modifications play a fundamental role in orchestrating gene expression. In this work, we analyzed the acetylation of H3 and H4 histones (AcH3–AcH4) and its modulation by visual experience in the mouse visual cortex (VC) during normal development and in two experimental conditions that restore juvenile-like plasticity levels in adults (fluoxetine treatment and enriched environment). We found that AcH3–AcH4 declines with age and is upregulated by treatments restoring plasticity in the adult. We also found that visual experience modulates AcH3–AcH4 in young and adult plasticity-restored mice but not in untreated ones. Finally, we showed that the transporter vGAT is downregulated in adult plasticity-restored models. In summary, we identified a dynamic regulation of AcH3–AcH4, which is associated with high plasticity levels and enhanced by visual experience. These data, along with recent ones, indicate H3–H4 acetylation as a central hub in the control of experience-dependent plasticity in the VC. PMID:27891053

  7. Concentrations of biogenic amines in fundal layers in chickens with normal visual experience, deprivation, and after reserpine application.

    PubMed

    Ohngemach, S; Hagel, G; Schaeffel, F

    1997-01-01

    HVA levels in retina and vitreous for at least 10 days in a dose-dependent fashion and diminished or suppressed further effects of deprivation on these compounds. DOPAC levels continued to change upon deprivation even after reserpine injection (Fig. 3). Our results suggest that the release rates of dopamine from retinal amacrine cells can be estimated from vitreal dopamine concentrations; furthermore, they are in line with the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between dopamine release and axial eye growth rates. Although our experiments do not ultimately prove that dopamine has a functional role in the visual control of eye growth, they are in line with this notion.

  8. Preliminary experiments on surface flow visualization in the cryogenic wind tunnel by use of condensing or freezing gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic wind tunnel users must have available surface flow visualization techniques to satisfy a variety of needs. While the ideal from an aerodynamic stand would be non-intrusive, until an economical technique is developed there will be occasions when the user will be prepared to resort to an intrusive method. One such method is proposed, followed by preliminary evaluation experiments carried out in environments representative of the cryogenic nitrogen tunnel. The technique uses substances which are gases at normal temperature and pressure but liquid or solid at cryogenic temperatures. These are deposited on the model in localized regions, the patterns of the deposits and their subsequent melting or evaporation revealing details of the surface flow. The gases were chosen because of the likelihood that they will not permanently contaminate the model or tunnel. Twenty-four gases were identified as possibly suitable and four of these were tested from which it was concluded that surface flow direction can be shown by the method. Other flow details might also be detectable. The cryogenic wind tunnel used was insulated on the outside and did not show signs of contamination.

  9. Spatially resolved, diffuse reflectance imaging for subsurface pattern visualization toward development of a lensless imaging platform: phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelkanova, Irina; Pandya, Aditya; Saiko, Guennadi; Nacy, Lidia; Babar, Hannan; Shah, Duoaud; Lilge, Lothar; Douplik, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    A portable, spatially resolved, diffuse reflectance lensless imaging technique based on the charge-coupled device or complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor directly coupled to the fiber optic bundle is proposed for visualization of subsurface structures such as superficial microvasculature in the epithelium. We discuss an experimental method for emulating a lensless imaging setup via raster scanning a single fiber-optic cable over a microfluidic phantom containing periodic hemoglobin absorption contrast. To evaluate the ability of the technique to recover information about the subsurface linear structures, scattering layers formed of the Sylgard® 184 Silicone Elastomer and titanium dioxide were placed atop the microfluidic phantom. Thickness of the layers ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 mm, and the values of the reduced scattering coefficient (μs‧) were between 0.85 and 4.25 mm-1. The results demonstrate that fiber-optic, lensless platform can be used for two-dimensional imaging of absorbing inclusions in diffuse reflectance mode. In these experiments, it was shown that diffuse reflectance imaging can provide sufficient spatial sampling of the phantom for differentiation of 30 μm structural features of the embedded absorbing pattern inside the scattering media.

  10. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  11. Experiments in Visual Localization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    thinking also leads us to believe that this model will apply to naturally occurring pathological paretic states such as those’that occur in myasthenia ... gravis and in other pathological states involving I. L. Matin 13 ophthalmoplegia, and we are currently carrying out such research. Fig. 4 The four main

  12. Visual cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  13. A survey on the knowledge and attitudes of anaesthesia providers in the United States of America, United Kingdom and Singapore on visual experiences during cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, C S H; Kumar, C M; Fanning, G L; Lai, Y C; Au Eong, K G

    2006-04-01

    To assess the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of anaesthesia providers on the patients' possible intraoperative visual experiences during cataract surgery under local anaesthesia. Anaesthesia providers from the Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society (USA); British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society (UK); Alexandra Hospital, National University Hospital, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore General Hospital and Changi General Hospital (Singapore) were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 146 anaesthesiologists (81.6%), 10 ophthalmologists (5.6%) and 23 nurse anaesthetists (12.8%) responded to the survey. Most respondents believed that patients would experience light perception and many also felt that patients might encounter other visual sensations such as movements, flashes, colours, surgical instruments, hands/fingers and the surgeon during the surgery. A significantly higher proportion of anaesthesia providers with previous experience of monitoring patients under topical anaesthesia believed that patients might experience the various visual sensations compared to those who have not previously monitored. For both topical and regional anaesthesia, anaesthesia providers who routinely counsel their patients are (1) more likely to believe that preoperative counselling helps or (2) were previously told by patients that they could see intraoperatively and/or that they were frightened by their visual sensations. These findings were statistically significant. The majority of anaesthesia providers in the USA, UK and Singapore are aware that patients may experience a variety of visual sensations during cataract surgery under regional or topical anaesthesia. Those who have previously managed patients undergoing cataract surgery under topical anaesthesia are more likely to believe this compared to those who have not.

  14. Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food experiences.

    PubMed

    Kostyra, Eliza; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Śniegocka, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Belle2VR: A Virtual-Reality Visualization of Subatomic Particle Physics in the Belle II Experiment.

    PubMed

    Duer, Zach; Piilonen, Leo; Glasson, George

    2018-05-01

    Belle2VR is an interactive virtual-reality visualization of subatomic particle physics, designed by an interdisciplinary team as an educational tool for learning about and exploring subatomic particle collisions. This article describes the tool, discusses visualization design decisions, and outlines our process for collaborative development.

  16. Improving Observation and Practicum Experiences for a Preservice Teacher with Visual Impairment through the Use of Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Jonathan M.; Ivy, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates a technological approach to support a preservice teacher of visually impaired students with extremely low vision to conduct essential assessments for a learner with multiple disabilities and visual impairment with limited distraction to the child and classroom. The selected technology discussed here was…

  17. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2016-01-01

    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.

  18. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs.

    PubMed

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA efficacy and feasibility in Latin America, little is known about NGO involvement with VIA programming or experiences with VIA outside the context of clinical trials and pilot projects in the region. To explore challenges faced by NGOs implementing VIA programs in Guatemala, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 NGO staff members involved with 20 VIA programs as direct service providers, program administrators, and training course instructors. Additionally, we collected data through observation at 30 NGO-sponsored cervical cancer screening campaigns, 8 cervical cancer prevention conferences, and 1 week-long NGO-sponsored VIA training course. Frequently highlighted challenges included staff turnover, concerns over training quality, a need for opportunities for continued supervision, and problems with cryotherapy referrals when immediate treatment for VIA-positive women was unavailable. Reducing staff turnover, budgeting to train replacement providers, standardizing training curricula, and offering continued supervision are key strategies to improve VIA service quality and program sustainability. Alternative training methods, such as on-the-job mentoring and course prerequisites of online learning, could help increase training time available for clinical supervision. Efforts should be made to ensure that VIA testing is coupled with immediate cryotherapy, that providers trained in VIA are also trained in cryotherapy, and that cryotherapy supplies and equipment are maintained. Where this is not

  20. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs

    PubMed Central

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA efficacy and feasibility in Latin America, little is known about NGO involvement with VIA programming or experiences with VIA outside the context of clinical trials and pilot projects in the region. Methods: To explore challenges faced by NGOs implementing VIA programs in Guatemala, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 NGO staff members involved with 20 VIA programs as direct service providers, program administrators, and training course instructors. Additionally, we collected data through observation at 30 NGO-sponsored cervical cancer screening campaigns, 8 cervical cancer prevention conferences, and 1 week-long NGO-sponsored VIA training course. Results: Frequently highlighted challenges included staff turnover, concerns over training quality, a need for opportunities for continued supervision, and problems with cryotherapy referrals when immediate treatment for VIA-positive women was unavailable. Conclusions: Reducing staff turnover, budgeting to train replacement providers, standardizing training curricula, and offering continued supervision are key strategies to improve VIA service quality and program sustainability. Alternative training methods, such as on-the-job mentoring and course prerequisites of online learning, could help increase training time available for clinical supervision. Efforts should be made to ensure that VIA testing is coupled with immediate cryotherapy, that providers trained in VIA are also trained in cryotherapy, and that cryotherapy

  1. Visual Aversive Learning Compromises Sensory Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Lee; Paz, Rony; Avidan, Galia

    2018-03-14

    Aversive learning is thought to modulate perceptual thresholds, which can lead to overgeneralization. However, it remains undetermined whether this modulation is domain specific or a general effect. Moreover, despite the unique role of the visual modality in human perception, it is unclear whether this aspect of aversive learning exists in this modality. The current study was designed to examine the effect of visual aversive outcomes on the perception of basic visual and auditory features. We tested the ability of healthy participants, both males and females, to discriminate between neutral stimuli, before and after visual learning. In each experiment, neutral stimuli were associated with aversive images in an experimental group and with neutral images in a control group. Participants demonstrated a deterioration in discrimination (higher discrimination thresholds) only after aversive learning. This deterioration was measured for both auditory (tone frequency) and visual (orientation and contrast) features. The effect was replicated in five different experiments and lasted for at least 24 h. fMRI neural responses and pupil size were also measured during learning. We showed an increase in neural activations in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala during aversive compared with neutral learning. Interestingly, the early visual cortex showed increased brain activity during aversive compared with neutral context trials, with identical visual information. Our findings imply the existence of a central multimodal mechanism, which modulates early perceptual properties, following exposure to negative situations. Such a mechanism could contribute to abnormal responses that underlie anxiety states, even in new and safe environments. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using a visual aversive-learning paradigm, we found deteriorated discrimination abilities for visual and auditory stimuli that were associated with visual aversive stimuli. We showed increased neural

  2. Visualization of He II boiling process under the microgravity condition for 4.7 s by using a drop tower experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Suguru; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Pietrowicz, Sławomir; Grunt, Krzysztof; Murakami, Masahide; Okamura, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Superfluid helium (He II) has been utilized in space projects such as in the X-ray telescope, where it served as the heat sink of adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators. The study of He II boiling under microgravity might contribute to the construction of an important database facilitating the design of future space missions. Therefore, in this study, a visualization experiment of He II boiling was conducted under microgravity conditions by using the drop tower located at ZARM (Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity) in Bremen. The ZARM drop tower can provide up to 4.7 s of microgravity conditions in the utilized operation mode. The behavior of thermally induced bubbles during their growth and shrinkage was visualized using two high-speed cameras. A thin manganin wire was utilized as the heater. During the free fall period, the visualized bubble closely approached a steady state. The behavior can be roughly calculated using a simple equation based on kinetic theory.

  3. A comparison between patients with epiphora and cataract of the activity limitations they experience in daily life due to their visual disability.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Elin; Wyon, Maria; Lundström, Mats; Dafgård Kopp, Eva

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare patients with epiphora and cataract in terms of the activity limitations they experience in daily life due to their visual disability and to validate the use of the Catquest-9SF questionnaire for epiphora patients. Seventy-two consecutively encountered adult patients with confirmed lacrimal obstruction and listed for dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) or lacrimal intubation at the St. Erik Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, completed the Catquest-9SF questionnaire, which measures activity limitations in daily life due to visual disability. The psychometric qualities of the Catquest-9SF results obtained from this group of patients were evaluated by Rasch analysis. Rasch analysis was further employed to convert the ordinal raw data to a Rasch score for comparison with the preoperative scores of patients registered in the Swedish National Cataract Register (NCR) during March 2013. The Catquest-9SF exhibited good psychometric qualities when investigating epiphora patients, with the exception of a misfit for Item 4, the item regarding facial recognition. On the Rasch scale (-5.43 = no activity limitations to +5.01 = severe activity limitations), the mean score for epiphora patients was -0.82 while for patients listed for 1st eye and 2nd eye cataract surgery it was -0.17 and -0.76, respectively. An equivalence test confirmed that the reported visual disability of epiphora patients was not significantly different from visual disability reported by patients waiting for 2nd eye cataract surgery. The Catquest-9SF is a valid measure of visual disability in patients with epiphora. Epiphora patients experience visual disability to the same degree as patients awaiting 2nd eye cataract surgery. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  5. Vapor-screen flow-visualization experiments in the NASA Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, G. V.

    1986-01-01

    The vortical flow on the leeward side of a delta-wing model has been visualized at several different tunnel conditions in the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel using a vapor-screen flow-visualization technique. Vapor-screen photographs of the subject flow field are presented and interpreted relative to phenomenological implications. Results indicate that the use of nitrogen fog in conjunction with the vapor-screen technique is feasibile.

  6. Patient DF's visual brain in action: Visual feedforward control in visual form agnosia.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Robert L; Milner, A David; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Barat, Masihullah; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2015-05-01

    Patient DF, who developed visual form agnosia following ventral-stream damage, is unable to discriminate the width of objects, performing at chance, for example, when asked to open her thumb and forefinger a matching amount. Remarkably, however, DF adjusts her hand aperture to accommodate the width of objects when reaching out to pick them up (grip scaling). While this spared ability to grasp objects is presumed to be mediated by visuomotor modules in her relatively intact dorsal stream, it is possible that it may rely abnormally on online visual or haptic feedback. We report here that DF's grip scaling remained intact when her vision was completely suppressed during grasp movements, and it still dissociated sharply from her poor perceptual estimates of target size. We then tested whether providing trial-by-trial haptic feedback after making such perceptual estimates might improve DF's performance, but found that they remained significantly impaired. In a final experiment, we re-examined whether DF's grip scaling depends on receiving veridical haptic feedback during grasping. In one condition, the haptic feedback was identical to the visual targets. In a second condition, the haptic feedback was of a constant intermediate width while the visual target varied trial by trial. Despite this incongruent feedback, DF still scaled her grip aperture to the visual widths of the target blocks, showing only normal adaptation to the false haptically-experienced width. Taken together, these results strengthen the view that DF's spared grasping relies on a normal mode of dorsal-stream functioning, based chiefly on visual feedforward processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal Sensory Experiences, Synaesthesia, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluegge, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that sensory processing may be affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this letter is to highlight a few recent studies on the topic and tie the findings to a recently identified epidemiological risk factor for ASD, principally environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide (N[subscript…

  8. Preattentive visual search and perceptual grouping in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Carr, V J; Dewis, S A; Lewin, T J

    1998-06-15

    To help determine whether patients with schizophrenia show deficits in the stimulus-based aspects of preattentive processing, we undertook a series of experiments within the framework of feature integration theory. Thirty subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects completed two computerized experimental tasks, a visual search task assessing parallel and serial information processing (Experiment 1) and a task which examined the effects of perceptual grouping on visual search strategies (Experiment 2). We also assessed current symptomatology and its relationship to task performance. While the schizophrenia subjects had longer reaction times in Experiment 1, their overall pattern of performance across both experimental tasks was similar to that of the control subjects, and generally unrelated to current symptomatology. Predictions from feature integration theory about the impact of varying display size (Experiment 1) and number of perceptual groups (Experiment 2) on the detection of feature and conjunction targets were strongly supported. This study revealed no firm evidence that schizophrenia is associated with a preattentive abnormality in visual search using stimuli that differ on the basis of physical characteristics. While subject and task characteristics may partially account for differences between this and previous studies, it is more likely that preattentive processing abnormalities in schizophrenia may occur only under conditions involving selected 'top-down' factors such as context and meaning.

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  10. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  11. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Explorations in Aeolian Ecology: Radar and Visual Studies of the Aerofauna during the Convection and Precipitation/electrification (cape) Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Robert William

    I studied the ecology of aerial insects and birds (the "aerofauna") during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) Experiment in Florida during the summer of 1991. Visual observations were coordinated with simultaneous measurements of atmospheric motions, permitting novel explorations of: (1) patterns and processes in the distribution of "aerial plankton" (i.e., small, weakly flying insects that drift with boundary-layer winds); (2) the feeding ecology of "aerial planktivores" (i.e., predators that feed on aerial plankton); and (3) the flight tactics of soaring birds. Sensitive Doppler radars regularly detected fine lines of enhanced reflectivity in boundary-layer convergence zones. These "fine lines" were attributable to dense concentrations of aerial plankton entrained by the convergent airflow. Insect densities were inferred to be about an order of magnitude higher inside convergence zones then elsewhere. Anecdotal observations suggested that large quantities of aerial plankton entrained in convergence zones were sometimes "scrubbed" from the boundary layer by precipitation. Radar images clearly depicted the rapid aeolian transport of aerial plankton across the landscape, but also showed that densities of aerial plankton became concentrated along coastlines when winds blew toward the sea. In contrast, airspace over the adjacent ocean remained largely free of radar echoes under all wind conditions. The coastal concentrations, together with the absence of overwater echoes, indicate that the organisms comprising the aerial plankton respond behaviorally to coastlines to avoid being blown out to sea. Several species of aerial insectivorous predators commonly exploited boundary-layer fine lines as food resources. Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica), barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), and wandering gliders (Pantala flavescens) showed significant responses to fine lines. Details of these responses differed, but this variation clearly reflected species

  13. CT method for visualization of the appendix using a fixed oral dosage of diatrizoate--clinical experience in 525 cases.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Vincenzo; Giuliano, Concetta; Pinto, Fabio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if focused CT examinations of the pelvis, utilizing fixed oral dosage of diatrizoate contrast media, improve overall reader confidence in visualization of the appendix. Five hundred and twenty-five patients referred for, rule out appendicitis, evaluations underwent focused CT examinations of the pelvis following fixed oral dosage of diatrizoate contrast media. A five-point scale was used to assess the effect of contrast enhancement of the distal small bowel, cecum, and appendix on overall reader confidence, and subsequent visualization of the appendix. Bowel preparation was ideal in 504 of 525 (96%) patients. Enhanced supine CT images following oral administration of fixed dosage of diatrizoate had consistently good scores for reader confidence for bowel opacification (4.8+/-0.1, P<0.005) and visualization of the appendix (3.7+/-0.1, P<0.005), at 50 min following oral contrast administration. This method improved visualization of the normal appendix in 446 of 504 (88%) patients, with a specificity of 99%. In a patients meeting CT criteria for appendicitis, 21 of 21 (100%) patients were proven at surgery. The use of fixed oral dosage of diatrizoate contrast media resulted in good overall reader confidence to visualize the appendix and peri-appendiceal area, in addition to high specificity and rapid transit time.

  14. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Tay, Su Ann; Sanjay, Srinivasan

    2012-07-01

    An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs) is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG) but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia.

  15. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Su Ann; Sanjay, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs) is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG) but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia. PMID:22824610

  16. Visualization techniques for tongue analysis in traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Binh L.; Cai, Yang

    2004-05-01

    Visual inspection of the tongue has been an important diagnostic method of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Clinic data have shown significant connections between various viscera cancers and abnormalities in the tongue and the tongue coating. Visual inspection of the tongue is simple and inexpensive, but the current practice in TCM is mainly experience-based and the quality of the visual inspection varies between individuals. The computerized inspection method provides quantitative models to evaluate color, texture and surface features on the tongue. In this paper, we investigate visualization techniques and processes to allow interactive data analysis with the aim to merge computerized measurements with human expert's diagnostic variables based on five-scale diagnostic conditions: Healthy (H), History Cancers (HC), History of Polyps (HP), Polyps (P) and Colon Cancer (C).

  17. ["...cause in such a big hospital ... visually impaired persons like me, alone, can't get anywhere"--the experience of visually impaired people of the in-patient care--an empirical, explorative study].

    PubMed

    Golde, Christian

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of people with visual impairment within in-patient care. Actually, in nursing literature, no similar research is known in the German speaking area. Therefore, an qualitative research framework was used. By using a convenience sampling eight participants have been chosen. Mainly, the thematic content analysis of Burnard has been applied to the analysis of the empirical data. Mental spatial concepts for orientation, primarily acoustically made communicative resonance fields, and Action techniques constitute three major topics, which have been categorised in this study. These concepts are discussed in the cause of the research with respect to their implications on nursing care.

  18. Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardo, A.; Odetti, F.; Ioalè, P.

    2001-01-01

    Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites. PMID:11571054

  19. Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection Leads to a Poor Visual Outcome in Endogenous Endophthalmitis: A 12-year Experience in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chou; Lee, Ying-Yen; Chen, Ya-Hsin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Wu, Tsung-Tien; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2017-12-01

    To compare the characteristics, visual outcome, and prognostic factors of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis and to determine the association of endophthalmitis with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. We retrospectively analyzed records of patients diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis from January 2002 to August 2013. A total of 86 patients were diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis; 48 patients were infected with K. pneumoniae, 28 patients were infected with other pathogens, and 10 were culture-negative. Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among patients infected with K. pneumoniae. Liver abscess and urinary tract infection were the leading sources of infection in patients with and without a K. pneumoniae infection, respectively. In patients with endogenous endophthalmitis, poor initial vision (p<0.001) and K. pneumoniae infection (p = 0.048) were significantly associated with a poor visual outcome. Poor initial vision and K. pneumoniae infection were significantly associated with poorer visual outcome for patients with endogenous endophthalmitis.

  20. miR-132, an experience-dependent microRNA, is essential for visual cortex plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mellios, Nikolaos; Sugihara, Hiroki; Castro, Jorge; Banerjee, Abhishek; Le, Chuong; Kumar, Arooshi; Crawford, Benjamin; Strathmann, Julia; Tropea, Daniela; Levine, Stuart S.; Edbauer, Dieter; Sur, Mriganka

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple quantitative analyses, we discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) abundantly expressed in visual cortex that respond to dark-rearing (DR) and/or monocular deprivation (MD). The most significantly altered miRNA, miR-132, was rapidly upregulated after eye-opening and delayed by DR. In vivo inhibition of miR-132 prevented ocular dominance plasticity in identified neurons following MD, and affected maturation of dendritic spines, demonstrating its critical role in the plasticity of visual cortex circuits. PMID:21892155

  1. Neuron analysis of visual perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The receptive fields of single cells in the visual system of cat and squirrel monkey were studied investigating the vestibular input affecting the cells, and the cell's responses during visual discrimination learning process. The receptive field characteristics of the rabbit visual system, its normal development, its abnormal development following visual deprivation, and on the structural and functional re-organization of the visual system following neo-natal and prenatal surgery were also studied. The results of each individual part of each investigation are detailed.

  2. C-SPADE: a web-tool for interactive analysis and visualization of drug screening experiments through compound-specific bioactivity dendrograms

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Zaid; Peddinti, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The advent of polypharmacology paradigm in drug discovery calls for novel chemoinformatic tools for analyzing compounds’ multi-targeting activities. Such tools should provide an intuitive representation of the chemical space through capturing and visualizing underlying patterns of compound similarities linked to their polypharmacological effects. Most of the existing compound-centric chemoinformatics tools lack interactive options and user interfaces that are critical for the real-time needs of chemical biologists carrying out compound screening experiments. Toward that end, we introduce C-SPADE, an open-source exploratory web-tool for interactive analysis and visualization of drug profiling assays (biochemical, cell-based or cell-free) using compound-centric similarity clustering. C-SPADE allows the users to visually map the chemical diversity of a screening panel, explore investigational compounds in terms of their similarity to the screening panel, perform polypharmacological analyses and guide drug-target interaction predictions. C-SPADE requires only the raw drug profiling data as input, and it automatically retrieves the structural information and constructs the compound clusters in real-time, thereby reducing the time required for manual analysis in drug development or repurposing applications. The web-tool provides a customizable visual workspace that can either be downloaded as figure or Newick tree file or shared as a hyperlink with other users. C-SPADE is freely available at http://cspade.fimm.fi/. PMID:28472495

  3. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  4. Attentional Preference and Experience: II. An Exploratory Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Visual Familiarity and Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzgiris, Ina C.; Hunt, J. McV.

    The human infant is now considered capable of active informational interaction with the environment. This study tested certain hypotheses concerning the nature of that interaction. These hypotheses, developed partly from Piaget's work, are (1) that repeated visual encounters with a stimulus pattern leads first to attentional preference for that…

  5. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Visual-Motor Experiences in the Development of the Ability to Conserve Mass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey Ann Briggs

    Based on the work of Bruner, Piaget and others that indicates that the child's attention to misleading visual clues is an important factor in his lack of ability to conserve, this study is an attempt to demonstrate the effects of instruction in drawing two-dimensional figures on the ability of children (22 kindergarten children from middle class…

  6. Using Virtual Microscopy to Scaffold Learning of Pathology: A Naturalistic Experiment on the Role of Visual and Conceptual Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivala, Markus; Saljo, Roger; Rystedt, Hans; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Lehtinen, Erno

    2012-01-01

    New representational technologies, such as virtual microscopy, create new affordances for medical education. In the article, a study on the following two issues is reported: (a) How does collaborative use of virtual microscopy shape students' engagement with and learning from virtual slides of tissue specimen? (b) How do visual and conceptual cues…

  7. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  8. [Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute olanzapine poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for many years in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Poisonings with this medicine can results with cardiotoxic effects in the form of ECG abnormalities. To evaluate the nature and incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with acute olanzapine poisoning. 23 adult (mean age 38.4 +/- 15.5 years) patients with acute olanzapine poisoning, including 10 men (30.4 +/- 8.1 years) and 11 women (45.7 +/- 17.2 years), where 1 man and 1 woman were poisoned twice. The toxic serum level of olanzapine (above 100 ng/mL) was confirmed in each patient. Evaluation of electrocardiograms performed in patients in the first day of hospitalization with automatic measurement of durations of PQ, QRS and QTc and the identification of arrhythmias and conduction disorders on the basis of visual analysis of the ECG waveforms. Statistical analysis of the results using the methods of descriptive statistics. The mean durations of PQ, QRS and QTc in the study group were as follows: 135 +/- 23 ms, 91 +/- 12 ms, and 453 +/- 48 ms, respectively. The most common ECG abnormalities were prolonged QTc and supraventricular tachycardia (including sinus tachycardia) - each 22%; less common were ST-T changes (17%) and supraventricular premature complexes (9%), and only in individual cases (4%) ventricular premature complexes, bundle branch block, sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation were present. In the course of acute olanzapine poisonings: (1) prolonged QTc interval is quite common, but rarely leads to torsade de pointes tachycardia; (2) fast supraventricular rhythms are also common, but rarely cause irregular tachyarrhythmias, eg. atrial fibrillation; (3) conduction disorders (atrioventricular blocks, bundle branch blocks) are not typical abnormalities; (4) the observed ECG abnormalities emphasize the need of continuous ECG monitoring in these patients.

  9. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  10. Visual processing in anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: similarities, differences, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Bohon, Cara; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are psychiatric disorders that involve distortion of the experience of one’s physical appearance. In AN, individuals believe that they are overweight, perceive their body as “fat,” and are preoccupied with maintaining a low body weight. In BDD, individuals are preoccupied with misperceived defects in physical appearance, most often of the face. Distorted visual perception may contribute to these cardinal symptoms, and may be a common underlying phenotype. This review surveys the current literature on visual processing in AN and BDD, addressing lower- to higher-order stages of visual information processing and perception. We focus on peer-reviewed studies of AN and BDD that address ophthalmologic abnormalities, basic neural processing of visual input, integration of visual input with other systems, neuropsychological tests of visual processing, and representations of whole percepts (such as images of faces, bodies, and other objects). The literature suggests a pattern in both groups of over-attention to detail, reduced processing of global features, and a tendency to focus on symptom-specific details in their own images (body parts in AN, facial features in BDD), with cognitive strategy at least partially mediating the abnormalities. Visuospatial abnormalities were also evident when viewing images of others and for non-appearance related stimuli. Unfortunately no study has directly compared AN and BDD, and most studies were not designed to disentangle disease-related emotional responses from lower-order visual processing. We make recommendations for future studies to improve the understanding of visual processing abnormalities in AN and BDD. PMID:23810196

  11. Individual's recollections of their experiences in eye clinics and understanding of their eye condition: results from a survey of visually impaired people in Britain.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Graeme; Pavey, Sue; Corcoran, Christine; Eperjesi, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Network 1000 is a UK-based panel survey of a representative sample of adults with registered visual impairment, with the aim of gathering information about people's opinions and circumstances. Participants were interviewed (Survey 1, n = 1007: 2005; Survey 2, n = 922: 2006/07) on a range of topics including the nature of their eye condition, details of other health issues, use of low vision aids (LVAs) and their experiences in eye clinics. Eleven percent of individuals did not know the name of their eye condition. Seventy percent of participants reported having long-term health problems or disabilities in addition to visual impairment and 43% reported having hearing difficulties. Seventy one percent reported using LVAs for reading tasks. Participants who had become registered as visually impaired in the previous 8 years (n = 395) were asked questions about non-medical information received in the eye clinic around that time. Reported information received included advice about 'registration' (48%), low vision aids (45%) and social care routes (43%); 17% reported receiving no information. While 70% of people were satisfied with the information received, this was lower for those of working age (56%) compared with retirement age (72%). Those who recalled receiving additional non-medical information and advice at the time of registration also recalled their experiences more positively. Whilst caution should be applied to the accuracy of recall of past events, the data provide a valuable insight into the types of information and support that visually impaired people feel they would benefit from in the eye clinic. © 2010 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  12. Visual-spatial processing and working-memory load as a function of negative and positive psychotic-like experiences.

    PubMed

    Abu-Akel, A; Reniers, R L E P; Wood, S J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in working-memory and visual-spatial processing, but little is known about the dynamic interplay between the two. To provide insight into this important question, we examined the effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults on perceptual processing while concurrently performing a working-memory task that requires the allocations of various degrees of cognitive resources. The effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults (N = 91) on perceptual processing was examined in a dual-task paradigm of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) under three conditions of cognitive load: a baseline condition (with no concurrent working-memory demand), a low VSWM load condition, and a high VSWM load condition. Participants overall performed more efficiently (i.e., faster) with increasing cognitive load. This facilitation in performance was unrelated to symptom expressions. However, participants with high-negative, low-positive symptom expressions were less accurate in the low VSWM condition compared to the baseline and the high VSWM load conditions. Attenuated, subclinical expressions of psychosis affect cognitive performance that is impaired in schizophrenia. The "resource limitations hypothesis" may explain the performance of the participants with high-negative symptom expressions. The dual-task of visual-spatial processing and working memory may be beneficial to assessing the cognitive phenotype of individuals with high risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  13. Abnormal global and local event detection in compressive sensing domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian; Qiao, Meina; Chen, Jie; Wang, Chuanyun; Zhang, Wenjia; Snoussi, Hichem

    2018-05-01

    Abnormal event detection, also known as anomaly detection, is one challenging task in security video surveillance. It is important to develop effective and robust movement representation models for global and local abnormal event detection to fight against factors such as occlusion and illumination change. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed. It can locate the abnormal events on one frame, and detect the global abnormal frame. The proposed algorithm employs a sparse measurement matrix designed to represent the movement feature based on optical flow efficiently. Then, the abnormal detection mission is constructed as a one-class classification task via merely learning from the training normal samples. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm performs well on the benchmark abnormal detection datasets against state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Automated Steering Control Design by Visual Feedback Approach —System Identification and Control Experiments with a Radio-Controlled Car—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yukihiro; Yoshii, Masakazu; Arai, Yasuhito; Adachi, Shuichi

    Advanced safety vehicle(ASV)assists drivers’ manipulation to avoid trafic accidents. A variety of researches on automatic driving systems are necessary as an element of ASV. Among them, we focus on visual feedback approach in which the automatic driving system is realized by recognizing road trajectory using image information. The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of this approach by experiments using a radio-controlled car. First, a practical image processing algorithm to recognize white lines on the road is proposed. Second, a model of the radio-controlled car is built by system identication experiments. Third, an automatic steering control system is designed based on H∞ control theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the designed control system is examined via traveling experiments.

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  17. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  18. The Experience of Force: The Role of Haptic Experience of Forces in Visual Perception of Object Motion and Interactions, Mental Simulation, and Motion-Related Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Forces are experienced in actions on objects. The mechanoreceptor system is stimulated by proximal forces in interactions with objects, and experiences of force occur in a context of information yielded by other sensory modalities, principally vision. These experiences are registered and stored as episodic traces in the brain. These stored…

  19. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  20. Do you see what I hear: experiments in multi-channel sound and 3D visualization for network monitoring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballora, Mark; Hall, David L.

    2010-04-01

    Detection of intrusions is a continuing problem in network security. Due to the large volumes of data recorded in Web server logs, analysis is typically forensic, taking place only after a problem has occurred. This paper describes a novel method of representing Web log information through multi-channel sound, while simultaneously visualizing network activity using a 3-D immersive environment. We are exploring the detection of intrusion signatures and patterns, utilizing human aural and visual pattern recognition ability to detect intrusions as they occur. IP addresses and return codes are mapped to an informative and unobtrusive listening environment to act as a situational sound track of Web traffic. Web log data is parsed and formatted using Python, then read as a data array by the synthesis language SuperCollider [1], which renders it as a sonification. This can be done either for the study of pre-existing data sets or in monitoring Web traffic in real time. Components rendered aurally include IP address, geographical information, and server Return Codes. Users can interact with the data, speeding or slowing the speed of representation (for pre-existing data sets) or "mixing" sound components to optimize intelligibility for tracking suspicious activity.

  1. Sleep abnormalities in children with Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, Radhika; Erickson, Maia K; St Louis, Erik K; Wirrell, Elaine; Kotagal, Suresh

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A gene are responsible for the majority of Dravet syndrome cases. There is evidence that the Nav1.1 channel coded by the SCN1A gene is involved in sleep regulation. We evaluated sleep abnormalities in children with Dravet syndrome using nocturnal polysomnography. We identified six children at our institution with genetically confirmed Dravet syndrome who had also undergone formal sleep consultation with nocturnal polysomnography. Indications for polysomnography were parental concern of daytime fatigue or sleepiness, hyperactivity, inattention, disruptive behavior, nighttime awakenings, or nocturnal seizures. Sleep studies were scored according to guidelines of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and non-rapid eye movement cyclic alternating pattern was visually identified and scored according to established methods. The mean age of the subjects at the time of polysomnography was 6 years. Standard polysomnography did not show any consistent abnormalities in the obstructive or central apnea index, arousal index, sleep efficiency, or architecture. Cyclic alternating pattern analysis on five patients showed an increased mean rate of 50.3% (vs 31% to 34% in neurological normal children) with a mild increase in A1 subtype of 89.4% (vs 84.5%). A2/A3 subtype (5.3% vs 7.3%) and B phase duration (22.4 vs 24.7 seconds) were similar to previously reported findings in neurologically normal children. Despite parental concerns for sleep disturbance in patients with Dravet syndrome, we could not identify abnormalities in sleep macroarchitecture. Non-rapid eye movement sleep microarchitecture was, however, abnormal, with increased A1 subtype, somewhat resembling a tracé alternant pattern of neonates and possibly suggestive of cortical synaptic immaturity in Dravet syndrome. Larger studies are needed to replicate these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pareidolias: complex visual illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Hirayama, Kazumi; Imamura, Toru; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-08-01

    Patients rarely experience visual hallucinations while being observed by clinicians. Therefore, instruments to detect visual hallucinations directly from patients are needed. Pareidolias, which are complex visual illusions involving ambiguous forms that are perceived as meaningful objects, are analogous to visual hallucinations and have the potential to be a surrogate indicator of visual hallucinations. In this study, we explored the clinical utility of a newly developed instrument for evoking pareidolic illusions, the Pareidolia test, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies-one of the most common causes of visual hallucinations in the elderly. Thirty-four patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 34 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 26 healthy controls were given the Pareidolia test. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies produced a much greater number of pareidolic illusions compared with those with Alzheimer's disease or controls. A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the number of pareidolias differentiated dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88%. Full-length figures and faces of people and animals accounted for >80% of the contents of pareidolias. Pareidolias were observed in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who had visual hallucinations as well as those who did not have visual hallucinations, suggesting that pareidolias do not reflect visual hallucinations themselves but may reflect susceptibility to visual hallucinations. A sub-analysis of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who were or were not treated with donepzil demonstrated that the numbers of pareidolias were correlated with visuoperceptual abilities in the former and with indices of hallucinations and delusional misidentifications in the latter. Arousal and attentional deficits mediated by abnormal cholinergic mechanisms and visuoperceptual dysfunctions are likely to contribute to the development

  3. Pareidolias: complex visual illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Yokoi, Kayoko; Hirayama, Kazumi; Imamura, Toru; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    Patients rarely experience visual hallucinations while being observed by clinicians. Therefore, instruments to detect visual hallucinations directly from patients are needed. Pareidolias, which are complex visual illusions involving ambiguous forms that are perceived as meaningful objects, are analogous to visual hallucinations and have the potential to be a surrogate indicator of visual hallucinations. In this study, we explored the clinical utility of a newly developed instrument for evoking pareidolic illusions, the Pareidolia test, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies—one of the most common causes of visual hallucinations in the elderly. Thirty-four patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 34 patients with Alzheimer’s disease and 26 healthy controls were given the Pareidolia test. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies produced a much greater number of pareidolic illusions compared with those with Alzheimer’s disease or controls. A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the number of pareidolias differentiated dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88%. Full-length figures and faces of people and animals accounted for >80% of the contents of pareidolias. Pareidolias were observed in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who had visual hallucinations as well as those who did not have visual hallucinations, suggesting that pareidolias do not reflect visual hallucinations themselves but may reflect susceptibility to visual hallucinations. A sub-analysis of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who were or were not treated with donepzil demonstrated that the numbers of pareidolias were correlated with visuoperceptual abilities in the former and with indices of hallucinations and delusional misidentifications in the latter. Arousal and attentional deficits mediated by abnormal cholinergic mechanisms and visuoperceptual dysfunctions are likely to contribute to the

  4. Retinal Layer Abnormalities as Biomarkers of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Samani, Niraj N; Proudlock, Frank A; Siram, Vasantha; Suraweera, Chathurie; Hutchinson, Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2018-06-06

    Schizophrenia is associated with several brain deficits, as well as visual processing deficits, but clinically useful biomarkers are elusive. We hypothesized that retinal layer changes, noninvasively visualized using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), may represent a possible "window" to these abnormalities. A Leica EnvisuTM SD-OCT device was used to obtain high-resolution central foveal B-scans in both eyes of 35 patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched controls. Manual retinal layer segmentation was performed to acquire individual and combined layer thickness measurements in 3 macular regions. Contrast sensitivity was measured at 3 spatial frequencies in a subgroup of each cohort. Differences were compared using adjusted linear models and significantly different layer measures in patients underwent Spearman Rank correlations with contrast sensitivity, quantified symptoms severity, disease duration, and antipsychotic medication dose. Total retinal and photoreceptor complex thickness was reduced in all regions in patients (P < .0001). Segmentation revealed consistent thinning of the outer nuclear layer (P < .001) and inner segment layer (P < .05), as well as a pattern of parafoveal ganglion cell changes. Low spatial frequency contrast sensitivity was reduced in patients (P = .002) and correlated with temporal parafoveal ganglion cell complex thinning (R = .48, P = .01). Negative symptom severity was inversely correlated with foveal photoreceptor complex thickness (R = -.54, P = .001) and outer nuclear layer thickness (R = -.47, P = .005). Our novel findings demonstrate considerable retinal layer abnormalities in schizophrenia that are related to clinical features and visual function. With time, SD-OCT could provide easily-measurable biomarkers to facilitate clinical assessment and further our understanding of the disease.

  5. Modulation of the inter-hemispheric processing of semantic information during normal aging. A divided visual field experiment.

    PubMed

    Hoyau, E; Cousin, E; Jaillard, A; Baciu, M

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of normal aging on the inter-hemispheric processing of semantic information by using the divided visual field (DVF) method, with words and pictures. Two main theoretical models have been considered, (a) the HAROLD model which posits that aging is associated with supplementary recruitment of the right hemisphere (RH) and decreased hemispheric specialization, and (b) the RH decline theory, which assumes that the RH becomes less efficient with aging, associated with increased LH specialization. Two groups of subjects were examined, a Young Group (YG) and an Old Group (OG), while participants performed a semantic categorization task (living vs. non-living) in words and pictures. The DVF was realized in two steps: (a) unilateral DVF presentation with stimuli presented separately in each visual field, left or right, allowing for their initial processing by only one hemisphere, right or left, respectively; (b) bilateral DVF presentation (BVF) with stimuli presented simultaneously in both visual fields, followed by their processing by both hemispheres. These two types of presentation permitted the evaluation of two main characteristics of the inter-hemispheric processing of information, the hemispheric specialization (HS) and the inter-hemispheric cooperation (IHC). Moreover, the BVF allowed determining the driver-hemisphere for processing information presented in BVF. Results obtained in OG indicated that: (a) semantic categorization was performed as accurately as YG, even if more slowly, (b) a non-semantic RH decline was observed, and (c) the LH controls the semantic processing during the BVF, suggesting an increased role of the LH in aging. However, despite the stronger involvement of the LH in OG, the RH is not completely devoid of semantic abilities. As discussed in the paper, neither the HAROLD nor the RH decline does fully explain this pattern of results. We rather suggest that the effect of aging on the hemispheric specialization and inter

  6. Visualizing the Effects of a Positive Early Experience, Tactile Stimulation, on Dendritic Morphology and Synaptic Connectivity with Golgi-Cox Staining

    PubMed Central

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    To generate longer-term changes in behavior, experiences must be producing stable changes in neuronal morphology and synaptic connectivity. Tactile stimulation is a positive early experience that mimics maternal licking and grooming in the rat. Exposing rat pups to this positive experience can be completed easily and cost-effectively by using highly accessible materials such as a household duster. Using a cross-litter design, pups are either stroked or left undisturbed, for 15 min, three times per day throughout the perinatal period. To measure the neuroplastic changes related to this positive early experience, Golgi-Cox staining of brain tissue is utilized. Owing to the fact that Golgi-Cox impregnation stains a discrete number of neurons rather than all of the cells, staining of the rodent brain with Golgi-Cox solution permits the visualization of entire neuronal elements, including the cell body, dendrites, axons, and dendritic spines. The staining procedure is carried out over several days and requires that the researcher pay close attention to detail. However, once staining is completed, the entire brain has been impregnated and can be preserved indefinitely for ongoing analysis. Therefore, Golgi-Cox staining is a valuable resource for studying experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:24121525

  7. Visual development in primates: Neural mechanisms and critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Despite many decades of research into the development of visual cortex, it remains unclear what neural processes set limitations on the development of visual function and define its vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. This selected review examines the development of visual function and its neural correlates, and highlights the fact that in most cases receptive field properties of infant neurons are substantially more mature than infant visual function. One exception is temporal resolution, which can be accounted for by resolution of neurons at the level of the LGN. In terms of spatial vision, properties of single neurons alone are not sufficient to account for visual development. Different visual functions develop over different time courses. Their onset may be limited by the existence of neural response properties that support a given perceptual ability, but the subsequent time course of maturation to adult levels remains unexplained. Several examples are offered suggesting that taking account of weak signaling by infant neurons, correlated firing, and pooled responses of populations of neurons brings us closer to an understanding of the relationship between neural and behavioral development. PMID:25649764

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  9. Serial and semantic encoding of lists of words in schizophrenia patients with visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Brébion, Gildas; Ohlsen, Ruth I; Pilowsky, Lyn S; David, Anthony S

    2011-03-30

    Previous research has suggested that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia are associated with abnormal salience of visual mental images. Since visual imagery is used as a mnemonic strategy to learn lists of words, increased visual imagery might impede the other commonly used strategies of serial and semantic encoding. We had previously published data on the serial and semantic strategies implemented by patients when learning lists of concrete words with different levels of semantic organisation (Brébion et al., 2004). In this paper we present a re-analysis of these data, aiming at investigating the associations between learning strategies and visual hallucinations. Results show that the patients with visual hallucinations presented less serial clustering in the non-organisable list than the other patients. In the semantically organisable list with typical instances, they presented both less serial and less semantic clustering than the other patients. Thus, patients with visual hallucinations demonstrate reduced use of serial and semantic encoding in the lists made up of fairly familiar concrete words, which enable the formation of mental images. Although these results are preliminary, we propose that this different processing of the lists stems from the abnormal salience of the mental images such patients experience from the word stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The right cerebral hemisphere: emotion, music, visual-spatial skills, body-image, dreams, and awareness.

    PubMed

    Joseph, R

    1988-09-01

    Based on a review of numerous studies conducted on normal, neurosurgical and brain-injured individuals, the right cerebral hemisphere appears to be dominant in the perception and identification of environmental and nonverbal sounds; the analysis of geometric and visual space (e.g., depth perception, visual closure); somesthesis, stereognosis, the maintenance of the body image; the production of dreams during REM sleep; the perception of most aspects of musical stimuli; and the comprehension and expression of prosodic, melodic, visual, facial, and verbal emotion. When the right hemisphere is damaged a variety of cognitive abnormalities may result, including hemi-inattention and neglect, prosopagnosia, constructional apraxia, visual-perceptual disturbances, and agnosia for environmental, musical, and emotional sounds. Similarly, a myriad of affective abnormalities may occur, including indifference, depression, hysteria, gross social-emotional disinhibition, florid manic excitement, childishness, euphoria, impulsivity, and abnormal sexual behavior. Patients may become delusional, engage in the production of bizzare confabulations and experience a host of somatic disturbances such as pain and body-perceptual distortions. Based on studies of normal and "split-brain" functioning, it also appears that the right hemisphere maintains a highly developed social-emotional mental system and can independently perceive, recall and act on certain memories and experiences without the aid or active reflective participation of the left. This leads to situations in which the right and left halves of the brain sometime act in an uncooperative fashion, which gives rise to inter-manual and intra-psychic conflicts.

  11. Visual imagery without visual perception: lessons from blind subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bértolo, Helder

    2014-08-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG's spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  12. ExpTreeDB: web-based query and visualization of manually annotated gene expression profiling experiments of human and mouse from GEO.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ming; Ye, Fuqiang; Zhu, Juanjuan; Li, Zongwei; Yang, Shuai; Yang, Bite; Han, Lu; Wu, Yongge; Chen, Ying; Li, Fei; Wang, Shengqi; Bo, Xiaochen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous public microarray datasets are valuable resources for the scientific communities. Several online tools have made great steps to use these data by querying related datasets with users' own gene signatures or expression profiles. However, dataset annotation and result exhibition still need to be improved. ExpTreeDB is a database that allows for queries on human and mouse microarray experiments from Gene Expression Omnibus with gene signatures or profiles. Compared with similar applications, ExpTreeDB pays more attention to dataset annotations and result visualization. We introduced a multiple-level annotation system to depict and organize original experiments. For example, a tamoxifen-treated cell line experiment is hierarchically annotated as 'agent→drug→estrogen receptor antagonist→tamoxifen'. Consequently, retrieved results are exhibited by an interactive tree-structured graphics, which provide an overview for related experiments and might enlighten users on key items of interest. The database is freely available at http://biotech.bmi.ac.cn/ExpTreeDB. Web site is implemented in Perl, PHP, R, MySQL and Apache. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Floating Experiences: Empowering Early Childhood Educators to Encourage Critical Thinking in Young Children through the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danko-McGhee, Kathy; Slutsky, Ruslan

    2007-01-01

    Engagement in the arts nurtures the development of cognitive, social, and personal competencies. When well taught, the arts provide young children with authentic learning experiences that engage their minds. To get children to think critically, teachers ought to become comfortable with the problem-solving process themselves. This article…

  14. Effect of Visual Experience on Face Processing: A Developmental Study of Inversion and Non-Native Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangrigoli, Sandy; de Schonen, Scania

    2004-01-01

    In adults, three phenomena are taken to demonstrate an experience effect on face recognition: an inversion effect, a non-native face effect (so-called "other-race" effect) and their interaction. It is crucial for our understanding of the developmental perception mechanisms of object processing to discover when these effects are present in…

  15. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  16. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  17. Influence of visual experience on developmental shift from long-term depression to long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Dieni, Cristina; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2004-11-01

    The influence of visual experience deprivation on changes in synaptic plasticity during postnatal development was studied in the ventral part of the rat medial vestibular nuclei (vMVN). We analysed the differences in the occurrence, expressed as a percentage, of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents in rats reared in the light (LR) and those in the dark (DR). In LR rats, HFS only induced LTD in the early stages of development, but the occurrence of LTD progressively decreased to zero before their eyes opened, while that of LTP enhanced from zero to about 50%. Once the rats' eyes had opened, LTD was no longer inducible while LTP occurrence gradually reached the normal adult value (70%). In DR rats, a similar shift from LTD to LTP was observed before their eyes opened, showing only a slightly slower LTD decay and LTP growth, and the LTD annulment was delayed by 1 day. By contrast, the time courses of LTD and LTP development in DR and LR rats showed remarkable differences following eye opening. In fact, LTD occurrence increased to about 50% in a short period of time and remained high until the adult stage. In addition, the occurrence of LTP slowly decreased to less than 20%. The effect of light-deprivation was reversible, since the exposure of DR rats to light, 5 days after eye opening, caused a sudden disappearance of LTD and a partial recover of LTP occurrence. In addition, we observed that a week of light deprivation in LR adult rats did not affect the normal adult LTP occurrence. These results provide evidence that in a critical period of development visual input plays a crucial role in shaping synaptic plasticity of the vMVN, and suggest that the visual guided shift from LTD to LTP during development may be necessary to refine and consolidate vestibular circuitry.

  18. Influence of visual experience on developmental shift from long-term depression to long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Dieni, Cristina; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2004-01-01

    The influence of visual experience deprivation on changes in synaptic plasticity during postnatal development was studied in the ventral part of the rat medial vestibular nuclei (vMVN). We analysed the differences in the occurrence, expressed as a percentage, of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents in rats reared in the light (LR) and those in the dark (DR). In LR rats, HFS only induced LTD in the early stages of development, but the occurrence of LTD progressively decreased to zero before their eyes opened, while that of LTP enhanced from zero to about 50%. Once the rats' eyes had opened, LTD was no longer inducible while LTP occurrence gradually reached the normal adult value (70%). In DR rats, a similar shift from LTD to LTP was observed before their eyes opened, showing only a slightly slower LTD decay and LTP growth, and the LTD annulment was delayed by 1 day. By contrast, the time courses of LTD and LTP development in DR and LR rats showed remarkable differences following eye opening. In fact, LTD occurrence increased to about 50% in a short period of time and remained high until the adult stage. In addition, the occurrence of LTP slowly decreased to less than 20%. The effect of light-deprivation was reversible, since the exposure of DR rats to light, 5 days after eye opening, caused a sudden disappearance of LTD and a partial recover of LTP occurrence. In addition, we observed that a week of light deprivation in LR adult rats did not affect the normal adult LTP occurrence. These results provide evidence that in a critical period of development visual input plays a crucial role in shaping synaptic plasticity of the vMVN, and suggest that the visual guided shift from LTD to LTP during development may be necessary to refine and consolidate vestibular circuitry. PMID:15331680

  19. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  20. A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic Interactive Visualization and Experimentation Technology (RIVET) Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    research, Kunkler (2006) suggested that the similarities between computer simulation tools and robotic surgery systems (e.g., mechanized feedback...distribution is unlimited. 49 Davies B. A review of robotics in surgery . Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal...ARL-TR-7683 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Guide for Developing Human- Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic

  1. Visual capture and the experience of having two bodies – Evidence from two different virtual reality techniques

    PubMed Central

    Heydrich, Lukas; Dodds, Trevor J.; Aspell, Jane E.; Herbelin, Bruno; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Mohler, Betty J.; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    In neurology and psychiatry the detailed study of illusory own body perceptions has suggested close links between bodily processing and self-consciousness. One such illusory own body perception is heautoscopy where patients have the sensation of being reduplicated and to exist at two or even more locations. In previous experiments, using a video head-mounted display, self-location and self-identification were manipulated by applying conflicting visuo-tactile information. Yet the experienced singularity of the self was not affected, i.e., participants did not experience having multiple bodies or selves. In two experiments presented in this paper, we investigated self-location and self-identification while participants saw two virtual bodies (video-generated in study 1 and 3D computer generated in study 2) that were stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their own body. In both experiments, we report that self-identification with two virtual bodies was stronger during synchronous stroking. Furthermore, in the video generated setup with synchronous stroking participants reported a greater feeling of having multiple bodies than in the control conditions. In study 1, but not in study 2, we report that self-location – measured by anterior posterior drift – was significantly shifted towards the two bodies in the synchronous condition only. Self-identification with two bodies, the sensation of having multiple bodies, and the changes in self-location show that the experienced singularity of the self can be studied experimentally. We discuss our data with respect to ownership for supernumerary hands and heautoscopy. We finally compare the effects of the video and 3D computer generated head-mounted display technology and discuss the possible benefits of using either technology to induce changes in illusory self-identification with a virtual body. PMID:24385970

  2. A web-based solution to visualize operational monitoring data in the Trigger and Data Acquisition system of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, G.; D'Ascanio, M.; Lehmann-Miotto, G.; Soloviev, I.

    2017-10-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is composed of a large number of distributed hardware and software components (about 3000 computers and more than 25000 applications) which, in a coordinated manner, provide the data-taking functionality of the overall system. During data taking runs, a huge flow of operational data is produced in order to constantly monitor the system and allow proper detection of anomalies or misbehaviours. In the ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system, operational data are archived and made available to applications by the P-BEAST (Persistent Back-End for the Atlas Information System of TDAQ) service, implementing a custom time-series database. The possibility to efficiently visualize both realtime and historical operational data is a great asset facilitating both online identification of problems and post-mortem analysis. This paper will present a web-based solution developed to achieve such a goal: the solution leverages the flexibility of the P-BEAST archiver to retrieve data, and exploits the versatility of the Grafana dashboard builder to offer a very rich user experience. Additionally, particular attention will be given to the way some technical challenges (like the efficient visualization of a huge amount of data and the integration of the P-BEAST data source in Grafana) have been faced and solved.

  3. The ego-moving metaphor of time relies on visual experience: No representation of time along the sagittal space in the blind.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Luca; Vecchi, Tomaso; Fantino, Micaela; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2018-03-01

    In many cultures, humans conceptualize the past as behind the body and the future as in front. Whether this spatial mapping of time depends on visual experience is still not known. Here, we addressed this issue by testing early-blind participants in a space-time motor congruity task requiring them to classify a series of words as referring to the past or the future by moving their hand backward or forward. Sighted participants showed a preferential mapping between forward movements and future-words and backward movements and past-words. Critically, blind participants did not show any such preferential time-space mapping. Furthermore, in a questionnaire requiring participants to think about past and future events, blind participants did not appear to perceive the future as psychologically closer than the past, as it is the case of sighted individuals. These findings suggest that normal visual development is crucial for representing time along the sagittal space. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Detection of changes in gene regulatory patterns, elicited by perturbations of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone complex, by visualizing multiple experiments with an animation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To make sense out of gene expression profiles, such analyses must be pushed beyond the mere listing of affected genes. For example, if a group of genes persistently display similar changes in expression levels under particular experimental conditions, and the proteins encoded by these genes interact and function in the same cellular compartments, this could be taken as very strong indicators for co-regulated protein complexes. One of the key requirements is having appropriate tools to detect such regulatory patterns. Results We have analyzed the global adaptations in gene expression patterns in the budding yeast when the Hsp90 molecular chaperone complex is perturbed either pharmacologically or genetically. We integrated these results with publicly accessible expression, protein-protein interaction and intracellular localization data. But most importantly, all experimental conditions were simultaneously and dynamically visualized with an animation. This critically facilitated the detection of patterns of gene expression changes that suggested underlying regulatory networks that a standard analysis by pairwise comparison and clustering could not have revealed. Conclusions The results of the animation-assisted detection of changes in gene regulatory patterns make predictions about the potential roles of Hsp90 and its co-chaperone p23 in regulating whole sets of genes. The simultaneous dynamic visualization of microarray experiments, represented in networks built by integrating one's own experimental with publicly accessible data, represents a powerful discovery tool that allows the generation of new interpretations and hypotheses. PMID:21672238

  5. Additional cytogenetic abnormalities and variant t(9;22) at the diagnosis of childhood chronic myeloid leukemia: The experience of the International Registry for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Millot, Frédéric; Dupraz, Christelle; Guilhot, Joelle; Suttorp, Meinolf; Brizard, Françoise; Leblanc, Thierry; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Sedlacek, Petr; De Bont, Evelyne; Li, Chi Kong; Kalwak, Krzysztof; Lausen, Birgitte; Culic, Srdjana; Dworzak, Michael; Kaiserova, Emilia; De Moerloose, Barbara; Roula, Farah; Biondi, Andrea; Baruchel, André; Guilhot, François

    2017-09-15

    In the adult population with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), variant translocations are usually not considered to be impairing the prognosis, whereas some additional cytogenetic abnormalities (ACAs) are associated with a negative impact on survival. Because of the rarity of CML in the pediatric population, such abnormalities have not been investigated in a large group of children with CML. The prognostic relevance of variant t(9;22) and ACAs at diagnosis was assessed in 301 children with CML in the chronic phase who were enrolled in the International Registry for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children and Adolescents. Overall, 19 children (6.3%) presented with additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis: 5 children (1.7%) had a variant t(9;22) translocation, 13 children (4.3%) had ACAs, and 1 had both. At 3 years, for children with a classic translocation, children with ACAs, and children with a variant t(9;22) translocation who were treated with imatinib as frontline therapy, the probability of progression-free survival (PFS) was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91%-97%), 100%, and 75% (95% CI, 13%-96%), respectively, and the probability of overall survival (OS) was 98% (95% CI, 95%-100%), 100% (95% CI, 43%-98%), and 75% (95% CI, 13%-96%), respectively. No statistical difference was observed between the patients with classic cytogenetic findings and those with additional chromosomal abnormalities in terms of PFS and OS. In contrast to adults with CML, additional chromosomal abnormalities observed at diagnosis do not seem to have a significant prognostic impact. Cancer 2017;123:3609-16. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  7. Visual and Verbal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewig, John Warren

    Visual literacy--seeing with insight--enables child viewers of pictures to examine elements such as color, line, shape, form, depth, and detail to see what relations exist both among these components and between what is in the picture and their previous visual experience. The viewer can extract meaning and respond to it, either by talking or…

  8. Design for Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeries, Larry

    Experiences suggested within this visual arts packet provide high school students with awareness of visual expression in graphic design, product design, architecture, and crafts. The unit may be used in whole or in part and includes information about art careers and art-related jobs found in major occupational fields. Specific lesson topics…

  9. Which visual functions depend on intermediate visual regions? Insights from a case of developmental visual form agnosia.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    A key question in visual neuroscience is the causal link between specific brain areas and perceptual functions; which regions are necessary for which visual functions? While the contribution of primary visual cortex and high-level visual regions to visual perception has been extensively investigated, the contribution of intermediate visual areas (e.g. V2/V3) to visual processes remains unclear. Here I review more than 20 visual functions (early, mid, and high-level) of LG, a developmental visual agnosic and prosopagnosic young adult, whose intermediate visual regions function in a significantly abnormal fashion as revealed through extensive fMRI and ERP investigations. While expectedly, some of LG's visual functions are significantly impaired, some of his visual functions are surprisingly normal (e.g. stereopsis, color, reading, biological motion). During the period of eight-year testing described here, LG trained on a perceptual learning paradigm that was successful in improving some but not all of his visual functions. Following LG's visual performance and taking into account additional findings in the field, I propose a framework for how different visual areas contribute to different visual functions, with an emphasis on intermediate visual regions. Thus, although rewiring and plasticity in the brain can occur during development to overcome and compensate for hindering developmental factors, LG's case seems to indicate that some visual functions are much less dependent on strict hierarchical flow than others, and can develop normally in spite of abnormal mid-level visual areas, thereby probably less dependent on intermediate visual regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.

  11. Experience in managing a large-scale rescreening of Papanicolaou smears and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency with visual and written examinations.

    PubMed

    Rube, I F

    1989-01-01

    Experiences in a large-scale interlaboratory rescreening of Papanicolaou smears are detailed, and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency in cytology are discussed. Despite the additional work of the rescreening project and some psychological and technical problems, it proved to be a useful measure of the laboratory's performance as a whole. One problem to be avoided in future similar studies is the creation of too many diagnostic categories. Individual testing and certification have been shown to be accurate predictors of proficiency. For cytology, such tests require a strong visual component to test interpretation and judgment skills, such as by the use of glass slides or photomicrographs. The potential of interactive videodisc technology for facilitating cytopathologic teaching and assessment is discussed.

  12. Visual observing reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this overview we summarize reports published by visual observers shortly after the field work has been done and first impressions and memories of the real meteor observing experiences are fresh in mind. March-April being silent months meteor wise and the weather circumstances in 2016 having been rather unfavorable almost no visual observing efforts have been reported. Long term visual observer, Koen Miskotte could observe in this rather poorly known period and reported his data in MeteorNews.org. The Eta Aquariids 2016 provided a surprising nice display well covered by fellow visual observer Paul Jones in Florida.

  13. VISUAL ACUITY IN PSEUDOXANTHOMA ELASTICUM.

    PubMed

    Risseeuw, Sara; Ossewaarde-van Norel, Jeannette; Klaver, Caroline C W; Colijn, Johanna M; Imhof, Saskia M; van Leeuwen, Redmer

    2018-04-12

    To assess the age-specific proportion of visual impairment in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and to compare this with foveal abnormality and similar data of late age-related macular degeneration patients. Cross-sectional data of 195 patients with PXE were reviewed, including best-corrected visual acuity and imaging. The World Health Organisation criteria were used to categorize bilateral visual impairment. These results were compared with similar data of 131 patients with late age-related macular degeneration from the Rotterdam study. Overall, 50 PXE patients (26.0%) were visually impaired, including 21 (11%) with legal blindness. Visual functioning declined with increasing age. In patients older than 50 years, 37% was visually impaired and 15% legally blind. Foveal choroidal neovascularization was found in 84% of eyes with a best-corrected visual acuity lower than 20/70 (0.30) and macular atrophy in the fovea in 16%. In late age-related macular degeneration patients, 40% were visually impaired and 13% legally blind. Visual impairment started approximately 20 years later as compared with PXE patients. Visual impairment and blindness are frequent in PXE, particularly in patients older than 50 years. Although choroidal neovascularization is associated with the majority of vision loss, macular atrophy is also common. The proportion of visual impairment in PXE is comparable with late age-related macular degeneration but manifests earlier in life.

  14. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  15. Specific problems in visual cognition of dyslexic readers: Face discrimination deficits predict dyslexia over and above discrimination of scrambled faces and novel objects.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Heida Maria; Fridriksdottir, Liv Elisabet; Gudjonsdottir, Sigridur; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2018-06-01

    Evidence of interdependencies of face and word processing mechanisms suggest possible links between reading problems and abnormal face processing. In two experiments we assessed such high-level visual deficits in people with a history of reading problems. Experiment 1 showed that people who were worse at face matching had greater reading problems. In experiment 2, matched dyslexic and typical readers were tested, and difficulties with face matching were consistently found to predict dyslexia over and above both novel-object matching as well as matching noise patterns that shared low-level visual properties with faces. Furthermore, ADHD measures could not account for face matching problems. We speculate that reading difficulties in dyslexia are partially caused by specific deficits in high-level visual processing, in particular for visual object categories such as faces and words with which people have extensive experience. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual-Spatial Orienting in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, J. Ann; Bryson, Susan E.

    1996-01-01

    Visual-spatial orienting in 10 high-functioning adults with autism was examined. Compared to controls, subjects responded faster to central than to lateral stimuli, and showed a left visual field advantage for stimulus detection only when laterally presented. Abnormalities in attention shifting and coordination of attentional and motor systems are…

  17. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  18. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  19. Diagnosing cerebral visual impairment in children with good visual acuity.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Maria; Dekker, Marjoke; Pilon, Florine; Bals, Irmgard

    2012-06-01

    To identify elements that could facilitate the diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children with good visual acuity in the general ophthalmic clinic. We retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of 30 children with good visual acuity and CVI and compared them with those of 23 children who were referred with a suspicion of CVI, but proved to have a different diagnosis. Clinical characteristics included medical history, MRI findings, visual acuity, crowding ratio (CR), visual field assessment, and the results of ophthalmologic and orthoptic examination. We also evaluated the additional value of a short CVI questionnaire. Eighty-three percent of the children with an abnormal medical history (mainly prematurity and perinatal hypoxia) had CVI, in contrast with none of the children with a normal medical history. Cerebral palsy, visual field defects, and partial optic atrophy only occurred in the CVI group. 41% of the children with CVI had a CR ≥2.0, which may be related to dorsal stream dysfunction. All children with CVI, but also 91% of the children without CVI gave ≥3 affirmative answers on the CVI questionnaire. An abnormal pre- or perinatal medical history is the most important risk factor for CVI in children, and therefore in deciding which children should be referred for further multidisciplinary assessment. Additional symptoms of cerebral damage, i.e., cerebral palsy, visual field defects, partial optic atrophy, and a CR ≥2 may support the diagnosis. CVI questionnaires should not be used for screening purposes as they yield too many false positives.

  20. ACR appropriateness criteria(®) on abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve L; Andreotti, Rochelle F; Lee, Susanna I; Dejesus Allison, Sandra O; Brown, Douglas L; Dubinsky, Theodore; Glanc, Phyllis; Mitchell, Donald G; Podrasky, Ann E; Shipp, Thomas D; Siegel, Cary Lynn; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Zelop, Carolyn M

    2011-07-01

    In evaluating a woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding, imaging cannot replace definitive histologic diagnosis but often plays an important role in screening, characterization of structural abnormalities, and directing appropriate patient care. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) is generally the initial imaging modality of choice, with endometrial thickness a well-established predictor of endometrial disease in postmenopausal women. Endometrial thickness measurements of ≤5 mm and ≤4 mm have been advocated as appropriate upper threshold values to reasonably exclude endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women with vaginal bleeding; however, the best upper threshold endometrial thickness in the asymptomatic postmenopausal patient remains a subject of debate. Endometrial thickness in a premenopausal patient is a less reliable indicator of endometrial pathology since this may vary widely depending on the phase of menstrual cycle, and an upper threshold value for normal has not been well-established. Transabdominal ultrasound is generally an adjunct to TVUS and is most helpful when TVUS is not feasible or there is poor visualization of the endometrium. Hysterosonography may also allow for better delineation of both the endometrium and focal abnormalities in the endometrial cavity, leading to hysteroscopically directed biopsy or resection. Color and pulsed Doppler may provide additional characterization of a focal endometrial abnormality by demonstrating vascularity. MRI may also serve as an important problem-solving tool if the endometrium cannot be visualized on TVUS and hysterosonography is not possible, as well as for pretreatment planning of patients with suspected endometrial carcinoma. CT is generally not warranted for the evaluation of patients with abnormal bleeding, and an abnormal endometrium incidentally detected on CT should be further evaluated with TVUS. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  2. Retinotopic maps and foveal suppression in the visual cortex of amblyopic adults

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Ian P; Odom, J Vernon; Schwartz, Terry L; Mendola, Janine D

    2007-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder associated with loss of monocular acuity and sensitivity as well as profound alterations in binocular integration. Abnormal connections in visual cortex are known to underlie this loss, but the extent to which these abnormalities are regionally or retinotopically specific has not been fully determined. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared the retinotopic maps in visual cortex produced by each individual eye in 19 adults (7 esotropic strabismics, 6 anisometropes and 6 controls). In our standard viewing condition, the non-tested eye viewed a dichoptic homogeneous mid-level grey stimulus, thereby permitting some degree of binocular interaction. Regions-of-interest analysis was performed for extrafoveal V1, extrafoveal V2 and the foveal representation at the occipital pole. In general, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was reduced for the amblyopic eye. At the occipital pole, population receptive fields were shifted to represent more parafoveal locations for the amblyopic eye, compared with the fellow eye, in some subjects. Interestingly, occluding the fellow eye caused an expanded foveal representation for the amblyopic eye in one early–onset strabismic subject with binocular suppression, indicating real-time cortical remapping. In addition, a few subjects actually showed increased activity in parietal and temporal cortex when viewing with the amblyopic eye. We conclude that, even in a heterogeneous population, abnormal early visual experience commonly leads to regionally specific cortical adaptations. PMID:17627994

  3. Retinotopic maps and foveal suppression in the visual cortex of amblyopic adults.

    PubMed

    Conner, Ian P; Odom, J Vernon; Schwartz, Terry L; Mendola, Janine D

    2007-08-15

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder associated with loss of monocular acuity and sensitivity as well as profound alterations in binocular integration. Abnormal connections in visual cortex are known to underlie this loss, but the extent to which these abnormalities are regionally or retinotopically specific has not been fully determined. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared the retinotopic maps in visual cortex produced by each individual eye in 19 adults (7 esotropic strabismics, 6 anisometropes and 6 controls). In our standard viewing condition, the non-tested eye viewed a dichoptic homogeneous mid-level grey stimulus, thereby permitting some degree of binocular interaction. Regions-of-interest analysis was performed for extrafoveal V1, extrafoveal V2 and the foveal representation at the occipital pole. In general, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was reduced for the amblyopic eye. At the occipital pole, population receptive fields were shifted to represent more parafoveal locations for the amblyopic eye, compared with the fellow eye, in some subjects. Interestingly, occluding the fellow eye caused an expanded foveal representation for the amblyopic eye in one early-onset strabismic subject with binocular suppression, indicating real-time cortical remapping. In addition, a few subjects actually showed increased activity in parietal and temporal cortex when viewing with the amblyopic eye. We conclude that, even in a heterogeneous population, abnormal early visual experience commonly leads to regionally specific cortical adaptations.

  4. Environmental Enrichment Promotes Plasticity and Visual Acuity Recovery in Adult Monocular Amblyopic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorsi, Joyce; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2012-01-01

    Loss of visual acuity caused by abnormal visual experience during development (amblyopia) is an untreatable pathology in adults. In some occasions, amblyopic patients loose vision in their better eye owing to accidents or illnesses. While this condition is relevant both for its clinical importance and because it represents a case in which binocular interactions in the visual cortex are suppressed, it has scarcely been studied in animal models. We investigated whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) is effective in triggering recovery of vision in adult amblyopic rats rendered monocular by optic nerve dissection in their normal eye. By employing both electrophysiological and behavioral assessments, we found a full recovery of visual acuity in enriched rats compared to controls reared in standard conditions. Moreover, we report that EE modulates the expression of GAD67 and BDNF. The non invasive nature of EE renders this paradigm promising for amblyopia therapy in adult monocular people. PMID:22509358

  5. High lifetime probability of screen-detected cervical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Pankakoski, Maiju; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Sarkeala, Tytti; Anttila, Ahti

    2017-12-01

    Objective Regular screening and follow-up is an important key to cervical cancer prevention; however, screening inevitably detects mild or borderline abnormalities that would never progress to a more severe stage. We analysed the cumulative probability and recurrence of cervical abnormalities in the Finnish organized screening programme during a 22-year follow-up. Methods Screening histories were collected for 364,487 women born between 1950 and 1965. Data consisted of 1 207,017 routine screens and 88,143 follow-up screens between 1991 and 2012. Probabilities of cervical abnormalities by age were estimated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations methodology. Results The probability of experiencing any abnormality at least once at ages 30-64 was 34.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.3-34.6%) . Probability was 5.4% (95% CI: 5.0-5.8%) for results warranting referral and 2.2% (95% CI: 2.0-2.4%) for results with histologically confirmed findings. Previous occurrences were associated with an increased risk of detecting new ones, specifically in older women. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women experience at least one abnormal screening result during their lifetime, and yet very few eventually develop an actual precancerous lesion. Re-evaluation of diagnostic criteria concerning mild abnormalities might improve the balance of harms and benefits of screening. Special monitoring of women with recurrent abnormalities especially at older ages may also be needed.

  6. The accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Munim, Shama; Nadeem, Salva; Khuwaja, Nadya Ali

    2006-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of congenital abnormalities at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. The data of congenital abnormalities was obtained from the obstetrical database and medical records of all cases complicated by congenital abnormalities, delivering from January 2001 to December 2003 and was reviewed. Antenatal ultrasounds had been performed by operators with different level of experience. In addition this data was retrieved from the termination and Congenital anomaly register. A structured data collection form was used to collect information of different variables of interest. Congenital abnormalities, complicated 2.8% (n=170), of all deliveries, including all cases of termination of pregnancy, stillbirth and live births. Out of the total, 11.6% occurred in women above the age of 35 years. Consanguinity was found in 18.2% cases. Prenatal diagnosis was made in just under half of the cases (48.8%). Central nervous system and renal abnormalities were commonly diagnosed. However, facial defects, heart defects or skeletal defects were more commonly missed. Antenatal ultrasound successfully diagnosed foetal abnormalities in 48.8% of cases, and more than 90% Central Nervous system defects and renal abnormalities. In contrast about a quarter of Cardiac defects and none of the facial defects were detected. Based on these findings we recommend that the Sonologist should incorporate four chamber view of the heart and also look at the face carefully.

  7. Abnormal grain growth in iron-silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Tricia A.

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) was studied in an Fe-1%Si alloy using automated Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) to determine the driving force for this phenomenon. Experiments were performed with the knowledge that there are several possible driving forces and, the intent to determine the true driving force by elimination of the other potential candidates. These potential candidates include surface energy anisotropy, anisotropic grain boundary properties and the stored energy of deformation. In this work, surface energy and grain boundary anisotropies as well as the stored energy of deformation were investigated as the possible driving forces for AGG. Accordingly, industrially processed samples that were temper rolled to 1.5% and 8% were annealed in air for various times followed by quenching in water. The results obtained were compared to those from heat treatments performed in wet 15%H2-85%N2 at a US Steel facility. In addition, for a more complete study of the effect of surface energy anisotropies on AGG, the 1.5% temper-rolled material was heat-treated in other atmospheres such as 5%H2-95%Ar, 98%H2-2%He, 98%H2-2%H 2S, and 98%H2-2%N2 for 1 hour followed by quenching in water. The character of the grain boundaries in the materials was also examined for each set of experiments conducted, while the influence of stored energy was evaluated by examining intragranular orientation gradients. AGG occurred regardless of annealing atmosphere though the most rapid progression was observed in samples annealed in air. In general, grains of varying orientations grew abnormally. One consistently observed trend in all the detailed studies was that the matrix grains remained essentially static and either did not grow or only grew very slowly. On the other hand, the abnormally large grains (ALG), on average, were approximately 10 times the size of the matrix. Analysis of the grain boundary character of the interfaces between abnormal grains and the matrix showed no

  8. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Variations in uterine bleeding, termed abnormal uterine bleeding, occur commonly among women and often are physiologic in nature with no significant consequences. However, abnormal uterine bleeding can cause significant distress to women or may signify an underlying pathologic condition. Most women experience variations in menstrual and perimenstrual bleeding in their lifetimes; therefore, the ability of the midwife to differentiate between normal and abnormal bleeding is a key diagnostic skill. A comprehensive history and use of the PALM-COEIN classification system will provide clear guidelines for clinical management, evidence-based treatment, and an individualized plan of care. The purpose of this Clinical Bulletin is to define and describe classifications of abnormal uterine bleeding, review updated terminology, and identify methods of assessment and treatment using a woman-centered approach. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Visual Scripting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halas, John

    Visual scripting is the coordination of words with pictures in sequence. This book presents the methods and viewpoints on visual scripting of fourteen film makers, from nine countries, who are involved in animated cinema; it contains concise examples of how a storybook and preproduction script can be prepared in visual terms; and it includes a…

  11. Electroretinography and Visual Evoked Potentials in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Sari; Lenko, Hanna L; Oja, Sakari; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Pietilä, Timo; Mäkipernaa, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study evaluates the clinical value of electroretinography and visual evoked potentials in childhood brain tumor survivors. A flash electroretinography and a checkerboard reversal pattern visual evoked potential (or alternatively a flash visual evoked potential) were done for 51 survivors (age 3.8-28.7 years) after a mean follow-up time of 7.6 (1.5-15.1) years. Abnormal electroretinography was obtained in 1 case, bilaterally delayed abnormal visual evoked potentials in 22/51 (43%) cases. Nine of 25 patients with infratentorial tumor location, and altogether 12 out of 31 (39%) patients who did not have tumors involving the visual pathways, had abnormal visual evoked potentials. Abnormal electroretinographies are rarely observed, but abnormal visual evoked potentials are common even without evident anatomic lesions in the visual pathway. Bilateral changes suggest a general and possibly multifactorial toxic/adverse effect on the visual pathway. Electroretinography and visual evoked potential may have clinical and scientific value while evaluating long-term effects of childhood brain tumors and tumor treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-02-26

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults.

  13. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  14. Binocular visual training to promote recovery from monocular deprivation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathryn M; Roumeliotis, Grayson; Williams, Kate; Beston, Brett R; Jones, David G

    2015-01-08

    Abnormal early visual experience often leads to poor vision, a condition called amblyopia. Two recent approaches to treating amblyopia include binocular therapies and intensive visual training. These reflect the emerging view that amblyopia is a binocular deficit caused by increased neural noise and poor signal-in-noise integration. Most perceptual learning studies have used monocular training; however, a recent study has shown that binocular training is effective for improving acuity in adult human amblyopes. We used an animal model of amblyopia, based on monocular deprivation, to compare the effect of binocular training either during or after the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity (early binocular training vs. late binocular training). We used a high-contrast, orientation-in-noise stimulus to drive the visual cortex because neurophysiological findings suggest that binocular training may allow the nondeprived eye to teach the deprived eye's circuits to function. We found that both early and late binocular training promoted good visual recovery. Surprisingly, we found that monocular deprivation caused a permanent deficit in the vision of both eyes, which became evident only as a sleeper effect following many weeks of visual training. © 2015 ARVO.

  15. Visual-vestibular processing deficits in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, W G; Tierney, R T; McDevitt, J

    2017-01-01

    The search for reliable and valid signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly synonymous with concussion, has lead to a growing body of evidence that individuals with long-lasting, unremitting impairments often experience visual and vestibular symptoms, such as dizziness, postural and gait disturbances. Investigate the role of visual-vestibular processing deficits following concussion. A number of clinically accepted vestibular, oculomotor, and balance assessments as well as a novel virtual reality (VR)-based balance assessment device were used to assess adults with post-acute concussion (n = 14) in comparison to a healthy age-matched cohort (n = 58). Significant between-group differences were found with the VR-based balance device (p = 0.001), with dynamic visual motion emerging as the most discriminating balance condition. The symptom reports collected after performing the oculomotor and vestibular tests: rapid alternating horizontal eye saccades, optokinetic stimulation, and gaze stabilization, were all sensitive to health status (p < 0.05), despite the absence of oculomotor abnormalities being observed, except for near-point convergence. The BESS, King-Devick, and Dynamic Visual Acuity tests did not detect between-group differences. Postural and visual-vestibular tasks most closely linked to spatial and self-motion perception had the greatest discriminatory outcomes. The current findings suggest that mesencephalic and parieto-occipital centers and pathways may be involved in concussion.

  16. Visualization and recommendation of large image collections toward effective sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Chaoli; Nemiroff, Robert; Kao, David; Parra, Denis

    2016-03-01

    In our daily lives, images are among the most commonly found data which we need to handle. We present iGraph, a graph-based approach for visual analytics of large image collections and their associated text information. Given such a collection, we compute the similarity between images, the distance between texts, and the connection between image and text to construct iGraph, a compound graph representation which encodes the underlying relationships among these images and texts. To enable effective visual navigation and comprehension of iGraph with tens of thousands of nodes and hundreds of millions of edges, we present a progressive solution that offers collection overview, node comparison, and visual recommendation. Our solution not only allows users to explore the entire collection with representative images and keywords but also supports detailed comparison for understanding and intuitive guidance for navigation. The visual exploration of iGraph is further enhanced with the implementation of bubble sets to highlight group memberships of nodes, suggestion of abnormal keywords or time periods based on text outlier detection, and comparison of four different recommendation solutions. For performance speedup, multiple graphics processing units and central processing units are utilized for processing and visualization in parallel. We experiment with two image collections and leverage a cluster driving a display wall of nearly 50 million pixels. We show the effectiveness of our approach by demonstrating experimental results and conducting a user study.

  17. The Pea Seedling as a Model of Normal and Abnormal Morphogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkdjian, Armen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes several simple and inexpensive experiments designed to facilitate the study of normal and abnormal morphogenesis in the biology laboratory. Seedlings of the common garden pea are used in the experiments, and abnormal morphogenesis (tumors) are induced by a virulent strain of the crown-gall organism, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (JR)

  18. Imagery May Arise from Associations Formed through Sensory Experience: A Network of Spiking Neurons Controlling a Robot Learns Visual Sequences in Order to Perform a Mental Rotation Task

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, Jeffrey L.; Fleischer, Jason G.; Chen, Yanqing; Gall, W. Einar; Edelman, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Mental imagery occurs “when a representation of the type created during the initial phases of perception is present but the stimulus is not actually being perceived.” How does the capability to perform mental imagery arise? Extending the idea that imagery arises from learned associations, we propose that mental rotation, a specific form of imagery, could arise through the mechanism of sequence learning–that is, by learning to regenerate the sequence of mental images perceived while passively observing a rotating object. To demonstrate the feasibility of this proposal, we constructed a simulated nervous system and embedded it within a behaving humanoid robot. By observing a rotating object, the system learns the sequence of neural activity patterns generated by the visual system in response to the object. After learning, it can internally regenerate a similar sequence of neural activations upon briefly viewing the static object. This system learns to perform a mental rotation task in which the subject must determine whether two objects are identical despite differences in orientation. As with human subjects, the time taken to respond is proportional to the angular difference between the two stimuli. Moreover, as reported in humans, the system fills in intermediate angles during the task, and this putative mental rotation activates the same pathways that are activated when the system views physical rotation. This work supports the proposal that mental rotation arises through sequence learning and the idea that mental imagery aids perception through learned associations, and suggests testable predictions for biological experiments. PMID:27653977

  19. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score <2. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 18 patients (46%) and partial deficiency of factor VII, alone or in combination with the deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors, was the most frequent coagulation abnormality. Moreover, platelet aggregation and secretion were reduced in 29 of 35 patients (82.9%, P < .01 for all aggregating agents). Nearly 40% of patients with the Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  3. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  4. Visual Literacy and Visual Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messaris, Paul

    Familiarity with specific images or sets of images plays a role in a culture's visual heritage. Two questions can be asked about this type of visual literacy: Is this a type of knowledge that is worth building into the formal educational curriculum of our schools? What are the educational implications of visual literacy? There is a three-part…

  5. Visual Literacy and Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortin, John A.

    It is proposed that visual literacy be defined as the ability to understand (read) and use (write) images and to think and learn in terms of images. This definition includes three basic principles: (1) visuals are a language and thus analogous to verbal language; (2) a visually literate person should be able to understand (read) images and use…

  6. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events.

    PubMed

    Savage, Ruth L; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-05-01

    To assess adverse drug reaction reports of "abnormal sleep related events" associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Twenty-seven reports of "abnormal sleep related events" often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  8. VRML metabolic network visualizer.

    PubMed

    Rojdestvenski, Igor

    2003-03-01

    A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language.

  9. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  10. When viewing natural scenes, do abnormal colors impact on spatial or temporal parameters of eye movements?

    PubMed

    Ho-Phuoc, Tien; Guyader, Nathalie; Landragin, Frédéric; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2012-02-03

    Since Treisman's theory, it has been generally accepted that color is an elementary feature that guides eye movements when looking at natural scenes. Hence, most computational models of visual attention predict eye movements using color as an important visual feature. In this paper, using experimental data, we show that color does not affect where observers look when viewing natural scene images. Neither colors nor abnormal colors modify observers' fixation locations when compared to the same scenes in grayscale. In the same way, we did not find any significant difference between the scanpaths under grayscale, color, or abnormal color viewing conditions. However, we observed a decrease in fixation duration for color and abnormal color, and this was particularly true at the beginning of scene exploration. Finally, we found that abnormal color modifies saccade amplitude distribution.

  11. Abnormal center-periphery gradient in spatial attention in simultanagnosia.